WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral sciences

  1. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  2. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    Partial Contents: Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Aerospace Medicine, Argotechnology, Biochemistry, Bionics, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Epidemiology, Genetics, Human Factors, Immunology, Laser...

  3. USSR report: life sciences. Biomedical and behavioral sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Studies in life sciences, biomedical sciences, and behavioral sciences are reported. The following fields of interest were studied: agricultural biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, environment effects, medical demography, medicine, microbiology, physiology, radiation biology, and human factors engineering. For individual titles, see N82-33989 through N82-33994

  4. Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Barry H; Lea, R Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and user-friendly introduction to statistics for behavioral science students-revised and updated Refined over seven editions by master teachers, this book gives instructors and students alike clear examples and carefully crafted exercises to support the teaching and learning of statistics for both manipulating and consuming data. One of the most popular and respected statistics texts in the behavioral sciences, the Seventh Edition of Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences has been fully revised. The new edition presents all the topics students in the behavioral s

  5. Behavior analysis: the science of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoody, Parvene

    2012-09-01

    Behavior analysis is a data-driven science dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of behavior. Applied behavior analysis is a branch of this scientific field that systematically applies scientific principles to real-world problems in an effort to improve quality of life. The use of the behavioral technology provides a way to teach human and nonhuman animals more effectively and efficiently and offers those using this technology increased success in achieving behavioral goals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Creativity and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    Ways in which behavioral scientists can use both vertical (logical) and lateral (creative-intuitive) thinking to improve their research are discussed. Creativity in the selection of research questions would require that behavioral scientists ask questions whose answers could make a difference to societal and world well-being. Behavioral scientists…

  7. Health Instruction Packages: Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Dianne Dee; And Others

    These four learning modules present text and exercises designed to help allied health students understand various elements of positive interaction with people. The first module, "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" by Dianne Mackey, defines human needs, presents Maslow's theories, and helps the learner identify behaviors that reflect the…

  8. Introductory statistics for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Welkowitz, Joan; Cohen, Jacob

    1971-01-01

    Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences provides an introduction to statistical concepts and principles. This book emphasizes the robustness of parametric procedures wherein such significant tests as t and F yield accurate results even if such assumptions as equal population variances and normal population distributions are not well met.Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale upon which much of behavioral science research is based, namely, drawing inferences about a population based on data obtained from a samp

  9. Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    de Gruijter, Dato N M

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...

  10. EMPIRICISM IN LATTER-DAY BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIXENSTINE, V E

    1964-07-31

    Let me recapitulate. I am not happy with developments in the behavioral sciences. I wonder whether science does actually stand divorced from the intention, motive, and character of the scientist. I suspect that some of our current philosophies in science, whether so conceived or not, encourage and abet a science of the trivial. I believe we should recognize that, as epistemology, the empirical rule cannot stand alone. The great advances in science are associated with its grand conceptions even more than with its discoveries. We often mistakenly assume that the rule of objectivity has traditionally divided the character of science from that of the scientist. This is far from true. The objectivity of 18th- and 19th- century science was believed to be a function not so much of methodology and procedure as of the honesty and integrity of the scientist. Michael Faraday had this to say about the matter (3, p. 233): It puzzles me greatly to know what makes the successful philosopher [scientist]. Is it industry and perseverance, with a moderate proportion of good sense and intelligence? Is not a modest assurance or earnestness a requisite? Do not many fail because they look rather to the renown to be acquired than to the pure acquisition of knowledge, and the delight which the contented mind has in acquiring it for its own sake? I am sure I have seen many who would have been good and successful pursuers of science, and have gained themselves a high name, but that it was the name and the reward they were always looking forward to-the reward of the world's praise. In such there is always a shade of envy or regret over their minds, and I cannot imagine a man making discoveries in science under these feelings. As to Genius and its Power, there may be cases; I suppose there are. I have looked long and often for a genius for our own laboratory, but I have never found one. But I have seen many who would, I think, if they submitted themselves to a sound self-applied discipline of

  11. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nonparametric statistics for social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Kraska-MIller, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency

  13. Behavioral Sciences: An International, Open-Access, Peer Reviewed Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Coverdale, John

    2011-01-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Behavioral Sciences. Behavioral Sciences seeks to publish original research and scholarship contributing to our understanding of human behavior. The journal will provide a forum for work that furthers knowledge and stimulates research in the behavioral sciences. We are committed to building a diverse and methodologically rigorous literature of interest and benefit...

  14. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preface Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Preface How Science Has Revolutionized the Understanding of Drug Addiction For much of the past century, scientists studying ...

  15. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior Past Issues / ... brain structure and function. Advances in brain imaging science make it possible to see inside the brain ...

  16. On track for success: an innovative behavioral science curriculum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedy, John R; Carek, Peter J; Dickerson, Lori M; Mallin, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the behavioral science curriculum currently in place at the Trident/MUSC Family Medicine Residency Program. The Trident/MUSC Program is a 10-10-10 community-based, university-affiliated program in Charleston, South Carolina. Over the years, the Trident/MUSC residency program has graduated over 400 Family Medicine physicians. The current behavioral science curriculum consists of both required core elements (didactic lectures, clinical observation, Balint groups, and Resident Grand Rounds) as well as optional elements (longitudinal patient care experiences, elective rotations, behavioral science editorial experience, and scholars project with a behavioral science focus). All Trident/MUSC residents complete core behavioral science curriculum elements and are free to participate in none, some, or all of the optional behavioral science curriculum elements. This flexibility allows resident physicians to tailor the educational program in a manner to meet individual educational needs. The behavioral science curriculum is based upon faculty interpretation of existing "best practice" guidelines (Residency Review Committee-Family Medicine and AAFP). This article provides sufficient curriculum detail to allow the interested reader the opportunity to adapt elements of the behavioral science curriculum to other residency training programs. While this behavioral science track system is currently in an early stage of implementation, the article discusses track advantages as well as future plans to evaluate various aspects of this innovative educational approach.

  17. Behavioral Sciences in Dental Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Samuel F.

    1981-01-01

    A historical perspective and a description of the current status of behavioral sciences in dental education are provided. One organizational approach for developing goals and objectives is suggested. Holistic health is seen as the broadest application of behavioral medicine. (MLW)

  18. Who's Who in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin

    1983-01-01

    Faculty members in social/behavioral science programs at the Universities of Chicago and California at Berkeley have been given the highest overall "grades" for quality by their academic peers in a survey published by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes scores for anthropology, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology…

  19. Agriculture and Behavioral Science: Emerging Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, William S.; Coward, E. Walter

    1977-01-01

    Describes the involvement of behavioral scientists in agricultural development programs and sketches the contributions behavioral scientists are expected to make to agricultural development in the future. (SL)

  20. 78 FR 25309 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences... and policies pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and...

  1. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  2. Does "science" make you moral? The effects of priming science on moral judgments and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Blascovich, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has noted that science stands as an ideological force insofar as the answers it offers to a variety of fundamental questions and concerns; as such, those who pursue scientific inquiry have been shown to be concerned with the moral and social ramifications of their scientific endeavors. No studies to date have directly investigated the links between exposure to science and moral or prosocial behaviors. Across four studies, both naturalistic measures of science exposure and experimental primes of science led to increased adherence to moral norms and more morally normative behaviors across domains. Study 1 (n = 36) tested the natural correlation between exposure to science and likelihood of enforcing moral norms. Studies 2 (n = 49), 3 (n = 52), and 4 (n = 43) manipulated thoughts about science and examined the causal impact of such thoughts on imagined and actual moral behavior. Across studies, thinking about science had a moralizing effect on a broad array of domains, including interpersonal violations (Studies 1, 2), prosocial intentions (Study 3), and economic exploitation (Study 4). These studies demonstrated the morally normative effects of lay notions of science. Thinking about science leads individuals to endorse more stringent moral norms and exhibit more morally normative behavior. These studies are the first of their kind to systematically and empirically test the relationship between science and morality. The present findings speak to this question and elucidate the value-laden outcomes of the notion of science.

  3. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  4. Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G E

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is in part an attempt to solve psychology's problem with mind-body dualism by revising our everyday mentalistic conceptual scheme. In the case of descriptive mentalism (the use of mentalistic terms to describe behavior), Skinner offers behavioral "translations." In contrast, Skinner rejects explanatory mentalism (the use of mental concepts to explain behavior) and suggests how to replace it with a behaviorist explanatory framework. For experiential mentalism, Skinner presents a theory of verbal behavior that integrates the use of mentalistic language in first-person reports of phenomenal experience into a scientific framework.

  5. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols used in pharmacology, toxicology, and psychology. Although there is a range of protocols in use today, all focus on detailed observations and specific tests of reflexes and responses. Several neurological functions are typically assessed, including autonomic, neuromuscular, and sensory, as well as levels of activity and excitability. The tests have been shown to be valid in detecting expected effects of known neurotoxicants, and reliable and reproducible whn compared across laboratories. Regardless of the specific protocol used, proper conduct and statistical analyses of the data are critical. Interpretation is based on the information from individual end points as well as the profile, or pattern, of effects observed. As long as continual refinements are made, behavioral screening methods will continue to be important tools with which to protect human health in the future.autonomic function; behavior; behavioral phenotypes; behavioral toxicity; excitability; functional observational battery ; motor activity; mouse; neuromuscular function; positive controls; rat; screening battery ; sensory function Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; how

  6. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  7. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D.; Thorp, Laurie; Coleman, Kayla; Kwame Yeboah, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  8. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  9. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Classroom Interactive Behaviors of Science and Non-Science Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel; Morphew, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study compared classroom interactive behaviors of science pre-service teachers and pre-service teachers of other subjects. Participants included pre-service teachers enrolled in a general methods course for secondary educators and its school-based fieldwork counterpart. Statistical tests found that science pre-service teachers had fewer…

  11. Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    stratification (i.e., caste system ) that characterizes both and leads to some actors in the groups being more susceptible to disease and other risks. The RFID...Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...reviewed journals: Final Report: "Social and Behavioral Science: Monitoring Social Foraging Behavior in a Biological Model System " Report Title The

  12. Can We Boost College Summer Enrollment Using Behavioral Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2017

    2017-01-01

    MDRC's Center for Applied Behavioral Science (CABS) and Postsecondary Education policy area launched the Encouraging Additional Summer Enrollment (EASE) project in collaboration with Great Lakes Higher Education Corporation & Affiliates and the Ohio Association of Community Colleges. The project aims to increase summer enrollment rates among…

  13. Longitudinal models in the behavioral and related sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Satorra, A.; Oud, H.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal Models in the Behavioral and Related Sciences opens with the latest theoretical developments. In particular, the book addresses situations that arise due to the categorical nature of the data, issues related to state space modeling, and potential problems that may arise from network

  14. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science...

  15. Social and behavioral science priorities for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Persky, Susan; Spotts, Erica; Acca, Gillian

    2018-01-29

    This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation. The third area speaks to the need for increased outreach and education efforts to improve the public's genomic literacy such that individuals and communities can make informed health-related and societal (e.g., in legal or consumer settings) decisions. Finally, there is a need to prioritize representation of diverse communities in genomics research and equity of access to genomic technologies. Examples from National Institutes of Health-based intramural and extramural research programs and initiatives are used to discuss these points. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  16. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  17. A science of meaning. Can behaviorism bring meaning to psychological science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, R J

    2000-07-01

    An argument is presented for making meaning a central dependent variable in psychological science. Principles of operant psychology are then interpreted as providing a basic foundation for a science of meaning. The emphasis here is on the generality of basic operant concepts, where learning is a process of meaning making that is governed largely by natural contingencies; reinforcement is an organic process in which environment-behavior relations are selected, defined here as a dialectical process of meaning making; and reinforcers are experiential consequences with acquired, ecologically derived meanings. The author concludes with a call for a more interdisciplinary science of psychology, focusing on the individual in society.

  18. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintov, Nicole D; Schultz, P Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are central players in these systems, they are sometimes not central considerations in technology or program design, and in some cases, their motivations for participating in such systems are not fully appreciated. Behavioral science can be instrumental in engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we present emerging technologies made possible by a smart grid infrastructure, and for each we highlight ways in which behavioral science can be applied to enhance their impact on energy savings.

  19. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSintov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are key players in these systems, they tend to be overlooked. Behavioral science is therefore key to engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we highlight several ways in which behavioral science can be applied to better understand and engage customers in smart grid systems.

  20. Some recurrent issues in the history of behavioral sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Hayne W.

    2001-01-01

    Many issues seem to have appeared, disappeared, and reappeared in the behavioral sciences during the 20th century. Salient examples discussed in the present paper are consciousness, including the concept itself and consciousness in nonhuman animals; the method of introspection; and cognition, including the interpretation of mental imagery and the role of language in thinking. One possible explanation of the apparent cycles is consistent with a suggestion by John B. Watson: Important issues ar...

  1. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010-2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees' tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations.

  2. Modeling human behavior in economics and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfin, M; Leonida, L; Outada, N

    2017-12-01

    The complex interactions between human behaviors and social economic sciences is critically analyzed in this paper in view of possible applications of mathematical modeling as an attainable interdisciplinary approach to understand and simulate the aforementioned dynamics. The quest is developed along three steps: Firstly an overall analysis of social and economic sciences indicates the main requirements that a contribution of mathematical modeling should bring to these sciences; subsequently the focus moves to an overview of mathematical tools and to the selection of those which appear, according to the authors bias, appropriate to the modeling; finally, a survey of applications is presented looking ahead to research perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  4. 77 FR 25207 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda: Agenda...

  5. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda: Thursday...

  6. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda: Updates...

  7. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda: Thursday...

  8. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda Thursday...

  9. Behavioral Sciences in a Changing Army. Proceedings in AMEDD Behavioral Sciences Seminar, 19 - 23 March 1979,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    confronting us because we are vitally concerned with many of those issues. In order to help set the stage for that, I’d like to describe where I think Social...complaint concerning thle behavior of a member of (2) Reprmand ;!?is .4sinciatiof stall be inl vt -t. iflJ signo ~d bl, MeO com- 3)Ssesinfo emesi

  10. Behavioral Science as a New Frontier for Transformational ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last 40 years, tremendous progress has been made toward protecting our life-sustaining resources of air, water, and land and improving ecosystems and public health despite increasing population pressures. Many disciplines have provided the scientific underpinnings for this progress, but perhaps none have been more influential than exposure science. Exposure science has fostered a receptor- rather than source-based perspective regarding strategies for monitoring and controlling pollution to protect public health and the environment. We have achieved many gains through control of far-field sources. Near-field sources related to consumer products and activities in the home, vehicle, school, and work environments present the next challenge. These near-field sources tend to dominate our exposures and are direct results of our behaviors in purchasing and using consumer products. Therefore, these types of sources are less amenable to traditional regulatory approaches for exposure reduction. Behavior determines not only the presence or absence of consumer product and use, but also the details that largely define critical chemical exposure metrics including amount, concentration, frequency, duration, and pathway of exposure. Thus, it is becoming increasingly evident that in order to both predict and control near-field chemical exposures, we need to better understand human behavior and the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that underlie consumer product rel

  11. Applied Behavior Analysis is a Science and, Therefore, Progressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful progress for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe this approach as progressive. In a progressive approach to ABA, the therapist employs a structured yet flexible process, which is contingent upon and responsive to child progress. We will describe progressive ABA, contrast it to reductionist ABA, and provide rationales for both the substance and intent of ABA as a progressive scientific method for improving conditions of social relevance for individuals with ASD.

  12. Oral Health Literacy and Behavior of Health Sciences University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti N Mohd-Dom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of oral health literacy and behavior among health sciences. Methods: The method used descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 609 students from Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Oral health literacy level and behaviour was assessed with a validated and pretested self-administered questionnaire using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS tool and modified Oral Health Adult Literacy Questionnaire (OHL-AQ. Results: A total of 509 participants involved in the study (83.6%. The overall mean oral health literacy score was 10.27 (95% CI 7.92, 12.62, which found dental students showing statistically significant higher scores (mean=11.36, 95% CI 9.70, 13.02 compared to medical (mean=10.72, 95% CI 8.67, 12.77, allied health sciences (mean=9.89, 95% CI 7.34, 12.44 and pharmacy (mean=9.55, 95% CI 7.23, 11.87. Almost all respondents are non-smokers (99.8% and non-drinkers (97.2%. Only 19.1% pay regular dental visits every 6-12 months while 51.1% visit dentist only when they have dental pain. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behavior. Health science university students should be provided substantial dental health education in their curriculum as they show good potential as strategic partners in oral health.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.404

  13. Consumer Behavior and Sustainable Development in China: The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias Simões

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s astonishing economic development over the last decades has produced a momentous impact on the country’s environmental equilibrium. Chinese officials are now confronted with the need to tackle environmental problems without disrupting the country’s development. The Chinese government seems keen on striking a balance between these two apparently contradictory goals by promoting the concept of “ecological civilization”, a notion that emphasizes the importance of individual behavior. Over the last few years, environmental policymaking worldwide has been giving a lower profile to the role of the State and placing increasing responsibility for many environmental issues on citizens/consumers. Individuals are increasingly perceived as agents for environmental change and their behaviors are subject to tighter scrutiny. Due to the emergence of a consumer society in China, individual behaviors are increasingly a source of environmental problems and a key component of efficient and long-lasting solutions. Accordingly, Chinese policymakers should recognize the environmental significance of individual behaviors and look beyond traditional policy tools. This article argues that Behavioral Sciences can offer important lessons and help in designing new strategies that can speak directly to the Chinese people as a source of environmental harm, thus reducing their impact on the environment.

  14. Small grant management in health and behavioral sciences: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakraida, Teresa J; D'Amico, Jessica; Thibault, Erica

    2010-08-01

    This article describes considerations in health and behavioral sciences small grant management and describes lessons learned during post-award implementation. Using the components by W. Sahlman [Sahlman, W. (1997). How to write a great business plan. Harvard Business Review, 75(4), 98-108] as a business framework, a plan was developed that included (a) building relationships with people in the research program and with external parties providing key resources, (b) establishing a perspective of opportunity for research advancement, (c) identifying the larger context of scientific culture and regulatory environment, and (d) anticipating problems with a flexible response and rewarding teamwork. Small grant management included developing a day-to-day system, building a grant/study program development plan, and initiating a marketing plan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in Behavioral Sciences Education in Dental Schools, 1926 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centore, Linda

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the journey of behavioral sciences education from a multidisciplinary array of topics to a discipline with a name, core identity, and mission in dental schools' curricula. While not exhaustive, it covers pivotal events from the time of the Gies report in 1926 to the present. Strengths and weaknesses of current behavioral sciences instruction in dental schools are discussed, along with identification of future opportunities and potential threats. Suggestions for future directions for behavioral sciences and new roles for behavioral sciences faculty in dental schools are proposed. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  16. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  17. Serious Video Games for Health How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among you...

  18. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: a view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L; Olster, Deborah H; Morgan, Glen D; Abrams, David B

    2008-08-01

    Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral-social-ecologic models of multilevel "causes of the causes" and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit of

  19. Are Brazilian Behavior Analysts Publishing Outside the Box? A Survey of General Science Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ben, Rodrigo; Calixto, Fernanda Castanho; Ferreira, André Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have stressed the importance of disseminating behavior analysis to a more diverse audience and have provided ways to do so effectively. General science publications offer an attractive venue for communicating with a scientifically educated public. The present study examines behavior analysis research published in Science Today and Research Fapesp , monthly general science publications published by the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science and São Paulo Research Foundation, respectively. Behavior analytic terms were searched in issues published from 2003 to 2014, along with psychoanalytic terms as a comparative measure. Only 13 behavior analysis articles were found, while psychoanalytic articles totaled 150. Six of the behavior analysis articles misconstrue fundamental concepts of behavior analysis. The study recommends that behavior analysis researchers extend the dissemination of their findings outside the box.

  20. The impacts of an invasive species citizen science training program on participant attitudes, behavior, and science literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jordan, Rebecca; Holfelder, Kirstin; Newman, Gregory J; Graham, Jim; Waller, Donald M

    2013-08-01

    Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy or overall attitudes between tests administered just before and after a one-day training program, matching results from other studies. However, we found improvements in science literacy and knowledge using context-specific measures and in self-reported intention to engage in pro-environmental activities. While we noted modest change in knowledge and attitudes, we found comparison and interpretation of these data difficult in the absence of other studies using similar measures. We suggest that alternative survey instruments are needed and should be calibrated appropriately to the pre-existing attitudes, behavior, and levels of knowledge in these relatively sophisticated target groups.

  1. Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zint, Michaela

    2002-11-01

    Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

  2. Serious Video Games for Health How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-08-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.

  3. Behavioral and Social Sciences Theories and Models: Are They Used in Unintentional Injury Prevention Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…

  4. Common Goals for the Science and Practice of Behavior Analysis: A Response to Critchfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In his scholarly and thoughtful article, "Interesting Times: Practice, Science, and Professional Associations in Behavior Analysis," Critchfield (2011) discussed the science-practice frictions to be expected in any professional organization that attempts to combine these interests. He suggested that the Association for Behavior Analysis…

  5. Creating a Strategy for Progress: A Contextual Behavioral Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Muto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Behavior analysis is a field dedicated to the development and application of behavioral principles to the understanding and modification of the psychological actions of organisms. As such, behavior analysis was committed from the beginning to a comprehensive account of behavior, stretching from animal learning to complex human behavior. Despite…

  6. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A descriptive study of the middle school science teacher behavior for required student participation in science fair competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisanick, Laura M.

    This descriptive study explores three aspects of teacher behavior related to student participation in science fair competitions: teacher attitudes, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and teacher motives for required student participation. Teacher motives for required student participation may stem from curriculum and standardized test requirements, school administrators' expectations, teacher preference for a competitive student-learning mode, and teacher attitudes towards science fair competitions. Survey data collected for this study included teacher attitudes about science fair competitions, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and demographic data about middle school teachers who sponsor students in PJAS science fair competitions. The theoretical framework in this study is the theory of planned behavior proposed by Ajzen. The results from the analysis of data in this study showed that the majority of the teachers in this sample held positive attitudes towards science fair competitions and required their students to conduct science fair projects but did not require their students to participate in science fair competitions. The middle school science teachers in the sample would involve their students in PJAS competitions even if their districts did not require them to participate. The teachers in this study preferred the cooperative and individualistic student-learning modes. Teacher gender did not influence a preference for a particular student-learning mode. Using the theoretical framework from this study revealed teachers who required their students to participate in science fair competitions also required their students to conduct science fair projects.

  8. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  9. The intersection of behavioral genetics and political science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-02-01

    The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.

  10. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... activities and initiatives that focus on basic mechanisms of behavior and social processes that are relevant... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social... public meeting to promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (Opp...

  11. Serious Video Games for Health: How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game…

  12. Serious video games for health: How behavioral science guided the development of a serious video game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specifi...

  13. Fifty Years Later: Comments on the Further Development of a Science of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Fifty years after the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", some possibilities for the future of Skinner's "science of verbal behavior" are considered. Specifically, certain areas of development or advancement are examined which might be of special importance to the expansion and influence of the functional analysis of verbal behavior.…

  14. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  15. Philosophy of Science, with Special Consideration Given to Behaviorism as the Philosophy of the Science of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that critically examines the foundations, assumptions, methods, products, and implications of the activity called science. The present sketch reviews the historical development of the philosophy of science, representative individuals in the field, and topics of long-standing interest. The…

  16. The Evolution of Psychology as a Basic Bio-behavioral Science in Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John E

    2017-12-01

    For over a century, researchers and educators have called for the integration of psychological science into medical school curricula, but such efforts have been impeded by barriers within medicine and psychology. In addressing these barriers, Psychology has re-examined its relationship to Medicine, incorporated psychological practices into health care, and redefined its parameters as a science. In response to interdisciplinary research into the mechanisms of bio-behavioral interaction, Psychology evolved from an ancillary social science to a bio-behavioral science that is fundamental to medicine and health care. However, in recent medical school curriculum innovations, psychological science is being reduced to a set of "clinical skills," and once again viewed as an ancillary social science. These developments warrant concern and consideration of new approaches to integrating psychological science in medical education.

  17. The Ford Foundation and the rise of behavioralism in political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Emily

    2012-01-01

    How did behavioralism, one of the most influential approaches to the academic study of politics in the twentieth century, become so prominent so quickly? I argue that many political scientists have either understated or ignored how the Ford Foundation's Behavioral Sciences Program gave form to behavioralism, accelerated its rise, and helped root it in political science. I then draw on archived documents from Ford as well as one of its major grantees, U. C. Berkeley, to present several examples of how Ford used its funds to encourage the behavioral approach at a time when it had few adherents among political scientists. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The bounds of reason game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gintis, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences-from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorati

  19. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Contributions and Opportunities in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick O; Grigsby, R Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges plays a leading role in supporting the expansion and evolution of academic medicine and medical science in North America, which are undergoing high-velocity change. Behavioral and social science concepts have great practical value when applied to the leadership practices and administrative structures that guide and support the rapid evolution of academic medicine and medical sciences. The authors are two behavioral and social science professionals who serve as academic administrators in academic medical centers. They outline their career development and describe the many ways activities have been shaped by their work with the Association of American Medical Colleges. Behavioral and social science professionals are encouraged to become change agents in the ongoing transformation of academic medicine.

