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Sample records for behavioral resistance

  1. The behavior of electrochemical cell resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritley, K.A.; Dull, P.M.; Weber, M.H.; Carroll, M.; Hurst, J.J.; Lynn, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of the basic electrochemical behavior found in typical cold fusion experiments is important to understanding and preventing experimental errors. For a Pd/LiOH(D)/Pt electrochemical cell, the applied cell voltage/current relationship (the effective cell resistance) does not obey Ohm's law directly, but instead exhibits a complicated response to the current, voltage, temperature, electrolyte conductance, and other factors. Failure to properly consider this response can possibly result in errors that could affect the heat balance in calorimetry and temperature measurement experiments. Measurements of this response under varying voltage, temperature, and electrolyte conductivity conditions are reported. A plausible scenario in which the temperature dependence of the effective cell resistance can either exaggerate or ameliorate novel exothermic processes is suggested

  2. Utilizing Motivational Interviewing to Address Resistant Behaviors in Clinical Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahesh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is presented as an approach to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. A case example is used to illustrate the process in which the relational and technical elements of motivational interviewing can be applied to supervisee resistance. Implications for supervisors and researchers are discussed.

  3. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  4. Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelkarim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and mechanical properties of polymer composite materials are investigated through the determination of resistivity and hardness for composites samples. Epoxy composite samples have been prepared with different concentrations of certain inorganic fillers such as; Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and Silica (SiO2, of various size (micro, nano and hybrid to study the electrical and mechanical behavior. The volume resistivity reaches 3.23×1014 ohm.cm for the micro silica composite. Surface of composite material has been mechanically examined by hardness test. The results show that the resistivity of microcomposites and nanocmposites are increased with the decrease of filler concentration. But the resistivity of hybrid composites is increased with the increase of filler concentration. Maximum hardness value was obtained from hybrid silica composite with 0.1% filler concentration.

  5. Polarization-coupled tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruverman, Alexei [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Eom, Chang-Beom [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-03

    This research focuses on investigation of the physical mechanism of the electrically and mechanically tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures with engineered interfaces realized via a strong coupling of ferroelectric polarization with tunneling electroresistance and metal-insulator (M-I) transitions. This report describes observation of electrically conductive domain walls in semiconducting ferroelectrics, voltage-free control of resistive switching and demonstration of a new mechanism of electrical control of 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. The research goals are achieved by creating strong synergy between cutting-edge fabrication of epitaxial single-crystalline complex oxides, nanoscale electrical characterization by scanning probe microscopy and theoretical modeling of the observed phenomena. The concept of the ferroelectric devices with electrically and mechanically tunable nonvolatile resistance represents a new paradigm shift in realization of the next-generation of non-volatile memory devices and low-power logic switches.

  6. Magnetoresistance Behavior of Conducting Filaments in Resistive-Switching NiO with Different Resistance States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Kokado, Satoshi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang

    2017-03-29

    The resistive switching (RS) effect in various materials has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potential for applications. NiO is an important system and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation/rupture of Ni-related conducting filaments. These filaments are unique since they are formed by an electroforming process, so it is interesting to explore their magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, which can also shed light on unsolved issues such as the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process, and this behavior is also important for multifunctional devices. Here, we focus on MR behavior in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors have been observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for exploration of the conducting filaments in resistive switching materials and is significant for understanding the mechanism of RS effect and multifunctional devices.

  7. Bipolar resistive switching behaviors of ITO nanowire networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO nanowire (NW networks on aluminum electrodes using electron beam evaporation. The Ag/ITO-NW networks/Al capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching characteristics of ITO-NW networks are related to the morphology of NWs. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to obtain the chemical nature from the NWs surface, investigating the oxygen vacancy state. A stable switching voltages and a clear memory window were observed in needle-shaped NWs. The ITO-NW networks can be used as a new two-dimensional metal oxide material for the fabrication of high-density memory devices.

  8. Switching behavior of resistive change memory using oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Takashige; Sugawa, Kosuke; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Takase, Kouichi

    2018-06-01

    Resistive change random access memory (ReRAM), which is expected to be the next-generation nonvolatile memory, often has wide switching voltage distributions due to many kinds of conductive filaments. In this study, we have tried to suppress the distribution through the structural restriction of the filament-forming area using NiO nanowires. The capacitor with Ni metal nanowires whose surface is oxidized showed good switching behaviors with narrow distributions. The knowledge gained from our study will be very helpful in producing practical ReRAM devices.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  10. Flux flow, pinning, and resistive behavior in superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, S.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the behavior of fluctuation effects in superconducting systems using numerical simulations of XY and Coulomb gas models. Flux flow resistance in two dimensional Josephson junction arrays has been calculated, and related to correlations in vortex structure. Randomness has been introduced, and its effects on the superconducting transition, and vortex mobility, have been studied. We find that randomness destroys phase coherence, yet the randomness induced pinning reduces flux flow resistance at low temperatures. Vortex line fluctuations in high temperature superconductors have been studied using a three dimensional XY model. We have considered the melting of the vortex line lattice, and the entanglement and cutting of vortex lines in the vortex line liquid phase. Vortex line entangling and cutting appear to occur on the same length scales in the liquid phase. The vortex structure function has been calculated and from it, elastic properties of the vortex line liquid have been inferred. The two dimensional classical Coulomb gas, where charges map onto vortices in the superconducting system, has been simulated. The melting transitions of ordered charge (vortex) lattices have been studied, and we find evidence that these transitions do not have the critical behavior expected from standard symmetry analysis

  11. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  12. Irreversibility in transformation behavior of equiatomic nickel-titanium alloy by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity were precisely performed on shape memory Ni 50 Ti 50 alloy in order to reveal the irreversible behavior of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation with thermal cycling. The hump in the electrical resistivity during cooling is enhanced with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles to result in a peak, although no peak in the electrical resistivity is observed on the reverse transformation during heating. The electrical resistivity in the low-temperature phase, of which the temperature dependence is linear, increases with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles. The temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity in the temperature region of the high-temperature phase increases with elevating the temperature. The transformation is strongly influenced by incomplete thermal cycles to result in a peak in the resistivity even on the reverse transformation after incomplete thermal cycling. It is thought that the anomalous behavior such as enhancement of a resistivity-peak, the increase in the electrical resistivity of the low-temperature phase, and the nonlinear relation between the resistivity and the temperature in the high-temperature phase are attributable to the appearance of an intermediate phase stabilized by transformation-induced defects, the accumulation of the transformation-induced defects, and the electron scattering due to the softening of a phonon mode in the high-temperature phase, respectively. It proved useful to make more accurate measurements of the electrical resistivity in order to investigate the intrinsic behavior of the transformation in NiTi

  13. Oviposition Behaviors in Relation to Rotation Resistance in the Western Corn Rootworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knolhoff, L.M.; Glas, J.J.; Spencer, J.L.; Berenbaum, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Across a large area of the midwestern United States Corn Belt, the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) exhibits behavioral resistance to annual crop rotation. Resistant females exhibit increased locomotor activity and frequently lay eggs

  14. Flux Flow, Pinning, and Resistive Behavior in Superconducting Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Teitel

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulators are used to study the behavior of interacting quantized vortices and vortex lines in superconducting networks, films, and three dimensional bulk samples. An emphasis is on the explanation of the phenomenological behavior of the ''high-Tc'' copper-oxide superconductors and related model systems

  15. Optical emission behavior and radiation resistance of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Udagawa, Akira; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-11-01

    To make clear a mechanism of radiation resistance of epoxy resin systems, a role of energy trapping site induced in bisphenol A type epoxy resins cured with 4 kinds of aromatic amines (Φ N ) was studied in comparison with the case of aliphatic amine curing system through a measurement of optical emission. In the system of the epoxy resin cured with DETA, the optical emission from an excited state of bisphenol A unit of epoxy resin and a charge transfer complex was observed. On the other hand, the optical emission from Φ N was observed in the aromatic amine curing system. Their excitation spectrum consists of peaks of absorption spectrum of BA and those of Φ N , showing that the excited state of Φ N is formed through the excitation of both BA and Φ N . Therefore, the excited energy of BA transfers to the excited state of Φ N . Emission intensity of Φ N band was 20 ∼ 100 times as large as that of BA. These results indicate that the radiation energy is effectively released as an optical emission from excited state of Φ N in the epoxy resin when cured with aromatic amine. It can be concluded from the above results that aromatic amine hardeners contribute to enhancement of the radiation resistance of epoxy resin by acting as an energy transfer agent. (author)

  16. Review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. The complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent’) properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. The development of “physiological” resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and disease vectors around the world. In Thailand, resistance in many mosquito populations has developed to all three classes of insecticidal active ingredients currently used for vector control with a majority being synthetic-derived pyrethroids. Evidence of low-grade insecticide resistance requires immediate countermeasures to mitigate further intensification and spread of the genetic mechanisms responsible for resistance. This can take the form of rotation of a different class of chemical, addition of a synergist, mixtures of chemicals or concurrent mosaic application of different classes of chemicals. From the gathered evidence, the distribution and degree of physiological resistance has been restricted in specific areas of Thailand in spite of long-term use of chemicals to control insect pests and disease vectors throughout the country. Most surprisingly, there have been no reported cases of pyrethroid resistance in anopheline populations in the country from 2000 to 2011. The precise reasons for this are unclear but we assume that behavioral avoidance to insecticides may play a significant role in reducing the selection pressure and thus occurrence and spread of insecticide resistance. The review herein provides information regarding the status of physiological resistance and behavioral avoidance of the primary mosquito vectors of human diseases to insecticides in Thailand from 2000 to 2011. PMID:24294938

  17. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  18. Resistivity behavior of optimized PbTiO3 thin films prepared by spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Th is study presents the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films which were prepared towards metal-insulator-metal capacitor device fabrication. The PbTiO3 thin films were prepared through sol-gel spin coating method that involved various deposition parameters that is (1) different molar concentration of PbTiO3 solutions, (2) various additional PbAc-content in PbTiO3 solutions, and (3) various annealing temperature on PbTiO3 thin films. Hence, an electrical measurement of current versus voltage was done to determine the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films.

  19. Resistivity behavior in isothermal annealing of Pd-H(D) alloys around 50 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kohji; Maeta, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of electrical resistivity during hydrogen (deuterium) ordering is investigated for Pd-H(D) alloys of various hydrogen concentrations around 50 K. The disordered hydrogen (deuterium) atoms are introduced by quenching from 100 K into liquid helium immediately before isothermal annealings. The disordered atoms order by migration of the atoms during the heating-up of the specimens. On the isothermal curves of the resistivity in the high temperature range, the resistivity increases at first and then adopts a constant value dependent on the annealing temperature. On the other hand, the resistivity increases and then decreases during isothermal annealing in the low temperature range, nevertheless the ordering is progressing. The annealing time, at which the resistivity maximum appears, and the resistivity value of the maximum increase with decreasing annealing temperature. Furthermore, the decreasing resistivity after the maximum saturates to a value dependent on each annealing temperature. Therefore, it becomes clear that an equilibrium amount of ordering depends on the temperature and the resistivity increases in the early stage of hydrogen (deuterium) ordering and decreases in the later stage. The resistivity maximum in the isothermal annealing curve is caused by the nucleation and growth of ordered domains of hydrogen (deuterium) atoms

  20. Analysis on the phase transition behavior of Cu base bulk metallic glass by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young Su; Chung, Sung Jae; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Hong, Kyung Tae; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Byeon, Jai Won; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of Cu 43 Zr 43 Al 7 Ag 7 (numbers indicate at.%) bulk metallic glass was investigated using the isothermal electrical resistivity measurements at 450 deg. C in the supercooled liquid region. The crystallization process is a single step phase transformation. To analyze the electrical resistivity reduction, microstructure evolutions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The Avrami parameter of the electrical resistivity reduction step was 1.73, indicating that the crystallization process is a diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic compounds with decreasing nucleation rate

  1. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengseng [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Kailiang, E-mail: kailiang_zhang@163.com [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Ruixia, E-mail: yangrx@hebut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  2. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mengseng; Zhang, Kailiang; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  3. Corrosion behavior of corrosion resistant alloys in stimulation acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheldi, Tiziana [ENI E and P Division, 20097 San Donato Milanese Milano (Italy); Piccolo, Eugenio Lo; Scoppio, Lucrezia [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, via Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, selection of CRAs for downhole tubulars is generally based on resistance to corrosive species in the production environment containing CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, chloride and in some case elemental sulphur. However, there are non-production environments to which these materials must also be resistant for either short term or prolonged duration; these environments include stimulation acids, brine and completion fluids. This paper reports the main results of a laboratory study performed to evaluate the corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour to the acidizing treatments of the most used CRAs for production tubing and casing. Laboratory tests were performed to simulate both 'active' and 'spent' acids operative phases, selecting various environmental conditions. The selected steel pipes were a low alloyed steel, martensitic, super-martensitic, duplex 22 Cr, superduplex 25 Cr and super-austenitic stainless steels (25 Cr 35 Ni). Results obtained in the 'active' acid environments over the temperature range of 100-140 deg. C, showed that the blend acids with HCl at high concentration and HCl + HF represented too much severe conditions, where preventing high general corrosion and heavy localised corrosion by inhibition package becomes very difficult, especially for duplex steel pipe, where, in some case, the specimens were completely dissolved into the solution. On the contrary, all steels pipes were successfully protected by inhibitor when organic acid solution (HCOOH + CH{sub 3}COOH) were used. Furthermore, different effectiveness on corrosion protection was showed by the tested inhibitors packages: e.g. in the 90% HCl at 12% + 10 CH{sub 3}COOH acid blend. In 'spent' acid environments, all steel pipes showed to be less susceptible to the localised and general corrosion attack. Moreover, no Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSC) was observed. Only one super-austenitic stainless steel U-bend specimen showed

  4. THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina F. Kadhim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray cast iron has many applications as pipes , pumps and valve bodies where it has influenced by heat and contact with other solutions . This research has studied the corrosion behavior and Vickers hardness of gray cast iron by immersion in four strong alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2, LiOHwith three concentrations (1%,2%,3% of each solution. Dry sliding wear has carried out before and after the heat treatments (stress relief ,normalizing, hardening and tempering. In this work ,maximum wear strength has obtained at tempered gray cast iron and minimum corrosion rate has obtained in LiOH solution by forming protective white visible oxide layer.

  5. Resistivity and strain behavior during transformation cycling in nickel-titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1983-09-01

    The effects of stress and transformation fatigue cycling on the resistivity and strain behaviors in Ni-Ti wires were studied. The samples consisted of uncycled wires and wires cycled 5.78 million times in shape memory heat engine devices. Measurements of resistivity and strain were made as a function of temperature at various applied uniaxial tensile stresses. The resistivity-temperature and strain-temperature behaviors were observed to depend on the temperature or the portion of the transformation cycle at which the stress change is made. It was found that the low temperature resistivity and strain increased with increasing stress. Also, the transformation fatigue cycled wires showed a higher and broader resistivity peak with two-stage behavior. The increase in strain with increasing stress is explained in terms of the crystallographic multiplicity of martensite plates and the alteration of the martensite plate structure in response to the applied stress. Prior transformation fatigue cycling causes a decrease in the applied stress dependence of the total strain changes. Also, the shape of curve is changed upon annealing and the M/sub S/ temperature is lowered by transformation fatigue cycling. The lower M/sub S/ temperature upon cycling is due to a stabilization of the high-temperature phase due to transformation-induced dislocations acting as an impediment to further martensite nucleation. Another effect of the stress is to increase the resistivity of the low-temperature phase. However, it was noticed that the stress should be increased above M/sub S/ temperature to increase the resistivity of the low temperature phase. The increase in low-temperature resistivity is partially due to the change in form factor during transformation shape change and due to the alteration of the martensite variants in a preferred direction

  6. Flux flow, pinning, and resistive behavior in superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, S.

    1993-10-01

    We have studied the behavior of fluctuation effects in superconducting systems using numerical simulations of XY and Coulomb gas models. The fluctuation of vortex lines in high temperature superconductors, in the presence of an external magnetic field, has been studied using a three dimensional XY model. We have continued earlier work and verified the existence of two distinct phase transitions in this model. As the vortex line lattice is heated, it melts first into a line liquid where superconductivity is destroyed for currents perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, but persists for currents parallel to the field. As heating continues, the thermal excitation of closed vortex line loops links all the lines together, leading to completely normal metal properties in all directions. Upon cooling of the vortex line liquid, we find that as the system width increases, one can get trapped into an entangled non-equilibrium state in which vortex line cuttings are frozen out on measurable nine scales. We have also continued simulations of the two dimensional Coulomb gas, as a model for vortex fluctuations in two dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions, and thin film superconductors. Our preliminary results support the accepted view of a Kosterlitz-Thouless melting of the vortex lattice, in the limit of a uniform continous film

  7. Resistance to Change: Overcoming Institutional and Individual Limitations for Improving Student Behavior through PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Many public schools currently have organizational structures that form barriers for dealing more effectively with students' challenging behaviors even though positive school-wide approaches exist and provide empirical support for their use. Nevertheless, resistance to change occurs at both institutional and individual levels. Improving student…

  8. Crack behavior of oxidation resistant coating layer on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Terrani et al. reported the oxidation resistance of Fe-based alloys for protecting zirconium alloys from the rapid oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment. Kim and co-workers also reported the corrosion behavior of Cr coated zirconium alloy using a plasma spray and laser beam scanning. Cracks are developed by tensile stress, and this significantly deteriorates the oxidation resistance. This tensile stress is possibly generated by the thermal cycle or bending or the irradiation growth of zirconium. In this study, Cr was deposited by AIP on to Zircaloy-4 plate, and the crack behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 under uni-axial tensile strain was observed. In addition, the strain of the as-deposited state was calculated by iso-inclination method. Coating began to crack at 8% of applied strain. It is assumed that a well-densified structure by AIP tends to be resistant to cracking under tensile strain.

  9. Crack behavior of oxidation resistant coating layer on Zircaloy-4 for accident tolerant fuel claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Jung; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Jae Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Terrani et al. reported the oxidation resistance of Fe-based alloys for protecting zirconium alloys from the rapid oxidation in a high-temperature steam environment. Kim and co-workers also reported the corrosion behavior of Cr coated zirconium alloy using a plasma spray and laser beam scanning. Cracks are developed by tensile stress, and this significantly deteriorates the oxidation resistance. This tensile stress is possibly generated by the thermal cycle or bending or the irradiation growth of zirconium. In this study, Cr was deposited by AIP on to Zircaloy-4 plate, and the crack behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 under uni-axial tensile strain was observed. In addition, the strain of the as-deposited state was calculated by iso-inclination method. Coating began to crack at 8% of applied strain. It is assumed that a well-densified structure by AIP tends to be resistant to cracking under tensile strain.

  10. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Increases Resistance to Extinction: Clinical Demonstration, Animal Modeling, and Clinical Test of One Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2010-01-01

    Basic research with pigeons on behavioral momentum suggests that differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) can increase the resistance of target behavior to change. This finding suggests that clinical applications of DRA may inadvertently increase the persistence of target behavior even as it decreases its frequency. We conducted…

  11. [Correlation of resistance to peer pressure and risky decision-making with adolescent health risk behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao

    2013-03-01

    To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P peer influence (low and middle level vs high level, had odds ratios of 2.97 (1.96 - 4.50) and 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)), and also the middle and high level of risky decision-making (middle and high level vs low level, had odds ratios of 1.62 (1.19 - 2.22) and 3.43 (2.39 - 4.90)) were all the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors. Adolescents with poor ability of resistance to peer pressure and high risky decision-making were both the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors.

  12. Reducing care-resistant behaviors during oral hygiene in persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Rita A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents with dementia are often dependent on others for mouth care, yet will react with care-resistant behavior when receiving assistance. The oral health of these elders deteriorates in the absence of daily oral hygiene, predisposing them to harmful systemic problems such as pneumonia, hyperglycemia, cardiac disease, and cerebral vascular accidents. The purpose of this study is to determine whether care-resistant behaviors can be reduced, and oral health improved, through the application of an intervention based on the neurobiological principles of threat perception and fear response. The intervention, called Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction, combines best mouth care practices with a constellation of behavioral techniques that reduce threat perception and thereby prevent or de-escalate care-resistant behaviors. Methods/Design Using a randomized repeated measures design, 80 elders with dementia from 5 different nursing homes will be randomized at the individual level to the experimental group, which will receive the intervention, or to the control group, which will receive standard mouth care from research team members who receive training in the proper methods for providing mouth care but no training in resistance recognition or prevention/mediation. Oral health assessments and care-resistant behavior measurements will be obtained during a 7-day observation period and a 21-day intervention period. Individual growth models using multilevel analysis will be used to estimate the efficacy of the intervention for reducing care-resistant behaviors in persons with dementia, and to estimate the overall efficacy of the intervention using oral health outcomes. Activity-based costing methods will be used to determine the cost of the proposed intervention. Discussion At the conclusion of this study, the research team anticipates having a proven intervention that prevents and reduces care-resistant within the

  13. Electrical resistance behavior with gamma radiation dose in bulk carbon nanostrutured samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, J.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Desdin, L. F.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, D.; Toledo, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of 60 Co gamma radiation on the electrical resistance and V-I characteristic of bulk carbon nano structured samples obtained by electric arc discharge in water method. Images of pristine samples obtained with scanning electron, and the results in graphical form of the electrical characterization of irradiated samples are presented in the text. It was observed that the electrical resistance vs. dose behavior shows an initial increment reaching the maximum at approximately 135 kGy, followed by a drop of the resistance values. These behaviors are associated with the progressive generation of radiation induced defects in the sample, whose number increases to reach saturation at 135 kGy. From this dose, defects could lead to cross-links between different nano structures present in the sample conducting to a gradually drop in electrical resistance. The measured V-I curves show that, increasing exposure to the 60 Co gamma radiation, the electrical properties of the studied samples transit from a semiconductor towards a predominantly metallic behavior. These results were compared with those obtained for a sample of graphite powder irradiated under the same conditions. (Author)

  14. Unique behavioral characteristics and microRNA signatures in a drug resistant epilepsy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangsup Moon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacoresistance is a major issue in the treatment of epilepsy. However, the mechanism underlying pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs is still unclear, and few animal models have been established for studying drug resistant epilepsy (DRE. In our study, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs were investigated by video-EEG monitoring during the entire procedure. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model, we administered levetiracetam (LEV and valproate (VPA in sequence. AED-responsive and AED-resistant mice were naturally selected after 7-day treatment of LEV and VPA. Behavioral tests (open field, object exploration, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition test and a microRNA microarray test were performed. Among the 37 epileptic mice with SRS, 23 showed significantly fewer SRSs during administration of LEV (n = 16, LEV sensitive (LS group or VPA (n = 7, LEV resistant/VPA sensitive (LRVS group, while 7 epileptic mice did not show any amelioration with either of the AEDs (n = 7, multidrug resistant (MDR group. On the behavioral assessment, MDR mice displayed distinctive behaviors in the object exploration and elevated plus maze tests, which were not observed in the LS group. Expression of miRNA was altered in LS and MDR groups, and we identified 4 miRNAs (miR-206, miR-374, miR-468, and miR-142-5p, which were differently modulated in the MDR group versus both control and LS groups. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to identify a pharmacoresistant subgroup, resistant to 2 AEDs, in the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. We hypothesize that modulation of the identified miRNAs may play a key role in developing pharmacoresistance and behavioral alterations in the MDR group.

  15. Fatigue crack growth resistance and crack closure behavior in two aluminum alloys for aeronautical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Maria Rodrigues

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-lithium alloys are candidate materials for many aerospace applications because of their high specific strength and elastic modulus. These alloys have several unique characteristics such as excellent fatigue crack growth resistance when compared with that of the conventional 2000 and 7000 series alloys. In this study, fatigue crack propagation behavior has been examined in a commercial thin plate of Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloy (8090, with specific emphasis at the fatigue threshold. The results are compared with those of the traditional Al-Cu-Mg alloy (2024. Fatigue crack closure is used to explain the different behavior of the compared alloys.

  16. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian

    2016-09-26

    The surface effects of ZnO-based resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) were investigated using various electrodes. Pt electrodes were found to have better performance in terms of the device\\'s switching functionality. A thermodynamic model of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy for the chemisorption process, resulting in a better resistive switching performance. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of electrode-dependent switching behaviors and can serve as design guidelines for future ReRAM devices.

  17. Comparative study on the behavior of carbon resistance temperature sensors at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Ovidiu; Cristescu, Ioana; Retevoi, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the behavior of four carbon resistance sensors, which do not have a calibration curve in comparison with two calibrated sensors. To study this behavior, all these sensors were introduced into a column cooled by a hydrogen cryogenerator of Phillips type. For high accuracy measurements, a PC with a data acquisition board incorporated achieved the data processing. The experiment consists of three cooling-heating cycles that allow studying the time stability of the sensor characteristics. The experimental data were used to draw the R = f(T) and error curves for a single cooling-heating cycle. In addition, we found the polynomial regression for the sensors that do not have a calibration curve. In conclusion it results that the carbon resistance sensors have a higher accuracy at low temperature and time stability is very good. (authors)

  18. Sub-10 nm low current resistive switching behavior in hafnium oxide stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Celano, U.; Xu, Z.; Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Goux, L.; Fantini, A.; Degraeve, R.; Youssef, A.; Jurczak, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Liu, L., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn; Cheng, Y.; Kang, J. [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In this letter, a tip-induced cell relying on the conductive atomic force microscope is proposed. It is verified as a referable replica of an integrated resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. On the basis of this cell, the functionality of sub-10 nm resistive switching is confirmed in hafnium oxide stack. Moreover, the low current switching behavior in the sub-10 nm dimension is found to be more pronounced than that of a 50 × 50 nm{sup 2} device. It shows better ON/OFF ratio and low leakage current. The enhanced memory performance is ascribed to a change in the shape of the conductive filament as the device dimensions are reduced to sub-10 nm. Therefore, device downscaling provides a promising approach for the resistance optimization that benefits the RRAM array design.

  19. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  20. Study of Ag/RGO/ITO sandwich structure for resistive switching behavior deposited on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rajdeep; Rag, Adarsh; De, Shounak; Bhat, Somashekhara

    2018-05-01

    We report here the use of facile and environmentally benign way synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for low-voltage non-volatile memory device as charge storing element. The RGO solutions have been synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation of battery electrode. The solution processed based RGO solution is suitable for large area and low-cost processing on plastic substrate. Room-temperature current-voltage characterisation has been carried out in Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich configuration to study the type of trap distribution. It is observed that in the low-voltage sweep, ohmic current is the main mechanism of current flow and trap filled/assisted conduction is observed at high-sweep voltage region. The Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich structure showed bipolar resistive switching behavior. These mechanisms can be analyzed based on oxygen availability and vacancies in the RGO giving rise to continuous least resistive path (conductive) and high resistance path along the structure. An Ag/RGO/ITO arrangement demonstrates long retention time with low operating voltage, low set/reset voltage, good ON/OFF ratio of 103 (switching transition between lower resistance state and higher resistance state and decent switching performance. The RGO memory showed decent results with an almost negligible degradation in switching properties which can be used for low-voltage and low-cost advanced flexible electronics.