  20. Psychology as a Science of Subject and Comportment, beyond the Mind and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2018-03-01

    The turn of qualitative inquiry suggests a more open, plural conception of psychology than just the science of the mind and behavior as it is most commonly defined. Historical, ontological and epistemological binding of this conception of psychology to the positivist method of natural science may have exhausted its possibilities, and after having contributed to its prestige as a science, has now become an obstacle. It is proposed that psychology be reconceived as a science of subject and comportment in the framework of a contextual hermeneutic, social, human behavioral science. Thus, without rejecting quantitative inquiry, psychology recovers territory left aside like introspection and pre-reflective self-awareness, and reconnects with traditions marginalized from the main stream. From this perspective psychology might also recover its credibility as a human science in view of current skepticism.

  1. Self-Regulated Learning Behavior of College Students of Science and Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuixin

    This study focuses on the relationship between self-regulated learning behavior and their academic achievement of college students of science. For students of science, their involvement in motivational components is closely tied to their performance in the examinations. Cognitive strategies have the strongest influence on scores of the English achievement.

  2. Crayfish Behavior: Observing Arthropods to Learn about Science & Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…

  3. A Descriptive Study of the Middle School Science Teacher Behavior for Required Student Participation in Science Fair Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisanick, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores three aspects of teacher behavior related to student participation in science fair competitions: teacher attitudes, teacher preference for different student-learning modes, and teacher motives for required student participation. Teacher motives for required student participation may stem from curriculum and…

  4. The union of dental behavioral and clinical science: educational and research prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P; Weinstein, P; Smith, T

    1984-04-01

    It has been argued that behavioral scientists too wedded to their disciplines are merely interlopers in dentistry. According to this argument, these individuals see dentistry as a laboratory for investigation but care little for the problems faced by clinicians. No doubt this has been true in some cases. However, since the growth of the discipline of behavioral medicine in the 1970s, a substantial number of behavioral scientists have been attracted to the basic problems of clinical science. These individuals have neither been seeking the role of part-time questionnaire designer, programmer, or statistician, nor are they simply seeking a laboratory for their studies. Academicians involved in behavioral medicine are genuinely interested in clinical phenomena in the healing sciences. The collaboration of behavioral scientists and clinical dental investigators has much to offer. The isolated clinician collecting data without methodological rigor is unlikely to make a major contribution. Behavioral scientists can add, beyond technical expertise, to the methodology or logic of the investigator. Moreover, the behavioral scientist and clinician may produce an enhanced understanding of behavioral factors important in clinical practice. This model for research also has implications for teaching and service. Courses integrating behavioral and clinical science can be offered based on the results of the collaborative research. Clinics employing both professional groups can use this knowledge to treat dental fear, TMJ disorders, and other problems effectively. Careful recruitment and training of behavioral scientists with research skills is needed.

  5. Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…

  6. A Comparison of the Cognitive Behaviors Exhibited by Secondary Agriculture and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jonathan D.; Torres, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of cognitive behavior exhibited by secondary agriculture teachers and compare the behavior to science teachers. Teachers within the two groups were found to have similar attitudes toward teaching at higher levels of cognition. Agriculture teachers spent 83% of their time on lower-order…

  7. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  8. Investigating Predictors of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Behavioral Intention toward e-Resources for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Kareem, Bamidele Wahab; Obielodan, Omotayo Olabo; Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele

    2017-01-01

    This study examined predictors of pre-service science teachers' behavioral intention toward e-resources use for teaching in Nigeria. The study used cross-sectional survey research method and a questionnaire with a set of items that measure technology preparedness, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavioral intention to gather the…

  9. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya A. Jones

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  10. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and...

  11. Behavioral Science Design for Audio-Visual Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dennis L.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the basic structure of the behavioral audio-visual production which consists of objectives analysis, approach determination, technical production, fulfillment evaluation, program refinement, implementation, and follow-up. (Author)

  12. Improving blood donor recruitment and retention: integrating theoretical advances from social and behavioral science research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; France, Christopher R; Abraham, Charles; Ditto, Blaine; Sheeran, Paschal

    2007-11-01

    Increasing blood donor recruitment and retention is of key importance to transfusion services. Research within the social and behavioral science traditions has adopted separate but complementary approaches to addressing these issues. This article aims to review both of these types of literature, examine theoretical developments, identify commonalities, and offer a means to integrate these within a single intervention approach. The social and behavioral science literature on blood donor recruitment and retention focusing on theory, interventions, and integration is reviewed. The role of emotional regulation (anticipated anxiety and vasovagal reactions) is central to both the behavioral and the social science approaches to enhancing donor motivation, yet although intentions are the best predictor of donor behavior, interventions targeting enactment of intentions have not been used to increase donation. Implementation intentions (that is, if-then plans formed in advance of acting) provide a useful technique to integrate findings from social and behavioral sciences to increase donor recruitment and retention. After reviewing the literature, implementation intention formation is proposed as a technique to integrate the key findings and theories from the behavioral and social science literature on blood donor recruitment and retention.

  13. Behavioral and social sciences at the National Institutes of Health: Methods, measures, and data infrastructures as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its strategic plan for 2017-2021. This plan focuses on three equally important strategic priorities: 1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, 2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and 3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on scientific priority two and future directions in measurement science, technology, data infrastructure, behavioral ontologies, and big data methods and analytics that have the potential to transform the behavioral and social sciences into more cumulative, data rich sciences that more efficiently build on prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Teaching hands-on science activities: Variables that moderate attitude-behavior consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    The relationship between prospective elementary teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to teach science using hands-on activities at least twice a week during their first year of employment was investigated. The findings suggest that measuring prospective teachers' attitudes toward science cannot adequately predict nor provide a satisfactory explanation of their science teaching behaviors. The findings also provide clear support for two hypotheses derived from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action regarding the predictability of prospective teachers' intentions to teach science from their attitudes and subjective norms.Received: 25 October 1985

  15. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Obery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267. Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational newsletters, and social media channels. Analysis of the data was conducted using both partial least squares and covariance based structural equation modeling to explore the relationships between the constructs. Additionally, qualitative definitions of proenvironmental behavior were investigated in order to address potential gaps between self-reported and observed behaviors. Quantitative findings show a renewed positive connection between science education, nature relatedness, and proenvironmental behaviors. Furthermore, qualitative findings suggest positive relationships between how publicly people are willing to share their passion for the outdoors and their willingness to engage in proenvironmental behaviors.

  18. Quetelet and the emergence of the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Adolphe Quetelet was one of the most prominent figures of the second half of the nineteenth century, yet in present-day histories of several social sciences the impact of his ideas is widely ignored. The first part consists of a sketch of his life and work. Astronomer and statistician, he sought to apply the mathematical tools of astronomy to create was has been called a 'mathematics of society'. In particular he demonstrated regularities in the incidence of various social phenomena, notably crime, whose implications were widely debated. In the second part the influence he exerted on some key figures in the then emerging social sciences is traced in some detail; these figures include Durkheim, Galton, Marx, and Tylor. He also advocated the wider use of statistics and his call had a powerful impact on the then emerging fields such as administration, economics, sociology and psychology. He influenced some of his most famous contemporaries, including Florence Nightingale, Karl Marx and Francis Galton.

  19. Behavioral accident avoidance science : understanding response in collision incipient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Ridder, S.N. de

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are the single greatest cause of fatality in the workplace and the primary cause of all accidental death in the U.S. to the age of seventy-eight. However, behavioral analysis of response in the final seconds and milliseconds before collision has been a most difficult

  20. Robotic Fish to Aid Animal Behavior Studies and Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul

    The application of robotic fish in the fields of animal behavior and informal science learning are new and relatively untapped. In the context of animal behavior studies, robotic fish offers a consistent and customizable stimulus that could contribute to dissect the determinants of social behavior. In the realm of informal science learning, robotic fish are gaining momentum for the possibility of educating the general public simultaneously on fish physiology and underwater robotics. In this dissertation, the design and development of a number of robotic fish platforms and prototypes and their application in animal behavioral studies and informal science learning settings are presented. Robotic platforms for animal behavioral studies focused on the utilization replica or same scale prototypes. A novel robotic fish platform, featuring a three-dimensional swimming multi-linked robotic fish, was developed with three control modes varying in the level of robot autonomy offered. This platform was deployed at numerous science festivals and science centers, to obtain data on visitor engagement and experience.

  1. Integrating knowledge across domains to advance the science of health behavior: overcoming challenges and facilitating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Grenen, Emily G; O'Connell, Mary; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hall, Kara L; Taber, Jennifer M; Vogel, Amanda L

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors often co-occur and have common determinants at multiple levels (e.g., individual, relational, environmental). Nevertheless, research programs often examine single health behaviors without a systematic attempt to integrate knowledge across behaviors. This paper highlights the significant potential of cross-cutting behavioral research to advance our understanding of the mechanisms and causal factors that shape health behaviors. It also offers suggestions for how researchers could develop more effective interventions. We highlight barriers to such an integrative science along with potential steps that can be taken to address these barriers. With a more nuanced understanding of health behavior, redundancies in research can be minimized, and a stronger evidence base for the development of health behavior interventions can be realized.

  2. Sailing smoothly across the cultural divide: Constructing effective behavioral science presentations for medical audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerholtz, Linda; Schirmer, Julie; Carling, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Beginning behavioral science faculty, who are critical residency program contributors, face significant immediate challenges that often diminish their effectiveness and increase the time it takes to translate and reformat their expertise into relevant and meaningful educational presentations. Residency program culture and competency-based learning are quite different from the educational objectives and teaching environments found in most behavioral health training programs. The goal of this article is to provide beginning behavior science faculty, who are typically on their own and learning on the job, with a guide to the core educational perspectives and skills required as well as key resources that are available to them. Since a significant portion of behavioral science faculty's teaching time revolves around small and large group presentations, our guide focuses on how to incorporate key strategies and resources into relevant, evidenced-based and, most importantly, effective behavioral health presentations for the program's resident physicians. Specifically, our recommendations include selection of content, methods of content organization, techniques for actively engaging resident physicians in discussing the significance of the topics, and descriptions of numerous Internet resources for the primary mental health topics that concern family medicine trainees. Finally, it is emphasized that the relevant and effective use of these recommendations is dependent upon the behavioral science faculty educator's first understanding and appreciating how physicians' think, speak, and prioritize information while caring for their patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  4. Responsibility for student success/failure and observed verbal behavior among secondary science and mathematics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Donald L.

    The study compared selected teacher beliefs and verbal behaviors among secondary science and mathematics teachers. Teacher beliefs included teacher responsibility for student success and failure. These beliefs were measured by the Responsibility for Student Achievement (RSA) Questionnaire which has the locus of control construct as a theoretical basis. Teacher verbal behavior included (1) indirect and (2) direct behaviors and (3) praise and (4) criticism. These behaviors were measured with the Reciprocal Category System (RCS) which is consistent with the methodology of interaction analysis. Comparisons were made on the basis of the following teacher classifications: (1) science/mathematics, (2) junior high/senior high, and (3) teachers of advanced classes/basic classes. Teacher beliefs were not significantly different except for the advanced/basic comparisons. These comparisons produced significant differences in both teacher beliefs and behaviors. Teachers of basic students assumed more responsibility for student success, less responsibility for failure, and were more direct in verbal behavior. In gender comparisons, female teachers were significantly higher in incidences of indirect behavior and combined indirect-direct behavior. These findings suggest that further study of self-fulfilling prophecy in terms of these variables may be fruitful. Also, verbal behavior may sometimes be inadequately represented by the common practice of using ratios.

  5. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  6. The evolution of science literacy: Examining intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchi-Verrino, Carol J.

    A call for a new perspective of science literacy has been marked as the impetus of change in science education, suggesting that a meaning-making approach to literacy and inquiry are central to learning science. This research study explored how science literacy evolved in a classroom where this reconceptualized view of science literacy guided curriculum design and instruction. The teacher/researcher incorporated Interactive Science Notebooks (ISNs) and Interactive Reading Organizers and Comprehension Strategies (IROCS) into instructional materials. In a class consisting of 20 mainstream and special education students, this 7-week study collected data using Likert scales, stimulated recall interviews, a teacher/researcher journal, and students¡¦ position papers. A systematic design framework was used for the three-phase analysis. Hyperresearch RTM software facilitated the identification of open codes, an axial code, and frequency graphs. In order to develop insight into the relationship between questions, methods, and curriculum design recent recommendations for quality research in science education were considered in the methodology. The hypothesis formulated from the data suggests that science literacy evolves on a continuum, and the degree to which science literacy evolves on the continuum seems to be contingent upon their uses of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors. Several notable insights emerged from the data which were used to guide curriculum, instruction, and assessment that promotes the development of science literacy in the middle school classroom. The study suggests a possible correlation between the use of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors, and the use of a continuum in measuring the emergence of science literacy.

  7. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M.; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I.; Stansbury, James P.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. PMID:21821083

  8. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P

    2011-10-13

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Assessment of oral health attitudes and behavior among students of Kuwait University Health Sciences Center

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Dena A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. Materials and Methods: Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes...

  10. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Reed, Kathleen M; Cameron, Amy Y; Ameral, Victoria E

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of emotion regulation strategies (or, more broadly, coping) have failed due to a lack of focus on context. That is, examining strategies in isolation of the context in which they are used provides limited information on the suitability, rigid adherence, or effectiveness of a given strategy in that situation. Several of these researchers have proposed the development of new models to define and measure various types of behavioral flexibility. We would like to suggest that an explanation of the phenomenon already exists and that we can go back to our behavioral roots to understand this phenomenon rather than focusing on defining and capturing a new process. Indeed, thorough contextual behavioral analyses already yield a useful account of what has been observed. We will articulate a model explaining behavioral flexibility using a functional, contextual framework, with anxiety-related disorders as an example.

  12. Metaphysics, science and the asphaltene phase behavior problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, T.P. [Eniricerche SpA, Milanese (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Spontaneous phase separation and deposition of the asphaltenic component of crude oils is the source of costly problems in the petroleum industry. Over the past several decades so-called {open_quotes}colloid stabilization{close_quotes} model has dominated attempts to account for the phase behavior of the asphaltene fraction of the crude oil. We will argue that this model is not {open_quotes}scientific{close_quotes} in the sense that is has been applied only for the post-hoc rationalization of experimental results; absent have been serious attempts to experimentally test specific predictions deduced from the model. A critical examination of the colloid stabilization model brings to light several fundamental shortcomings. An alternative thermodynamic, or {open_quotes}solvation{close_quotes} model is shown to make predictions in far better agreement with experiment, and has been the key to developing an analytical model that accurately predicts the conditions under which crude oils become unstable to asphaltene deposition. This example will be used to argue that the defining elements of (good) scientific research - the formulation of explicit hypotheses of high predictive content and their critical evaluation, above all by experimental attempts at falsification - are also effective, indeed necessary, for analyzing the complex problems offered by the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} world and for achieving technological advancement.

  13. Topological and Orthomodular Modeling of Context in Behavioral Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narens, Louis

    2017-02-01

    Two non-boolean methods are discussed for modeling context in behavioral data and theory. The first is based on intuitionistic logic, which is similar to classical logic except that not every event has a complement. Its probability theory is also similar to classical probability theory except that the definition of probability function needs to be generalized to unions of events instead of applying only to unions of disjoint events. The generalization is needed, because intuitionistic event spaces may not contain enough disjoint events for the classical definition to be effective. The second method develops a version of quantum logic for its underlying probability theory. It differs from Hilbert space logic used in quantum mechanics as a foundation for quantum probability theory in variety of ways. John von Neumann and others have commented about the lack of a relative frequency approach and a rational foundation for this probability theory. This article argues that its version of quantum probability theory does not have such issues. The method based on intuitionistic logic is useful for modeling cognitive interpretations that vary with context, for example, the mood of the decision maker, the context produced by the influence of other items in a choice experiment, etc. The method based on this article's quantum logic is useful for modeling probabilities across contexts, for example, how probabilities of events from different experiments are related.

  14. Behavioral science priorities in residency education: The perspective of practicing family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Kreutz, Richard L; Ferguson, Kyle E; Sawyer, Devin

    2015-12-01

    The family medicine residency behavioral science curriculum is more effective if prioritized to match what is needed in practice after graduation. Two prior studies (Kendall, Marvel, & Cruickshank, 2003; Marvel & Major, 1999) identified physician priorities for behavioral science education. The present study extends this research to include topics from more recent curriculum guidelines and examines the extent to which size of community and perceived competence correlate with prioritization of Washington state family physicians. Practicing family physicians in Washington state (N = 2,270) were invited to complete the survey. Respondents provided demographic and practice information. Respondents then rated, on a scale from 1 to 4, 35 behavioral science topics on 2 different scales including (a) priority to be given in residency education and (b) perceived level of competence. A total of 486 responded and 430 completed both priority and competence scales for a response rate of 19%. The top half of 35 topics of the present study included the top 13 topics found in the 2 prior studies. Priority and competence scales were moderately correlated (r = .48, n = 430, p = .001). There was a small significant correlation with size of community and priority ratings (r = .13, n = 435, p = .006). Family physicians in Washington state prioritize behavioral science topics in residency education similar to Colorado and Mississippi. The results of this study support recent ACGME guidelines, in that training should focus on common psychiatric illnesses, including depression and anxiety, and interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Gender Influences on Parent-Child Science Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-Meyerson, Katherine; Sandrin, Susannah; Edwards, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Gender is a critical social factor influencing how children view the world from very early childhood. Additionally, during the early elementary years, parents can have a significant influence on their child's behaviors and dispositions in fields such as science. This study examined the influence of parent gender and child gender on 2nd- and…

  16. Attitudes and Behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology Students towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rasha Abdel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and behavior of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST) students towards the environment according to their gender and college. The research was based on a descriptive approach. The sample consisted of (375) students (230 males and 145 females) from different colleges (Law, Information Technology, Mass…

  17. Revision and Evaluation of a Course in Behavioral Sciences for Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Frederick L.; Friedmann, Claude T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The new teaching format of a behavioral science course at the University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine is described. Specific objectives were to present an introduction of life's developmental cycles, the nature of mind-body relationships, and dynamics of the doctor-patient relationship, and to develop interviewing skills. (MLW)

  18. Citation Behavior of Undergraduate Students: A Study of History, Political Science, and Sociology Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this analysis was to obtain local citation behavior data on undergraduates researching history, political science, and sociology papers. The study found that students cited books and journals even with the availability of web sources; however, usage varied by subject. References to specific websites' domains also varied across subject…

  19. Exploring the Influence of Nature Relatedness and Perceived Science Knowledge on Proenvironmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obery, Amanda; Bangert, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing proenvironmental behavior of individuals residing in the Northern Rocky Mountains (N = 267). Measures of relatedness to nature and perceived science knowledge were collected through a convenience sample approach using multiple avenues such as city email lists, organizational…

  20. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  1. Students’ Digital Photography Behaviors during a Multiday Environmental Science Field Trip and Their Recollections of Photographed Science Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking photographs to document the experiences of an educational field trip is becoming a common activity for teachers and students alike. Considering the regular creation of photographic artifacts, our goal in this paper is to explore students’ picture taking behavior and their recollections of science content associated with their photographs. In this study, we partnered with a class of fifth-grade students in the United States and provided each student with a digital camera to document their experiences during an environmental science field trip at a national park. We report the frequency of photography behaviors according to which activities were most often documented by the students and specifically that students tended to document more of their experiences when they were in outdoor, natural spaces rather than inside of visitor centers or museums. Also, through an analysis of students’ comments about the science content captured in their photographs we observe that students’ comments about photographs of the outdoors tended to show greater depth and complexity than those that were taken in indoor, museum-like spaces.

  2. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  4. Improving Process Evaluations of Health Behavior Interventions: Learning From the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    This article reflects on the current state of process evaluations of health behavior interventions and argues that evaluation practice in this area could be improved by drawing on the social science literature to a greater degree. While process evaluations of health behavior interventions have increasingly engaged with the social world and sociological aspects of interventions, there has been a lag in applying relevant and potentially useful approaches from the social sciences. This has limited the scope for health behavior process evaluations to address pertinent contextual issues and methodological challenges. Three aspects of process evaluations are discussed: the incorporation of contexts of interventions; engagement with the concept of "process" in process evaluation; and working with theory to understand interventions. Following on from this, the article also comments on the need for new methodologies and on the implications for addressing health inequalities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. The exploratory behavior scale: assessing young visitors hands-on behavior in science museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Franse, R.K.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical

  6. Assessment of oral health attitudes and behavior among students of Kuwait University Health Sciences Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Dena A

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes and behavior by an e-mail invitation with a link to the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory survey that was sent to all 1802 students with Kuwait University Health Sciences Center e-mail addresses. The data were analyzed for frequency distributions, and differences among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant ( P behavior than that of their nondental professional fellow students ( P behavior. Dental students and students who were in advanced levels of their training along with female students demonstrated better oral health practices and perceptions than students in lower academic levels and male students, respectively. Additional studies for investigating the effectiveness and identifying areas requiring modification within the dental curriculum at KUHSC may be warranted.

  7. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjo Hur

    Full Text Available While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the "STEM" workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications.

  8. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR) workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Hyungjo; Andalib, Maryam A; Maurer, Julie A; Hawley, Joshua D; Ghaffarzadegan, Navid

    2017-01-01

    While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the "STEM" workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications.

  9. What Has the Study of Digital Games Contributed to the Science of Expert Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charness, Neil

    2017-04-01

    I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's (1990) concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to the social band of explanation, in order to explain why so few individuals reach expert levels of performance. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  11. The transnational circulation of scientific ideas: importing behavioralism in European political science (1950-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncourt, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to deepen our understanding of the transatlantic circulation of scientific ideas during the Cold War by looking at the importation of behavioralism in European political science. It analyses the social, institutional, and intellectual dynamics that led to the creation, in 1970, of a transnational organization that aimed to promote behavioralism in Europe: the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Using qualitative material drawn from archives and interviews, the study shows that the creation of the ECPR was the joint product of academic, scientific, and political rivalries. It argues that the founding of the organization served a purpose for several agents (chiefly, academic entrepreneurs and philanthropic foundations) who pursued different strategies in different social fields in the context of the Cold War. More broadly, it suggests that the postwar development of the social sciences and the circulation of scientific ideas are best accounted for by mapping sociological interactions between scientific fields and neighboring social spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Using Lasso for Predictor Selection and to Assuage Overfitting: A Method Long Overlooked in Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary least squares and stepwise selection are widespread in behavioral science research; however, these methods are well known to encounter overfitting problems such that R(2) and regression coefficients may be inflated while standard errors and p values may be deflated, ultimately reducing both the parsimony of the model and the generalizability of conclusions. More optimal methods for selecting predictors and estimating regression coefficients such as regularization methods (e.g., Lasso) have existed for decades, are widely implemented in other disciplines, and are available in mainstream software, yet, these methods are essentially invisible in the behavioral science literature while the use of sub optimal methods continues to proliferate. This paper discusses potential issues with standard statistical models, provides an introduction to regularization with specific details on both Lasso and its related predecessor ridge regression, provides an example analysis and code for running a Lasso analysis in R and SAS, and discusses limitations and related methods.

  13. Foundational Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences: Marching Towards the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    advancing state-of-the- art theory, measures, and methods in the behavioral and social sciences. This includes research that represents paradigm shifts...programs for eventual use by the Army. The basic research program is focused on state-of-the- art advances in six research portfolios. Research...integrate methods from psychology, sociology, ethnography , and anthropology. These methods should include or address concepts such as situational

  14. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Case Study in a Medical Science University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays with complex and dynamic environment in organizations, scholars make more attention to emotional intelligence. Also, the role of emotional intelligence started to make inroad into entrepreneurship research. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial behavior in organizations. A sample of 107 managers from a medical science university in Iran participated in the main study. Findings showed that all four dimensions of emotional intel...