  1. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  2. Resistive switching behavior of SiOx layers with Si nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesheva, D; Pantchev, B; Manolov, E; Dzhurkov, V; Nedev, N; Valdez, B; Nedev, R

    2017-01-01

    First results on resistive switching in SiO x film containing crystalline silicon nanoparticles are reported. SiO x layers ( x = 1.15) with thickness of 50 nm were deposited on n-Si crystalline substrates and annealed for 60 min at 1000 o C to grow crystalline nanoparticles. Part of the samples were annealed in an inert atmosphere, while the rest were subjected to a two-step (O 2 +N 2 /N 2 ) annealing process. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were by applying positive or negative voltage to the top contact. For both types of samples the I-V characteristics were asymmetric with lower currents measured at negative voltage, especially in the case of two-step annealed samples. In most of the N 2 annealed structures switching behavior high-low/low-high resistance state was observed in both polarities at voltages with amplitudes in the range (2 - 4) V. Uncontrolled switching low/high resistance was also seen, more frequently at positive voltages. In contrast, the two-step annealed samples showed stable behavior. The transition high-low resistance state was achieved by negative voltages in the (-2, -5) V range leading to an increase of the current by more than three orders of magnitude. The structures were reset to the high resistive state, by positive voltage in the range (3 - 4) V. Uncontrolled switching was not observed in the two-step annealed samples for both polarities and they showed higher reliability regarding the number of switching cycles. (paper)

  3. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-28

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li{sup +} ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  4. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li 0.06 Zn 0.94 O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li + ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  5. Curcumin reverses the depressive-like behavior and insulin resistance induced by chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Duo; Wei, Yu; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jing-Yi; Li, Yu-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity. Serum parameters were detected using commercial kits. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine mRNA expression. CMS rats exhibited reduced sucrose consumption, increased serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucagon, leptin, and corticosterone levels, as well as impaired insulin sensitivity. Curcumin upregulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and protein kinase B (Akt) in the liver, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reversed the metabolic abnormalities and depressive-like behaviors mentioned above. Moreover, curcumin increased the hepatic glycogen content by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and prevented gluconeogenesis by inhibiting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase). These results suggest that curcumin not only exerted antidepressant-like effects, but also reversed the insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities induced by CMS. These data may provide evidence to support the potential use of curcumin against depression and/or metabolic disorders.

  6. Resistive switching behavior in single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} annealed by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xinqiang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Shuai, Yao, E-mail: yshuai@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wu, Chuangui, E-mail: cgwu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Wenbo [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Sun, Xiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Ou, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Material for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Wanli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Collaboration Innovation Center of Electronic Materials and Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Laser annealing was used to introduce oxygen vacancies into the single crystal SrTiO{sub 3}. • The effect of laser annealing with different fluence on the single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} was systematically studied. • The concentration of oxygen vacancies can be tuned by changing the fluence of laser. • Resistive switching behavior was observed in the sample with relatively high laser fluence after an electro-forming process. - Abstract: Single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) wafers were annealed by XeCl laser (λ = 308 nm) with different fluences of 0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} and 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Ti/Pt electrodes were sputtered on the surface of STO wafer to form co-planar capacitor-like structures of Pt/Ti/STO/Ti/Pt. Current-Voltage measurements show that the leakage current is enhanced by increasing laser fluence. Resistive switching behavior is only observed in the sample annealed by laser with relatively high fluence after an electro-forming process. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the amount of oxygen vacancies increases with the increase of laser fluence. This work indicates resistive switching appears when enough oxygen vacancies are generated by the laser, which form conductive filaments under an external electric field.

  7. A vacancy-modulated self-selective resistive switching memory with pronounced nonlinear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haili; Feng, Jie; Gao, Tian; Zhu, Xi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report a self-selective (nonlinear) resistive switching memory cell, with high on-state half-bias nonlinearity of 650, sub-μA operating current, and high On/Off ratios above 100×. Regarding the cell structure, a thermal oxidized HfO x layer in combination with a sputtered Ta2O5 layer was configured as an active stack, with Pt and Hf as top and bottom electrodes, respectively. The Ta2O5 acts as a selective layer as well as a series resistor, which could make the resistive switching happened in HfO x layer. Through the analysis of the physicochemical properties and electrical conduction mechanisms at each state, a vacancy-modulated resistance switching model was proposed to explain the switching behavior. The conductivity of HfO x layer was changed by polarity-dependent drift of the oxygen vacancy ( V o), resulting in an electron hopping distance change during switching. With the help of Ta2O5 selective layer, high nonlinearity observed in low resistance state. The proposed material stack shows a promising prospect to act as a self-selective cell for 3D vertical RRAM application.

  8. Long-term electrical resistivity monitoring of recharge-induced contaminant plume behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hubbard, Susan S; Watson, David B; Baker, Gregory S; Peterson, John E; Kowalsky, Michael B; Smith, Meagan; Brooks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    Geophysical measurements, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data in particular, are sensitive to properties that are related (directly or indirectly) to hydrological processes. The challenge is in extracting information from geophysical data at a relevant scale that can be used to gain insight about subsurface behavior and to parameterize or validate flow and transport models. Here, we consider the use of ERT data for examining the impact of recharge on subsurface contamination at the S-3 ponds of the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Tennessee. A large dataset of time-lapse cross-well and surface ERT data, collected at the site over a period of 12 months, is used to study time variations in resistivity due to changes in total dissolved solids (primarily nitrate). The electrical resistivity distributions recovered from cross-well and surface ERT data agrees well, and both of these datasets can be used to interpret spatiotemporal variations in subsurface nitrate concentrations due to rainfall, although the sensitivity of the electrical resistivity response to dilution varies with nitrate concentration. Using the time-lapse surface ERT data interpreted in terms of nitrate concentrations, we find that the subsurface nitrate concentration at this site varies as a function of spatial position, episodic heavy rainstorms (versus seasonal and annual fluctuations), and antecedent rainfall history. These results suggest that the surface ERT monitoring approach is potentially useful for examining subsurface plume responses to recharge over field-relevant scales. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-03-23

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance responses: rGO films (< 11 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “0”), rGO films (around 11-13 h, balance point) and rGO films (> 13 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “1”). We propose a new mechanism that describes a “scale”-like model for rGO films to explain these behaviors based on contributions from Ohm-contact resistance and capacitive reactance at interplate junctions, and intrinsic resistances of the nanoplates, respectively. This mechanism is accordingly validated via a series of experiments and electrical impedance spectroscopies, which complement more classical models based on proton conductivity. To explore the practical applications of the converse humidity/resistance responses, three simple flexible logic devices were developed, i) a rGO pattern for humidity-insensitive conductive film, which has the potential to greatly improve the stability of carbon-based electrical device to humidity; ii) a Janus pattern of rGO films for gesture recognition, which is very useful to human/machine interactions; iii) a sandwich pattern of rGO films for 3-dimensional (3D) noncontact sensing, which will be complementary to existing 3D touch technique.

  10. Nonlinear behavior of multiple-helicity resistive interchange modes near marginally stable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1991-05-01

    Nonlinear behavior of resistive interchange modes near marginally stable states is theoretically studied under the multiple-helicity condition. Reduced fluid equations in the sheared slab configuration are used in order to treat a local transport problem. With the use of the invariance property of local reduced fluid model equations under a transformation between the modes with different rational surfaces, weakly nonlinear theories for single-helicity modes by Hamaguchi and Nakajima are extended to the multiple-helicity case and applied to the resistive interchange modes. We derive the nonlinear amplitude equations of the multiple-helicity modes, from which the convective transport in the saturated state is obtained. It is shown how the convective transport is enhanced by nonlinear interaction between modes with different rational surfaces compared with the single-helicity case. We confirm that theoretical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations. (author)

  11. Precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel during hot deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stress relaxation curves for three different hot deformation processes in the temperature range of 750–1000 °C were studied to develop an understanding of the precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel (Zhang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015 [1]. This data article provides supporting data and detailed information on how to accurately analysis the stress relaxation data. The statistical analysis of the stress peak curves, including the number of peaks, the intensity of the peaks and the integral value of the pumps, was carried out. Meanwhile, the XRD energy spectrum data was also calculated in terms of lattice distortion.

  12. Bistable resistive memory behavior in gelatin-CdTe quantum dot composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhapurapu, Sreedevi; Rohom, Ashwini; Chaure, N. B.; Du, Shengzhi; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Bistable memory behavior has been observed for the first time in gelatin type A thin film dispersed with functionalized CdTe quantum dots. The two terminal device with the polymer nanocomposite layer sandwiched between an indium tin oxide coated glass plate and an aluminium top electrode performs as a bistable resistive random access memory module. Butterfly shaped (O-shaped with a hysteresis in forward and reverse sweeps) current-voltage response is observed in this device. The conduction mechanism leading to the bistable electrical switching has been deduced to be a combination of ohmic and electron hopping.

  13. Study on creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel using theta projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler was characterized using the theta projection method. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress ranging from 100-150MPa. Based on the creep curve results, four theta parameters were established using a nonlinear least square fitting method. Four theta parameters showed a good linearity as a function of stress. The predicted curves coincided well with the experimental data and creep curves were also modeled to the low stress level of 60MPa.

  14. Negative differential resistance behavior in phosphorus-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Zhang, Daoli; Zhang, Jianbing; Miao, Xiangshui; Ye, Cong

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, we investigate the electronic transport properties of phosphorus-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) junctions by employing nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-function theory. Two phosphorus (P) atoms are considered to substitute the central carbon atom with the different width of AGNRs. The results indicate that the electronic transport behaviors are strongly dependent on the width of the P-doped graphene nanoribbons. The current-voltage characteristics of the doped AGNR junctions reveal an interesting negative differential resistance (NDR) and exhibit three distinct family (3 n, 3 n + 1, 3 n + 2) behaviors. These results display that P doping is a very good way to achieve NDR of the graphene nanoribbon devices

  15. Plasma resistance behavior during the linear decay phase of RFPs in ETA BETA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalesso, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the aided-reversal mode RFP discharges produced in ETA BETA II, the plasma current is characterized by a linear decay phase, which follows an approximately exponential phase. During the same period the measured toroidal voltage is negative and initially increasing in absolute value (exponential phase) and then decreasing to almost zero during the linear phase before the current termination. The same behavior of the current has been observed in the quiescent phase in Zeta where a negative toroidal electric field was also observed. In this note we present a model that can explain the linear decay phase and fits with the experimental parameters and allows us to estimate the plasma resistance behavior during the linear phase of slow reversed field pinch discharges

  16. Elucidation and Optimization of Resistive Random Access Memory Switching Behavior for Advanced Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Zahiruddin

    RRAM has recently emerged as a strong candidate for non-volatile memory (NVM). Beyond memory applications, RRAM holds promise for use in performing logic functions, mimicking neuromorphic activities, enabling multi-level switching, and as one of the key elements of hardware based encryption or signal processing systems. It has been shown previously that RRAM resistance levels can be changed by adjusting compliance current or voltage level. This characteristic makes RRAM suitable for use in setting the synaptic weight in neuromorphic computing circuits. RRAM is also considered as a key element in hardware encryption systems, to produce unique and reproducible signals. However, a key challenge to implement RRAM in these applications is significant cycle to cycle performance variability. We sought to develop RRAM that can be tuned to different resistance levels gradually, with high reliability, and low variability. To achieve this goal, we focused on elucidating the conduction mechanisms underlying the resistive switching behavior for these devices. Electrical conduction mechanisms were determined by curve fitting I-V data using different current conduction equations. Temperature studies were also performed to corroborate these data. It was found that Schottky barrier height and width modulation was one of the key parameters that could be tuned to achieve different resistance levels, and for switching resistance states, primarily via oxygen vacancy movement. Oxygen exchange layers with different electronegativity were placed between top electrode and the oxide layer of TaOx devices to determine the effect of oxygen vacancy concentrations and gradients in these devices. It was found that devices with OELs with lower electronegativity tend to yield greater separation in the OFF vs. ON state resistance levels. As an extension of this work, TaOx based RRAM with Hf as the OEL was fabricated and could be tuned to different resistance level using pulse width and height

  17. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  18. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.

  19. The behavior of antibiotic resistance genes and arsenic influenced by biochar during different manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erping; Wu, Ying; Jiao, Yanan; Zuo, Yiru; Rensing, Christopher; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-01

    The effect of two different biochar types, rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB), on chicken manure composting was previously examined by monitoring the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and arsenic. The behavior of ARGs and arsenic in other kinds of manure composting with the same biochar types had not been examined. In this study, we added either RSB or MB to pig and duck manure composts to study the behavior of ARGs (tet genes, sul genes, and chloramphenicol resistance genes) and arsenic under the same experimental condition. The results showed that the average removal values of selected ARGs were respectively 2.56 and 2.09 log units in duck and pig manure compost without the addition of biochar. The effect of biochar addition on the average removal value of ARGs depended on the type of biochar and manure. For instance, in pig manure compost, MB addition increased the average removal value of ARGs, while RSB addition decreased. And both biochar additions had a negative influence on the average removal value of ARGs in duck manure compost. Analytical results also demonstrated that MB addition reduced total arsenic and the percentage of bioavailable arsenic more than RSB.