  15. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enculturating science: Community-centric design of behavior change interactions for accelerating health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Samphel, Rigzin; Yadav, Ranjanaa; Yeung, Diana; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite significant advancements in the scientific evidence base of interventions to improve newborn survival, we have not yet been able to "bend the curve" to markedly accelerate global rates of reduction in newborn mortality. The ever-widening gap between discovery of scientific best practices and their mass adoption by families (the evidence-practice gap) is not just a matter of improving the coverage of health worker-community interactions. The design of the interactions themselves must be guided by sound behavioral science approaches such that they lead to mass adoption and impact at a large scale. The main barrier to the application of scientific approaches to behavior change is our inability to "unbox" the "black box" of family health behaviors in community settings. The authors argue that these are not black boxes, but in fact thoughtfully designed community systems that have been designed and upheld, and have evolved over many years keeping in mind a certain worldview and a common social purpose. An empathetic understanding of these community systems allows us to deconstruct the causal pathways of existing behaviors, and re-engineer them to achieve desired outcomes. One of the key reasons for the failure of interactions to translate into behavior change is our failure to recognize that the content, context, and process of interactions need to be designed keeping in mind an organized community system with a very different worldview and beliefs. In order to improve the adoption of scientific best practices by communities, we need to adapt them to their culture by leveraging existing beliefs, practices, people, context, and skills. The authors present a systems approach for community-centric design of interactions, highlighting key principles for achieving intrinsically motivated, sustained change in social norms and family health behaviors, elucidated with progressive theories from systems thinking, management sciences, cross-cultural psychology, learning

  17. Momentary Patterns of Covariation between Specific Affects and Interpersonal Behavior: Linking Relationship Science and Personality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M.; Girard, Jeffrey M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Scott, Lori N.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory’s principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the two systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. PMID:27148786

  18. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  20. Healthy life behaviors of the health science students of Cukurova University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Ozcan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate of health science students' healthy life behaviors. Material and Methods: The sample population was composed of 801 students that attending to the health science schools (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, and nursery of Cukurova University. The data was collected by an anonymous questionnaire and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile-II scale (nutrition, physical activity, stress management, interpersonal relationships, spirituality, healthy responsibility. Results: Of the 60 % students were female. The mean age was 21.5 +/- 2.21 (17-34 years. It is found that the mean score of Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile-II scale was at middle level (124.30+/-17.92, the highest score was taken from spiritual growth subscale and the lowest one was taken from physical activity subscale. No significant relation was found between the age groups and the mean scores. Males got the higher score from the physical activity subscale, and females got the higher scores from all other subscales. The scores of the students attending to the medicine school were lower compared to the other fields. Conclusion: Health science students are health professionals and role models of the future. It is considered that the results of our study may raise awareness and may be a guide for interventions to elevate these students' healthy life behaviors to a better level. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 664-674

  1. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (pbehavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  2. The role of behavioral science theory in development and implementation of public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Bishop, Donald B

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that public health and health-promotion interventions that are based on social and behavioral science theories are more effective than those lacking a theoretical base. This article provides an overview of the state of the science of theory use for designing and conducting health-promotion interventions. Influential contemporary perspectives stress the multiple determinants and multiple levels of determinants of health and health behavior. We describe key types of theory and selected often-used theories and their key concepts, including the health belief model, the transtheoretical model, social cognitive theory, and the ecological model. This summary is followed by a review of the evidence about patterns and effects of theory use in health behavior intervention research. Examples of applied theories in three large public health programs illustrate the feasibility, utility, and challenges of using theory-based interventions. This review concludes by identifying cross-cutting themes and important future directions for bridging the divides between theory, practice, and research.

  3. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part One: Developments Based on Behavioral and Cognitive Science Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles examining the current status of instructional design (ID) scholarship and theory in four different cultures or traditions. In this article, the focus is on, first, ID models based on traditional behavioral theories of learning and, second, on models based on cognitive science and the learning sciences.…

  4. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  5. Advancing the Science of Behavioral Self-Management of Chronic Disease: The Arc of a Research Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, John P.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes advances in the behavioral self-management of chronic disease from the perspective of a 25-year trajectory of National Institute of Health-funded research in arthritis and cardiopulmonary diseases that has sought to develop a transdisciplinary understanding of how applied behavioral science can be used to improve health…

  6. The Cinderella of Psychology: The Neglect of Motor Control in the Science of Mental Life and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A.

    2005-01-01

    One would expect psychology--the science of mental life and behavior--to place great emphasis on the means by which mental life is behaviorally expressed. Surprisingly, however, the study of how decisions are enacted--the focus of motor control research--has received little attention in psychology. This article documents the neglect and considers…

  7. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  8. Curvilinear Moderation—A More Complete Examination of Moderation Effects in Behavioral Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Ching-Hong Li

    2018-01-01

    In behavioral sciences, researchers often examine whether any linear moderations exist in their studies. That is, they evaluate the extent (i.e., magnitude, direction) to which a linear effect of a predictor X (e.g., cognitive ability) on a criterion Y (e.g., performance) may differ across the levels of a moderator M (e.g., gender). In that case, researchers often run a liner regression analysis for examining this moderation (e.g., gender by ability). Despite its popularity, linear moderation...

  9. Analysis and modeling of complex data in behavioral and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Akinori; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Weihs, Claus

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents theoretical developments, applications and computational methods for the analysis and modeling in behavioral and social sciences where data are usually complex to explore and investigate. The challenging proposals provide a connection between statistical methodology and the social domain with particular attention to computational issues in order to effectively address complicated data analysis problems. The papers in this volume stem from contributions initially presented at the joint international meeting JCS-CLADAG held in Anacapri (Italy) where the Japanese Classification Society and the Classification and Data Analysis Group of the Italian Statistical Society had a stimulating scientific discussion and exchange.

  10. Dietary habits and sedentary behaviors among health science university students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Awadhalla, Muyssar S; Al-Mannai, Mariam; AlSawad, Muneera; Asokan, G V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary patterns and sedentary behaviors among university students in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out with students of the College of Health Sciences in Bahrain using a self-reported questionnaire. All the students enrolled in this college were included in this study (642 students; 90 males and 552 females). The mean age of the sample was 20.1±2.0 years. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the students' breakfast intake, snacking, food frequency intake, and sedentary habits. More than 50% of the students did not consume breakfast on a daily basis. A statistically significant difference (psleep; however, the only significant difference found was for Internet use (psleep for less time (students in Bahrain had unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary behaviors. Thus, an intervention program to promote healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle habits among university students is highly recommended.

  11. Behavioral science and the study of gene-nutrition and gene-physical activity interactions in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Myles S

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes emerging opportunities for behavioral science to help advance the field of gene-environment and gene-behavior interactions, based on presentations at The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Workshop, "Gene-Nutrition and Gene-Physical Activity Interactions in the Etiology of Obesity." Three opportunities are highlighted: (i) designing potent behavioral "challenges" in experiments, (ii) determining viable behavioral phenotypes for genetics studies, and (iii) identifying specific measures of the environment or environmental exposures. Additional points are underscored, including the need to incorporate novel findings from neuroimaging studies regarding motivation and drive for eating and physical activity. Advances in behavioral science theory and methods can play an important role in advancing understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in obesity onset.

  12. Information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular disease patients in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Maryam; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Shahrzadi, Leila; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Patients, as one of the most prominent groups requiring health-based information, encounter numerous problems in order to obtain these pieces of information and apply them. The aim of this study was to determine the information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular patients who were hospitalized in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals. This is a survey research. The population consisted of all patients with cardiovascular disease who were hospitalized in the hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. According to the statistics, the number of patients was 6000. The sample size was determined based on the formula of Cochran; 400 patients were randomly selected. Data were collected by researcher-made questionnaire. Two-level descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used for analysis. The data showed that the awareness of the probability to recover and finding appropriate medical care centers were the most significant informational needs. The practitioners, television, and radio were used more than the other informational resources. Lack of familiarity to medical terminologies and unaccountability of medical staff were the major obstacles faced by the patients to obtain information. The results also showed that there was no significant relationship between the patients' gender and information-seeking behavior, whereas there was a significant relationship between the demographic features (age, education, place of residence) and information-seeking behavior. Giving information about health to the patients can help them to control their disease. Appropriate methods and ways should be used based on patients' willingness. Despite the variety of information resources, patients expressed medical staff as the best source for getting health information. Information-seeking behavior of the patients was found to be influenced by different demographic and environmental factors.

  13. TurkPrime.com: A versatile crowdsourcing data acquisition platform for the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Robinson, Jonathan; Abberbock, Tzvi

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has revolutionized social science by providing a way to collect behavioral data with unprecedented speed and efficiency. However, MTurk was not intended to be a research tool, and many common research tasks are difficult and time-consuming to implement as a result. TurkPrime was designed as a research platform that integrates with MTurk and supports tasks that are common to the social and behavioral sciences. Like MTurk, TurkPrime is an Internet-based platform that runs on any browser and does not require any downloads or installation. Tasks that can be implemented with TurkPrime include: excluding participants on the basis of previous participation, longitudinal studies, making changes to a study while it is running, automating the approval process, increasing the speed of data collection, sending bulk e-mails and bonuses, enhancing communication with participants, monitoring dropout and engagement rates, providing enhanced sampling options, and many others. This article describes how TurkPrime saves time and resources, improves data quality, and allows researchers to design and implement studies that were previously very difficult or impossible to carry out on MTurk. TurkPrime is designed as a research tool whose aim is to improve the quality of the crowdsourcing data collection process. Various features have been and continue to be implemented on the basis of feedback from the research community. TurkPrime is a free research platform.

  14. Introduction to the special issue on virtual reality environments in behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2002-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is usually described in biology and in medicine as a collection of technologies that allow people to interact efficiently with three-dimensional (3-D) computerized databases in real time using their natural senses. This definition lacks any reference to head-mounted displays (HMDs) and instrumented clothing such as gloves or suits. In fact, less than 10% of VR healthcare applications in medicine are actually using any immersive equipment. However, if we focus our attention on behavioral sciences, where immersion is used by more than 50% of the applications, VR is described as an advanced form of human- computer interface that allows the user to interact with and become immersed in a computer-generated environment. This difference outlines a different vision of VR shared by psychologists, psychotherapists, and neuropsychologists: VR provides a new human-computer interaction paradigm in which users are no longer simply external observers of images on a computer screen but are active participants within a computer-generated 3-D virtual world. This special issue investigates this vision, presenting some of the most interesting applications actually developed in the area. Moreover, it discusses the clinical principles, human factors, and technological issues associated with the use of VR in the behavioral sciences.

  15. Can a tablet device alter undergraduate science students' study behavior and use of technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Neil P; Ramsay, Luke; Chauhan, Vikesh

    2012-06-01

    This article reports findings from a study investigating undergraduate biological sciences students' use of technology and computer devices for learning and the effect of providing students with a tablet device. A controlled study was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of a tablet device on students' use of devices and technology for learning. Overall, we found that students made extensive use of the tablet device for learning, using it in preference to laptop computers to retrieve information, record lectures, and access learning resources. In line with other studies, we found that undergraduate students only use familiar Web 2.0 technologies and that the tablet device did not alter this behavior for the majority of tools. We conclude that undergraduate science students can make extensive use of a tablet device to enhance their learning opportunities without institutions changing their teaching methods or computer systems, but that institutional intervention may be needed to drive changes in student behavior toward the use of novel Web 2.0 technologies.

  16. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p context (p < 10−4), irrespective of gender or school culture. We are going to provide in-depth analyses of all quantitative findings with our qualitative data and thus explain the findings logically, with respect to the direction of the statistical interpretation, and substantially, with respect to the meaning of the discoveries. We conclude that outdoor programming appears to be a suitable tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  17. Burning Down the Silos: Integrating new perspectives from the social sciences into human behavior in fire research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The traditional social science disciplines can provide many benefits to the field of human behavior in fire (HBiF). First, the social sciences delve further into insights only marginally examined by HBiF researchers, in turn, expanding the depth of HBiF research. In this paper, I present examples of studies from the fields of social psychology and sociology that would expand HBiF research into non-engineering or "unobservable" aspects of behavior during a fire event. Second, the social sciences can provide insight into new areas of research; in turn, expanding the scope of HBiF research. In this section, I introduce pre- and post-fire studies and explore potential research questions that fall outside of the response period of a fire, the phase upon which most focus is currently placed. Third, the social sciences elucidate the value of research methods available to study human behavior. Qualitative research methods are specifically highlighted. These three benefits will allow HBiF researchers to collect a wider range of data, further develop and expand current behavioral knowledge, and increase the impact of this research for both social and engineering applications. Finally, I end with a discussion on possible ways to better integrate the social sciences within human behavior in fire.

  18. Development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers prepared at the University of Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Lee Yuen

    The development of constructivist behaviors among four new science teachers was studied during a four year period---student teaching through their first three years of teaching. Constructivist behaviors were examined from four perspectives: actual classroom performances as viewed from videotapes; teacher and student perceptions of use of constructivist practices from surveys; and teacher beliefs as gained from open-ended interviews. Data analyses involved constant comparison of data from two or more sources---descriptive statistics, statistical analyses, levels of teacher expertise regarding constructivist behaviors, qualitative descriptions, and direct quotes from videotapes and interview transcripts. The results indicate that the new teachers were largely early constructivist teachers. Constructivist teaching approaches were used during student teaching. Socialization and induction processes had minimal effects. Both observed practices and beliefs about teaching and learning were student-centered; after declines in years one and two, constructivist behaviors improved by the third year of teaching. Students of the new teachers perceived their lessons as being more interesting, more relevant to them, and that they had more autonomy about instruction than reported by students in other programs. Their perceptions better matched those of students taught by more experienced teachers, who were identified as expert constructivists. Although individual teachers were unique with different focuses and strengths, eleven dominant and consistently espoused student-centered beliefs were identified. The new teachers also shared a range of constructivist behaviors that correspond to national standards. These include: (1) Students sharing the responsibility of learning with teachers; (2) Student engagement in activities and experiences; (3) Students with positive attitudes who are motivated to learn; (4) Teaching that focuses on student relevance; (5) Variation in teaching

  19. Future health applications of genomics: priorities for communication, behavioral, and social sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Bowen, Deborah; Brody, Lawrence C; Condit, Celeste M; Croyle, Robert T; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J; Koehly, Laura M; Korf, Bruce R; Marteau, Theresa M; McLeroy, Kenneth; Patrick, Kevin; Valente, Thomas W

    2010-05-01

    Despite the quickening momentum of genomic discovery, the communication, behavioral, and social sciences research needed for translating this discovery into public health applications has lagged behind. The National Human Genome Research Institute held a 2-day workshop in October 2008 convening an interdisciplinary group of scientists to recommend forward-looking priorities for translational research. This research agenda would be designed to redress the top three risk factors (tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) that contribute to the four major chronic diseases (heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lung disease, and many cancers) and account for half of all deaths worldwide. Three priority research areas were identified: (1) improving the public's genetic literacy in order to enhance consumer skills; (2) gauging whether genomic information improves risk communication and adoption of healthier behaviors more than current approaches; and (3) exploring whether genomic discovery in concert with emerging technologies can elucidate new behavioral intervention targets. Important crosscutting themes also were identified, including the need to: (1) anticipate directions of genomic discovery; (2) take an agnostic scientific perspective in framing research questions asking whether genomic discovery adds value to other health promotion efforts; and (3) consider multiple levels of influence and systems that contribute to important public health problems. The priorities and themes offer a framework for a variety of stakeholders, including those who develop priorities for research funding, interdisciplinary teams engaged in genomics research, and policymakers grappling with how to use the products born of genomics research to address public health challenges. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Education and Training in the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences: A Plan of Action. A Report to the National Science Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Felice J.; Abler, Ronald F.; Rosich, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last quarter of a century, the world has undergone rapid change. Almost every aspect of human life is more complex and interdependent, requiring knowledge of human and social systems as well as physical and biological systems. The social, behavioral, and economic (SBE) sciences contribute penetrating insights on such issues as the causes…

  1. Introductory statistics and random phenomena uncertainty, complexity and chaotic behavior in engineering and science

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Introductory Statistics and Random Phenomena integrates traditional statistical data analysis with new computational experimentation capabilities and concepts of algorithmic complexity and chaotic behavior in nonlinear dynamic systems.  This was the first advanced text/reference to bring together such a comprehensive variety of tools for the study of random phenomena occurring in engineering and the natural, life, and social sciences. The crucial computer experiments are conducted using the readily available computer program Mathematica® Uncertain Virtual Worlds™ software packages which optimize and facilitate the simulation environment.  Brief tutorials are included that explain how to use theMathematica® programs for effective simulation and computer experiments.  Large and original real-life data sets are introduced and analyzed as a model for independent study. This is an excellent classroom tool and self-study guide.  The material is presented in a clear and accessible style providing numerous...

  2. An innovative behavioral science curriculum at the University of Tennessee College of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Marcia S; Scarbecz, Mark; Hottel, Timothy L

    2013-01-01

    Communication skills have long been associated with practice success in dentistry. The Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards state that "Graduates must be competent in the application of the fundamental principles of behavioral sciences" and that "Graduates must be competent in managing a diverse patient population and have...interpersonal and communications skills." A recent survey of U.S. dentists found an underutilization of communication skills by general dentists. The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry strives for continuous improvement and has implemented an innovative behavioral science curriculum to improve students' communication skills, consistent with the College's "patient-centered, comprehensive care" philosophy. We describe the design and implementation of our "Patient-Centered Dentistry" course, in which third-year dental students practice communication skills with simulated patients in the Kaplan Clinical Skills Center on the UTHSC campus. The clinical simulations involve the following scenarios: The Initial Interview with a Patient, Presenting a Treatment Plan, Treating Patients with Fear and Anxiety, Interviewing Considerations for Difficult Patients, Delivering Distressing News to Patients, and Coping with a Drug-Seeking Patient. Student simulations were videotaped and assessed by course instructors as well as clinical faculty, and students received immediate feedback by instructors and clinical faculty after their simulations. Students were provided with the opportunity to view their simulation performance and to reflect on their performance in order to recognize their communication strengths as well as areas for improvement. The use of simulation experiences is becoming a widespread and expected practice in health care education. The Patient-Centered Dentistry course provides students with the opportunity to experience the kinds of real-life situations that they would experience in dental practice, without risks to patients

  3. The relationship between visitor characteristics and learning-associated behaviors in a science museum discovery space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowski Boisvert, Dorothy; Jochums Slez, Brenda

    As informal educational institutions, science museums must do more than entertain and amaze visitors. Museum educators must design exhibits that attract and hold the attention of visitors long enough so that the visitors become engaged with the exhibits and learn from them. In order for museum educators to develop such exhibits, more information is needed about the variables associated with learning in museums. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on informal education by examining the relationship between visitor characteristics and attraction, holding power, and visitor engagement.One hundred fifty-four visitors to a science museum discovery space were observed as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Trained volunteers recorded the subjects' movements including the exhibits at which they stopped (attraction), the amount of time spent at each exhibit (holding power), and behaviors indicative of subjects' engagement levels with the exhibits. Data indicated significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. Though not significant statistically, a similar trend was noted between age group and attraction and visitor engagement level. No significant differences were found between gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, or engagement levels.

  4. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Current Crisis in Science Education? Women in Science and Problems for the Behavioral Scientists. Some Perspectives of a Physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    A number of problems exist in society which require the cooperation of physical and social scientists. One of these problems is the current crisis in science education. There are several aspects to this problem, including the declining interest of students in math and science at a time when functioning in our society requires more, not less,…

  6. Bridging the Design-Science Gap with Tools: Science Learning and Design Behaviors in a Simulated Environment for Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Xie, Charles; Nourian, Saeid; Chen, Guanhua; Bailey, Siobhan; Goldstein, Molly H.; Purzer, Senay; Adams, Robin S.; Tutwiler, M. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Many pedagogical innovations aim to integrate engineering design and science learning. However, students frequently show little attempt or have difficulties in connecting their design projects with the underlying science. Drawing upon the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, we argue that the design tools available in a learning environment…

  7. Prevalence of risky behaviors and related factors among students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe sohrabivafa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of evolution that there is the incidence probability of risky behaviors such as drug abuse, risky sexual behavior and compatibility problems. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2014.Method: This is a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, which cluster random sampling were used to selecting subjects. Young's Risk Behaviors Scale (YRBS was used to evaluate risky behaviors and factors affecting it. The mean, standard deviation, Chi-square tests, t-tests and ANOVA were used to analysis of data.Results: The study was included 150 (50% female and 150 (50% male. The most frequency was the age group of 20-24 years old. There was a statistically significant difference between average scores of risky behaviors among female and male students (p˂0.05. The results of study showed that the prevalence of risky behaviors, high speed in driving and drug consumption is different in various fields of study (p˂0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University is relatively low, and the prevalence of these behaviors in girls was far less than male students. Risky behaviors were associated with background variables exception of mother's job. 

  8. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…

  9. Science Self-Efficacy and Innovative Behavior (IB) in Nigerian College Students Enrolled in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Charles

    This study will explore how science self-efficacy among college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in Nigeria predicts their innovation. Several reports on African development argue that science, technology and innovation underpin targets for dramatically reducing poverty in its many dimensions---income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter---while promoting gender equality, education, health, and environmental sustainability (UN Millennium Project, 2005). If African countries in general, including Nigeria, are to move from the exploitation of natural resources to technological innovation as the foundation for development, stakeholders in these countries must encourage development of individual ability to innovate products, services and work processes in crucial organizations (DeJong & DenHartog, 2010). The common denominator in the scientific and technological development of any country or organization is the individuals that make up these entities. An individual's engagement is the foundation for group motivation, innovation and improvement. These ideas inform the purpose of this study: to investigate how science self-efficacy among college students in various engineering fields in Nigeria predicts self-reported innovative behavior (IB), also referred to as Innovative Work Behavior (IWB). IB involves initiating new and useful ideas, processes, products or procedures, as well as the process of implementing these ideas (Farr & Ford, 1990; Scott & Bruce, 1994). The general findings of this study align with the dictates of social cognitive theory. Specifically, research indicates self-efficacy has the most predictive power for performance when it is measured at a level specific to the expected task (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996). The findings from the hierarchical multiple regressions confirm that individuals' perceived science efficacy plays an important role in their perceived self

  10. Disentangling Intensity from Breadth of Science Interest: What Predicts Learning Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Meghan; Schunn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Overall interest in science has been argued to drive learner participation and engagement. However, there are other important aspects of interest such as breadth of interest within a science domain (e.g., biology, earth science). We demonstrate that intensity of science interest is separable from topic breadth using surveys from a sample of 600…

  11. The determinants of grades three to eight students' intentions to engage in laboratory and nonlaboratory science learning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    Data were collected from students in grades three to eight (N = 377) in order to identify the determinants of their intentions to perform laboratory and nonlaboratory science activities. Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as the basis for the study. The theory posits that the immediate determinant of behavior is intention. Intention is determined by the weighted attitude toward the behavior and the weighted subjective norm. Attitude toward behavior and subjective norm are determined by combinations of beliefs, evaluations, and motivations to comply. Cores of salient beliefs related to attitude toward laboratory and nonlaboratory behaviors and cores of salient beliefs related to subjective norm for laboratory and nonlaboratory behaviors were identified. Hypotheses generated from the theory were confirmed. Attitude toward behavior and subjective norm explained significant amounts of variance in behavioral intention for both laboratory and nonlaboratory behaviors. Attitude toward behavior had a greater relative weight than subjective norm for both laboratory and nonlaboratory. The correlations between adjacent constructs in the theoretical model were significant in all cases.