  20. Treatment-resistant depression in adolescents: is the addition of cognitive behavioral therapy of benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetrick SE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Hetrick1, Georgina R Cox1, Sally N Merry21Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Werry Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Department of Psychological Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Many young people with major depression fail first-line treatments. Treatment resistant depression has various definitions in the literature but typically assumes nonresponse to medication. In young people, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is the recommended firstline intervention, thus the definition of treatment resistance should be expanded. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize the existing evidence of any interventions for treatment-resistant depression, broadly defined, in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness of CBT in this context. Methods: We used Cochrane Collaboration methodology, with electronic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials registers. Only randomized controlled trials were included, and were assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was undertaken where possible and appropriate.Results: Of 953 articles retrieved, four trials were eligible for inclusion. For one study, only the trial registration document was available, because the study was never completed. All other studies were well conducted with a low risk of bias, although one study had a high dropout rate. Two studies assessed the effect of adding CBT to medication. While an assertive trial of antidepressants does appear to lead to benefit, when compared with placebo, there was no significant advantage, in either study, or in a meta-analysis of data from these trials, that clearly demonstrated an additional benefit of CBT. The third trial showed little advantage of a tricyclic antidepressant over placebo in the context of an inpatient admission. Conclusion: Few randomized

  1. Water-based adhesives with tailored hydrophobic association: dilution resistance and improved setting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundua, Alexander; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Hydrophobic association and stimuli-responsiveness is a powerful tool towards water-based adhesives with strongly improved properties, which is demonstrated based on the example of hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble latexes (HASE) with modulated association. Their rheological properties are highly tunable due to the hydrophobic domains that act as physical crosslinking sites of adjustable interaction strength. Ethanol, propanol, and butanol are used as water-soluble model additives with different hydrophobicity in order to specifically target the association sites and impact the viscoelastic properties and stimuli-responsiveness. The rheological and mechanical property response upon dilution with water can be tailored, and dilution-resistant or even dilution-thickening systems are obtained. The investigations are of high importance for water-based adhesives, as our findings provide insight into general structure-property relationships to improve their setting behavior, especially upon contact with wet substrates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  3. Deformation behavior, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity of Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Qiu, C L; Chen, Q; Chan, K C; Zhang, S M

    2008-07-01

    Two Ni-free bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) of Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(22.5)Pd(5)Al(7.5) and Zr(60)Nb(5)Cu(20)Fe(5)Al(10) were successfully prepared by arc-melting and copper mold casting. The thermal stability and crystallization were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. It demonstrates that the two BMGs exhibit very good glass forming ability with a wide supercooled liquid region. A multi-step process of crystallization with a preferential formation of quasicrystals occurred in both BMGs under continuous heating. The deformation behavior of the two BMGs was investigated using quasi-static compression testing. It reveals that the BMGs exhibit not only superior strength but also an extended plasticity. Corrosion behaviors of the BMGs were investigated in phosphate buffered solution by electrochemical polarization. The result shows that the two BMGs exhibit excellent corrosion resistance characterized by low corrosion current densities and wide passive regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the passive film formed after anodic polarization was highly enriched in zirconium, niobium, and aluminum oxides. This is attributed to the excellent corrosion resistance. Additionally, the potential cytotoxicity of the two Ni-free BMGs was evaluated through cell culture for 1 week followed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and SEM observation. The results indicate that the two Ni-free BMGs exhibit as good biocompatibility as Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and thus show a promising potential for biomedical applications. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Straining electrode behavior and corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys in high temperature acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Repassivation behavior and IGA resistance of nickel base alloys containing 0∼30 wt% chromium was investigated in high temperature acid sulfate solution. (1) The repassivation rate was increased with increasing chromium content. And so the amounts of charge caused by the metal dissolution were decreased with increasing chromium content. (2) Mill-annealed Alloy 600 suffered IGA at low pH environment below about 3.5 at the fixed potentials above the corrosion potential in 10%Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 solution at 598K. On the other hand, thermally-treated Alloy 690 was hard to occur IGA at low pH environments which mill-annealed Alloy 600 occurred IGA. (3) It was considered that the reason, why nickel base alloys containing high chromium content such as Alloy 690 (60%Ni-30%Cr-10%Fe) had high IGA/SCC resistance in high temperature acidic solution containing sulfate ion, is due to both the promotion of the repassivation and the suppression of the film dissolution by the formation of the dense chromium oxide film

  5. Electrochemical behavior of tube-fin assembly for an aluminum automotive condenser with improved corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Canul, M. A.; Guía-Tello, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Aguilar, J. C.; Gorocica-Díaz, J. A.; Arana-Guillén, R.; Puch-Bleis, J.

    An aluminum automotive condenser was designed to exhibit high corrosion resistance in the seawater acetic acid test (SWAAT) combining zinc coated microchannel tubes and fins made with AA4343/AA3003(Zn)/AA4343 brazing sheet. Electrochemical measurements in SWAAT solution were carried out under laboratory conditions using tube-fin assembly and individual fin and tube samples withdrawn from the condenser core. The aim was to gain information on the protective role of the zinc sacrificial layer and about changes in corrosion behavior as a function of immersion time. External corrosion of the tube-fin system was simulated by immersion of mini-core samples under open circuit conditions. The corrosion rate increased rapidly during the first 6 h and slowly afterwards. The short time behavior was related to the dissolution of the oxide film and fast dissolution of the outermost part of the zinc diffusion layer. With the aid of cross-sectional depth corrosion potential profiles, it was shown that as the sacrificial layer gets dissolved, the surface concentration of zinc decreases and the potential shifts to less negative values. The results of galvanic coupling of tube and fins in a mini-cell showed that the tube became the anode while the fins exhibited cathodic behavior. An evolution in the galvanic interaction was observed, due to the progressive dissolution of the sacrificial zinc layer. The difference of uncoupled potentials between tube and fins decreased from 71 mV to 32 mV after 84 h of galvanic coupling. At the end of such period there was still a part of the zinc sacrificial layer remaining which would serve for protection of the tube material for even longer periods and there were indications of slight corrosion in the fins.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of tube-fin assembly for an aluminum automotive condenser with improved corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pech-Canul

    Full Text Available An aluminum automotive condenser was designed to exhibit high corrosion resistance in the seawater acetic acid test (SWAAT combining zinc coated microchannel tubes and fins made with AA4343/AA3003(Zn/AA4343 brazing sheet. Electrochemical measurements in SWAAT solution were carried out under laboratory conditions using tube-fin assembly and individual fin and tube samples withdrawn from the condenser core. The aim was to gain information on the protective role of the zinc sacrificial layer and about changes in corrosion behavior as a function of immersion time. External corrosion of the tube-fin system was simulated by immersion of mini-core samples under open circuit conditions. The corrosion rate increased rapidly during the first 6 h and slowly afterwards. The short time behavior was related to the dissolution of the oxide film and fast dissolution of the outermost part of the zinc diffusion layer. With the aid of cross-sectional depth corrosion potential profiles, it was shown that as the sacrificial layer gets dissolved, the surface concentration of zinc decreases and the potential shifts to less negative values. The results of galvanic coupling of tube and fins in a mini-cell showed that the tube became the anode while the fins exhibited cathodic behavior. An evolution in the galvanic interaction was observed, due to the progressive dissolution of the sacrificial zinc layer. The difference of uncoupled potentials between tube and fins decreased from 71 mV to 32 mV after 84 h of galvanic coupling. At the end of such period there was still a part of the zinc sacrificial layer remaining which would serve for protection of the tube material for even longer periods and there were indications of slight corrosion in the fins. Keywords: Aluminum, Automotive, Corrosion, Galvanic, Zn coating

  7. Study of self-compliance behaviors and internal filament characteristics in intrinsic SiOx-based resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lee, Jack C.; Fowler, Burt

    2016-01-01

    Self-compliance characteristics and reliability optimization are investigated in intrinsic unipolar silicon oxide (SiO x )-based resistive switching (RS) memory using TiW/SiO x /TiW device structures. The program window (difference between SET voltage and RESET voltage) is dependent on external series resistance, demonstrating that the SET process is due to a voltage-triggered mechanism. The program window has been optimized for program/erase disturbance immunity and reliability for circuit-level applications. The SET and RESET transitions have also been characterized using a dynamic conductivity method, which distinguishes the self-compliance behavior due to an internal series resistance effect (filament) in SiO x -based RS memory. By using a conceptual “filament/resistive gap (GAP)” model of the conductive filament and a proton exchange model with appropriate assumptions, the internal filament resistance and GAP resistance can be estimated for high- and low-resistance states (HRS and LRS), and are found to be independent of external series resistance. Our experimental results not only provide insights into potential reliability issues but also help to clarify the switching mechanisms and device operating characteristics of SiO x -based RS memory

  8. Drug resistant HIV: Behaviors and characteristics among Los Angeles men who have sex with men with new HIV diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamina M Gorbach

    Full Text Available Epidemiology of drug resistant HIV has focused on trends and less attention has been given to identification of factors, especially behaviors including substance use, in acquisition of drug-resistant HIV. From 2009 to 2012 The Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year men who have sex with men (MSM seeking testing for HIV in a community clinic in Los Angeles assessing those testing positive for acute and recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 125 classified as newly HIV infected and 91 as chronically infected (newly HIV-diagnosed; specimens were available and viable for resistance testing for 154 of the 216 HIV positives with new diagnoses. In this community clinic we found prevalence of resistance among MSM with new HIV-diagnosis was 19.5% (n = 30/154 with no difference by recency of HIV infection. Sexual partnership characteristics were associated with resistance; those who reported transgendered sex partners had a higher prevalence of resistance as compared to those who did not report transgendered sex partners (40% vs. 17%; p value = 0.04, while those who reported having a main partner had a lower prevalence of drug resistance (12% vs. 24%; p value = 0.07. In multivariable analyses adjusting for HIV recency and antiviral use, reporting a main partner decreased odds [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13-0.87], reporting a transgendered partnered increased odds (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI 0.95-12.43; and being African American increased odds of drug resistance (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.41-22.38. This suggests African American MSM and TG individuals in Los Angeles represent pockets of exceptional risk that will require special approaches to prevention and care to enhance their own health and reduce their likelihood to support transmission of drug resistance in the US.

  9. Modified resistivity-strain behavior through the incorporation of metallic particles in conductive polymer composite fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Deng, H.; Gao, X.; Zhang, S.M.; Bilotti, E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Fu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Eutectic metal particles and carbon nanotubes are incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix through a simple but efficient method, melt compounding, to tune the resistivity-strain behavior of conductive polymer composite (CPC) fibers. Such a combination of conductive fillers is rarely

  10. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  11. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiN x /SiN y multilayers with high on/off ratio of 10 9 . High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  12. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2014-09-01

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers with high on/off ratio of 109. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  13. Effect of Standard No. 2800 Rules for Moment Resisting Frames on the Elastic and Inelastic Behavior of Dual Steel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Veladi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to most valid Design Codes including the Iranian Seismic Design Code (Standard No. 2800, moment resisting frames in dual systems must have the ability of resisting the 25% of the total lateral load of the dual system independently. This study is conducted to investigate the implementation of this rule for dual steel structures with two types of steel braced frame. Also, its effect on the strength of the structure and the distribution of lateral load between the frames and the bracing system is evaluated. In order to investigate the effect of that rule, structural models with 5, 10 and 15 floors are modeled. Nonlinear static analysis is employed and results are discussed. Following the Standard No. 2008 seems to increase the structure’s lateral resistance and decrease the number of elements entered into the inelastic behavior stage. In general, the structure has a more desirable inelastic behavior.

  14. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  15. Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries during Calendar Ageing – The Case of the Internal Resistance Increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as the key energy storage technology for both e-mobility and stationary renewable energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the Lithium-ion batteries are complex energy storage devices, which are characterized by a complex degradation behavior, which affects both...... their capacity and internal resistance. This paper investigates, based on extended laboratory calendar ageing tests, the degradation of the internal resistance of a Lithium-ion battery. The dependence of the internal resistance increase on the temperature and state-of-charge level have been extensive studied...... and quantified. Based on the obtained laboratory results, an accurate semi-empirical lifetime model, which is able to predict with high accuracy the internal resistance increase of the Lithium-ion battery over a wide temperature range and for all state-of-charge levels was proposed and validated....

  16. Efficacy of Water Resistance Therapy in Subjects Diagnosed With Behavioral Dysphonia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Jara, Rodrigo; Olavarria, Christian; Caceres, Paloma; Escuti, Geordette; Medina, Fernanda; Medina, Laura; Madrid, Sofia; Muñoz, Daniel; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of water resistance therapy (WRT) in a long-term period of voice treatment in subjects diagnosed with voice disorders. Twenty participants, with behavioral dysphonia, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) voice treatment with WRT, and (2) voice treatment with tube phonation with the distal end in air (TPA). Before and after voice therapy, participants underwent aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and auditory-perceptual assessments. The Voice Handicap Index and self-assessment of resonant voice quality were also performed. The treatment included eight voice therapy sessions. For the WRT group, the exercises consisted of a sequence of five phonatory tasks performed with a drinking straw submerged 5 cm into water. For the TPA, the exercises consisted of the same phonatory tasks, and all of them were performed into the same straw but the distal end was in air. Wilcoxon test showed significant improvements for both groups for Voice Handicap Index (decrease), subglottic pressure (decrease), phonation threshold pressure (decrease), and self-perception of resonant voice quality (increase). Improvement in auditory-perceptual assessment was found only for the TPA group. No significant differences were found for any acoustic or electroglottographic variables. No significant differences were found between WRT and TPA groups for any variable. WRT and TPA may improve voice function and self-perceived voice quality in individuals with behavioral dysphonia. No differences between these therapy protocols should be expected. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences

  18. Study on dissolution behavior of polymer-bound and polymer-blended photo-acid generator (PAG) resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2013-03-01

    The requirements for the next generation resist materials are so challenging that it is indispensable for feasibility of EUV lithography to grasp basic chemistry of resist matrices in all stage of resist processes. Under such circumstances, it is very important to know dissolution characteristics of the resist film into alkaline developer though the dissolution of exposed area of resist films in alkaline developer to form a pattern is a complex reactive process. In this study, the influence of EUV and KrF exposure on the dissolution behavior of polymer bound PAG and polymer blended PAG was studied in detail using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods. The difference in swelling formation between KrF and EUV exposure was observed. It is likely that difference of reaction mechanism induces the difference of these swelling. Also, it is observed that the swelling of polymer-bound PAG is less than that of polymer blended PAG in both KrF and EUV exposure. This result indicates that polymer-bound PAG suppresses swelling very well and showed an excellent performance. Actually, the developed polymer bound-PAG resist showed an excellent performance (half pitch 50 nm line and space pattern). Thus, polymer bound PAG is one of the promising candidate for 16 nm EUV resist.

  19. Effect of Cu content on wear resistance and mechanical behavior of Ti-Cu binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Wang, Hefeng; Yuan, Guozheng; Shu, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    Arc melting with nonconsumable tungsten electrode and water-cooled copper crucible was used to fabricate Ti-Cu binary alloys with different Cu contents in an argon atmosphere. The compositions and phase structures of the fabricated alloys were investigated by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation tests through continuous stiffness measurement were then performed at room temperature to analyze the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. Results indicated that the composition of each Ti-Cu binary alloy was Ti(100- x) Cu x ( x = 43, 60, 69, and 74 at.%). The XRD analysis results showed that the alloys were composed of different phases, indicating that different Cu contents led to the variations in alloy hardness. The wear tests results revealed that elemental Cu positively affects the wear resistance properties of the Ti-Cu alloys. Nanoindentation testing results showed that the moduli of the Ti-Cu alloys were minimally changed at increasing Cu content, whereas their hardness evidently increased according to the wear test results.

  20. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of a Dual-Phase Mg-Li Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization behavior of the dual-phase Mg-9Li-3Al-2Sr-2Y alloy had been investigated using a compression test. The typical dual-phase structure was observed, and average of grain size of as-homogenized alloy is about 110 µm. It mainly contains β-Li, α-Mg, Al4Sr and Al2Y phases. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX kinetic was established based on an Avrami type equation. The onset of the DRX process occurred before the peak of the stress–strain flow curves. It shows that the DRX volume fraction increases with increasing deformation temperature or decreasing strain rate. The microstructure evolution during the hot compression at various temperatures and strain rates had been investigated. The DRX grain size became larger with the increasing testing temperature or decreasing strain rate because the higher temperature or lower strain rate can improve the migration of DRX grain boundaries. The fully recrystallized microstructure can be achieved in a small strain due to the dispersed island-shape α-Mg phases, continuous the Al4Sr phases and spheroidal Al2Y particles, which can accelerate the nucleation. The continuous Al4Sr phases along the grain boundaries are very helpful for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the duplex structured Mg-Li alloy, which can prevent the pitting corrosion and filiform corrosion.

  1. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of a Dual-Phase Mg-Li Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Xie, Wen; Wei, Guobing; Yang, Yan; Liu, Junwei; Xu, Tiancai; Xie, Weidong; Peng, Xiaodong

    2018-03-09

    The hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization behavior of the dual-phase Mg-9Li-3Al-2Sr-2Y alloy had been investigated using a compression test. The typical dual-phase structure was observed, and average of grain size of as-homogenized alloy is about 110 µm. It mainly contains β-Li, α-Mg, Al₄Sr and Al₂Y phases. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetic was established based on an Avrami type equation. The onset of the DRX process occurred before the peak of the stress-strain flow curves. It shows that the DRX volume fraction increases with increasing deformation temperature or decreasing strain rate. The microstructure evolution during the hot compression at various temperatures and strain rates had been investigated. The DRX grain size became larger with the increasing testing temperature or decreasing strain rate because the higher temperature or lower strain rate can improve the migration of DRX grain boundaries. The fully recrystallized microstructure can be achieved in a small strain due to the dispersed island-shape α-Mg phases, continuous the Al₄Sr phases and spheroidal Al₂Y particles, which can accelerate the nucleation. The continuous Al₄Sr phases along the grain boundaries are very helpful for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the duplex structured Mg-Li alloy, which can prevent the pitting corrosion and filiform corrosion.

  2. Comportamento da Lordose Lombar no Exercício Resistido / Lumbar lordosis behavior in Resisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Beatriz Manara Lellis

    2017-09-01

    : maintenance of physiological lordosis, hyperlordosis, rectified curvature and reversal of curvature. Results: It was found modification in lumbar lordosis behavior during the execution of all exercises. The maintenance of the physiological lordosis, which would be a not erroneous and acceptable position, was not significant. On the “Stretcher Chair” device, the correct maintenance of the lumbar curvature during resisted exercise was present in only 35.8%. It was the apparatus in which few remained physiological curvature and the most inversion of the curve was present. The “Flying” machine showed the most preservation of posture with a small percentage of change (76.5%, and was followed by the “Leg” unit (65.4% and “High Pulley” set (64.2%. The “Flexor Chair” device showed the fewer variety in types of curvatures, the hyperlordosis and physiologic lordosis, with a prevalence of 61.7%. Rectification and reversal of the curvature was not observed in this device. Conclusion: The practice of resisted exercise without the maintenance of lumbar lordosis, whether by misdirection or stress, is the regular practice of students subjected to analysis of this study.

  3. Severely Heat Injured Survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 Display Variable and Heterogeneous Stress Resistance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, Elisa; Govers, Sander K.; Michiels, Chris W.; Aertsen, Abram

    2016-01-01

    Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation. PMID:27917163

  4. Severely heat injured survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 display variable and heterogeneous stress resistance behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gayán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohaemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing persister-like cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation.

  5. Controllable Negative Differential Resistance Behavior of an Azobenzene Molecular Device Induced by Different Molecule-Electrode Distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhi-Qiang; Zhang Zhen-Hua; Qiu Ming; Deng Xiao-Qing; Tang Gui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report the ab initio calculations of transport behaviors of an azobenzene molecular device which is similar to the experimental configurations. The calculated results show that the transport behaviors of the device are sensitive to the molecule-electrode distance and the currents will drop rapidly when the molecule-electrode distance changes from 1.7 Å to 2.0 Å. More interestingly, the negative differential resistance behavior can be found in our device. Nevertheless, it is not the inherent property of an azobenzene molecular device but an effect of the molecule-electrode distance. Detailed analyses of the molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian states and the transmission spectra of the system reveal the physical mechanism of these behaviors. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Investigating mechanical behavior and radiation resistant of fuel rods clad in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgh Kerdar, A.

    1999-01-01

    interstitials in metal lattice under irradiation causes increased strength and hardness but decreases ductility in metals.The increase in strength and hardness depends on obstacles that prevent the motion of dislocations. The clustering of point defects are responsible for these changes. Irradiation also induces instabilities in phases due to enhancement of diffusion, solute segregation, precipitate formation, order- disorder transformation and resolution of small precipitates. From the microscopic point of view accumulation of vacancies accompanied by formation of He and H 2 gases under irradiation cause an increase in volume which results in swelling and eventually ends up with embrittlement of metals. This subject was described in chapter three Zirconium and its alloys are the best structural materials for fuel cladding of BWR and PWR reactors core. The working condition in the core of nuclear reactor are very serve, respect temperature and radiation dose. It should be realized that, if fuel cladding receive damage and get cracked, the first cooling cycle and the maine equipment will be contaminated with active materials which cause additional environmental problems. Furthermore, replacement of fuel rods are very costly. Therefore, for increasing life time of fuel cladding and minimizing damage, the effect of radiation and heat on Zirconium and its alloys must be investigated. This subject was described in chapter four.The mechanical behavior and radiation resistant of fuel cladding in PWR reactor (specifically WWER ) have been investigated which is described in chapter five. Result, discussion and final conclusion are summarized in last chapter and also several points for improvement have been offered

  7. Codes of Commitment to Crime and Resistance: Determining Social and Cultural Factors over the Behaviors of Italian Mafia Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayli, Baris

    2016-01-02

    This article categorizes thirty-three women in four main Italian Mafia groups and explores social and cultural behaviors of these women. This study introduces the feminist theory of belief and action. The theoretical inquiry investigates the sometimes conflicting behaviors of women when they are subject to systematic oppression. I argue that there is a cultural polarization among the categorized sub-groups. Conservative radicals give their support to the Mafia while defectors and rebels resist the Mafia. After testing the theory, I assert that emancipation of women depends on the strength of their beliefs to perform actions against the Mafiosi culture.

  8. The Effects of Elaboration on the Strength of Doping-Related Attitudes: Resistance to Change and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Luttrell, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This experiment analyzed whether attitudes toward the legalization of several doping behaviors would resist change and predict behavioral intentions when they were initially formed through thoughtful (i.e., high elaboration) versus nonthoughtful (i.e., low elaboration) processes. Participants were randomly assigned first to a persuasive message either against or in favor of the legalization, which they read with relatively high or low degrees of deliberative thinking. Attitudes and intentions regarding legalization were assessed following that message. Next, each participant received a second message that was opposed to the first one, serving as an attack against the attitude that participants had just formed. Finally, attitudes were again assessed. As hypothesized, participants showed greater attitude-consistent intentions when they formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) consideration of the first message. Moreover, the second message resulted in greater resistance to attitude change when participants formed their initial attitudes through thoughtful (vs. nonthoughtful) processes.

  9. The electrochemical behavior of cobalt phthalocyanine/platinum as methanol-resistant oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts for DMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuhao; Reddy, Ramana G. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870202, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of cobalt phthalocyanine/platinum as methanol-resistant oxygen-reduction electrocatalyst for DMFC was investigated. Platinum was chemically deposited on the carbon-supported cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), and then it was heat-treated in high purity nitrogen at 300 C, 635 C and 980 C. In order to evaluate the electrocatalytic behavior of CoPc-Pt/C, the PtCo/C and Pt/C as reference catalysts were employed. TGA, XRD, EDAX, XPS and electrochemical experiments were used to study the thermal stability, crystal structure, physical characterization and electrochemical behavior of these catalysts. These catalysts exhibited similar electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. In methanol tolerance experiments, Pt/C, PtCo/C and CoPc-Pt/C heated at 980 C were active for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The presence of Co did not improve resistance to methanol poisoning. However, the CoPc-Pt/C after 300 C or 635 C heat-treatment demonstrated significant inactivity for MOR, hence they have a good ability to resist methanol poisoning. The current study indicated that the macrocyclic structure of phthalocyanine is the most important factor to improve the methanol tolerance of CoPc-Pt/C as the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst. The CoPc-Pt based catalyst should be a good alternation for oxygen electro-reduction reaction in DMFC. (author)

  10. Effect of vanadium of mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminium grain refined by Ti+B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.; Hamid, A.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    It is well established that aluminum and its alloys are industrially grain refined by adding either Ti or Ti-B to improve their mechanical behavior and surface finish. In a previous paper, it was found that the grain refining efficiency of aluminum master alloys containing Ti or Ti+B was enhanced by addition of small amounts of other elements including vanadium. V. Therefore, it is anticipated that such an element will improve mechanical behavior, machinability and wear resistance of aluminum and its alloys. In this paper, the effect of vanadium addition, up to 0.3% on mechanical behavior is investigated. Machinability was assessed under different cutting conditions: speed, feed and depth of cut and finally the wear resistance was determined at different loads and speeds. The results indicated that improvement in hardness and mechanical strength were achieved by the addition of V that addition of more than 0.2%V resulted in little or no improvement. Similarly, addition of V resulted in improvement of surface quality under the different cutting conditions of speed, feed and depth of cut, and resistance to wear. However addition of more than 0.2% V resulted in increase of wear rate and change of wear mechanisms. (author)

  11. Comparing the predictive capacity of observed in-session resistance to self-reported motivation in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2011-02-01

    Self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety have been weakly and inconsistently related to outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). While clients may not be able to accurately report their motivation, ambivalence about change may nonetheless be expressed in actual therapy sessions as opposition to the direction set by the therapist (i.e., resistance). In the context of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study compared the ability of observed in-session resistance in CBT session 1 and two self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety (the Change Questionnaire & the Client Motivational for Therapy Scale) to (1) predict client and therapist rated homework compliance (2) predict post-CBT and one-year post-treatment worry reduction, and (3) differentiate those who received motivational interviewing prior to CBT from those who received no pre-treatment. Observed in-session resistance performed very well on each index, compared to the performance of self-reported motivation which was inconsistent and weaker relative to observed resistance. These findings strongly support both clinician sensitivity to moments of client resistance in actual therapy sessions as early as session 1, and the inclusion of observational process measures in CBT research. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-temperature abnormal behavior of resistivities for Bi-In melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yun; Zu Fangqiu; Li Xianfen; Yu Jin; Liu Lanjun; Li Qiang; Chen Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of electrical resistivities versus temperature in large temperature range have been studied, using the D.C. four-probe method, for liquid Bi-In alloys (Bi-In(33 wt%), Bi-In(38 wt%), Bi-In(50.5 wt%), Bi-In(66 wt%)). The clear turning point of each resistivity-temperature curves of the liquid Bi-In alloys is observed at the temperature much above the melting point, in which temperature range the resistivity-temperature coefficient increases rapidly. Except for the turning temperature range, the resistivities of Bi-In alloys increase linearly with temperature. Because resistivity is sensitive to the structure, this experiment shows the structural transition in Bi-In melts at the temperature much higher than the liquidus. And it is suggested that there are different Bi-In short-range orderings in different Bi-In melts, so the resistivity-temperature curves have the turns at different temperatures and the resistivity-temperature coefficients are also different

  13. Study of Behavior and Measurement of Seismic Resistant Connections in Light Structural Frame Out of Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake is the major Natural disaster in Iran which once a while causes widespread death and financial losses. Constructional system and materials used in them, most often accelerate these damages, so these are considered principal reasons of the events. Countries that have regions of high seismicity, conducted research on constructional systems, materials, and methods of improving their resistance to earthquake. These research efforts have found simple solution of the problem in wood and its proper combinations with other constructional materials. In this research, regarding such target, two subjects were studied. A model of light framed one story single-family residential house in Iran was constructed to determine its dynamical behavior. The model was constructed in one- third scale of a unit with 54 square meters in base. Foundation anchorage in model was made by metal angle pieces, which were bolted to lower plank. These types of connectors could easily be fabricated in metal working shops in Iran. The rest of joints in model were made with bolts and common nails. To see the behavior of the model, its natural frequency, acceleration at different points, lateral movements (displacement, and also response of joints to tensile and compressive forces (developed due to lateral dynamical loading on a shaking table were measured and analyzed. Results have shown that with respect to Fast Fourier Transformation spectra, ratio of maximum acceleration in roof to bottom of model, in sinusoidal acceleration test, the natural frequency of model is ten HZ (fn = 10 Hz, since 10 Hz frequency has the highest amplitude. This result had contingency with data of sinusoidal acceleration records with 10 HZ frequency and 0.64 g as well. Therefore, stiffness of model structure would be 78,250 Kg/cm. In addition, results of several sinusoidal acceleration tests for determining delay damping, has shown on the average 0.039 for this quantity. Brief results of

  14. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2012-10-05

    Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, metformin significantly attenuated the insulin resistant condition by improving metabolic parameters, decreasing peripheral and brain oxidative stress levels, and improving learning behavior, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, metformin completely prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by long-term HFD consumption. Our findings suggest that metformin effectively improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and completely restores learning behavior, which were all impaired by long-term HFD consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  16. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles; Yang, Zhen-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance

  17. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Beal III, Loyd; Stavros, Jacqueline M.; Cole, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    ORIENTATION: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB se...