  12. Tools to Assess Behavioral and Social Science Competencies in Medical Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A.; Palmer, Ryan T.; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Thayer, Erin K.; Estroff, Sue E.; Litzelman, Debra K.; Biagioli, Frances E.; Teal, Cayla R.; Lambros, Ann; Hatt, William J.; Satterfield, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Behavioral and social science (BSS) competencies are needed to provide quality health care, but psychometrically validated measures to assess these competencies are difficult to find. Moreover, they have not been mapped to existing frameworks, like those from the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the quality of assessment tools used to measure BSS competencies. Method The authors searched the literature published between January 2002 and March 2014 for articles reporting psychometric or other validity/reliability testing, using OVID, CINAHL, PubMed, ERIC, Research and Development Resource Base, SOCIOFILE, and PsycINFO. They reviewed 5,104 potentially relevant titles and abstracts. To guide their review, they mapped BSS competencies to existing LCME and ACGME frameworks. The final, included articles fell into three categories: instrument development, which were of the highest quality; educational research, which were of the second highest quality; and curriculum evaluation, which were of lower quality. Results Of the 114 included articles, 33 (29%) yielded strong evidence supporting tools to assess communication skills, cultural competence, empathy/compassion, behavioral health counseling, professionalism, and teamwork. Sixty-two (54%) articles yielded moderate evidence and 19 (17%) weak evidence. Articles mapped to all LCME standards and ACGME core competencies; the most common was communication skills. Conclusions These findings serve as a valuable resource for medical educators and researchers. More rigorous measurement validation and testing and more robust study designs are needed to understand how educational strategies contribute to BSS competency development. PMID:26796091

  13. Assessing the Predictors of Intention and Behavior in Using Virtual Social Networks Among Students of the Yazd University of Medical Sciences Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khazir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, use of virtual socail networks is increasing . However, few studies have been conducted  about  factors influencing the use of social networks by using theories of health education  among students.  The present study was to determine predictive factors of virtual social networks among students of Yazd university of medical sciences based on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 Students in 2016, who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The  study data was collected from a questionnaire based on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions and behaviors. The data collected were then analyzed via the SPSS Software using descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation test, one-way analysis of variance, and regression. Results: The mean age of university students was 22.28±3.69 years. The results also suggested that 98.3% of these university students were using virtual social networks. Moreover, the findings of the regression analysis indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were predictors of intention to use social networks and attitudes had the highest predictive power for the intention to use social networks (β=0.38. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis demonstrated that behavioral intention, attitudes, and subjective norms among the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior could predict the behavior to use virtual space. Conclusion: Given the high level of social networking utilization, the necessity of planinig and doing of interventions should be noted to manage it. It is also required to induce and educate the correct attitude about the use of network and how to take advantage of  it 

  14. Behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research: Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri

    2011-03-21

    In May 2009, a workshop was held in Washington DC to identify ways in which HIV vaccine clinical research could benefit from and better incorporate behavioral and social science (BSS) considerations. Seventy-one people from government, non-government, and private organizations participated, including HIV vaccine researchers, clinical trial scientists, BSS researchers, community representatives, and sponsors. This workshop elucidated the opportunities and challenges for integrating BSS in HIV vaccine research by highlighting insights gained from previous BSS research on HIV prevention and highlighting new BSS approaches and methodologies. Meeting participants identified priority areas where BSS methodologies could significantly impact HIV research and developed concrete recommendations for addressing current challenges encountered in HIV vaccine research relating to social impact, risk assessment, community engagement, informed consent, risk reduction, and special populations. These recommendations address the need for improving the accuracy of participant data; standardizing data collection to enable comparisons across studies; engaging the community at all levels; using evidenced-based counseling techniques; understanding the needs and concerns of target populations; and considering the impacts of macro-level forces and influences. The importance of establishing collaborations that can carry out these recommendations and facilitate necessary changes in thinking and practice was emphasized throughout the meeting. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A short course on functional equations based upon recent applications to the social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Aczél, J

    1987-01-01

    Recently I taught short courses on functional equations at several universities (Barcelona, Bern, Graz, Hamburg, Milan, Waterloo). My aim was to introduce the most important equations and methods of solution through actual (not artifi­ cial) applications which were recent and with which I had something to do. Most of them happened to be related to the social or behavioral sciences. All were originally answers to questions posed by specialists in the respective applied fields. Here I give a somewhat extended version of these lectures, with more recent results and applications included. As previous knowledge just the basic facts of calculus and algebra are supposed. Parts where somewhat more (measure theory) is needed and sketches of lengthier calcula­ tions are set in fine print. I am grateful to Drs. J. Baker (Waterloo, Ont.), W. Forg-Rob (Innsbruck, Austria) and C. Wagner (Knoxville, Tenn.) for critical remarks and to Mrs. Brenda Law for care­ ful computer-typing of the manuscript (in several versions). A...

  16. State of the Science: Apathy As a Model for Investigating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Lauren; Kales, Helen C; Kolanowski, Ann

    2018-04-01

    Apathy is one of the most common and pervasive of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs). Apathy has profound consequences for morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. Treatment of apathy has been hindered because of poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous syndrome. Research has demonstrated that apathy is associated with disruption of the frontal-striatal system in individuals with neurodegenerative disease. As with other BPSDs, these neural mechanisms alone do not completely account for the syndrome; individual, caregiver, and environmental factors also contribute to apathy. In this article, we modify a current conceptual model of the factors contributing to BPSDs to examine determinants of apathy. This integrative model provides a more complete and theoretically informed understanding of apathy, allowing for greater insight into potential targets for research, intervention, and care. We end by proposing an agenda for moving the science of BPSDs in general, and apathy in particular, forward. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. The Emergence of the Field of Sustainability Science: Influences on Faculty Behavior Related to Sustainability Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates sustainability science as an emerging scientific field and the role of faculty members at higher education institutions as drivers of change in sustainability-science-based research, teaching, and community engagement. Seven factors related to the transdisciplinary field of sustainability science are analyzed for their…

  18. Evolution of the Behavioral Sciences Branch of the Space Medicine and Health Care Systems Office at the Johnson Space Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Edna R; Carpenter, Frank E

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a brief history of psychology and psychiatry roles in psychological selection and how these roles have evolved into the Behavioral Sciences Branch at the Johnson Space Center USC), Houston, TX. Since the initial selection of the Mercury Seven, the first United States astronauts, psychologists and psychiatrists have been involved in astronaut selection activities. Initially very involved in psychological selection of astronauts, the role of behavioral health specialists waned during the Gemini and Apollo years. With the onset of the NASA/Mir/International Space Station Program, the introduction of payload and mission specialists, and international collaboration, the evolving need for behavioral health expertise became apparent. Medical and psychological selection processes were revisited and the Johnson Space Center developed a separate operational unit focused on behavioral health and performance. This work unit eventually became the Behavioral Sciences branch of the Space Medicine and Health Care Systems Office. Research was allocated across groups at JSC, other NASA space centers, and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, and was funded by NASA Headquarters. The current NASA focus on human space exploration to the Moon and beyond re-emphasizes the importance of the human-centered approach.

  19. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.

  20. Law and Behavioral Sciences: Why We Need Less Purity Rather than More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn his inaugural lecture, Peter Mascini takes issue with the goal of scientific purity in the behavioral study of the law, conceived as the deliberate choice to postulate a limited number of universally applicable behavioral principles. The guiding principle of behavioral sociology

  1. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  2. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote…

  3. Change in science teaching behaviors: Evaluating the impact of a collaborative learning network at the level of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Teresa Mae

    This study reports the results of research designed to explore the impact of a science and technology collaborative network called the Kansas Collaborative Research Network (KanCRN) on the teaching practices of Kansas City, Kansas elementary and middle school science teachers. Research questions were developed around the theory that collaborative networks provide teachers the kind of support they need to create contexts conducive to change. Hence, research questions first dealt with determining whether teachers, who had participated in the network for two years, reported changes in their teaching practices. Subsequent questions asked teachers to describe these changes and to describe the role KanCRN played in the change process. Analysis, during the first phase of the investigation, was based on the KanCRN Teacher Practice Survey Data. Data analysis revealed that change in teacher practice had occurred. The second phase of the investigation sought to build a descriptive picture of the role KanCRN played in the change process. Interview data revealed that teachers described changes in their teaching practices concurrent with those specified by science education reform documents. KanCRN teachers also noted personal changes in pedagogical skill, and science content knowledge. These changes served as a catalyst for the behavioral changes cited. Moreover, teachers expressed changes in their views of the nature of science that also transferred to the types of classroom teaching behaviors now employed. Teachers credited network participation as the force behind the change. Teachers cited (a) challenging pedagogical and technological training, (b) interactive real world experiences with science content, (c) progressive technological tools and materials, and (d) personal guidance from mentors who respected and valued teachers as knowledgeable professionals critical for promoting change. One conclusion drawn from this study is that collaborative networks are capable on

  4. Behavioral Sciences in a Changing Army: Proceedings of Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Behavioral Sciences Seminar, 19-23 March 1979 held at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    from by addressing some gripes - Myths and Ques- tions? First a Gripe. I don’t like the term Behavioral Scientist - I’m sorry we got stuck with it - I...name. A myth - Social Work is losing all its spaces and is way over its authorized strength. Matter of fact, at the beginning of this year, we had...Married Fathers 8. Never-Married Mothers 9. One-Parent Family 10. Parents Without Partners 11. Single Fatherhood 12. Single Motherhood 13. Single Parents

  5. Applying behavior-analytic methodology to the science and practice of environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Christina A; Dorey, Nicole R; Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Leighty, Katherine A

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518). Multi-institutional studies are the typically-prescribed solution, but these are expensive and difficult to carry out. Kuhar ( Zoo Biology, 25, 339-352) provided a reminder that inferential statistics are only necessary when one wishes to draw general conclusions at the population level. Because welfare is assessed at the level of the individual animal, we argue that evaluations of enrichment efficacy are often instances in which inferential statistics may be neither necessary nor appropriate. In recent years, there have been calls for the application of behavior-analytic techniques to zoo animal behavior management, including environmental enrichment (e.g., Bloomsmith, Marr, & Maple, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 205-222; Tarou & Bashaw, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 189-204). Single-subject (also called single-case, or small-n) designs provide a means of designing evaluations of enrichment efficacy based on an individual's behavior. We discuss how these designs might apply to research and practice goals at zoos and aquariums, contrast them with standard practices in the field, and give examples of how each could be successfully applied in a zoo or aquarium setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  7. Assessing Information-Seeking Behavior of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Valerie K.

    2011-01-01

    This study, the first phase of a multi-phase effort, was undertaken to assess and provide for the information needs of the Faculty of the Schools of Science and Engineering at The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) in the digital age. The objectives of this phase were to: 1) gain an in-depth understanding of how computer science and engineering faculty…

  8. Behavioral Objectives, Science Processes, and Learning from Inquiry-Oriented Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elaine J.; And Others

    Investigated was the effect of systematically combined high and low level cognitive objectives upon the acquisition of science learning. An instructional unit based on a Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Inquiry Slide Set (structure and function, control of blood sugar, a homeostatic mechanism) was chosen because it included stimuli for…

  9. Decision making in eating behavior: state of the science and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Askew, Wendy L; Fisher, Rachel A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2009-12-01

    The National Institutes of Health Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, the National Cancer Institute, the National Health Lung and Blood Institute, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases convened a scientific workshop entitled "Decision Making in Eating Behavior: Integrating Perspectives from the Individual, Family, and Environment" in April 2008 The purpose of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the workshop. The common themes that ran throughout the conference were as follows: (1) Initiating behavior differs conceptually from sustaining behaviors; (2) The intersection of biology, genetics, and environment (physical, political, economic, and social) is where eating behavior occurs; (3) Marketing and advertising influence eating behavior influence; and (4) sometimes, seemingly unrelated policies influence eating behavior. Additional research is needed.

  10. Following the trail of crumbs: A bibliometric study on consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia-Gabriela C. Kasemodel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to conduct an exploratory study regarding consumer preference in the field of the Food Science and Technology. Two questions guided this study: Is it possible to identify a trail of crumbs concerning consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field? And, if that trail exists, where is it leading academia in terms of research trends of interest? A bibliometric study was conducted using an analysis software called CiteSpace. The use of this methodology ensured the impartiality of the literature review of the topic of interest. A survey of all articles indexed in Web of Science between 1993 and 2013 regarding consumer behaviour was carried out. In total, 1,786 articles were analyzed. The recent increased concern regarding consumer behavior was evident.  With the USA and Spain having a significant  role in driving the trail. Eight other countries  that exhibited similar influences are: Italy, England, Australia, Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands and Brazil. The research trends observed were grouped into seven major hot topics: sensory, health, safety, willingness to pay, packaging, ethics, and lifestyle/convenience. However, the development of publishing trends depended on where the research was carried out. A final suggestive finding, demonstrated that scientific knowledge does not occur in a vacuum.

  11. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  12. "Where Does the Circle End?": Representation as a Critical Aspect of Reflection in Teaching Social and Behavioral Sciences in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael J; Richards, Boyd F; Cunningham, Hetty; Desai, Urmi; Lewis, Owen; Mutnick, Andrew; Nidiry, Mary Anne J; Saha, Prantik; Charon, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a reflective learning program within a larger curriculum on behavioral and social science that makes use of close reading, written representation of experience, discussion, and textual response. This response may in turn lead to further reflection, representation, and response in a circular pattern. A unique feature of this program is that it pays attention to the representation itself as the pivotal activity within reflective learning. Using the narrative methods that are the hallmark of this program, faculty writings were analyzed to characterize the essential benefits that derive from these practices. In the context of a faculty development seminar on the teaching of behavioral and social sciences in medical curricula, a group of 15 faculty members wrote brief narratives of reflective learning experiences in which they had made use of the methods described above. Their responses were submitted to iterative close reading and discussion, and potential themes were identified. Four themes emerged: writing as attention to self, writing as attention to other, writing as reader/writer contract, and writing as discovery. In each instance, writing provides a new or deepened perspective, and in each case, the dividends for the writer are amplified by the narrative skills of those who read, listen, and respond. The narrative pedagogy described and modeled herein provides a potentially promising approach to teaching the social, cultural, behavioral, and interpersonal aspects of medical education and practice. Future research will deepen our understanding of the benefits and limitations of this pedagogy and expand our appreciation of its applications.

  13. Sedentary Behavior and Health: Broadening the Knowledge Base and Strengthening the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa; Owen, Neville

    2017-01-01

    We provide an overview of a recently published, edited book in a rapidly emerging field of research, policy, and practice for physical activity: "Sedentary Behavior and Health". In this commentary, we highlight the broad perspectives provided in the 27 chapters of "Sedentary Behavior and Health" and suggest a research strategy…

  14. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…

  15. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: key research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Governance, Behavioral Science und das Bild des Menschen im Verfassungsrecht: Konzeptive Überlegungen zur Inkorporierung von Behavioral-Science-Erkenntnissen in die Rechtswissenschaften am Beispiel einer Dogmatik staatlichen Informationshandelns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Storr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This paper discusses the connectivity of constitutional law doctrine on findings of governance research and behavioral science. Fundamental questions how to integrate "soft" instruments like "framing" and "nudging" in a constitutional law doctrine will be considered. The image of man in the constitutional order, as presupposed in the German and in the Austrian constitution, will be illuminated. For a doctrine of state communication accuracy, objectivity and due restraint are key postulates. DEUTSCH: Der Beitrag behandelt die Anschlussfähigkeit der Verfassungsrechtsdogmatik an Erkenntnisse der Governance-Forschung und Behavioral-Science. Es wird überlegt, welche grundlegenden Fragen sich für eine Integration „weicher“ Steuerungsformen wie „framing“ und „nudging“ in eine Verfassungsrechtsdogmatik stellen. Dabei dient das Bild des Menschen, wie es in der deutschen und in der österreichischen Verfassung vorausgesetzt wird, als Projektionsfläche. Daran ansetzend werden grundsätzliche Überlegungen an staatliches Kommunikationsverhalten angestellt. Richtigkeit, Sachlichkeit und angemessene Zurückhaltung sind zentrale Postulate.

  17. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  18. Factors Associated with Milk Consumption among College Students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily milk consumption can be introduced as a healthy dietary pattern associated with a range of health benefits. This study aimed to determine factors associated with milk consumption among students of Yazd university of medical sciences based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 385 students in 2014, who were selected via stratified random sampling. The study data was collected from a questionnaire based on the indirect construct of theory of planned behavior. Finally, the study data were analyzed using the T-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Results: In the present study, 64% of the students consumed milk daily. The behavioral intention, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs, and perceived power were significantly associated with the milk consumption (p<0.05. Conclusion: Educating the students in regard with the importance of receiving enough amount of milk, modifying their misconceptions as well as reinforcing positive beliefs can be effective in increasing milk consumption. In addition, increasing access to milk in university campuses should be taken into consideration.

  19. The Utilization of the Behavioral Sciences in Long Range Forecasting and Policy Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    London, John Wiley 5 Sons, 1974), pp. 16-25. s 20 The relative, context dependent nature of purposes w?^ clearly recognized by Rosenblueth and...limitations of the notion of purpose are common to many other scientific categories, and do not detract from their validity and usefulness. Arturo ... Rosenblueth and Norbert Wiener, "Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior," in Modem Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, ed. by Walter

  20. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  2. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  3. Teacher-student interactions and domain-specific motivation: The relationship between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and motivation in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie Brockman

    2009-11-01

    This study examined interactions between middle school science students' perceptions of teacher-student interactions and their motivation for learning science. Specifically, in order to better understand factors affecting middle school students' motivation for science, this study investigated the interactions between middle school students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in their science classroom and their efficacy, task value, mastery orientations, and goal orientation for learning science. This mixed methods study followed a sequential explanatory model (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases, with quantitative data in the first phase informing the selection of participants for the qualitative phase that followed. The qualitative phase also helped to clarify and explain results from the quantitative phase. Data mixing occurred between Phase One and Phase Two (participant selection) and at the interpretation level (explanatory) after quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately. Results from Phase One indicated that students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors were predictive of their efficacy for learning science, task value for learning science, mastery orientation, and performance orientation. These results were used to create motivation/perception composites, which were used in order to select students for the qualitative interviews. A total of 24 students with high motivation/high perceptions, low motivation/low perceptions, high motivation/low perceptions, and low motivation/high perceptions were selected in order to represent students whose profiles either supported or refuted the quantitative results. Results from Phase Two revealed themes relating to students' construction of their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and dimensions of their efficacy and task value for science. Students who reported high motivation and high perceptions of teacher

  4. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-20

    significant increase in the number of aberrant anaphases (by a factor of 2-4) in comparison to the spontaneous level of mutation in control animals (P...ANANYAN, V. L. and SARKISYAN, G. A., Institute of Agrochemical Problems and Hydroponics, Academy of Sciences Armenian SSR [Abstract] Analysis of plant

  5. Contextual Markup and Mining in Digital Games for Science Learning: Connecting Player Behaviors to Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew John S.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Biswas, Gautam; Sengupta, Pratim; Minstrell, James; Martinez-Garza, Mario; Krinks, Kara

    2017-01-01

    Digital games can make unique and powerful contributions to K-12 science education, but much of that potential remains unrealized. Research evaluating games for learning still relies primarily on pre- and post-test data, which limits possible insights into more complex interactions between game design features, gameplay, and formal assessment.…

  6. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  7. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  8. Medical marijuana: review of the science and implications for developmental-behavioral pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Knight, John R; Harris, Sion K

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis.

  9. Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

  10. Variability as a Subject Matter in a Science of Behavior: Reply to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Lourenco de Souza

    2012-01-01

    In his article, the author claimed that studies of operant variability that use a lag-"n" or threshold procedure and measure the obtained variability through the change in U value fail to provide direct evidence that variability is an operant dimension of behavior. To do so, he adopted Catania's (1973) concept of the operant, which takes the…

  11. Medical Marijuana: Review of the Science and Implications for Developmental Behavioral Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E.; Knight, John R.; Harris, Sion K.

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses. It then outlines the increasingly well-recognized neurocognitive changes shown to occur in adolescents who use cannabis regularly, highlighting the unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain and describing the role of the endocannabinoid system in normal neurodevelopment. The review then discusses some of the proposed uses of cannabis in developmental and behavioral conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Throughout, the review outlines gaps in current knowledge and highlights directions for future research, especially in light of a dearth of studies specifically examining neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes among children and adolescents with developmental and behavioral concerns exposed to cannabis. PMID:25650954

  12. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Anguera, M Teresa; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2015-01-01

    Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings) and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process). We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. PMID:26089708

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts. Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences. Number 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-08

    conduct research on the effects of nutrition , soil moisture and solar illumination; to continue studies of mechanization aimed at realizing a labor...connective tissue proteins; the proteins contain all aminoacids including the essential aminoacids ; lysine and histidine content is 1.5 that of beef...VYSOTSKIY, V. G., S0K0L0V, V. N., and YATSYSHINA, T. A., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR, Moscow THE CONCEPT OF LABILE PROTEIN AND

  14. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    resulting from poor nutrition of the newcomers. The replacement of the "carbohydrate" type of energy metabolism with the "fat" type is conducive...PITANIYA in Russian No 6, Nov/Dec 76 signed to press 9 Feb 76 pp 73-74 MEYEROVICH, R. I., Institute of Nutrition , Academy of Medical Sciences USSR...L438K. Annotation] [Text] This is a collection of articles on biosynthesis of aminoacids , organic acids, enzymes, and other biologically active

  15. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    chemistry imeni A. N. Bakh, Academy of Sciences USSR Moscow; Belorussian Scientific Research Institute of Potato, Fruit and Vegetable Growing, Minsk...576.8.097.29 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYC0T0XIN T-2 PRODUCED BY FUSARIUM SPOROTRI- CHIELLA Moscow DOKLADY VASKhNIL in Russian No 3, Mar 78 pp 36-38...identification of Fusarium sporotrichiella mycotoxin T-2: trichotecene 8- alpha-(3-methylbutyryloxy)-4-beta, 15-diacetoxycirp-9-ene-3-alpha-ol, for

  16. The Roles of Behavioral and Social Science Research in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS: A Functional Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaist, Paul; Stirratt, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Landmark advances have been made in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. These include proof-of-concept and public health implementation of preexposure prophylaxis and "treatment as prevention" to reduce HIV transmission as well as definitive evidence of the clinical gain from early antiretroviral treatment initiation. Significant progress has been made in understanding and addressing the social contexts and behavioral factors that impact HIV prevention, care, and treatment interventions. These include facilitating uptake of testing and counseling, developing technology-based interventions that increase viral suppression, reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and addressing other sociobehavioral and structural barriers to care and treatment. This evolving landscape provides an important juncture to assess current and future directions for HIV/AIDS behavioral and social science research (BSSR). We propose a functional framework for HIV/AIDS-related BSSR, highlighting 4 primary BSSR domains: (1) understanding vulnerable populations and contexts of risk ("Basic BSSR"); (2) improving behavioral and social factor approaches to risk reduction, prevention, and care ("Elemental BSSR"); (3) strengthening the design and outcomes of biomedically focused research in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention ("Supportive BSSR"); and (4) contributing building blocks to integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment approaches ("Integrative BSSR"). These domains and their resulting confluence at the highest level underscore how fundamental and essential BSSR is to current and future efforts to prevent, treat, and cure HIV/AIDS.

  17. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  18. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Sonnenwald presents the "information horizon interview" (1999, 2005), the singular visual method native to the information behavior community. Second, Anna Lundh (2010) describes her techniques for capturing and analyzing primary school children's information activities utilizing video recordings. Third......, Nancy Fried Foster (Foster & Gibbons, 2007) reports how students, staff and faculty members produce maps, drawings, and photographs as a means of contributing their specialist knowledge to the design of library technologies and spaces at the University of Rochester. Altogether, the panel will present...

  19. Nurses\\' perception of caring behaviors in intensive care units in hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi SE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Caring is the core of nursing however, different individules have different perceptions of it. Continuous assessment and measurement of caring behaviors results in the identification of their problems. The careful planning of interventions and problem solving will improve care. The aim of this study was to identify nurses' perception of caring behaviors in the intensive care units. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 140 nurses were selected from intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the census method in 2012. The data collection tool was the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E. This questionnaire consisted of two parts including demographic information and 28 items related to care. Face and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire were provided by professionals, and after deletion of 4 items a 24-item questionnaire was provided. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess reliability (&alpha = 0.71. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and descriptive-analytic statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Based on the findings, nurses paid more attention to the physical–technical aspects (95.71 ± 12.76 of care in comparison to its psychosocial aspects (75.41 ± 27.91. Nurses had the highest score in care behavior of "timely performance of medical procedures and medication administration". Conclusion: Since nurses paid more attention to the technical aspects of care than its psychosocial aspects, by providing nurses with a correct perception of care, patients can be provided with needs-based care. This will increase patient satisfaction with nursing care, and indirectly result in the positive attitude of patients and society toward the nursing profession and its services. Moreover, nursing education officials can use these results to assist nurses in meeting

  20. Modern statistics for the social and behavioral sciences a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand

    2011-01-01

    Relative advantages/disadvantages of various techniques are presented so that the reader can be helped to understand the choices they make on using the techniques. … A considerable number of illustrations are included and the book focuses on using R for its computer software application. … A useful text for … postgraduate students in the social science disciplines.-Susan Starkings, International Statistical Review, 2012This is an interesting and valuable book … By gathering a mass of results on that topic into a single volume with references, alternative procedures, and supporting software, th

  1. The effects of a shared, Intranet science learning environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mary Jo

    This study investigated the effects of a shared, Intranet science environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection. Seventy-eight subjects included 9th and 10th grade male and female biology students. A quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-test data collection and randomization occurring through assignment of biology classes to traditional or shared, Intranet learning groups was employed. Pilot, web-based distance education software (CourseInfo) created the Intranet learning environment. A modified ecology curriculum provided contextualization and content for traditional and shared learning environments. The effect of this environment on problem-solving, was measured using the standardized Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal test. Metacognitive reflection, was measured in three ways: (a) number of concepts used, (b) number of concept links noted, and (c) number of concept nodes noted. Visual learning software, Inspiration, generated concept maps. Secondary research questions evaluated the pilot CourseInfo software for (a) tracked user movement, (b) discussion forum findings, and (c) difficulties experienced using CourseInfo software. Analysis of problem-solving group means reached no levels of significance resulting from the shared, Intranet environment. Paired t-Test of individual differences in problem-solving reached levels of significance. Analysis of metacognitive reflection by number of concepts reached levels of significance. Metacognitive reflection by number of concept links noted also reach significance. No significance was found for metacognitive reflection by number of concept nodes. No gender differences in problem-solving ability and metacognitive reflection emerged. Lack of gender differences in the shared, Intranet environment strongly suggests an equalizing effect due to the cooperative, collaborative nature of Intranet environments. Such environments appeal to, and rank high with, the female

  2. Rodent growth, behavior, and physiology resulting from flight on the Space Life Sciences-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, G.; Meylor, J.; Fast, T.; Hawes, N.; Zarow, G.

    1992-01-01

    A rodent-based spaceflight study is conducted to investigate physiological changes in rats vs humans and the effects of changes in the design of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Rats were housed in the AEM and the RAHF, and controls were kept in identical flight hardware on earth subjected to the same flight-environmental profile. Biosamples and organ weights are taken to compare the rats before and after flight, and food/water intake are also compared. Weight gain, body weight, and food consumptions in the flight rats are significantly lower than corresponding values for the control subjects. Flight rats tend to have smaller postexperiment spleens and hearts, and flight rats consumed more water in the AEM than in the RAHF. The rodents' behavior is analogous to humans with respect to physiological and reconditioning effects, showing that the rat is a good model for basic research into the effects of spaceflight on humans.

  3. Knowledge and Behavior Assessment about the Use of Disposable Plastic Containers amongst Medical Sciences Students in Northeastern Iran in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nourbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disposable Plastic Containers (DPCs are widely in use in our daily life in many locations and times. Despite their great advantages including low cost, easy access, convenient transferring and no need to clean up, the indiscriminate use of them can be a concern, if they are not applied in the correct way of usage. This study aimed to assess the students' knowledge, and behavior regarding the correct use of DPCs. A questionnaire was designed using scientific literatures and health expert consultation. The resulting 26-item scale which included questions for sample characteristics (N=4, knowledge (N=19, and behavior (N=3 was approved in terms of reliability regarding Cronbach's alpha score of 0.8. Developed instrument was administered to a cross section of 200 students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in mid-2016. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results indicated that 59.3% of the individuals had used DPCs more than once. Only 5.8% of the respondents were familiar with safety codes on the bottom of DPCs. The differences in the mean score of knowledge were not statistically significant in terms of gender, marriage status, level of education, and college. Considering total knowledge score of 18 on the designed scale, the maximum score of knowledge was observed in men (5.88±2.26, in married ones (6.11±2.55, in PhD students (6.5±2.39, and in dental college (6.31±2.65. According to the results, the students’ knowledge regarding the safe use of DPCs was very low (less than one third of the ideal knowledge and their usage behavior was also relatively false.

  4. Association between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Educational Performance of Faculty Members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences- 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazratian Teimour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding the educational goals of university and academic performance, it seems that organizational citizenship behavior (OCB is one of the effective variables in increasing the educational performance of university faculty members. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB and educational performance of the faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2013-14. Methods: Researchers selected 127 faculty members and 1,120 students from different grades in order to investigate the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, civic virtue and respect and the educational performance of faculty members. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used in this method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software and the significance level of 0.05. Results: There was a significant relationship between altruism and educational performance (P =0.043. There was a significant relationship between conscientiousness and educational performance (p=0.046. A significant relationship was observed between sportsmanship and educational performance (p=0.004. There was no significant relationship between civic virtue and educational performance (p=0.98. A significant relationship was observed between respect and educational performance (P>0.001. There was no relationship between citizenship behavior and gender of the faculty members (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the more faculty members have the spirit of cooperation and assistance to colleagues and students and try to understand the specific situations that students face, the more effective they are in increasing the educational performance at the university level.

  5. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  6. A Study on Behavioral Traits of Library and Information Science Students in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour normally depends on the environment of the incident and the time of its occurrence. The behaviour of people depends on many factors and these behaviour traits are an important aspect in the Library and Information Science (LIS field. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to examine the behaviour traits of LIS students in South India. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed 367 have responded and the response rate is 91.75%. In this survey three aspects comprising student behaviour have been analysed such as Work Environment, Natural Environment, and Social Environment. In the case of Work Environment the respondents were grouped as Workaholic, Impatience, Achievement oriented, Rash nature, and Punctuality. Further, in respect to Natural environment, the respondents are grouped as Complacent, Patience, Easygoing, and Relaxed. Last, the respondents were grouped in the Social Environment as Balancing nature, Magnanimity, Naturalistic, Assertive nature, Dependency, Lucrative, Lonely nature, and Time Based personality. Finally the authors conclude that LIS students need to possess these qualities and behaviours to work in different environments.

  7. The need to connect: on the cell biology of synapses, behaviors, and networks in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    My laboratory is interested in the cell biology of the synapse. Synapses, which are points of cellular communication between neurons, were first described by Santiago Ramón y Cajal as "protoplasmic kisses that appear to constitute the final ecstasy of an epic love story." Who would not want to work on that?! My lab examines the biological mechanisms neurons use to find and connect to each other. How are synapses formed during development, maintained during growth, and modified during learning? In this essay, I reflect about my scientific journey to the synapse, the cell biological one, but also a metaphorical synapse-my role as a point of contact between the production of knowledge and its dissemination. In particular, I discuss how the architecture of scientific networks propels knowledge production but can also exclude certain groups in science. © 2016 Colón-Ramos This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Summary of the discussions held at a conference of the behavioral sciences and family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, M

    1966-01-01

    A conference was called in the hope that by applying the knowledge science can give, family planners can improve the form and efficiency of their programs. A summary of the major points made by the participants is presented. Philip Huaser urger employing a full battery of social scientists to do basic research into the theory and methodology of surveys. Michael Young proposed shifting the focus from individual use of contraception to social policies designed to reduce birthrates. Le Bogart commented on the ignorance about the psychological relationship between sexuality and procreation. Brewster Smith suggested a psychological perspective from which to examine questions involved in family planning. Orville Brim, Jr., argued that sociological theorists must learn to work with technologists to develop contraceptive devices and other tools of family planning programs. Richard Bell reported on the physical and mental impairments in children from large families with short birth intervals. Reuben Hill focused on family studies which see man as an initiator in the social process, as opposed to the passive picture painted by demographers. A lively discussion on the use of mass communications in the spread of family planning was ushered in by Daniel Lerner. Dr. Freedman wondered if family planning communications should be designed primarily for education or persuasion, seeing greater numbers of recruits in the former. Cultural innovations from an anthropological point of view were discussed by George Foster, who suggested that people are so pragmatic that they will accept any innovation that meets a need in their lives. Everett Rogers reported on research in the diffusion of agricultural innovations. A discussion on barriers to effective organization was introduced by Nicholas Demarath.

  9. The Impact of Information Behavior in Academic Library Service Quality: A Case Study of the Science and Technology Area in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Fernandez-Marcial, Viviana; Gomez-Camarero, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the extent of service quality in Spanish university science and technology libraries, based on the expectations and perceptions of their users: faculty and researchers. Users' information behavior is analyzed with the specially designed BiQual tool, which reveals specific needs such as the greater importance of electronic…

  10. The Relationship of Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Nurses among Public Hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering the undesirable aspects of the research among nurses of Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals, It is recommended to improve the quality of work life, preventing burnout and creating an appropriate organizational atmosphere for nurses in the workplace. However, organizational justice, and other organizational variables should be assessed for improving of organizational citizenship behavior.  

  11. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  12. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  13. Monograph support provided by the National Library of Medicine and its regional medical libraries in the medical behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, J D; Griffith, B C

    1988-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) monographic resources in the medical behavioral sciences (MBS) were examined to assess NLM's ability to support the needs of researchers writing in this area. A sample of 239 representative monographs derived from citations in MBS-related articles published in 61 journals in 1981 were evaluated. These monographs were limited to works published between 1978 and 1981, inclusive. The subject distribution of the sample included fourteen of the twenty-one main classes in the LC classification, although BF (psychology), H (social sciences), and R (medicine) constituted 80.3% of the sample. The study revealed that NLM held 48.5% of the sample. The holdings of ten research medical libraries, including six of the seven regional medical libraries, were also evaluated in order to gauge NLM's ability to support that element of the medical library network. The holding rates of these libraries ranged widely (9.6% to 36%), although NLM was found to have far more extensive holdings overall, and when assessed against classes BF, H, and R. Overall, NLM could have supplied from 28.8% to 44.5% of the monographs not held by the medical libraries. In only a few cases were the ten medical libraries able to provide access to monographs not held by NLM. The findings of the study indicate that, regardless of NLM's indication of support to the MBS area, the holdings of more general research and academic libraries are essential to support the monograph needs of MBS researchers. PMID:3224221

  14. The relationship among teacher classroom management behavior, student engagement, and student achievement of middle and high school science students of varying aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, John R., Jr.; Butts, David P.

    This study was designed to determine the relationship among teacher classroom management behavior, student engagement, and student achievement of middle and high school science students. These variables were investigated across varying levels of academic aptitude. Two week long units were taught by 30 experienced science teachers. During this period of time teacher classroom management behavior, student achievement (n = 570), student engagement (n = 269), and student academic aptitude (n = 649) were measured. Twelve selected management indicators from Georgia Teachers Performance Assessment Indicators (TPAI) were used to measure teacher classroom management behaviors. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the variables, and appropriate post hoc procedures were used. Analyses showed that there was a significant relationship among all variables. Post hoc analysis showed that these results were consistent across levels of aptitude. Other relationships found were between student engagement and achievement, student aptitude and achievement, and student aptitude and engagement. Correlation coefficients were obtained for each individual management indicators. Those particular management behaviors which were correlated with achievement and engagement are: identifies students who do not understand directions and helps them individually, maintains learner involvement in lessons, reinforces and encourages the efforts of learners to maintain involvement, attends to routine tasks, uses instructional time efficiently, provides feedback to learners about their behavior, manages disruptive behavior among learners.

  15. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  16. The Comparison of the Inquiry Behavior of ISCS and Non-ISCS Science Students as Measured by the Tab Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Everett S.; Snyder, William R.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of a group of seventh-grade students who were tested for inquiry skills using the TAB Science Test showed no significant differences between those students who had studied the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) and those who studied another curriculum. (MLH)

  17. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences 1940-2015: 75 years of Science and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    science fo- cused on the study of mind and intelli- gence, ultimately integrating the fields of anthropology , computer science, lin- guistics...ter, the Chief of Staff of the Armt, Gen. George Casey, posed the question whether all Soldiers needed to become linguists , which resulted in an...Soldiers linguists , the Army has sought other solutions to maintain the necessary language capa- bilities. Subsequent to this effort, ARI continued

  18. Investigating the Views of Male Students on Using Bicycles Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Yazd University of Medical Sciences, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, it is somewhat possible for general Population to use bicycle as a means of transportation or sport. Physical activity is considered as an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and other critical metabolic diseases in the different ages of life. Since the Theory of Planned Behavior assesses perceived control beliefs about behaviors, it seems appropriate to study exercise. In the study, the views of male students - as a group which are affective on community norms- about bicycle use were investigated. Method: In this cross-sectional study 250 male students in Yazd University of Medical Sciences responded to a researcher made questionnaire which was designed for assessing their views about bicycle use, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The data were analyzed using SPSS v16. Results: The mean age of participants was 23. 01± 3. 83. Findings revealed that the scale means of the theory constructs were as follows: behavioral intention: 8. 54 ±3. 9, Attitude: 2. 97 ± 15. 2, subjective norm: 12. 1± 2. 9 and perceived behavioral control: 17. 5 ±4. 6. Regression analysis indicated that attitude and subjective norm explained 29. 7% of behavioral intention variations (P<0. 001. Conclusion: According to results which indicated that Attitude and subjective norm had more powerful relationship with and predictive power of behavioral intention about using bicycle it is recommended that cultural activities and interventions may be effective to promote using bicycle among students.

  19. Developing a science of clinical utility in diagnostic classification systems field study strategies for ICD-11 mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W; Reed, Geoffrey M; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Robles, Rebeca; Rebello, Tahilia; Sharan, Pratap; Gureje, Oye; First, Michael B; Andrews, Howard F; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luís; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Juergen; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse has developed a systematic program of field studies to evaluate and improve the clinical utility of the proposed diagnostic guidelines for mental and behavioral disorders in the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). The clinical utility of a diagnostic classification is critical to its function as the interface between health encounters and health information, and to making the ICD-11 be a more effective tool for helping the WHO's 194 member countries, including the United States, reduce the global disease burden of mental disorders. This article describes the WHO's efforts to develop a science of clinical utility in regard to one of the two major classification systems for mental disorders. We present the rationale and methodologies for an integrated and complementary set of field study strategies, including large international surveys, formative field studies of the structure of clinicians' conceptualization of mental disorders, case-controlled field studies using experimental methodologies to evaluate the impact of proposed changes to the diagnostic guidelines on clinicians' diagnostic decision making, and ecological implementation field studies of clinical utility in the global settings in which the guidelines will ultimately be implemented. The results of these studies have already been used in making decisions about the structure and content of ICD-11. If clinical utility is indeed among the highest aims of diagnostic systems for mental disorders, as their developers routinely claim, future revision efforts should continue to build on these efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Resilience research and policy/practice discourse in health, social, behavioral, and environmental sciences over the last ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier M

    2008-12-01

    Resilience research has gained increased scientific interest and political currency over the last ten years. To set this volume in the wider context of scholarly debate conducted in previous special theme issue and/or special section publications of refereed journals on resilience and related concepts (1998-2008). Peer reviewed journals of health, social, behavioral, and environmental sciences were searched systematically for articles on resilience and/or related themes published as a set. Non-English language publications were included, while those involving non-human subjects were excluded. A total of fifteen journal special issues and/or special sections (including a debate and a roundtable discussion) on resilience and/or related themes were retrieved and examined with the aim of teasing out salient points of direct relevance to African social policy and health care systems. Viewed chronologically, this series of public discussions and debates charts a progressive paradigm shift from the pathogenic perspectives on risk and vulnerability to a clear turn of attention to health-centered approaches to building resilience to disasters and preventing vulnerability to disease, social dysfunction, human and environmental resource depletion. Resilience is a dynamic and multi-dimensional process of adaptation to adverse and/or turbulent changes in human, institutional, and ecological systems across scales, and thus requires a composite, multi-faceted Resilience Index (RI), in order to be meaningfully gauged. Collaborative links between interdisciplinary research institutions, policy makers and practitioners involved in promoting sustainable social and health care systems are called for, particularly in Africa.

  1. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesga...

  2. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    OpenAIRE

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesga...

  3. Association between Health Locus of Control and Health Promotion Behaviors among Employees’ Bushehr University of Medical Sciences in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqayeh Chenary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work is an important source for establishing livelihoods and social occasions; however, it can also damage on person's health. The aim of the present study was to study of association between health locus of control and health promoting behaviors among employees of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 208 employees of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences by using convenience sampling method. Data were collected by using standard questionnaires of health-promoting lifestyle and multidimensional health locus of control. Data analysis done by SPSS software version 20. Descriptive indicators and linear regression test was used. Results: Among regression models which related to health promoting behavior and its six dimensions, only there was a significant association between total behavior, physical activity and interpersonal relationship dimensions. Between demographic factors and health locus of control only internal health locus of control explained the health promoting behavior and it explained health promoting behavior changes  within 3.2% (R2=3.2%. None of the three health locus of control explained physical activity dimensions, while internal health locus of control explained interpersonal relation dimension positively and chance locus of control explained interpersonal relation dimension negatively and explained interpersonal relation changes within 4.9% (R2=4.9%. Conclusion: Due to the effect of internal health locus of control on health promotion behavior and interpersonal relationships, we should try to internalize locus of control by performing counseling programs to step toward improving employee health by improving behaviors related to health.

  4. Developing Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Guideline for Rating the Impairment in Mental and Behavioral Disorders; A Comparative Study of KNPA's New Guidelines and AMA's 6th Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong Gon; Hong, Narei; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Jung, Han-Young; Jeong, Dushin; Rah, Ueon Woo; Suh, Dong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying and rating the impairments due to mental and behavior disorders are difficult for their own characteristics. Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS) is developing guidelines of rating impairment in mental and behavioral disorders based on Korean Neuropsychiatric Association (KNPA)'s new guidelines. We compared the new KNPA's guidelines and the American Medical Association (AMA)'s 6th Guides in assessing impairment due to mental and behavioral disorders to develop new guidelines of KAMS. Two guidelines are different in diagnosing system, applicable disorders, qualification of assessors, application of scales, contents of assessment and rate of impairment of the whole person. Both AMA's and the proposed guidelines have individual merits and characteristics. There is a limitation in using the 6th AMA's Guides in Korean situation. However to improve objectivity in Korean assessment of psychiatric impairment, the new AMA's Guides can serve as a good reference. PMID:19503692

  5. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  6. An ethnographic investigation of the process of change in students' environmental identity and pro-environmental behavior in an Environmental Science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    In recent years, the Environmental Science course has become increasingly integrated into the high school curriculum as a component of the core curriculum, an AP course, or as an elective (Edelson, 2007); however, little research has been conducted to evaluate the course's effectiveness in developing students' understanding of their relationship with the environment (Zelezny, 1999). Therefore, this ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States focuses on the teacher's goals for the Environmental Science course, how students respond to the enactment of these objectives during activities in the classroom, and how the class impacts students' views of their relationship with the environment and their pro-environmental behavior. A sociocultural approach is utilized to explore how students' environmental identities, their interactions with the course content, as well as their social interactions affect their experiences in the Environmental Science classroom. The study's conceptual framework is based upon Kempton and Holland's (2003) stages of environmental identity development, as well as symbolic interactionist theories of emotion. The participants in this study are an Environmental Science teacher and the 10-12th grade students (N=17) in her semester-long elective, "Environmental Science." The researcher collected data for a period of six months during the spring semester of 2009, attending class on a daily basis. Data was collected through participant observation, videotaping, interviews, cogenerative dialogues, and various surveys. The objectives for the Environmental Science course explored in this research include the role of science content knowledge and critical thinking as students are exposed to new environmental information; developing students' emotional connection with environmental issues; influencing students' environmental behavior; and empowering students to feel that they can make a difference through their own actions

  7. Behavioral Science in Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Change: Key Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video...

  8. An Investigation on Dentistry Students' Attitude on Accepted Behavior in Classroom at Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mahdi Yaghooti Khorasani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Inappropriate behaviors in academic environments can strongly disturb both teaching and learning processes and make conflict and anxiety between instructor and student. The main objective of this study was to investigate students' attitude on inappropriate behaviors in academic environments. Materials and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 2012. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and all students of Faculty of Dentistry voluntarily participated. Data was analyzed using SPSS18 software, descriptive, independent T, ANOVA, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient; P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Results of this study indicated that the majority of students considered sleeping in class as an inappropriate behavior, while checking the time at the end of class was the most common behavior which was reported by them. A significant relationship was observed between students’ perspective on inappropriate behaviors and the manner they did them; as Spearman statistical test indicated a high correlation between their perspective and frequency of inappropriate behaviors (R = 0.55 and P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Findings indicated that the majority of students had a negative attitude towards inappropriate behaviors. Besides, the frequency of doing these behaviors cannot be justified by this research team. Regarding the negative effects of inappropriate behaviors on education process, it is recommended to take some actions for cherishing instructors and students in academic environments.

  9. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany). The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI). At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor teaching, be it

  11. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended "research weeks" at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany). The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI). At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor teaching, be it

  12. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dettweiler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN, i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany. The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI. At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor

  13. The science in social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, H Russell

    2012-12-18

    A recent poll showed that most people think of science as technology and engineering--life-saving drugs, computers, space exploration, and so on. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood that social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives. These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs.

  14. Social Issue Entertainment 2.0: How pop culture, behavioral science and impact evaluation can motivate social and environmental change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mainstream entertainment’s influence on our cognition, emotions, and behavior is often profound. Mass media permeates both the public and private spheres of society, saturating communities with messages from a diverse range of sources. While advertisers regularly take advantage of the extensive reach and influence of the media, social scientists, policy makers, and nonprofits have seen little success in incorporating social and environmental messaging into entertainment. Harmony Institute’s goal is to harness the power of mainstream media to provide US audiences with entertainment that educates on social and environmental issues and increases both individual and community action. The entertainment the Institute helps to produce connects with viewers on both a cognitive and emotional level. The Institute uses innovative methods across disciplines in order to measure entertainment’s impact and influence. Since its founding two years ago, the Institute has worked on a wide range of projects that have helped to establish its methodology for measured impact that applies behavioral science theory and entertainment to social and environmental issues. Projects spanning media platforms and social/environmental issues have included a web serial drama incorporating issues of water conservation and ocean stewardship into the narrative and a fotonovela for Hispanic youth in Houston focused on local environmental issues. In summer 2010, the Harmony Institute released FTW! Net Neutrality For The Win: How Entertainment and the Science of Influence Can Save Your Internet, an issue-specific communications guide about open Internet access that explains how to craft a communications strategy that connects with audiences using behavioral science research findings. In 2010-2011, the Institute will focus on measuring the impact and influence that media can have on social and environmental issues. The Institute has developed a comprehensive media evaluation methodology that employs

  15. Behavioral Science in Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Change: Key Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future. PMID:21527086

  16. Online Searching Behavior of Social Science Researchers' in IR Interfaces of E-journal Database Systems: A Study on JMI, JNU, and DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the user's online searching behavior in IR interfaces of e-journal database systems. The study is purely based on survey methods and tries to analyse the online searching behavior of respondents of social science disciplines who were doing research in three target central universities of Delhi (i.e. DU, JMI, and JNU. For measuring the responses of the respondents in IR interfaces of e-journal database systems, a total of 396 questionnaires were distributed among the students and out of all, 305 responses were used for the study. The findings of the study reveal that most of the students were not using all the facilities offered in IR interfaces of e-journal database systems for their retrieval process and also encourages menu based searches rather than command based searching.

  17. Exploration of the Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors and Weight Status and Their Self-Perceptions among Health Sciences University Students in North Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germine El-Kassas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available University students may experience significant environmental changes that exert a negative influence on the quality of their diet and lifestyle. There is scarcity of data concerning the dietary and lifestyle behaviors and weight status of students in the health field in North Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including 369 health sciences students aged 18–25 chosen from four public and private universities in North Lebanon. Data were collected using a standardized interview questionnaire to determine sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle behaviors, appetite changes, stress related dietary behaviors, and food cravings, as well as self-perceptions of dietary adequacy, physical activity levels, and weight status. Body mass index was assessed. Results had revealed significant differences in some of the dietary consumption patterns and weight status among seniors compared to juniors. However, the overall prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded 32.2% and the dietary consumption patterns fall below recommended levels. Multivariate regression analysis showed that parental obesity, comfort eating, increased appetite, food cravings, and stressful eating were associated with increased risk of obesity while a healthy diet score was associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for tailoring culture specific intervention programs which enable students to improve their dietary and lifestyle behaviors and control stress.

  18. Sensor-Augmented Virtual Labs: Using Physical Interactions with Science Simulations to Promote Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Chiu, Jennifer L.; DeJaegher, Crystal J.; Pan, Edward A.

    2016-02-01

    Deep learning of science involves integration of existing knowledge and normative science concepts. Past research demonstrates that combining physical and virtual labs sequentially or side by side can take advantage of the unique affordances each provides for helping students learn science concepts. However, providing simultaneously connected physical and virtual experiences has the potential to promote connections among ideas. This paper explores the effect of augmenting a virtual lab with physical controls on high school chemistry students' understanding of gas laws. We compared students using the augmented virtual lab to students using a similar sensor-based physical lab with teacher-led discussions. Results demonstrate that students in the augmented virtual lab condition made significant gains from pretest and posttest and outperformed traditional students on some but not all concepts. Results provide insight into incorporating mixed-reality technologies into authentic classroom settings.

  19. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  20. The sciences of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  1. Learning Environments and Inquiry Behaviors in Science Inquiry Learning: How Their Interplay Affects the Development of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wierzchula, Miriam; Blikstein, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing virtual and physical manipulative environments (VME and PME) in inquiry-based science learning have mostly focused on students' learning outcomes but not on the actual processes they engage in during the learning activities. In this paper, we examined experimentation strategies in an inquiry activity and their relation to…

  2. Behavior and Particularities of Academic Production on “Management Accounting” Published in the Database ISI WEB of Science Core Collection Between 1985 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to analyze the behavior and the particularities of the academic production on the theme Management Accounting published in the ISI Web of Science Core Collection from 1985 to 2014. Methodologically, this research used the bibliometric and sociometric analysis techniques. The main results were: evolution of the theme as from 2007; Accounting, Organizations and Society and Management Accounting Research, which were the journals that most published on the subject “Management Accounting”; Lukka, K. was the most prolific author; the University of Turku was the institution that stood out; and the United States of America was emphasized in the production on that theme. In relation to the co-authorship networks, their low degree density was observed, leading to a high degree centrality and betweenness. And the themes that were highlighted in this study were: education; accounting teaching and research; Cost management; Management control; strategic management; and management accounting system. It is concluded in a macro way that this study evidenced inherent and contemporary information on the subject “Management Accounting”, focusing on its nuances in the behavior and particularities of its academic production, published in ISI Web of Science Core Collection from 1985 till 2014.