  18. Nonvolatile conductive filaments resistive switching behaviors in Ag/GaO{sub x} /Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.G. [Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Hangzhou (China); Zhi, Y.S.; An, Y.H.; Guo, D.Y.; Tang, W.H.; Xiao, J.H. [Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing (China); Wang, P.C. [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Hangzhou (China); Sun, Z.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, National Space Science Center, Beijing (China); Li, L.H. [State University of New York at Potsdam, Department of Physics, Potsdam, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Ag/GaO{sub x} /NSTO/Ag structures were fabricated, and the electrical properties measurement results show that the device behaviors a unipolar resistance switching characteristic with bi-stable resistance ratio of three orders. In the positive voltage region, the dominant conducting mechanism of high resistance state obeys Poole-Frenkel emission rules, while in the negative region, that obeys space-charge-limited current mechanism. Both the I-V curves of ON and OFF states and temperature-dependent variation resistances indicate that the unipolar resistance switching behavior can be explained by the formation/rupture of conductive filaments, which composed of oxygen vacancies. The stable switching results demonstrated that the structure can be applied in resistance random access memory devices. (orig.)

  19. Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Sánchez-Mora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420 and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237 were obtained by self-pollination of two F1 full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containing the downy mildew resistance loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 in heterozygosity. The two experimental populations were genotyped with four microsatellite markers flanking the two downy mildew resistance loci. Among 637 genotyped plants, 300 (48.2% were homozygous for at least one resistance locus and 10 (1.57% were homozygous for both Rpv1 and Rpv3 loci. These 10 plants challenged with P. viticola inoculum showed a clearly enhanced level of resistance. These plants have a great potential as resistance donors in grapevine breeding.

  20. Improving outcomes for patients with medication-resistant anxiety: effects of collaborative care with cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Craske, Michelle G; Bystritsky, Alexander; Sullivan, Greer; Stein, Murray B

    2016-12-01

    Many patients with anxiety disorders remain symptomatic after receiving evidence-based treatment, yet research on treatment-resistant anxiety is limited. We evaluated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on outcomes of patients with medication-resistant anxiety disorders using data from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. Primary care patients who met study entry criteria (including DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder) despite ongoing pharmacotherapy of appropriate type, dose, and duration were classified as medication resistant (n = 227). Logistic regression was used to estimate effects of CALM's CBT program (CALM-CBT; chosen by 104 of 117 medication-resistant patients randomized to CALM) versus usual care (UC; n = 110) on response [≥ 50% reduction of 12-item Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-12) anxiety and somatic symptom score] and remission (BSI-12 < 6) at 6, 12, and 18 months. Within-group analyses examined outcomes by treatment choice (CBT vs. CBT plus medication management) and CBT dose. Approximately 58% of medication-resistant CALM-CBT patients responded and 46% remitted during the study. Relative to UC, CALM-CBT was associated with greater response at 6 months (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI 2.02-7.07) and 12 months (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58) and remission at 6, 12, and 18 months (AORs = 2.44 to 3.18). Patients in CBT plus medication management fared no better than those in CBT only. Some evidence suggested higher CBT dose produced better outcomes. CBT can improve outcomes for patients whose anxiety symptoms are resistant to standard pharmacotherapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Bipolar and unipolar resistive switching behaviors of sol–gel-derived SrTiO3 thin films with different compliance currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M H; Wang, Z P; Zeng, Z Q; Xu, X L; Wang, G Y; Zhang, L B; Xiao, Y G; Yang, S B; Jiang, B; Li, J C; He, J

    2011-01-01

    The SrTiO 3 (STO) thin films on a Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate were synthesized using a sol–gel method to form a metal–insulator–metal structure. This device shows the bipolar resistance switching (BRS) behavior for a compliance current I cc of less than 0.1 mA but exhibits soft breakdown at a higher level of compliance current. A transition from the BRS behavior to the stable unipolar resistive switching behavior (URS) was also observed. We found that the BRS behavior may be controlled by the structure interface while the URS behavior is likely bulk controlled. Our study indicates that the external compliance current is a key factor in resistance switching phenomenon of STO thin films

  2. Quasi-static puncture resistance behaviors of high-strength polyester fabric for soft body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Shi Wang

    Full Text Available A series of economical and flexible fabrics were prepared using high-strength polyester yarns with different fabric structures, weft density and number of layers. The effect of these factors on quasi-static puncture resistance was comparatively studied. The failure mode of the fabrics was analyzed with SEM photographs. Findings indicate that the structure and the weft density affected the quasi-static puncture resistance property of the fabrics, the plain fabrics had better puncture resistance property than twill and satin fabrics. The max puncture force and puncture energy of the plain fabrics with 160 yarn/10 cm reached the max values which were 107.43 N and 0.44 J, respectively. The number of layers had a linear relationship to quasi-static puncture resistance. The contact pressure and friction of the probe against the fibers were the main hindrance during the quasi-static puncture process and the breakage of the fibers during the penetration was caused by the bend and tensile deformation. Keywords: High-strength polyester fabrics, Fabric structure, Multiple-layer fabrics, Quasi-static puncture resistance

  3. Specific features in the behavior of electrical resistivity of the pine biocarbon preform/copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. T.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the novel type of composites prepared by infiltrating melted copper in vacuum in empty sap channels of white pine high-porosity biocarbon preforms has been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. Biocarbon preforms have been prepared by pyrolysis of tree wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been found to vary relatively weakly with temperature and to pass through a characteristic minimum near 40-50 K, which can be ascribed to iron and manganese impurities penetrating into copper from the carbon preform when liquid copper is infiltrated into it. It has been shown that the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composites is governed primarily by the specific microstructure of the preform, which is made up of parallel channels with an average diameter of about 50 μm interrupted by systems of thin capillaries. The small cross section of the copper-filled capillaries accounts for these regions providing the major contribution to the electrical resistivity of the composites. An increase in the wood carbonization temperature brings about a noticeable increase in the effective capillary cross section and a decrease in the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composite.

  4. Fault current limiter-predominantly resistive behavior of a BSCCO shielded-core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, M. G.; Tobin, T. J.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the electrical and magnetic characteristics of a superconductor shielded core reactor (SSCR). The results show that a closed-core SSCR is predominantly a resistive device and an open-core SSCR is a hybrid resistive/inductive device. The open-core SSCR appears to dissipate less than the closed-core SSCR. However, the impedance of the open-core SSCR is less than that of the closed-core SSCR. Magnetic and thermal diffusion are believed to be the mechanism that facilitates the penetration of the superconductor tube under fault conditions

  5. Negative differential resistance and switch behavior of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Liang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Xin, Jian-Guo

    2017-05-01

    The electronic transport properties of T-BxNy (x, y = 5, 6, 11) molecular junction are investigated based on first-principle density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method. Strong negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is observed for T-B5N6 molecule under negative and positive bias voltages, with an obvious switch effect for T-B6N5. However, only small NDR is shown for the complex of the two molecules. The projected device density of states, the spatial distribution of molecular orbitals, and the effect of transmission spectra under various bias voltages on the electronic transport properties are analyzed. The obvious effect of bias voltage on the changes in the electronic distribution of frontier molecular orbitals is responsible for the NDR or switch behavior. Therefore, different functional molecular devices can be obtained with different structures of T-BxNy.

  6. Percieved Coercion, Resistance to Persuasion, and the Type A Behavior Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.

    1980-01-01

    Gender differences in resistance to stress are not rooted in recognition of coercive elements, but in differences in responding to coercive elements. Type As are particularly sensitive to threats to personal control. The critical difference may be in the frequency rather than the intensity of the stress. (JAC)

  7. Critical behavior of electrical resistivity in amorphous Fe–Zr alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of the resistivity data particularly in the critical region reveals that these systems have a much wider range of critical region compared to other crystalline ferromagnetic materials. The value of and specific heat critical exponent, has the same values as those determined from our earlier magnetic measurements ...

  8. Rectifying resistance switching behavior of Ag/SBTO/STMO/p+-Si ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    21

    problem of cross talk after unit integration, one of the ways to solve this matter ... pn hetero junction by combining p-type SrTi0.92Mg0.08O3 (STMO) and n-type .... The measurement illustration of the resistive switching properties was shown in ...

  9. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian; Wei, Tzu Chiao; Tsai, Dung Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ho; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-01

    of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy

  10. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Exaggerated acquisition and resistance to extinction of avoidance behavior in treated heroin-dependent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheynin, Jony; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Beck, Kevin D.; Servatius, Richard J.; Casbolt, Peter A.; Haber, Paul; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Hogarth, Lee; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often conceptualized as a behavioral strategy for avoiding negative experiences. In rodents, opioid intake has been associated with abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these findings would generalize to human opioid-dependent subjects. Method Adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for heroin-dependence and treated with opioid medication (n=27), and healthy controls (n=26), were recruited between March–October 2013 and given a computer-based task to assess avoidance behavior. On this task, subjects controlled a spaceship and could either gain points by shooting an enemy spaceship, or hide in safe areas to avoid on-screen aversive events. Results While groups did not differ on escape responding (hiding) during the aversive event, heroin-dependent males (but not females) made more avoidance responses during a warning signal that predicted the aversive event (ANOVA, sex × group interaction, p=0.007). This group was also slower to extinguish the avoidance response when the aversive event no longer followed the warning signal (p=0.011). This behavioral pattern resulted in reduced opportunity to obtain reward without reducing risk of punishment. Results suggest that differences in avoidance behavior cannot be easily explained by impaired task performance or by exaggerated motor activity in male patients. Conclusion This study provides evidence for abnormal acquisition and extinction of avoidance behavior in opioid-dependent patients. Interestingly, data suggest abnormal avoidance is demonstrated only by male patients. Findings shed light on cognitive and behavioral manifestations of opioid addiction, and may facilitate development of therapeutic approaches to help affected individuals. PMID:27046310

  12. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Jun, E-mail: pdj@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-15

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility. - Highlights: • Cr and FeCrAl were coated onto Zr fuel cladding for light water nuclear reactors. • Mo layer between FeCrAl and Zr prevented inter-diffusion at high temperatures. • Coated claddings were tested under loss-of-cooling accident conditions. • Coating improved high-temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties.

  13. Ester-free Thiol-X Resins: New Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Behavior and Solvent Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórski, Maciej; Becka, Eftalda; Chatani, Shunsuke; Claudino, Mauro; Bowman, Christopher N

    A series of thiol-Michael and radical thiol-ene network polymers were successfully prepared from ester-free as well as ester-containing monomer formulations. Polymerization reaction rates, dynamic mechanical analysis, and solvent resistance experiments were performed and compared between compositions with varied ester loading. The incorporation of ester-free alkyl thiol, vinyl sulfone and allylic monomers significantly improved the mechanical properties when compared with commercial, mercaptopropionate-based thiol-ene or thiol-Michael networks. For polymers with no hydrolytically degradable esters, glass transition temperatures (T g 's) as high as 100 °C were achieved. Importantly, solvent resistance tests demonstrated enhanced stability of ester-free formulations over PETMP-based polymers, especially in concentrated basic solutions. Kinetic analysis showed that glassy step-growth polymers are readily formed at ambient conditions with conversions reaching 80% and higher.

  14. Ester-free Thiol-X Resins: New Materials with Enhanced Mechanical Behavior and Solvent Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Podgórski, Maciej; Becka, Eftalda; Chatani, Shunsuke; Claudino, Mauro; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    A series of thiol-Michael and radical thiol-ene network polymers were successfully prepared from ester-free as well as ester-containing monomer formulations. Polymerization reaction rates, dynamic mechanical analysis, and solvent resistance experiments were performed and compared between compositions with varied ester loading. The incorporation of ester-free alkyl thiol, vinyl sulfone and allylic monomers significantly improved the mechanical properties when compared with commercial, mercapto...

  15. Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Mora, Fernando D.; Saifert, Luciano; Zanghelini, Jean; Assumpção, Wilson T.; Guginski-Piva, Cláudia A.; Giacometti, Renan; Novak, Eduardo I.; Klabunde, Gustavo H.; Eibach, Rudolf; Dal Vesco, Lirio; Nodari, Rubens O.; Welter, Leocir J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420) and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237) were obtained by self-pollination of two full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containin...

  16. Microstructural and mechanical behavior of friction welds in a high creep resistance magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A.; Olea, C.A.W.; dos Santos, J.F.; Kainer, K.U. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute for Materials Research, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Friction weldability of Mg based alloys has been worldwide discussed. Within this context the aim of this study was to investigate rotational friction welding of an Aluminum-Rare Earth based high creep resistance Mg alloy AE42HP from the viewpoint of thermo cycle-microstructure-performance relationships to evaluate the potential use of FW in joining modern Mg-alloys. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Oxygen plasma effects on zero resistance behavior of Yb,Er-doped YBCO (123) based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Helmut; Rathmann, Dirk [Department of Physics, Biophysics, and Photosynthesis, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Banko, Franziska; Steinhart, Martin [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Nordmann, Joerg; Voss, Benjamin [Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Walder, Lorenz [Organic Chemistry, Molecular Electrochemistry, Institute of Chemistry of New Materials, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Rare-earth doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples were synthesized starting from the corresponding oxides Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO as well as Ba(OH){sub 2} by heating to 950 C under air. The doping concentrations were adjusted to 15 % Yb, 7 % Er and 20 % Yb, 15 % Er, respectively, with respect to the yttrium content. The orthogonal phased (123) YBCO ceramics were exposed to an oxygen plasma for 140 and 380 min. Zero resistance temperature (T{sub c,0}) was determined by measuring the resistivity-temperature dependence using a classical four point measurement approach. Under optimal conditions with respect to the material composition and the oxygen treatment an unusual high zero resistance temperature of 97.5 K (T{sub c,onset} ∼ 101 K) was achieved. This represents an increase of T{sub c,0} by 7.5 K. The oxygen treatment could not be monitored by IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results showed good reproducibility. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.

  19. Effects of applying an external magnetic field during the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the corrosion resistance and wear behavior of 1.2080 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbarizadeh, Amin; Amini, Kamran; Javadpour, Sirus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Deep cryogenic increases the carbide percentage and make a more homogenous distribution. ► Deep cryogenic improve the wear resistance and corrosion behavior of 1.2080 tool steel. ► Applying the magnetic field weaker the carbide distribution and decreases the carbides percentage. ► Magnetized samples showed weaker corrosion and wear behavior. -- Abstract: This work concerns with the effect of applying an external magnetic field on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and microstructure of 1.2080 (D2) tool steel during the deep cryogenic heat treatment. These analyses were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ay diffraction (XRD) to study the microstructure, a pin-on-disk wear testing machine to study the wear behavior, and linear sweep voltammetry to study the corrosion behavior of the samples. It was shown that the deep cryogenic heat treatment eliminates retained austenite and makes a more uniform carbide distribution with higher percentage. It was also observed that the deep cryogenic heat treatment improves the wear behavior and corrosion resistance of 1.2080 tool steel. In comparison between the magnetized and non-magnetized samples, the carbide percentage decreases and the carbide distribution weakened in the magnetized samples; subsequently, the wear behavior and corrosion resistance attenuated compared in the magnetized samples.

  20. On the evils of group averaging: commentary on Nevin's "Resistance to extinction and behavioral momentum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Except under unusually favorable circumstances, one can infer from functions obtained by averaging across the subjects neither the form of the function that describes the behavior of the individual subject nor the central tendencies of descriptive parameter values. We should restore the cumulative record to the place of honor as our means of visualizing behavioral change, and we should base our conclusions on analyses that measure where the change occurs in these response-by-response records of the behavior of individual subjects. When that is done, we may find that the extinction of responding to a continuously reinforced stimulus is faster than the extinction of responding to a partially reinforced stimulus in a within-subject design because the latter is signaled extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent Self-Regulation as Resilience: Resistance to Antisocial Behavior within the Deviant Peer Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Theodore W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Connell, Arin M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that self-regulation serves as a resiliency factor in buffering youth from negative influences of peer deviance in middle to late adolescence. The interactive effects between peer deviance and self-regulation were investigated on change in antisocial behavior from age 17 to 19 years in an ethnically diverse sample…

  2. Pedagogical Formation Students' Resistance Behaviors towards Teaching-Learning Processes and Their Moral Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Sezen-Gültekin, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Moral maturity, defined as the competence in moral emotions, thoughts, judgments, attitudes and behaviors, is one of the most important qualities that the would-be teachers at Faculties of Education must possess. Teachers with moral maturity will train students with the qualities of reliability, responsibility, fairness, objectivity, consistency…

  3. Behavior of high resistance to He{sup 2+} induced irradiation damage in metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Mei, Xianxiu, E-mail: xxmei@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Hou, Wenjing; Wang, Younian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Zhiguang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: •Metallic glasses and W were irradiated with 500 keV He{sup 2+} at different fluences. •Metallic glasses could maintain amorphous state at different irradiation fluences. •The resistance to He{sup 2+} irradiation of metallic glasses was superior to the one in W metal. •Cu- and Zr-based metallic glasses had better resistance to He{sup 2+} irradiation. -- Abstract: This study details the irradiation of various metallic glasses ((Cu{sub 47}Zr{sub 45}Al{sub 8}){sub 98.5}Y{sub 1.5}, Zr{sub 64}Cu{sub 17.8}Ni{sub 10.7}Al{sub 7.5}, Co{sub 61.2}B{sub 26.2}Si{sub 7.8}Ta{sub 4.8}) and metallic W using He{sup 2+} ions with an energy of 500 keV at irradiation fluences of 2 × 10{sup 17}, 1 × 10{sup 18} and 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2} to investigate the radiation-resistant properties of these metallic glasses compared to the conventional irradiation-resistant material W. These three metallic glasses were able to maintain an amorphous state during these irradiation fluences. There was no significant irradiation damage at the low irradiation fluence. When the irradiation fluence was increased to 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, a damage layer appeared up to a distance corresponding to the range of the ions away from the surfaces of the Cu- and Zr-based metallic glasses without any visible damage on the surface. Significant surface stripping damage appeared in the Co-based metallic glass. Relatively speaking, surface layer peeling appeared in metallic W along the crystal boundary at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. When the fluence was increased to 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, multilayer peeling, stripping, etc. appeared. The roughness of the Cu- and Zr-based metallic glass showed further smoothing with increasing fluence, while the opposite occurred in the Co-based metallic glass. Within the wavelength range of 400–1700 nm, after irradiation of He{sup 2+} at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, the reflectance of the Cu-based and Co

  4. Role of polymeric binders on mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Wang, Yikai; Hu, Jiazhi; Lu, Bo; Dang, Dingying; Zhang, Junqian; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of various binders, including sodium alginate (SA), Nafion, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), on the mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling. In situ curvature measurement of bilayer electrodes, consisting of a silicon-binder-carbon black composite layer on a copper foil, is used to determine the effects of binders on bending deformation, elastic modulus, and stress on the composite electrodes. It is found that the lithiation induced curvature and the modulus of the silicon/SA electrodes are larger than those of electrodes with Nafion and PVDF as binders. Although the modulus of Nafion is smaller than that of PVDF, the curvature and the modulus of silicon/Nafion composite are larger than those of silicon/PVDF electrodes. The moduli of all three composites decrease not only during lithiation but also during delithiation. Based on the measured stress and scanning electron microscopy observations of cracking in the composite electrodes, we conclude that the stress required to crack the composite electrodes with SA and Nafion binders is considerably higher than that of the silicon/PVDF electrode during electrochemical cycling. Thus, the cracking resistance of silicon/SA and silicon/Nafion composite electrodes is higher than that of silicon/PVDF electrodes.

  5. [Courtship behavior, communicative sound production and resistance to stress in Drosophila mutants with defective agnostic gene, coding for LIMK1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A V; Kaminskaia, A N; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the role of one of the main elements of signal cascade of actin remodeling--LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1)--in the control of animal behavior we studied the characteristics of courtship behavior, parameters of acoustic communicative signals and their resistance to heat shock (HS, 37 degrees C, 30 min) in Drosophila melanogaster males from the strain with mutation in locus agnostic (agn(ts3)) containing gene CG1848 for LIMK1. The data obtained was compared with the results of our previous similar investigation on wild type CS males (Popov et al., 2006). Flies were divided into 4 groups. The males of control groups were not subjected to heat shock. The rest of males were subjected to heat shock either at the beginning of larval development when predominantly mushroom body neuroblasts are dividing (groups HS1), or at the prepupal stage when the brain central complex is developing (groups HS2), or at the imago stage one hour before the test (groups HS3). All males were tested at the age of 5 days. Virgin and fertilized CS females were used as courtship objects. Comparison of control groups of the two strains--CS and agnostic--have shown that the mutation agn(ts3) has no influence on the main parameters of courtship behavior of intact (not subjected to HS) males (courtship latency, the rapidity of achieving copulation, courtship efficiency) but leads to lowering of their sexual activity, increase of duration of sound trains in the songs and to slight increase of rate and stability of working of singing pacemakers. Agnostic males in comparison to wild type males are more resistant to HS given 1 hour before the test. After HS their courtship intensity does not decrease and the main parameters of their courtship behavior and communicative sound signals in comparison tu wild type males either do not change, or appear to be even better stabilized. The frequency of distorted sound pulses (an indicator of frequency of impairments in the activity pattern of neuro

  6. Electrical Resistance Imaging for Evaluation of Soil-Water Behavior in Desert Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J. R.; Perkins, K. S.; Schmidt, K. M.; Miller, D. M.; Stock, J. D.; Singha, K.

    2009-05-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate habitat types in the Mojave National Preserve, we conducted infiltration/redistribution experiments to investigate unsaturated hydraulic properties and soil-water dynamics. Two investigated locations contrasted sharply in degree of pedogenic development: (1) recently deposited sediments in an active wash and (2) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. Water flow through these materials may be strongly influenced by such features as biotic crusts, vesicular horizons, textural variations, calcic horizons, preferential flow paths, and other forms of vertical and lateral spatial variability. In each location we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infiltration ring for 2.3 h, generating 1.93 m of infiltration in the active wash and 0.52 m in the Pleistocene soil. Combining input flux data with quantitative knowledge of water content and soil water pressure over space and time provides a basis for estimating soil hydraulic properties. TDR probes and tensiometers, placed outside but within a few m of the infiltration pond at depths to 1.5 m, provided subsurface hydraulic data. In addition to probe measurements, we conducted electrical resistance imaging (ERI) measurements during the infiltration period and for six days of redistribution. Electrodes were in two crossed lines at the surface, 24 in each, at 0.5 m spacing. On each line data were collected over an eight- minute period using a hybrid geometry, with 0 to 6 electrodes skipped between those used for the measurement. Relative change in the inverted resistivities relates to relative change in soil water content. Spatially exhaustive and minimally invasive characterization is valuable because of the extreme difficulty of quantifying soil-moisture distribution over a broad heterogeneous area using a set of individual probes. Soil moisture data directly under the ponded area are especially important, and ERI was our only means for such measurements because probe installation would

  7. Coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors in NiFe2O4 thin film devices by doping Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aize; Ismail, Muhammad; He, Shuai; Huang, Wenhua; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua

    2018-02-01

    The coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors of Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) doped NiFe2O4 (NFO) based memory devices was investigated. The switching voltages of required operations in the unipolar mode were smaller than those in the bipolar mode, while ON/OFF resistance levels of both modes were identical. Ag-NPs doped NFO based devices could switch between the unipolar and bipolar modes just by preferring the polarity of RESET voltage. Besides, the necessity of identical compliance current during the SET process of unipolar and bipolar modes provided an additional advantage of simplicity in device operation. Performance characteristics and cycle-to-cycle uniformity (>103 cycles) in unipolar operation were considerably better than those in bipolar mode (>102 cycles) at 25 °C. Moreover, good endurance (>600 cycles) at 200 °C was observed in unipolar mode and excellent nondestructive retention characteristics were obtained on memory cells at 125 °C and 200 °C. On the basis of temperature dependence of resistance at low resistance state, it was believed that physical origin of the RS mechanism involved the formation/rupture of the conducting paths consisting of oxygen vacancies and Ag atoms, considering Joule heating and electrochemical redox reaction effects for the unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors. Our results demonstrate that 0.5% Ag-NPs doped nickel ferrites are promising resistive switching materials for resistive access memory applications.

  8. Eating-related Behaviors and Appetite During Energy Imbalance in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; Bechtell, Jaime L.; Vestal, Brian E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bessesen, Daniel H.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2013-01-01

    While the majority of Americans are now overweight, some individuals maintain their weight with minimal effort. This study investigated behavioral differences between 58 individuals recruited as either obese-resistant (OR) or obese-prone (OP) based on self-identification, BMI, and personal/family weight history. Subjects were studied during Eucaloric (EU), Overfed (OF), and Underfed (UF) phases which included a run-in diet, 1 day intervention diet, and a study day. At baseline, subjects completed the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Power of Food Scale (PFS). On the study day, ratings of appetite, food appeal and desire, and food cravings were performed in response to a breakfast shake. OF resulted in reduced hunger and food desire while UF resulted in increased hunger and food appeal and desire. While hunger did not differ between groups, OP had higher scores for TFEQ measures (hunger, restraint and disinhibition), higher “hedonic hunger” as measured by the PFS, and greater food cravings and ratings of food appeal and desire. These results suggest that subjective hunger and desire for food change significantly after only one day of over- or underfeeding. Additionally, we found several behavioral differences between groups that are likely to promote weight gain over time in the OP. PMID:23402714

  9. Cyclic Strain Resistance, Stress Response, Fatigue Life, and Fracture Behavior of High Strength Low Alloy Steel 300 M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.; Tammana, Deepthi; Poorgangi, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2014-05-01

    The focus of this technical manuscript is a record of the specific role of microstructure and test specimen orientation on cyclic stress response, cyclic strain resistance, and cyclic stress versus strain response, deformation and fracture behavior of alloy steel 300 M. The cyclic strain amplitude-controlled fatigue properties of this ultra-high strength alloy steel revealed a linear trend for the variation of log elastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure, and log plastic strain amplitude with log reversals-to-failure for both longitudinal and transverse orientations. Test specimens of the longitudinal orientation showed only a marginal improvement over the transverse orientation at equivalent values of plastic strain amplitude. Cyclic stress response revealed a combination of initial hardening for the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for a large portion of fatigue life before culminating in rapid softening prior to catastrophic failure by fracture. Fracture characteristics of test specimens of this alloy steel were different at both the macroscopic and fine microscopic levels over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. Both macroscopic and fine microscopic observations revealed fracture to be a combination of both brittle and ductile mechanisms. The underlying mechanisms governing stress response, deformation characteristics, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the competing and mutually interactive influences of test specimen orientation, intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents, cyclic strain amplitude, and response stress.