  3. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J; Monteggia, Lisa M; Reul, Johannes M H M; Skuse, David H; Sweatt, J David; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-05-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, "Behavioral Epigenetics" was held on October 29-30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, developmental disorders, and psychopathology. This report provides an overview of the research presented by leading scientists and lively discussion about the future of investigation at the behavioral epigenetic level. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Different behavioral patterns of success for men and women in an online introductory science course: Addressing the course grade gender gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, C.; Horodyskyj, L.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we explore how data provided by an online learning environment can provide fine-grained behavioral context for the performance gender gap commonly observed in introductory college science courses. Previous studies reported that women earn lower grades than men in such courses, often ascribed to reduced engagement and resilience driven by sociocultural causes, such as stereotype threat. This may be exacerbated in courses graded primarily based on high-stakes exams. Here, we use student data (n = 1121) from Habitable Worlds, an online laboratory science course, to identify behavioral differences between men and women. In Habitable Worlds, students earn points from 30 "trainings," which are scored on completion, and 30 "applications," which are scored on correctness. The lack of high-stakes cumulative exams represents a valuable contrast with typical science courses in which gender gaps have been reported. Our data indicate that a gender gap exists even for these low-stakes assessments. Results of a generalized linear model show that course success among women is much more strongly predicted by training scores than by application scores, while those factors have roughly equal predictive value among men. Predicted success among women is also modulated by the total number of attempts made on questions throughout the course, where more attempts implies lower success (holding other factors constant). This relationship is non-significant for men. Our interpretation of these model results is that obstacles such as stereotype threat represent a tax for women on effort and engagement, such that equivalent effort yields lesser success than for men. Thus, the women who do succeed differ sharply from lower performing women on indicators of effort. Future work should build on this result both as an indicator of conditions under which women are more likely to succeed and as a way to more quickly identify students who may struggle.

  5. Progress Monitoring Change in Children's Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning: Advancing the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Evans, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    The studies in this special series examine the effectiveness of direct behavior ratings (DBRs) for use as a progress monitoring tool. In this article, we comment on the findings of the studies in the context of the broader school-based assessment movement and discuss areas for future inquiry within this line of research.

  6. National Institute of Mental Health Roundtable Discussion: Promissory Notes and Prevailing Norms in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Most workshops convened by the National Institute's of Health are devoted to the puzzle-solving activities of normal science, where the puzzles themselves and the strategies available for solving them are determined largely in advance by the shared paradigmatic assumptions, frameworks, and priorities of the scientific community's research paradigm. They are designed to facilitate what Thomas Kuhn referred to as elucidating topological detail within a map whose main outlines are av...

  7. Computational Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Inês

    2017-01-01

    Computational social sciences is a research discipline at the interface between computer science and the traditional social sciences. This interdisciplinary and emerging scientific field uses computationally methods to analyze and model social phenomena, social structures, and collective behavior. The main computational approaches to the social sciences are social network analysis, automated information extraction systems, social geographic information systems, comp...

  8. Sleep behaviors in traditional-age college students: A state of the science review with implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Heather; Christian, Becky; Polivka, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine influences affecting sleep behavior in traditional-age college students and to advocate for improved sleep behavior assessments. A literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases was performed using the search terms "college students" and "sleep" in the title that were published in English from 1978 to 2016. The circadian clock is reset in traditional-age college students leading to delayed sleep times. Newly realized autonomy and increased use of technology also prevent traditional-age college students from obtaining sufficient sleep. Insufficient sleep experienced by these students has been linked to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes, weight gain, and stress. Sleep insufficiency increases the risk for pedestrian, motor vehicle, and domestic and occupational injuries. Insufficient sleep may result in poor academic performance influencing subsequent health outcomes. Evidence supports the need for nurse practitioners and other healthcare providers to incorporate systematic sleep behavior assessments to improve health outcomes among traditional-age college students. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. The ABCs of an evolutionary education science: The academic, behavioral, and cultural implications of an evolutionary approach to education theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Rick, Jr.

    Calls for improving research-informed policy in education are everywhere. Yet, while there is an increasing trend towards science-based practice, there remains little agreement over which of the sciences to consult and how to organize a collective effort between them. What Education lacks is a general theoretical framework through which policies can be constructed, implemented, and assessed. This dissertation submits that evolutionary theory can provide a suitable framework for coordinating educational policies and practice, and can provide the entire field of education with a clearer sense of how to better manage the learning environment. This dissertation explores two broad paths that outline the conceptual foundations for an Evolutionary Education Science: "Teaching Evolution" and "Using Evolution to Teach." Chapter 1 introduces both of these themes. After describing why evolutionary science is best suited for organizing education research and practice, Chapter 1 proceeds to "teach" an overview of the "evolutionary toolkit"---the mechanisms and principles that underlie the modern evolutionary perspective. The chapter then employs the "toolkit" in examining education from an evolutionary perspective, outlining the evolutionary precepts that can guide theorizing and research in education, describing how educators can "use evolution to teach.". Chapters 2-4 expand on this second theme. Chapters 2 and 3 describe an education program for at-risk 9th and 10th grade students, the Regents Academy, designed entirely with evolutionary principles in mind. The program was rigorously assessed in a randomized control design and has demonstrated success at improving students' academic performance (Chapter 2) and social & behavioral development (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 examines current teaching strategies that underlie effective curriculum-instruction-assessment practices and proposes a framework for organizing successful, evidence-based strategies for neural

  10. An evaluation of a college exercise leader program: using exercise science students as advocates for behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Henderson, Daniel R; Williams, Brian M; Burcin, Michelle M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a college's exercise leadership program, which was developed to help students, faculty and staff implement behavior changes necessary to begin and maintain a comprehensive exercise program. From 2006-2011, a total 66 subjects were recruited and each was assigned to a student exercise leader. Based on comprehensive baseline assessments, each student designed an individualized exercise program for his/her subject. At program completion, the subjects were reassessed. Paired t tests were used to find significant statistical changes (P College Health Association known as Healthy Campus 2020. The findings from this study have a direct impact on programmatic efforts.

  11. The Effect of Achievement Badges on Students’ Behavior: An Empirical Study in a University-Level Computer Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Hakulinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Achievement badges are a form of gamification that are used in an attempt to increase user engagement and motivation in various systems. A badge is typically a graphical icon that appears as a reward for the user after reaching an achievement but that has no practical value. In this study, we describe and evaluate the use of achievement badges in the ANONYMOUS online learning environment where students solve interactive, automatically assessed exercises in a Data Structures and Algorithms course throughout the semester. We conducted an experiment where the students (N=281 were randomly divided into a treatment and a control group, with and without achievement badges. Students in the treatment group were awarded achievement badges, for example, for solving exercises on the first attempt, doing exercises early, or solving all the exercises in a round with full points. Grading was the same for both groups, i.e. collecting badges did not affect the final grade, even though the exercise points themselves did. Students’ activity in ANONYMOUS was logged in order to find out whether the achievement badges had an effect on their behavior. We also collected numerical and open-ended feedback in order to find out students’ attitudes towards the badges. Our results show that achievement badges can be used to affect students’ behavior. Statistically significant differences were observed in the time used per exercise, number of sessions, total time, and normalized total number of badges. Furthermore, the majority of the students reported being motivated by the badges. Based on our findings, achievement badges seem to be a promising method to motivate students and to encourage desired study practices.

  12. Organizational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  13. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach to Integrate Tsunami Science, Human Behavior, and Unplanned Network Disruptions for Nearfield Tsunami Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. T.; Wang, H.; Cramer, L.; Mostafizi, A.; Park, H.

    2016-12-01

    For the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) and other extreme near-field tsunami hazards, coastal residents and tourist must evacuate within 15 to 30 minutes immediately following intense ground-shaking and will be confronted with an array of choices: Should I evacuate on foot or by car? Alone, or find friends and family first? Head for high ground far away, or seek shelter a nearby building? How will the roads and bridges be affected by the preceding earthquake? In this project, we integrate the disciplines of tsunami inundation science, sociology, and civil engineering to investigate how decision-making by individual evacuees with respect to milling time, mode choice, and destination affects their life safety. We use an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to create credible scenarios for near-field tsunami evacuation. The ABM integrates (1) the time-dependent tsunami inundation computed separately using NOAA's ComMIT/MOST model, (2) population layers to account for variations in population density of residents and tourist, (3) evacuation route network including roads, bridges and foot paths for multi-modal transportation, and (4) evacuation destinations for horizontal and vertical evacuation. For this project, we apply the ABM at two locations: the city Seaside, OR, and South Beach State Park in Newport, OR. In the Seaside scenario, we show how unplanned network disruption - e.g. the partial or total failure of bridges due to the preceding earthquake - will affect life safety and show how the ABM can be used to provide retrofit strategies. For South Beach, we show how alternative routing can have a substantial impact on life safety. The ABM shows results that are initially counterintuitive. For the Seaside example, resource allocation for bridge retrofit favors investments in nodes and links not necessarily in close proximity to population centers. For the South Beach example, the routes which provide for the lowest risk (maximum life safety) are not always those with the

  14. The impact of achievement goals on the help-seeking attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of middle-school science students participating in inquiry-based education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kimi Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how mastery-oriented inquiry-based education influences the help-seeking attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of middle-school students after participating in a 5-week intervention program. Four eighth-grade science classes consisting of 123 students in one middle-school in the San Francisco Bay area were selected as a convenience sample. The sample was culturally diverse with no students receiving special education services and seven English Language learners. Help-seeking altitudes and perceptions were assessed using help-seeking scales (general, instrumental, expedient, threat, avoidance, formal, and informal) before and after students participated in an inquiry-based 5-week intervention unit. Help-seeking behaviors were assessed daily during using the homework- and classwork-checklist sheet. Eight students identified with high instrumental and high expedient help-seeking scores were used to form four groups (homogeneous instrumental, homogeneous expedient, and two heterogeneous). Help-seeking attitudes and perceptions (general, instrumental, expedient, formal, and informal) were assessed from pretest to posttest. Help-seeking behaviors were assessed daily during using the homework- and classwork-checklist sheet. Group-level observations were completed weekly. Dependent-samples t tests were conducted to examine the mean differences in pretest and posttest scores on the seven help-seeking scales after the intervention was administered. The t-test analyses revealed statistically significant decreases in scores on help-seeking threat. help-seeking avoidance, and expedient help seeking, whereas t-test analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in informal help seeking at posttest in comparison with pretest scores. For homogeneous instrumental students, decreases occurred in general, instrumental, expedient, and informal help seeking; for homogeneous expedient students, decreases occurred in instrumental and

  15. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  16. Making Behavioral Science More Useful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jay W.

    1979-01-01

    The author makes a plea to both academics and managers to consider the price business pays for applying universal theories in particular situations and asks each to take a role in rectifying the situation. (Author/IRT)

  17. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other

  18. Science News of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews important science news stories of 1981 as reported in "Science News." Gives a one-sentence summary and volume and page references for each story. Groups items by topic including space and astronomy, archaeology and anthropology, technology, behavior, science and society, energy, environment, and specific science disciplines. (DC)

  19. Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results. Those favoring biological approaches have been accused of a greater willingness to accept biological explanations so as to rationalize or justify the status quo of inequality. Those rejecting biological approaches have been accused of an unwillingness to accept biological explanations so as to attribute inequalities solely to social and institutional factors, ultimately allowing for the possibility of social equality. While it is important to continue to investigate this topic through further research and debate, another approach is to examine the degree to which the allegations of bias are indeed valid. To accomplish this, a convenience sample of individuals with relevant postgraduate degrees was recruited from Mechanical Turk and social media. Participants were asked to rate the inferential power of different research designs and of mock results that varied in the degree to which they supported different ideologies. Results were suggestive that researchers harbor sincere differences of opinion concerning the inferential value of relevant research. There was no suggestion that ideological confirmation biases drive these differences. However, challenges associated with recruiting a large enough sample of experts as well as identifying believable mock scenarios limit the study's inferential scope.

  20. Analysis of the Relationship between Motivation and Critical Thinking with Intentional Internet Search Behavior Case study: Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Hygiene Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjla Hariri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and motivation with intentional Internet search. The research sample included 196 students in bachelor degree and 28 students in master degree programs offered by Hygiene Faculty at Mazandaran University of Medical and Health Sciences. The method used in this research was based on analytical survey and the tools used in collecting data for critical thinking survey was based on California “form B” standardized by Khalili. Motivation was measured by the subscales of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ which was developed by Pintrich and Garcia and Behavioral Internet Search Questionnaire developed by Wu was used for measuring intentional Internet search. Findings of this research indicated that there was no meaningful relationship between critical thinking and intentional Internet search amongst the targeted population in this research; however, the researcher theory was based on existence of a meaningful relationship between motivation and intentional Internet search approved. Measured level of critical thinking within targeted population averaged to 10/19 which was lower than standardized process that yields 15/59. This indicated that research population’s critical thinking was weak. Measured level of motivation amounts to 82/10 and this was higher than the average. This indicated that population under research possessed relatively good motivation. Measured level of intentional Internet search averages to 58/51 which was at the mean interval for this variable, therefore this skill was on par with the average level. Review of relationship between variables in the research with variables of gender demographic, educational courses, section and educational discipline indicated that there was indeed a meaningful connection between critical thinking and variables of demographic of degree level and discipline. There was a meaningful relationship

  1. Self-Schema Theory and Gender-Related Behaviors: Research on Some Correlates of University Women's Participation in Mathematics, Science and Athletic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Hilary M.; And Others

    The usefulness of the self-schema construct for understanding and predicting human behavior and the reason for the gender-relatedness of certain behaviors and experiences were investigated in three studies. The studies examined cognitive correlates of two gender-related behaviors that are more characteristic of and problematic for women than for…

  2. Informal science education at Science City

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, April Nicole

    The presentation of chemistry within informal learning environments, specifically science museums and science centers is very sparse. This work examines learning in Kansas City's Science City's Astronaut Training Center in order to identify specific behaviors associated with visitors' perception of learning and their attitudes toward space and science to develop an effective chemistry exhibit. Grounded in social-constructivism and the Contextual Model of Learning, this work approaches learning in informal environments as resulting from social interactions constructed over time from interaction between visitors. Visitors to the Astronaut Training Center were surveyed both during their visit and a year after the visit to establish their perceptions of behavior within the exhibit and attitudes toward space and science. Observations of visitor behavior and a survey of the Science City staff were used to corroborate visitor responses. Eighty-six percent of visitors to Science City indicated they had learned from their experiences in the Astronaut Training Center. No correlation was found between this perception of learning and visitor's interactions with exhibit stations. Visitor attitudes were generally positive toward learning in informal settings and space science as it was presented in the exhibit. Visitors also felt positively toward using video game technology as learning tools. This opens opportunities to developing chemistry exhibits using video technology to lessen the waste stream produced by a full scale chemistry exhibit.

  3. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  4. Boundless Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilhaus, F.

    2009-04-01

    Our science is critical to understanding the future prospects for life. The laboratory for natural sciences encompasses our planet and reaches into the solar system. The forces of nature respect no boundaries. But, we who try to understand these forces are handicapped by national, political, language, religious, and other concocted barriers. These barriers limit both our effectiveness as scientists and our ability to reach those outside our community who need to know what we have uncovered about our environment. An unencumbered worldwide scientific community has been an objective with limited successes for too long. Action began in earnest after the first world war with the formation of the various scientific Unions and ICSU. Fifty years later Keith Runcorn initiated another approach, when he proposed what quickly became EGS and which has grown and evolved with the merger with EUG. To be truly effective we need to communicate and share comfortably with colleagues worldwide. Personal relationships and trust are required. We count on a high level of ethical behavior within our community. We individually must also be constantly vigilant for the encroachment of the manmade barriers that have held back science through time immemorial. Our scientific organizations cannot achieve this alone. They will facilitate, however, the onus is on each of us to reach out and form interlocking informal communities, which will bring our whole planet-wide community together at many overlapping levels. When we achieve this community, our science will more bountiful and better address the needs of human society.

  5. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  6. Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    1978-01-01

    If the term "behavioral" is applied to all theorists who adhere to the canons of science, people like Carl Rogers and Hans Strupp will have to be dubbed "behavior therapists." Important findings, significant differences, and crucial hypotheses are entirely overlooked if scientific data provided by "nonbehavioral" researchers are ignored. (Author)

  7. Comparison on information-seeking behavior of postgraduated students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and University of Isfahan in writing dissertation based on Kuhlthau model of information search process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Mahnaz; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Nouri, Rasoul; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Information-seeking behaviors have been one of the main focuses of researchers in order to identify and solve the problems users face in information recovery. The aim of this research is Comparative on Information-Seeking Behavior of the Postgraduate Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University in Writing Dissertation based on Kuhlthau Model of Information Search Process in 2012. The research method followed is survey and the data collection tool is Narmenji questionnaire. Statistical population was all postgraduate students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University. The sample size was 196 people and sampling was stratified randomly. The type of statistical analyses were descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential (independent t test and Pearson's correlation) and the software used was SPSS20. The findings showed that Isfahan Medical Sciences University followed 20% of the order steps of this model and Isfahan University did not follow this model. In the first stage (Initiation) and sixth (Presentation) of feelings aspects and in actions (total stages) significant difference was found between students from the two universities. Between gender and fourth stage (Formulation) and the total score of feelings the Kuhlthau model there has a significant relationship. Also there was a significant and inverse relationship between the third stage (Exploration) of feelings and age of the students. The results showed that in writing dissertation there were some major differences in following up the Kuhlthau model between students of the two Universities. There are significant differences between some of the stages of feelings and actions of students' information-seeking behavior from the two universities. There is a significant relationship between the fourth stage (Formulation) of feelings in the Kuhlthau Model with gender and third stage of the Feelings (Exploration) with age.

  8. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-08

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  9. Interaction science SIG : Overcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howes, Andrew; Cowan, Benjamin R.; Janssen, C.P.; Cox, Anna L.; Cairns, Paul; Hornof, Anthony J.; Payne, Stephen J.; Pirolli, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years science has played a key role in shaping and advancing research in Human-Computer Interaction. Informed in part by methods, theories and findings from the behavioral sciences and from computer science, scientific contributions to HCI have provided explanations of how and why

  10. Science in Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Cerrosen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing theory in relation to science presents the physics as an ideal, although many sciences not approach the same, so that the current philosophy of science-Theory of Science- is not much help when it comes to analyze the computer science, an emerging field of knowledge that aims investigation of computers, which are included in the materialization of the ideas that try to structure the knowledge and information about the world. Computer Science is based on logic and mathematics, but both theoretical research methods and experimental follow patterns of classical scientific fields. Modeling and computer simulation, as a method, are specific to the discipline and will be further developed in the near future, not only applied to computers but also to other scientific fields. In this article it is analyze the aspects of science in computer science, is presenting an approach to the definition of science and the scientific method in general and describes the relationships between science, research, development and technology.

  11. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  12. 2ND Korea-US Joint Workshop on Brain Science Research, Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, held 12-13 Jan 2000, LG Semicon Hall, KAIST, Taejon, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-25

    were anesthetized with urethane (i.p. 20%, 7ml/kg). For Second Korea-US Joint Workshop on Brain Science single unit recording, craniotomy was done...1996 Clinical Neuropsychology , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Post Doctoral Research Fellow) Professional Experience 1986 -1987...and the allocation of visual attention, guided by findings from visual neuroscience and Psychophysics. - Neuropsychology : Visual Agnosia, Neglect

  13. Relationship among Students' Problem-Solving Attitude, Perceived Value, Behavioral Attitude, and Intention to Participate in a Science and Technology Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Neng-Tang Norman; Chiu, Li-Jia; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The strong humanistic and ethics-oriented philosophy of Confucianism tends to lead people influenced by these principles to undervalue the importance of hands-on practice and creativity in education. GreenMech, a science and technology contest, was implemented to encourage real-world, hands-on problem solving in an attempt to mitigate this effect.…

  14. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Using the "Principlism" framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.

  15. POST BEHAVIORAL FINANCE ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of behavioral finance combines the investigation and expertise from research and practice into smart portfolios of individual investors’ portfolios. Understanding cognitive errors and misleading emotions drive investors to their long-term goals of financial prosperity and capital preservation. 10 years ago, Behavioral Finance was still considered an incipient, adolescent science. First Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to the study of Behavioral Economics in 2002 established the field as a new, respected study of economics. 2013 Nobel Prize was awarded to three economists, one of them considered the one of the founders of the Behavioral Finance. As such, by now we are entering the coming of age of behavioral finance. It is now recognized as a science of understanding investors behaviors and their biased patterns. It applies quantitative finance and provides practical models grounded on robust understanding of investors behavior toward financial risk. Financial Personality influences investment decisions. Behavioral portfolio construction methods combine classic finance with rigorously quantified psychological metrics and improves models for financial advice to enhance investors chances in reaching their lifetime financial goals. Behavioral finance helps understanding psychological profile dissimilarities of individuals and how these differences manifest in investment decision process. This new science has become now a must topic in modern finance.

  16. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  18. Behavioral dental science: the relationship between tooth-brushing angle and plaque removal at the lingual surfaces of the posterior teeth in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, H; Kawamura, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tooth-brushing angle and efficacy of plaque removal. The subjects in this study were 72 students (18-21 yrs.) from paramedical schools. They answered the questionnaire of the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to assess dental health behavior, and then received examinations of tooth-brushing angle, efficacy of plaque removal and gingival condition. The examination sites of tooth-brushing angle and the efficacy of plaque removal were the lingual surfaces of the posterior teeth in the mandible. The tooth-brushing angle, efficacy of plaque removal, gingival condition and dental health behavior were significantly associated with each other. The subjects who directed the bristles of the toothbrush vertically toward the tooth surfaces had a high efficacy of plaque removal, good gingival condition and good dental health behavior. Thus, it is important to direct the bristles vertically toward the tooth surfaces for effective plaque removal. In addition, knowledge related to good dental health might be necessary to carry out effective tooth brushing.

  19. It's not rocket science : Developing pupils’ science talent in out-of-school science education for Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geveke, Catherina

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-school science educational activities, such as school visits to a science center, aim at stimulating pupils’ science talent. Science talent is a developmental potential that takes the form of talented behaviors such as curiosity and conceptual understanding. This dissertation investigates

  20. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  1. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (5th Annual) Held at Gaithersburg, Maryland, June 11-12, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    to the attendees and expresE .e PSEAG’s interest in behavioral research. Dr. Stanley Wars , Director of the Center for Consumer Product Technology at...verification by comparing entrant candidate facial features with a picture badge, stored video image, or color photograph. The comparison can be done live or...ULTRASONIC PRINT BODY PPG RESIS- PALMPRINT TANCE BALLISTO- HEIGHT/ CARDIO- BODY WEIGHT GRAPH TRANSFER FUNCTION FACIAL BLOOD FEATURES PRESSURE VEIN PATTERNS

  2. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  3. Evolving the future: Toward a science of intentional change

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David Sloan; Hayes, Steven C.; Biglan, Anthony; Embry, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans possess great capacity for behavioral and cultural change, but our ability to manage change is still limited. This article has two major objectives: first, to sketch a basic science of intentional change centered on evolution; second, to provide examples of intentional behavioral and cultural change from the applied behavioral sciences, which are largely unknown to the basic sciences community.

  4. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  5. Behaviorism, Private Events, and the Molar View of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective–objective or inner–outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms. PMID:22532740

  6. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  7. Identifying behaviors that generate positive interactions between museums and people on a social media platform: An analysis of 27 science museums on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stacy Christine

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed examination of how science museums use Twitter and suggest changes these museums should make to improve their current approach on this social media platform. Previous studies have identified the types of content museums are creating on social media, but none have quantitatively investigated the specific types of content most likely to generate interaction and engagement with a social media audience. A total of 5,278 tweets from 27 science museums were analyzed to determine what type of tweet yields the greatest impact measured in retweets and favorites. 1,453 of those tweets were selected for additional qualitative analysis. The results indicate that tweets with educational content, links, and hashtags lead to the greatest number of retweets and favorites. The results also indicate that the majority of tweets posted by museums do not generate interaction and engagement with a social media audience. A model for existing museums to improve their use of Twitter was created using the results of this study.

  8. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D; Cooke, A; Dunning, D; Epley, N; Gneezy, U; Koszegi, B; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N; Mullainathan, S; Prelec, D; Shafir, E; Silva, J

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  9. Self-Identified Vampirism and Risk for False Positives: A Case Example of Team Homicide and Implications for Forensic Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2017-05-01

    Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism. Court documents were reviewed and assessed, and findings suggest that the evidence used to support assertions that homicidal motivations occurred due to ritualistic vampirism was misinterpreted due to the omission of a growing multidisciplinary literature on self-identified vampirism. It is important for forensic experts to be aware of emerging research on alternative identities, including vampirism, that challenge traditional theories and assumptions. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  11. From Academic to Post-Academic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghaneirad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cultural change in science from academic science to post-academic science by the use of documentary studying and analytical reasoning. The aim of this study is determining the direction of cultural change in science and comparing it with cultural change in society.The knowledge production which surrounds academy has little relationship with the values of society and epistemological norms regulate scientists' behavior from within the scientific system. But in post-academic science the relationship between science and society operates in the same line with market and government and science produce within the social context and scientists' behavior controlled by the norms out of the scientific system. So the culture of science has changed because science applied to meet the requirements of market and industry. The result is that contrary to cultural change in society that goes from materialism to post-materialism, cultural change in science moves from post-materialism to materialism.

  12. Association Between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Educational Performance of Faculty Members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences- 2014 [Res Dev Med Educ 2015;4(1:81-84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadullah Khadivi

    2015-12-01

    Results: There was a significant relationship between altruism and educational performance (P =0.043. There was a significant relationship between conscientiousness and educational performance (p=0.046. A significant relationship was observed between sportsmanship and educational performance (p=0.004. There was no significant relationship between civic virtue and educational performance (p=0.98. A significant relationship was observed between respect and educational performance (P>0.001. There was no relationship between citizenship behavior and gender of the faculty members (P> 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the more faculty members have the spirit of cooperation and assistance to colleagues and students and try to understand the specific situations that students face, the more effective they are in increasing the educational performance at the university level.

  13. 2000 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies: Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha mimics nucleus pulposus-induced neuropathology. Molecular, histologic, and behavioral comparisons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T; Kikuchi, S; Shubayev, V; Myers, R R

    2000-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the 17-kDa form of tumor necrosis factor-alpha is the pathophysiologic agent expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus in vivo that is primarily responsible for the histologic and behavioral manifestations of experimental sciatica associated with herniated lumbar discs. The authors determined the molecular weight and concentration of active tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat herniated disc and used exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha at the same molecular weight to study its neuropathologic effect on rat nerve root and dorsal root ganglion preparations in vivo. Expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus in culture, tumor necrosis factor-alpha causes neuropathologic injury in nerve roots and neuropathic pain states in which mechanical allodynia is seen in response to peripheral stimuli. Western blotting was used to identify the molecular weight of the operative tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein form, and measures of optical density were used for semiquantitative determination of concentration. Plastic-embedded nerve roots and dorsal root ganglion were used for neuropathologic evaluation, and von Frey stimulation was used to quantify mechanical allodynia. The 17-kDa form of tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by herniated nucleus pulposus at a concentration of approximately 0.48 ng per herniated rat lumbar disc. Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha applied in vivo to rat nerve roots produced neuropathologic changes and behavior deficits that mimicked experimental studies with herniated nucleus pulposus applied to nerve roots. The data reinforce other evidence that tumor necrosis factor-alpha is involved in mechanisms of neuropathic pain.

  14. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  15. The behavior analytic perspective: its nature, prospects, and limitations for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, R P; Forsyth, J P

    1997-03-01

    Behavior analysis is defined as a natural science approach to behavior--with both basic and applied branches--and contrasted with cognitive psychology. Behavior analysis is described as an integrated science that views a person's interactions with the environment as selecting certain behaviors--or rather, environment-behavior relations--making them more probable, given certain subsequent stimulus situations. It seeks an understanding that promotes effective action, which fits the clinical interests of behavior therapy. It promotes persistent searching for environmental causes, which has resulted in a remarkable range of successes, clinical and other. We explore the reasons that all behavior therapists are not behavior analysts and suggest needed future developments.

  16. Rheology in Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna; Hvidt, Søren; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Rheology is the science of flow and deformation of matter. Particularly gels and non-Newtonian fluids, which exhibit complex flow behavior, are frequently encountered in pharmaceutical engineering and manufacturing, or when dealing with various in vivo fluids. Therefore understanding rheology is ...

  17. On the Health of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Harold G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the present status of science as an industrialized-affluent culture resting upon a public woefully lacking in scientific background and scientists with activities taken in by nihilism. Suggests all scientists actively work together through teaching, talk, and behavior to counter the forces of anti-science and nihilism. (CC)

  18. At-Risk and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Students' On-Task Behavior and Conceptual Understanding in Earth Science-Related Topics during Inquiry-, Technology-, and Game-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K.; Vasquez, Y.; Avandano, C.; Moreno, K.; Besinaiz, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Graduate K-12 (GK12) program has been developed by NSF to support the national effort to advance scientific knowledge through educational partnerships. This paper highlights research conducted during the 2006-2007 school year with the Texas A&M University GK12 project. Two elementary schools with very high numbers of at risk students - those who are poor, speak English as their second language, and have a history of failing state-mandated tests were identified to be the field site for the GK12 project. In these two, high-minority (97% and 40% African American and Hispanic) schools, 80% and 56% of the children have been identified by the state as at risk; 94% and 52% are classified as economically disadvantaged; and 46% and 2% are limited English proficient, respectively. In the past year, 30% and 73% of fifth grade students in these schools passed the science portion of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Data collected during a three- week period where GK12 fellows taught the fifth graders Earth science-related topics is presented. During the implementation, students were engaged in technology-, inquiry-, and game-based activities. Students were divided into low-, medium-, and high-abilities in one school, and regular and bilingual groups in the other. Pre- post open-ended multiple choice tests indicated that all but the low performing students' conceptual understanding (CU) significantly (p significantly improved during the inquiry activity, and the high and bilingual students' CU significantly improved for the game activities. Classroom observation assessments showed that there was a significant (p Significant differences between student groups' CU and on-task behavior indicated that technology-based activities showed greatest differences between the low- ability learners and the other students, whereas, inquiry-based activities tended not to show such extremes. In the case of the bilingual and regular students however, technology

  19. Academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Laura; Simmons, Pamela; Graham-Webb, Diane

    2011-01-01

    To investigate differences in radiologic science student and faculty perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior. Radiologic science faculty and students were questioned about their perceptions of academic dishonesty and unprofessional behavior using ethical scenarios in an electronic survey format. Significant differences occurred between faculty and student values regarding the seriousness of cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Faculty viewed cheating and unprofessional behaviors as more serious than students. Faculty and student self-reports of cheating behavior demonstrated no significant differences; however, significant differences existed in self-reported incidences of unprofessional behavior. Faculty and students differed in their values and participation related to cheating and unprofessional behaviors. Efforts should be directed toward bridging the gap between faculty and student perceptions. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  20. Growth and characterization of binary and pseudo-binary 3-5 compounds exhibiting non-linear optical behavior. Undergraduate research opportunities in microgravity science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, August F.

    1992-01-01

    In line with the specified objectives, a Bridgman-type growth configuration in which unavoidable end effects - conventionally leading to growth interface relocation - are compensated by commensurate input-power changes is developed; the growth rate on a microscale is predictable and unaffected by changes in heat transfer conditions. To permit quantitative characterization of the growth furnace cavity (hot-zone), a 3-D thermal field mapping technique, based on the thermal image, is being tested for temperatures up to 1100 C. Computational NIR absorption analysis was modified to now permit characterization of semi-insulating single crystals. Work on growth and characterization of bismuth-silicate was initiated. Growth of BSO (B12SiO20) for seed material by the Czochralski technique is currently in progress. Undergraduate research currently in progress includes: ground based measurements of the wetting behavior (contact angles) of semiconductor melts on substrates consisting of potential confinement materials for solidification experiments in a reduced gravity environment. Hardware modifications required for execution of the wetting experiments in a KC-135 facility are developed.

  1. Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  2. Science/s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Un forum a été organisé en mars par la Commission européenne. Il s’appelait « Science in Society ». Depuis 2000 la Commission a mis en place un Plan d’Action élaboré pour que soit promue « la science » au sein du public, afin que les citoyens prennent de bonnes décisions, des décisions informées. Il s’agit donc de développer la réflexivité au sein de la société, pour que cette dernière agisse avec discernement dans un monde qu’elle travaille à rendre durable. ...

  3. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  4. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude…

  5. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  6. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  7. Building and Defining Behavioral Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukelom, F.; Emmett, R.; Biddle, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at

  8. Handbook of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W., Ed.; Piazza, Cathleen C., Ed.; Roane, Henry S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Describing the state of the science of ABA, this comprehensive handbook provides detailed information about theory, research, and intervention. The contributors are leading ABA authorities who present current best practices in behavioral assessment and demonstrate evidence-based strategies for supporting positive behaviors and reducing problem…

  9. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale.The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information

  10. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  11. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale. The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information technology revolution

  12. Legalising science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara

    2002-01-01

    The legal view of science has changed through time, moving from a positivist and noncritical position of law towards science to a critical view of science--providing the potential for more objective knowledge, but value-laden as well--and of the role of society. This paper explores some judicial cases that illustrate these attitudes, suggesting that reference to science (particularly to EBM) can be rigorously and equitably made when it serves the cause of transparency and democratisation both in science and in law.

  13. Taiwanese Preservice Teachers' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Teaching Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuen-Yi; Williams, P. John

    2016-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior as a basis for exploring the impact of knowledge, values, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and attitudes on the behavioral intention toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education among Taiwanese preservice science teachers. Questionnaires (N = 139)…

  14. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science concept...

  15. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  16. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-22

    34 1.14 9󈧮" 0.46 13 󈧇" 0.54 Methylnitro- phos 3󈧝" 1.16 21󈧾" 1.04 25󈧛" 1.06 Methylethylthio- phos 3󈧣" 1.20 22󈧤" 1.07 26*03" 1.09 Aldrin ...Foods and Feeds," ed. M. Friedman, New York, 1975, Pt 2, pp 13-78. 25. Buzz , H. K., Ibid, pp 119-134. 26. McWhirter, K. S., MAIRE GENET. NEWSLETT

  17. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, No. 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-02

    shown by specimens lyophilized on bovine serum albumin with 5% sucrose for a period of 1,5 to 2 years, A sharp drop in grisein synthesis was seen in...yersino- sis, salmonellosis, brucellosis , pasteurellosis, listeriosls, erysipelas, tularemia and anthrax. Intestinal yersinosis was the most

  18. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-06

    1400-1410 [Article by Ye.I. Sobolevskiy, Pacific Ocean Scientific Research Institute of Fishing and Oceanography, Vladivostok] [Abstract] Materials...respect to a 32 monoculture of the producer, Nocardia minima. The associate which stimulated formation of the enzymes was Arthrobacter citreus

  19. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-10

    AHnwia x . . BypyH/iH (2) BepxHsa BojibTa ( 3 ) rBHHea C 5 ) ErHneT f 6 J 3aHp ( 3ain6HH KeHHH JIHBHH MaflaracKap MaBpHTaHH, MaBpHKHH Ma ...herpes ma ^ophagesl4,T tu ^^ ^^ "^ ^^ ^’ "**’ ^^ ^^ *° ÜLf^ ’►’ ?Titivity °f *^OUS, CeU P°Pul^i°ns ^ the immune system of mice to the tick...Chita oblasts TnlltTy Krasnoyarsk aTŔ’ Maritime kravs . and in tha v«»i,.,«.„i, AOCT, ’’ Krasnoyarsk;, and ariti e krays, and in

  20. USSR Report. Life Sciences: Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-29

    May-Jun 86) -a - Metabolie Correlates of Stem Rust Virulence in Susceptible Wheat Plants: Role of Ethylene and Abscisic Acid (T.Ye. Zhigalkina...1; references 5 (Russian). 12172/13046 CSO: 1840/364 UDC 632.4:633.11:582.285.2 METABOLIC CORRELATES OF STEM RUST VIRULENCE IN SUSCEPTIBLE WHEAT ...Studies were conducted with susceptible and resistant wheat varieties to determine the role of ethylene and abscisic acid in the pathogenicity of

  1. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-04

    wheat Saratovskaya-52 as a lectin preparation. Interaction of wheat lectin with Azospirillum brasilense Sp 7, Spirillum azotocolligens 129 and...microorganisms studied. The high agglutination level during interaction of wheat lectin with Azospirillum brasilense, an associative microorganism for

  2. USSR Report: Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, No. 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-02

    MEDITSINSKIKH NAUK SSSR, No 11, NOT 82) 72 Pressing Problems of Infant Nutrition (T. Sh. Sharmanov, K. S. Ladodo; VESTNIK AKADEMII MEDITSINSKIKH...antioxidants (a-tocopherol, ubiquinone and others) that regulate lipid oxidation. In the presence of artificially induced nutritional E avitaminosis in...produced bright pigmentation of strain 1. The iron sulfate is a strong stimulus for biosynthesis of the pigment. Aminoacids in a dose of 500 mg

  3. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-13

    Moscow Oblast lAbstract] A study of slime -free mutants in R. leguminosarum involved isolation of them, checking them for symbiotic properties and for...subjects with periodic schizophrenia in depressive-paranoid episodes, Adepren was less effective in patients with depression traced to fear , Didepyl

  4. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-05

    traces of roads made of wide granite tiles leading to the springs. In ancient Mongolian and Tibetan sutaras (books), there are descriptions of arshans...the Middle Ages, near the ancient Mongolian Capital of Khar-Khorinom, in a Buddhist temple. Contemporary students of folk medicine, B. Rinchen and...physicians from Tibet to be their court doctors, the Tibetan treatment system started to penetrate into that country. In 1460, The Tibetan otoch

  5. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-20

    Introduction of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium t° Tobacco Plants (L. V. Pivovarova, T. G. Korzhenevskaya, et al.; IZVESTIYA AKADEMU NAUK SSSR: SERIYA...K+-ATPase (Yu. A. Ovchinnikov, N. Ye. Broude, et al.; DOKLADY AKADEMII NAUK SSSR, No 6, Apr 86) 8 Cyclic GMP -Phosphodiesterase of Bovine...INTRODUCTION OF NITROGEN-FIXING CYANOBACTERIUM TO TOBACCO PLANTS Moscow IZVESTIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR: SERIYA BIOLOGICHESKAYA in Russian No 5, Sep-Oct

  6. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    Partial Contents: Aerospace Medicine, Agrotechnology, Biotechnology, Environment, Food Technology, Genetics, Laser Effects, Marine Mammals, Medicine, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nonionizing Electromagnetic...

  7. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-05

    and adapts rapidly to natural conditions--it feeds on nectar and the hemolymph of victims, couples and actively seeks out the caterpillars of the...other animals (Institute of Zoology), as well as technology for production of canned melon juice and technology for planting and cultivating rice

  8. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-14

    epidermis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Str. faecalis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella aerogenes, and Candida were...Addition of CaCl2 to the medium eliminated the constraint on infection in P22 H5 determined by plasmid ■ R124 in strain Sal8. References 28: 8 Russian, 20...paromomycin in the medium . Transforma- tion was performed using a bank of wild type S-288C yeast genes. The num^r of E, coli clones containing the

  9. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-28

    south, in 15 years. It must be noted that there had also been accidental transportation of rats to this zone even before the virgin land started to be...interrelationship between cortical and autonomic processes in healthy subjects (18-33 years) and patients with cerebrovascular disease (42-56 years), to...toto, these observations indicate that the pattern of interaction responsible for regulating brain function is compromised in cerebrovascular

  10. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-29

    of 300-400 l/ha. One can use agents based on glyphosate -raundap, utal, nitosorg (36% aqueous solutions) or phosulen, 50% wetting powder-in the...almost to the point of dripping from it. Best results are obtained with such treatment. The perennial species differ in sensitivity to glyphosate ... bees . It is put out in the form of emulsion concentrates (5, 10, 20%) and rinsing powder (5%). A form is being developed for UMO. There are quite

  11. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-13

    especially symbionts of cultivated plants and domestic animals (for example, to bacteria living in the rumen of the ruminants), is realistic. The attempts...its expense soil receives approxi- mately as much nitrogen as is produced by industry in the form of fertilizers. At present the symbiosis of nodule

  12. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-06

    replacement of the tricuspid valve and 6 years after the replacement of the mitral and aortic valves have shown that bioprostheses ensure good results...Capabilities for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B (A. S. Novokhatskiy, V. M. Zhdanov; VOPROSY VIRUSOLOGII, No 2, Mar-Apr 84) 73 Formation of Specific... diagnosis and prophylaxis of viral hepatitis, Also convened at this time was an expanded session of the All-Unlon Problem Commission ’Viral Hepatitis

  13. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-18

    Abstract] Apamin, the honey - bee venom neurotoxin, is the only known neuro- toxin acting on the central nervous system. The neurotoxic_activity of apamin...37 - e - PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY Use of Gravitational Overloads as a Screening Procedure in Research on New Biologically Active Agents (M. D...PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY UDC f>j.5.^’/.3.0^6.8.076.9:616.831-OO5.4-09i?.9-02:612.OlU.447-063 USE OF GRAVITATIONAL OVERLOADS AS A SCREENING PROCEDURE IN

  14. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-13

    Jan 87) 4 Heterokaryosis in Entomophagic Fungus Vertlcillium Lecanii CD.I. Kotlyarevskiy, V.A. Pavlyushin; MIKOLOGIYA I FITOPATOLOGIYA, No 5...No 6, Nov-Dec 85) 42 PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY Localization of Biologically Active Peptides and Their Analogs in Protein Structures—Protective...Methods of Experiment Design for the Estimation of the Protective Properties of Antimicrobial Drugs (S.I. Dyakov, Ye.V. Churnosov, et al.; ANTIBIOTIKI

  15. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  16. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  17. The Next Great Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science --- when defined as the study of all biological, chemical, and physical processes that interact to define the behavior of the Earth system --- has direct societal relevance equal to or greater than that any other branch of science. However, "geology", "geoscience", and "Earth science" departments are contracting at many universities and even disappearing at some. This irony speaks volumes about the limitations of the traditional university structure that partitions educational and research programs into specific disciplines, each housed in its own department. Programs that transcend disciplinary boundaries are difficult to fit into the traditional structure and are thus highly vulnerable to threats such as chronic underfunding by university administrations, low enrollments in more advanced subjects, and being largely forgotten during capital campaigns. Dramatic improvements in this situation will require a different way of thinking about earth science programs by university administrations. As Earth scientists, our goal must not be to protect "traditional" geology departments, but rather to achieve a sustainable programmatic future for broader academic programs that focus on Earth evolution from past, present, and future perspectives. The first step toward meeting this goal must be to promote a more holistic definition of Earth science that includes modes of inquiry more commonly found in engineering and social science departments. We must think of Earth science as a meta-discipline that includes core components of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and the emerging science of complexity. We must recognize that new technologies play an increasingly important role in our ability to monitor global environmental change, and thus our educational programs must include basic training in the modes of analysis employed by engineers as well as those employed by scientists. One of the most important lessons we can learn from the engineering community is the

  18. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    ... offers a unifying framework and some new data-analytic possibilities. 2. A new chapter (Chapter 11) considers some general topics in power analysis in more integrted form than is possible in the earlier...

  19. ANOVA for the behavioral sciences researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2013-01-01

    This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the

  20. Behavioral Sciences and Dentistry: A Working Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganikos, Mary L.; Espin, Oliva M.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes a model of interpersonal training for dentists in which counselors have been involved. The authors discuss the need for such training and an approach to it developed at the University of Florida. (Author)

  1. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jacob

    1988-01-01

    .... A chapter has been added for power analysis in set correlation and multivariate methods (Chapter 10). Set correlation is a realization of the multivariate general linear model, and incorporates the standard multivariate methods...

  2. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  3. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  4. The Third Force: Humanistic Psychology and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Welch, I. David

    1972-01-01

    Describes briefly the basic principles of humanistic psychology in contrast with behaviorism and Fraudianism. Presents some guidelines for science educator's use of humanistic psychology in the classroom. (PS)

  5. Integrated Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Larry; Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Integrated Science program that integrates biology, earth/space science, chemistry, and physics over a three-year, spiraling sequence arranged around broad themes such as cycles, changes, patterns, and waves. Includes weekly telecasts via public television and satellite, teacher manuals, student handbooks, e-mail connections, staff…

  6. Using Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deryk

    1971-01-01

    Article discusses educational benefits of science hobbies, citing specific accomplishments of British students. New courses in Engineering Science and recent development of scientific investigation and technological classroom projects are noted. Author relates how students have solved specific practical problems, such as devising games to develop…

  7. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  8. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  9. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  10. Digital science games' impact on sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Wei

    2009-12-01

    The quasi-experimental study investigated sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science with gender, grade levels, and educational experiences as the variables. The Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) claims that attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control play a major role in people's intentions, and these intentions ultimately impact their behavior. The study adopted a quantitative research approach by conducting a science perceptions survey for examining students' self-efficacy in learning science (i.e., perceived behavioral control), value of science (i.e., attitude toward the behavior), motivation in science (i.e., attitude toward the behavior), and perceptions of digital science games in science classes (i.e., perceived behavioral control). A total of 255 participants' responses from four rural Appalachian middle school science classrooms in southeastern Ohio were analyzed through a three-way ANCOVA factorial pre-test and post-test data analysis with experimental and comparison groups. Additionally, the study applied a semi-structured, in-depth interview as a qualitative research approach to further examine STEAM digital science games' and Fellows' impact on students' perceptions of science. Eight students in the experimental group were interviewed. Interview data were analyzed with an inductive method. The results found in the three-way ANCOVA data analysis indicated that the diversity of educational experiences was a significant factor that impacted sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science. Additionally, the interaction of gender and educational experiences was another significant factor that impacted sixth and eighth graders' perceptions of science. The findings of the two short-answer questions identified the reasons why the participants liked or disliked science, as well as why the participants would or would not choose a career in science. The conclusions of the semi-structured, in-depth interview

  11. Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  12. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  13. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  14. African Health Sciences - Vol 8 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resilience research and policy/practice discourse in health, social, behavioral, and environmental sciences over the last ten years. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AM Almedom ...

  15. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  16. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  17. Revolutionary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported.

  18. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. Copyright © 2016 Casadevall and Fang.

  19. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the

  20. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  1. Science Instructors' Views of Science and Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how college science faculty who teach introductory level undergraduate science courses including the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, and earth science, understand and define science and nature of science (NOS). Participants were seventeen science instructors from five different institutions in the…

  2. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  3. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  4. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 11. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 127, Issue 11. November 2015, pages 1871-2079. pp 1871-1882 Articles. Construction of copper-based coordination polymers with 1D chain, 2D plane and wavy networks: Syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors ...

  5. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ligand: syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and luminescence properties. YUNLONG WU CHANGKUN XIA JUN QIAN JIMIN XIE. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 8 August ...

  6. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  7. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  8. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  9. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The

  10. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  11. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  12. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Page 1. 582. RESONANCE | July 2016. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. “Ribbed breathing flesh, thrice often crucified,. Veined vase of life, the wheeling universe.” – Sir Charles Sherrington. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com.

  13. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. 408. RESONANCE │ May 2011. GENERAL │ ARTICLE. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. It feels like I am posing with the Bourbaki group, where every member is a Zeldovich.

  14. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Page 1. 1084. RESONANCE | December 2015. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. Charles H Townes, James P Gordon and H J. Zeiger had the first Maser working about three months later.. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com.

  15. Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing field in which scientific investigations are conducted by volunteers, which have been successful in expanding scientific knowledge, raising environmental awareness, and leveraging change.

  16. Dismal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2009-05-01

    "No prediction, no science." By this standard, the past year has not been kind to the pretensions of "economic science," Nobel prizes notwithstanding. The issue is more than semantic. As Neil Postman (1992) pointed out, sciences study natural processes that repeat themselves under constant conditions. The social disciplines study practices of human communities that are embedded in history. There are no constant conditions; it is impossible to step into the same river twice (Heraclitus). "Physics envy" has led mainstream economic theorists to attempt to understand their discipline through methods and models borrowed from the natural sciences. (By unfortunate coincidence, these have reinforced a certain class of ideological preconceptions and associated economic interests.) Today the results of this methodological mismatch speak for themselves.

  17. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when bubb...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy.......Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...

  18. Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.

  19. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  20. Earth Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The following papers were presented at the earth science session: earth science developments in support of water isolation; development of models and parameters for ground-water flow in fractured rock masses; isotope geochemistry as a tool for determining regional ground-water flow; natural analogs of radionuclide migration; nuclide retardation data: its use in the NWTS program; and ground-water geochemistry and interaction with basalt at Hanford

  1. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  2. An Introduction to Linguistic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Edgar H.

    The basis for understanding the origin, development, and behavior of language is presented in this introduction to linguistic science. Aspects of language that link linguistics to anthropology, social studies, and mathematics are examined. Major emphasis is on phonetics and phonemics, historical considerations, vocabulary, and semantic change.…

  3. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical and Computer Sciences Volume 40 Issue 4 June 2015 pp 1139-1153 ... Abstract. Wireless multi-hop networks are often exposed to serious physical layer jamming attack. ... To prevent this attack, a simple yet effective Reliability Behavior Neuro-Fuzzy system has been proposed and it operates in three modules.

  4. Behavior as a social construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, C P.

    2001-05-03

    Behavior analysis is examined from a social constructionist perspective. Constructionism is first defined and contrasted with a generic positivistic image of science. Behavior analysis, especially the matching law, is then viewed from both perspectives. The actual practice of behavior analysis (as opposed to the philosophy of radical behaviorism) more strongly resembles positivist than constructionist views. This alignment between behavior analysis and positivism emerges more sharply when positivist and constructionist perspectives are compared on the relation between science and music. Charles Rosen has identified how the classical style of musical composition and performance depended on 18th century keyboard technology, and a constructionist view sees the matching law as reflecting mid 20th century technology and culture in much the same way as it sees, say Mozart's 23rd piano concerto, as reflecting late 18th century culture. Behavior analysts, who often behave as though they see the matching law as an objective, impersonal, stable, hard, cold, incontrovertibly true fact, appear more inclined than constructionists to see a fundamental difference between the matching law and Mozart's 23rd piano concerto, to which they would attribute few if any of these characteristics. Possible implications are derived for tolerance in science.

  5. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Overlapping Issues in Medical Psychology, Rehabilitation Psychology and Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wayne A.

    Behavioral medicine is a field which attempts to integrate social, behavioral, and biological sciences through an application of bio-behavioral methods to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. Because behavioral medicine overlaps many psychological disciplines, some disciplines of psychology such as medical psychology and…

  7. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ...: Life sciences, aerospace medicine, agriculture science, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, immunology, industrial medicine, laser bioeffects, medicine, molecular biology, nonionizing radiation...

  8. Climate change, science and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Soo

    2012-04-01

    Climate change offers serious challenges to the effectiveness of science, communication, and community. It demands us to look back upon what we have done in regard to science and technology. In addition, it leads us to examine human efforts invested to solve collective, shared problems by communication and community. The process of behavior per se is found to be greatly overlooked in the establishment sciences, both natural and social, and in both theory and practice. A theory of behavior is introduced and explicated as a platform to solve such commons' problems as climate change. Finally, we find principled ways to improve effectiveness of communication and community by developing human capabilities so that we can win our battle against climate change and other potential tragedies of the commons.

  9. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  11. Two Orthodoxies and Science:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Yakov M

    2016-09-01

    This essay offers a comparative discussion of attitudes to science within Jewish and Christian Orthodoxies. When it touches on the contemporary period, it deals with different varieties of Jewish Orthodoxy rather than the more liberal Jewish denominations. Debates about science and religion, rarely involving active—let alone prominent—scientists, take place within both religious traditions. The issues can be roughly divided in two categories—cognitive and social—even though the two may occasionally intersect. The first category, apparently more important for the Greek Orthodox, addresses issues of the content of research and of its influence on ethics. Social issues constitute the other important aspect of the interaction between religion and modernity: Is it desirable to spend time on anything but religious studies and to engage in modern society at all, lest its more permissive norms and ideas corrupt proper behavior? This aspect seems to preoccupy Jewish Orthodoxy more than Greek Orthodoxy.

  12. Comportamento sexual de risco entre estudantes universitárias dos cursos de ciências da saúde Risky sexual behavior among university students in health science courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Moser

    2007-04-01

    álise multivariada. CONCLUSÃO: Relacionamento familiar saudável e religiosidade estão associados à conduta de sexo seguro. É relevante a percentagem de estudantes que ainda têm uma conduta de sexo inseguro, mostrando que ser universitária e freqüentar cursos de ciências da saúde não são garantia de comportamento sexual seguro.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sexual behavior of female students enrolled in the Department of Health Science of the Federal University of Paraná and the Department of Biological and Health Scienceof the State University of Paraná at the Cascavel campus. METHODS: All the female students, 18 to 24 years of age, enrolled in the above departments in June 2001 were included in the final sample comprised 572 students in Curitiba and 395 in Cascavel. The study evaluated age, family relationship, religiousness, participation in sex education classes and age at initiation of sexual activity. The use of contraceptive methods and condoms, as well as the number of partners, were variables used to evaluate sexual behavior. Safe sex was defined as the use of a condom by monogamous students in all or in the majority of sexual intercourse and the use of condoms by polygamous students during all sexual intercourse. Unsafe sex was defined as the occasional use of condoms by monogamous students and systematic non-use by polygamous students. The data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS and the Pearson and Yates chi-square test, the Wilcoxon-Gehan "p" test, bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the risky sexual behavior between students and the city in which they were studying. Around 50% of the students aged 18 to 20 and 70% of those 21 to 24 years of age were sexually active. Abstinence was associated with lower age, greater attendance at religious services and a good relationship between the student and her parents. The practice of safe sex was

  13. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  14. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  15. Science Fiction on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  16. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  17. AIDS: sexual behavior and intravenous drug use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Charles F; Miller, Heather G; Moses, Lincoln E

    1989-01-01

    ..., SOCIAL, AND STATISTICAL SCIENCES COMMISSION ON BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publi...

  18. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this

  19. A New Formula for Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    The most important changes that have taken place in behaviorism since John B. Watson's 1913 article are the introduction of the intervening variable approach and the understanding that psychology is both an experimental and a psychometric science. The only observables available to psychology are stimuli and response. (SLD)

  20. Behavioral Research in Industrial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, David; Feuille, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines and assesses the behavioral content of industrial relations research in a variety of social science disciplines. The authors compare economic research on the wage and productivity consequences of unionism with psychological research on worker attitudes toward unions, sociological research on the negotiation process and conflict…

  1. BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, THE "BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS." BY MAKING CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS AND PERFORMING SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, THE CHILDREN LEARN HOW TO APPROACH A PROBLEM, HOW TO INTERPRET AND EVALUATE DATA, AND, IN GENERAL, HOW TO CONDUCT A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. THE MATERIALS HAVE…

  2. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  3. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  4. Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2005-06-01

    Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research.

  5. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  6. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  7. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...

  8. Seeking New Bases for SLA Research: Looking to Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that cognitive science, a field that draws on research in linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and computer science, might provide better explanations of student behavior in the classroom than mainstream second-language acquisition research. An attempt is made to show how research from cognitive science might offer explanations for what…

  9. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  10. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  11. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  12. Talking Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The Talking Science project initially involved three secondary schools and eight of their feeder primary schools in the London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames. The project created, trialled and evaluated a set of key stage 2/3 transition materials for children moving from primary to secondary school, using argument as a teaching and learning…

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... Kaullysing et al. also present a field note on coral-eating gastropods observed around Mauritius. ... and decision making in the field of coral reef studies and management in Mauritius, while contributing.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro-phytoplankton density, C-biomass and diversity. Tides and zones had significant effects on the over- all total C-biomass of total micro-phytoplankton and bacillariophytes, and concentrations of ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia. Estuarine Coastal and. Shelf Science 80: ...

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/ ...

  16. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 25 science activities on colorations of prey, evolution, blood, physiology, nutrition, enzyme kinetics, leaf pigments, analytical chemistry, milk, proteins, fermentation, surface effects of liquids, magnetism, drug synthesis, solvents, wintergreen synthesis, chemical reactions, multicore cables, diffraction, air resistance,…

  17. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between ... ISSN 0856-860X. Western Indian Ocean. J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Editorial Board. Serge ANDREFOUËT. France. Ranjeet BHAGOOLI. Mauritius ...... ence Technology, Rhodes, Greece.

  19. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Page 1. 666. RESONANCE | August 2015. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com. Oduvai Gorge gives us one of the most remarkable stories of the past – the last chapter of the Earth's history, starting at the present day, right away back 2 million years.

  20. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. 75. RESONANCE │ January 2011. BOOK │ REVIEW. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. Email for Correspondence: ionguha@gmail.com. What if I say that all the people living in our United Netherlands are not as many as the animalcules living in this single drop of water.

  1. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. Science Smiles. RKLaxman. I bought the plot to build my office. But the activists would not let me touch anything lest it should upset the ecological balance here. R -E-SO-N-A-N-C-E -, -Fe-b-ru-ary-19-9-S -----~-------------

  2. Skeptical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research ... PAHs are among the persistent organic pollutants that are a worldwide environmental ... combusted and petroleum products are used during boat/dhow making and servicing ...

  4. Actuarial Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bette

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided of a program on actuarial training developed at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton through the Department of Mathematical Sciences. An outline of its operation, including a few statistics on students in the program, is included. (MP)

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    org/wio-journal-of-marine- science/ and AJOL ... The mangroves around Maputo city in Maputo Bay were studied to assess changes in forest cover area and the effect of cutting ..... factors on forest health condition has not yet been assessed.

  6. Redirecting science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaserud, F.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters. Science policy and fund-raising up to 1934; The Copenhagen spirit at work, late 1920's to mid-1930s; The refugee problem, 1933 to 1935; Experimental biology, late 1920s to 1935; and Consolidation of the transition, 1935 to 1940

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.

  8. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Chris; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty science experiments are presented. Topics include recombinant DNA, physiology, nucleophiles, reactivity series, molar volume of gases, spreadsheets in chemistry, hydrogen bonding, composite materials, radioactive decay, magnetism, speed, charged particles, compression waves, heat transfer, Ursa Major, balloons, current, and expansion of…

  9. Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that to increase societal impact behavioral researchers must do more to address problems of obvious practical importance. The basic science wing of behavior analysis has been described as especially detached from this goal, but is it really necessary that basic science demonstrate social relevance? If so, why hasn't this…

  10. Science and anti-science

    CERN Document Server

    Holton, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    What is good science? What goal--if any--is the proper end of scientific activity? Is there a legitimating authority that scientists mayclaim? Howserious athreat are the anti-science movements? These questions have long been debated but, as Gerald Holton points out, every era must offer its own responses. This book examines these questions not in the abstract but shows their historic roots and the answers emerging from the scientific and political controversies of this century. Employing the case-study method and the concept of scientific thematathat he has pioneered, Holton displays the broad scope of his insight into the workings of science: from the influence of Ernst Mach on twentiethcentury physicists, biologists, psychologists, and other thinkers to the rhetorical strategies used in the work of Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and others; from the bickering between Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress over the proper form of federal sponsorship of scientific research to philosophical debates since Oswald...

  11. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  12. Predicting human behavior: The next frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, V S; Kumar, Srijan

    2017-02-03

    Machine learning has provided researchers with new tools for understanding human behavior. In this article, we briefly describe some successes in predicting behaviors and describe the challenges over the next few years. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. NASA Astronaut Selection 2009: Behavioral Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A.; Sipes, W.; Bevan, G.; Schmidt, L.; Slack, K.; Moomaw, R.; Vanderark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) is an operational group under medical sciences at NASA/Johnson Space Center. Astronaut applicant screening and assessment is one function of this group, along with psychological training, inflight behavioral support and family services. Direct BHP assessment spans 6-7 months of a 17-month overall selection process.

  14. Caring Science or Science of Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Watson, Jean; Giovannoni, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science.

  15. Portraying Real Science in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    In both formal and informal settings, not only science but also views on the nature of science are communicated. Although there probably is no singular nature shared by all fields of science, in the field of science education it is commonly assumed that on a certain level of generality there is a consensus on many features of science. In this…

  16. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  17. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  18. [Behavioral addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Evolving the future: toward a science of intentional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan; Hayes, Steven C; Biglan, Anthony; Embry, Dennis D

    2014-08-01

    Humans possess great capacity for behavioral and cultural change, but our ability to manage change is still limited. This article has two major objectives: first, to sketch a basic science of intentional change centered on evolution; second, to provide examples of intentional behavioral and cultural change from the applied behavioral sciences, which are largely unknown to the basic sciences community. All species have evolved mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity that enable them to respond adaptively to their environments. Some mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity count as evolutionary processes in their own right. The human capacity for symbolic thought provides an inheritance system having the same kind of combinatorial diversity as does genetic recombination and antibody formation. Taking these propositions seriously allows an integration of major traditions within the basic behavioral sciences, such as behaviorism, social constructivism, social psychology, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology, which are often isolated and even conceptualized as opposed to one another. The applied behavioral sciences include well-validated examples of successfully managing behavioral and cultural change at scales ranging from individuals to small groups to large populations. However, these examples are largely unknown beyond their disciplinary boundaries, for lack of a unifying theoretical framework. Viewed from an evolutionary perspective, they are examples of managing evolved mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity, including open-ended processes of variation and selection. Once the many branches of the basic and applied behavioral sciences become conceptually unified, we are closer to a science of intentional change than one might think.

  20. Evolving the future: Toward a science of intentional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan; Hayes, Steven C.; Biglan, Anthony; Embry, Dennis D.

    2015-01-01

    Humans possess great capacity for behavioral and cultural change, but our ability to manage change is still limited. This article has two major objectives: first, to sketch a basic science of intentional change centered on evolution; second, to provide examples of intentional behavioral and cultural change from the applied behavioral sciences, which are largely unknown to the basic sciences community. All species have evolved mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity that enable them to respond adaptively to their environments. Some mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity count as evolutionary processes in their own right. The human capacity for symbolic thought provides an inheritance system having the same kind of combinatorial diversity as does genetic recombination and antibody formation. Taking these propositions seriously allows an integration of major traditions within the basic behavioral sciences, such as behaviorism, social constructivism, social psychology, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology, which are often isolated and even conceptualized as opposed to one another. The applied behavioral sciences include well-validated examples of successfully managing behavioral and cultural change at scales ranging from individuals to small groups to large populations. However, these examples are largely unknown beyond their disciplinary boundaries, for lack of a unifying theoretical framework. Viewed from an evolutionary perspective, they are examples of managing evolved mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity, including open-ended processes of variation and selection. Once the many branches of the basic and applied behavioral sciences become conceptually unified, we are closer to a science of intentional change than one might think. PMID:24826907

  1. The Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Peter, Ed.

    This 12-chapter book discusses the scientific facts behind the ideas included in the novels of Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Arthur C. Clark and other science fiction writers. Areas explored in the first 11 chapters include: exploration of deep space; energy and exotic power sources; likelihood of extra-terrestrial life and the…

  2. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers and Science Teachers About Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Meilinda, M; Rustaman, N. Y; Tjasyono, B

    2017-01-01

    The global climate phenomenon in the context of climate change is the impact of both the dynamic complex climate system and human behaviors that affect environmental sustainability. Human is an important component that should be considered in science teaching that is believed to improve human attitudes towards the environmental sustainability. The research aims to investigate the perceptions of pre-service science teachers and science teachers in South Sumatra who teach climate change and glo...

  4. Identifying Information Behavior in Information Search and Retrieval through Learning Activities Using an E-learning Platform Case: Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Alejandro Uribe; Munoz, Wilson Castano

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the future of librarian education as exemplified by the Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia), using an online learning platform-LMS (Moodle) and through different personalized and collaborative learning activities and tools that help students identify their…

  5. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  6. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  7. Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with children with ADHD. Behavior therapy recognizes the limits that having ADHD puts on a child. It ... be tiring and trying. It can test the limits of even the best parents. Parent training and ...

  8. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  9. Mechanical science

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, W C

    2013-01-01

    This book gives comprehensive coverage of mechanical science for HNC/HND students taking mechanical engineering courses, including all topics likely to be covered in both years of such courses, as well as for first year undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering. It features 500 problems with answers and 200 worked examples. The third edition includes a new section on power transmission and an appendix on mathematics to help students with the basic notation of calculus and solution of differential equations.

  10. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  11. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  12. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005): 231-47.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2008-01-01

    Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown), the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-...

  13. FROM THE BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS TO POST-BEHAVIORALISM: HISTORY OF PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Bogachev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the review of formation and decline of behavioralism paradigm in political science. The author begins the analysis with critical consideration of the scientific concepts preceding emergence of modernist empiricism within which there is a behavioral analysis. Further the researcher traces formation behaviorism in the social disciplines: formation model in psychology, release of the theory out of limits of pure psychology and transferring ideas in sociology and political science. The author analyzes inquiries to the scientific theory by behavioralism. He opens the principles of behavioralism as paradigm in political science. The author presents the conceptual and contextual factors promoting recession of popularity behavioralism in political science and submits methodological restrictions approach. The author states the main claims of critics to this research approach and explains the reasons decline this paradigm. At the same time the methodological reflection of behavioralism which has followed recession of his popularity is reflected in work. The author opens the principles of the new methodological direction – post-behavioralism and the position of modern representatives of the behavioral analysis.

  14. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  15. Análise do comportamento e sociedade: implicações para uma ciência dos valores Análisis del comportamiento y sociedad: implicaciones para una ciencia de los valores Behavior analysis and society: implications for a science of values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolynne Bogo

    2012-01-01

    surgimiento de otro: el modelo postmoderno. Una de las diferencias entre estas dos propuestas científicas se refiere a la relación entre ciencia y sociedad. Considerando esos aspectos, el objetivo de este trabajo es discutir qué modelo de ciencia, moderno o postmoderno, nortea la asertiva skinneriana que declara el análisis del comportamiento una ciencia de los valores. Para eso, serán presentadas, inicialmente, algunas concepciones tradicionales de explicación del comportamiento moral y las principales críticas que Skinner dirige a ellas. Enseguida, el sistema ético skinneriano será analizado, juntamente a las cuestiones sociales involucradas en la práctica del analista del comportamiento. Y, por fin, se discutirá como cada modelo de ciencia puede subvencionar prácticas de intervención diferentes, con consecuencias sociales igualmente distintas.Radical behaviorism has attracted a lot of criticism, mainly when it comes to ethical issues. Despite the criticism, Skinner considers the behavior analysis a science of values, discussing morality in terms of moral behavior. However, the claim that the behavior analysis is a science of values may have distinctive social consequences depending on the model of science to be assumed. The contemporary scientific debate is about the crisis of the modern model of science and the emergence of another: the postmodern model. One of the differences between these two scientific proposals refers to the relation between science and society. Considering these aspects, the objective of this paper is to discuss which model of science, modern or postmodern, based on the skinnerian statement which declares the behavior analysis a science of values. To do so, initially, some traditional conceptions explaining moral behavior, and the main criticism that Skinner directs to them will be presented. Then, Skinner's ethical system will be analyzed, along with the social issues involved in the behavior analyst's practice, and, finally, the paper

  16. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  17. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  18. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  19. Apologia of St. Ignatius Loyola's Cura Personalis: Brigham Young University's Positive Behavior Support Initiative Compared to the Syracuse Academy of Science Charter School's 7th and 8th Grade Literacy Program: A Qualitative Analysis (Abridgment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBath, Gabrielle L.

    2013-01-01

    The following is an abridged version of the author's original Master's thesis written in 2008 for LeMoyne College in Syracuse, New York. This qualitative, structural, comparison determined if twelve Character Education studies of Brigham Young University, specifically the Positive Behavioral Support Initiative, assessed the same literacy program…

  20. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  1. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  2. Science toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    "I have a low boredom threshold," Tim Rowett explains, ushering in my son Alex and me. Rowett is a jovial, professorishlooking man with wire-rimmed glasses and a short, white beard. Alex and I have gone to his flat in Twickenham, on the edge of London, to see his collection of fun stuff - jokes, games, puzzles and other toys related to science. When I ask what they have in common, Rowett has a ready, if not illuminating, answer: "They're just things that make people go 'Wow!'."

  3. Science blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Here is the essential how-to guide for communicating scientific research and discoveries online, ideal for journalists, researchers, and public information officers looking to reach a wide lay audience. Drawing on the cumulative experience of twenty-seven of the greatest minds in scientific communication, this invaluable handbook targets the specific questions and concerns of the scientific community, offering help in a wide range of digital areas, including blogging, creating podcasts, tweeting, and more. With step-by-step guidance and one-stop expertise, this is the book every scientist, science writer, and practitioner needs to approach the Wild West of the Web with knowledge and confidence.

  4. Science Night

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors. Full details are available from the Museum website at: http://www.lanuitdelascience.ch/

  5. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics is a physical branch of science that governs the thermal behavior of dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences. The first law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one form to another, and the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the usable energy in an adiabatically isolated dynamical system is always diminishing in spite of the fact that energy is conserved, have had an impact far beyond science and engineering. In this paper, we trace the history of thermodynamics from its classical to its postmodern forms, and present a tutorial and didactic exposition of thermodynamics as it pertains to some of the deepest secrets of the universe.

  7. The spread of behavior analysis to the applied fields 1

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of applied behavioral science as it exists in the various behavioral fields and considers the role of the Association for Behavior Analysis in serving those fields. The confounding effects of the traditions of psychology are discussed. Relevant issues are exemplified in the fields of law, communications, psychology, and education, but broader generalization is implied.

  8. Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of behavior factor of eccentrically braced frame with vertical link in cyclic loading. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... In order to understand the behavior of these structures using non-linear static and dynamic analysis of building's behavior factor, eccentric and exocentric systems were calculated ...

  9. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  10. Big Science and Big Big Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In his introduction to the science shows feature in "Primary Science" 115, Ian B. Dunne asks the question "Why have science shows?" He lists a host of very sound reasons, starting with because "science is fun" so why not engage and entertain, inspire, grab attention and encourage them to learn? He goes onto to state that: "Even in today's…

  11. Science as Entertainment and Entertainment Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, Richard

    2002-01-01

    For many, doing science is entertaining, and engaging in a science activity for its entertainment value is a credible rationale. Drawing parallels between science and various forms of entertainment from sports to opera, highlights the value of "infotainment". Also mentions the risks associated with entertaining the public with science.…

  12. Science kitsch and pop science: A reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Eduard

    2013-07-01

    Science kitsch? The combination of these two words rings like an oxymoron. Science - as the common saying has it - exposes, discovers, tells the truth; kitsch conceals, covers, lies. I think, this "shadow" of science deserves a specific scrutiny, not only because it reflects the altered place and role of science in contemporary "knowledge" society but also because it pinpoints the task of relocating science in the "multicultural" context of postmodernism, with its different epistemic claims. The genre of science kitsch may help to regain credit by working as a probe to detect false pretensions, explanatory exuberance and exaggerations in science.

  13. Behavioral variability as avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Júnior, Amilcar Rodrigues; Leite Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether variable patterns of responses can be acquired and maintained by negative reinforcement under an avoidance contingency. Six male Wistar rats were exposed to sessions in which behavioral variability was reinforced according to a Lag contingency: Sequences of three responses on two levers had to differ from one, two or three previous sequences for shocks to be avoided (Lag 1, Lag 2 and Lag 3, respectively). Performance under the Lag conditions was compared with performance on a Yoke condition in which the animals received the same reinforcement frequency and distribution as in the Lag condition but behavioral variability was not required. The results showed that most of the subjects varied their sequences under the Lag contingencies, avoiding shocks with relatively high probability (≥ 0.7). Under the Yoke procedure, responding continued to occur with high probability, but the behavioral variability decreased. These results suggest that behavioral variability can be negatively reinforced. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  15. Building a Democratic Model of Science Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhadi Ibnu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Earlier in the last century, learning in science, as was learning in other disciplines, was developed according to the philosophy of behaviorism. This did not serve the purposes of learning in science properly, as the students were forced to absorb information transferred from the main and the only source of learning, the teacher. Towards the end of the century a significant shift from behaviorism to constructivism philosophy took place. The shift promoted the development of more democratic models of learning in science which provided greater opportunities to the students to act as real scientist, chattering for the building of knowledge and scientific skills. Considering the characteristics of science and the characteristics of the students as active learners, the shift towards democratic models of learning is unavoidable and is merely a matter of time

  16. Terapia analítico-comportamental da depressão: uma antiga ou uma nova ciência aplicada? Behavior-analytical therapy of depression: an old or a new applied science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A história dos estudos comportamentais no campo da depressão é apresentada. OBJETIVO: Apresentar e analisar os avanços das terapias analítico-comportamentais. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se 37 referências relacionadas a estudos conceituais, de pesquisa de base e aplicada, todos publicados no período de 1961 a 2006. Os preceitos teóricos e metodológicos adotados foram considerados, e o impacto das aplicações propostas, foi discutido. RESULTADOS: Tradicionalmente, os modelos analítico-comportamentais de Ferster e Lewinsohn priorizam a baixa freqüência de comportamentos contingentes ao reforçamento positivo como variável crítica na determinação do repertório depressivo. Ainda que essa variável estivesse de fato assim relacionada, pouca atenção foi dada às intervenções voltadas aos enfrentamentos dos eventos aversivos supressores das respostas reforçadas positivamente. Dentro desse impasse pragmático-conceitual, o modelo cognitivo-comportamental de Beck surgiu e logo foi aclamado como o tratamento psicossocial de excelência na depressão. Contudo, pesquisas recentes sinalizaram as lacunas da conceituação cognitiva, permitindo novamente que a atenção fosse redirecionada aos modelos analítico-comportamentais iniciais. Jacobson, então, revisitou o modelo de Ferster, criando uma nova proposta de terapia chamada de ativação comportamental (BA. CONCLUSÃO: O fenômeno da depressão maior foi palco do nascimento da terapia cognitivo-comportamental de Beck e coincidentemente pode estar sendo a força motriz que veio resgatar a importância da ênfase contextual das análises comportamentais clínicas.BACKGROUND: The present review addresses the history of behavioral studies in depression. OBJECTIVE: To present and analyze the advances in behavior-analytical therapies. METHODS: 37 references reporting conceptual, basic and applied studies, all of them published between 1961 and 2006, were examined. The theoretical and

  17. Behavior subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  18. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  19. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  20. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (7th Annual), The Human Element in Organizational Sensitivity, Held at White Oak, Maryland, 16-17 November 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-16

    34 of anomous into French as ]’ Anomie . As part of the study, Durkheim developed a theory of human needs and aspirations to explain variations in...30. See Richard A. Cloward, "Illegitimate Means, Anomie , and Deviant Behavior," in Hendrick M. Ruitenbeek, ed., Varieties of Modern Social Theory , New...phenomenon is the concept of anomie , a state of normlessness or lawless- ness that is characterized by individual disorientation, anxiety, and social