  10. Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior, Creep Resistance and Uniaxial Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Steel X46Cr13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Josip; Krscanski, Sanjin; Lanc, Domagoj; Brcic, Marino; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Niu, Jitai

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures, uniaxial creep and uniaxial fatigue of martensitic steel X46Cr13 (1.4034, AISI 420). For the purpose of considering the aforementioned mechanical behavior, as well as determining the appropriate resistance to creep and fatigue strength levels, numerous uniaxial tests were carried out. Tests related to mechanical properties performed at different temperatures are presented in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Short-time creep tests performed at different temperatures and different stress levels are presented in the form of creep curves. Fatigue tests carried out at stress ratios R=0.25 and R=−1 are shown in the form of S–N (fatigue) diagrams. The finite fatigue regime for each of the mentioned stress ratios is modeled by an inclined log line, while the infinite fatigue regime is modeled by a horizontal line, which represents the fatigue limit of the material and previously was calculated by the modified staircase method. Finally, the fracture toughness has been calculated based on the Charpy V-notch impact energy. PMID:28772749

  11. Soft x-ray measurements of resistive wall mode behavior in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Menard, J; Paul, S; Roquemore, L [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Stutman, D; Tritz, K; Finkenthal, M [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sabbagh, S A; Berkery, J W; Levesque, J P [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lee, K C, E-mail: ldelgado@pppl.gov [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) array is used for the characterization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Modulations in the time history of the ME-SXR emissivity profiles indicate the existence of edge density and core temperature fluctuations in good agreement with the slow evolution of the n = 1 magnetic perturbation measured by the poloidal and radial RWM coils. The characteristic 20-25 Hz frequency in the SXR diagnostics is approximately that of the n = 1 stable RWM, which is also near the measured peak of the resonant field amplification (RFA) and inversely proportional to the wall time. Together with the magnetics, the ME-SXR measurements suggest that in NSTX the RWM is not restricted exclusively to the reactor wall and edge, and that acting with the stabilizing coils on its global structure may result in density and temperature fluctuations that can be taken into account when designing the feedback process.

  12. Electrical Resistance and Acoustic Emission Measurements for Monitoring the Structural Behavior of CFRP Laminate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Wei

    2015-07-12

    Electrical resistance and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are jointly used to monitor the degradation in CFRP laminates subjected to tensile tests. The objective of this thesis is to perform a synergertic analysis between a passive and an active methods to better access how these perform when used for Structural Health Moni- toring (SHM). Laminates with three different stacking sequences: [0]4, [02/902]s and [+45/ − 45]2s are subjected to monotonic and cyclic tensile tests. In each laminate, we carefully investigate which mechanisms of degradation can or cannot be detect- ed by each technique. It is shown that most often, that acoustic emission signals start before any electrical detection is possible. This is is explained based on the redundance of the electrical network that makes it less sensitive to localized damages. Based on in depth study of AE signals clustering, a new classification is proposed to recognize the different damage mechanims based on only two parameters: the RA (rise time/amplitude) and the duration of the signal.

  13. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO–PVK–Al WORM memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, T J; Woon, K L; Wong, W S; Chanlek, N; Nakajima, H; Saisopa, T; Songsiriritthigul, P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current–voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK–Al interface. (paper)

  14. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  15. IGA resistance of TT Alloy 690 and concentration behavior of Broached Egg Crate tube support configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kusakabe, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Arioka, K.; Ochi, T.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the Steam Generator (SG), TT Alloy 690 and BEC (Broached Egg Crate) type tube support plate has been developed. Some tests are carried out to heighten the reliability for these improvements all the more and the following results are obtained. (1) SERT test (Slow Extension Rate Test) made clear that TT690 has less IGA susceptibility in comparison with MA600. (2) The alkaline susceptibility on the occurrence of IGA/SCC on TT690 and MA600 obtained by SERT corresponds to that obtained by Model Boiler test. (3) By model boiler test, superior concentration behaviors for BEC type tube support plate configuration have been recognized in comparison with Drill type. This result is obtained by the joint research of the five utilities (Kansai Epco, Hokkaido Epco, Shikoku Epco, Kyushu Epco, JAPCO) and MHI

  16. Effect Evaluation of Fault Resistance on the Operating Behavior of a Distance Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Le

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a certain distance protection relay with a quadrilateral characteristic approach for the protection of the 110kV Duy Xuyen - Thang Binh transmission line in Vietnam using measured data from one terminal line. We propose the building process of a Matlab Simulink model for this relay that combines fault detection and classification block, apparent impedance calculation block for all types of faults and a trip logic block of three zone protection coordination. The proposed relay model is further tested using various fault scenarios on the transmission line. It is important to assess what happened, the actual conditions, the causes of mal-operation etc. Detailed explanation and results indicate that the proposed model behavior will help users to perform tests which correctly simulate real-world conditions besides that it properly interprets test results and troubleshoot distance function problems when results are not as expected.

  17. Highly loaded behavior of kinesins increases the robustness of transport under high resisting loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles.

  18. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  19. Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO3 thin films on LaNiO3-buffered Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinman; Zhang Hu; Ruan Kaibin; Shi Wangzhou

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO was reported. ► Rectification property was explained from the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces and the distinct oxygen vacancy density. ► The modification of Schottky-like barrier was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices. - Abstract: We reported the annealing effect on the electrical behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films integrated on LaNiO 3 (LNO) layers buffered Si substrates by sol–gel spin-coating technique. All the BiFeO 3 thin films exhibit the reversible bipolar resistive switching behaviors with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO configuration. The electrical conduction mechanism of the devices was dominated by the Ohmic conduction in the low resistance state and trap-controlled space charged limited current in the high resistance state. Good diode-like rectification property was observed in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 500 °C, but vanished in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 600 °C. This was attributed to the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces as well as the distinct oxygen vacancy density verified by XPS. Furthermore, the modification of Schottky-like barrier due to the drift of oxygen vacancies was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices.

  20. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  1. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: chen_hong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p < 0.05), with other genes showing no significant change after anaerobic fermentation (p > 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  2. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  3. Resistance of Type 5 chemical protective clothing against nanometric airborne particles: Behavior of seams and zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    In the field of dermal protection, the use of chemical protective clothing (CPC) (including coveralls) are considered as the last barrier against airborne engineered nanomaterials (ENM). In the majority of cases, Type 5 CPC, used against solid particles (ISO 13982-1), perform well against ENM. But in a recent study, a penetration level (PL) of up to 8.5% of polydisperse sodium chloride airborne nanoparticles has been measured. Moreover, in all the previous studies, tests were performed on a sample of protective clothing material without seams or zippers. Thus, the potential for permeation through a zipper or seams has not yet been determined, even though these areas would be privileged entry points for airborne ENM. This work was designed to evaluate the PL of airborne ENM through coveralls and specifically the PL through the seams on different parts of the CPC and the zipper. Eight current models of CPC (Type 5) were selected. The samples were taken from places with and without seams and with a zipper. In some cases, a cover strip can be added to the zipper to enhance its sealing. Polydisperse nanoparticles were generated by nebulization of a sodium chloride solution. A penetration cell was developed to expose the sample to airborne nanometric particles. The NaCl particle concentration in number was measured with an ultrafine particle counter and the PL was defined as the downstream concentration divided by the upstream concentration. The results obtained show that the PL increased significantly in the presence of seams and could reach up to 90% depending on the seam's design. Moreover, this study classifies the different types of seams by their resistance against airborne ENM. As for the penetration of airborne NaCl particles through the zipper, the PL was greatly attenuated by the presence of a cover strip, but only for certain models of coveralls. Finally, the values of the pressure drop were directly linked to the type of seam. All of these conclusions provide

  4. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  5. Preparing Digital Stories through the Inquiry-Based Learning Approach: Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Resistive Behaviors toward Research and Technology-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz Konokman, Gamze; Yanpar Yelken, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of preparing digital stories through an inquiry based learning approach on prospective teachers' resistive behaviors toward technology based instruction and conducting research. The research model was convergent parallel design. The sample consisted of 50 prospective teachers who had completed…

  6. Composition-ratio influence on resistive switching behavior of solution-processed InGaZnO-based thin-film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, Inchan; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-01

    The influence of composition ratio on the bipolar resistive switching behavior of resistive switching memory devices based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) using the spin-coating process was investigated. To study the stoichiometric effects of the a-IGZO films on device characteristics, four devices with In/Ga/Zn stoichiometries of 1:1:1, 3:1:1, 1:3:1, and 1:1:3 were fabricated and characterized. The 3:1:1 film showed an ohmic behavior and the 1:1:3 film showed a rectifying switching behavior. The current-voltage characteristics of the a-IGZO films with stoichiometries of 1:1:1 and 1:3:1, however, showed a bipolar resistive memory switching behavior. We found that the three-fold increase in the gallium content ratio reduces the reset voltage from -0.9 to - 0.4 V and enhances the current ratio of high to low resistive states from 0.7 x 10(1) to 3 x 10(1). Our results show that the increase in the Ga composition ratio in the a-IGZO-based ReRAM cells effectively improves the device performance and reliability by increasing the initial defect density in the a-IGZO films.

  7. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan, E-mail: zyma@nju.edu.cn; Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-09-28

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers with high on/off ratio of 10{sup 9}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  8. Dry sliding wear behavior and corrosion resistance of NiCrBSi coating deposited by activated combustion-high velocity air fuel spray process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shenglin; Zheng, Xueping; Geng, Gangqiang

    2010-01-01

    NiCrBSi is a Ni-based superalloy widely used to obtain high wear and corrosion resistant coatings. This Ni-based alloy coating has been deposited onto 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel using the AC-HVAF technique. The structure and morphologies of the Ni-based coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were studied. The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a HT-600 wear test rig. The wear resistance of the Ni-based coating was shown to be higher than that of the 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel because Fe 3 B, with high hardness, was distributed in the coating so the dispersion strengthening in the Ni-based coating was obvious and this increased the wear resistance of the Ni-based coating in a dry sliding wear test. Under the same conditions, the worn volume of 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel was 4.1 times greater than that of the Ni-based coating. The wear mechanism is mainly fatigue wear. A series of the electrochemical tests was carried out in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in order to examine the corrosion behavior. The mechanisms for corrosion resistance are discussed.

  9. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  10. Influence of heating rate on corrosion behavior of Ni-base heat resistant alloys in simulated VHTR helium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1985-04-01

    The influence of heating rate on corrosion and carbon transfer was studied for Ni-base heat resistant alloys exposed to simulated VHTR(very high temperature reactor) coolant environment. Special attention was focused to relationship between oxidation and carburization at early stage of exposure. Tests were conducted on two heats of Hastelloy XR with different boron(B) content and the developmental alloys, 113MA and KSN. Two kinds of heating rates, i.e. 80 0 C/min and 2 0 C/min, were employed. Corrosion tests were carried out at 900 0 C up to 500 h in JAERI Type B helium, one of the simulated VHTR primary coolant specifications. Under higher heating rate, oxidation resistance of both heats of Hastelloy XR(2.8 ppmB and 40 ppmB) were equivalent and among the best, then KSN and 113MA followed in the order. Under lower heating rate only alloy, i.e. Hastelloy XR with 2.8 ppmB, showed some deteriorated oxidation resistance while all others being unaffected by the heating rate. On the other hand the carbon transfer behavior showed strong dependence on the heating rate. In case of higher heating rate, significant carburization occured at early stage of exposure and thereafter the progress of carburization was slow in all the alloys. On the other hand only slow carburization was the case throughout the exposure in case of lower heating rate. The carburization in VHTR helium environment was interpreted as to be affected by oxide film formation in the early stage of exposure. The carbon pick-up was largest in Hastelloy XR with 40 ppmB and it was followed by Hastelloy XR with 2.8 ppmB. 113MA and KSN were carburized only slightly. The observed difference of carbon pick-up among the alloys tested was interpreted to be attributed mainly to the difference of the carbon activity, the carbide precipitation characteristics among the alloys tested. (author)

  11. Correlation of proteome-wide changes with social immunity behaviors provides insight into resistance to the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert; Guarna, M Marta; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Moon, Kyung-Mee; White, Rick; Huxter, Elizabeth; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J

    2012-06-29

    Disease is a major factor driving the evolution of many organisms. In honey bees, selection for social behavioral responses is the primary adaptive process facilitating disease resistance. One such process, hygienic behavior, enables bees to resist multiple diseases, including the damaging parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The genetic elements and biochemical factors that drive the expression of these adaptations are currently unknown. Proteomics provides a tool to identify proteins that control behavioral processes, and these proteins can be used as biomarkers to aid identification of disease tolerant colonies. We sampled a large cohort of commercial queen lineages, recording overall mite infestation, hygiene, and the specific hygienic response to V. destructor. We performed proteome-wide correlation analyses in larval integument and adult antennae, identifying several proteins highly predictive of behavior and reduced hive infestation. In the larva, response to wounding was identified as a key adaptive process leading to reduced infestation, and chitin biosynthesis and immune responses appear to represent important disease resistant adaptations. The speed of hygienic behavior may be underpinned by changes in the antenna proteome, and chemosensory and neurological processes could also provide specificity for detection of V. destructor in antennae. Our results provide, for the first time, some insight into how complex behavioural adaptations manifest in the proteome of honey bees. The most important biochemical correlations provide clues as to the underlying molecular mechanisms of social and innate immunity of honey bees. Such changes are indicative of potential divergence in processes controlling the hive-worker maturation.

  12. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe–Cr–Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G., E-mail: fieldkg@ornl.gov; Gussev, Maxim N., E-mail: gussevmn@ornl.gov; Yamamoto, Yukinori, E-mail: yamamotoy@ornl.gov; Snead, Lance L., E-mail: sneadll@ornl.gov

    2014-11-15

    Ferritic-structured Fe–Cr–Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe–(13–17.5)Cr–(3–4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  13. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe-Cr-Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  14. Improved corrosion resistant and mechanical behavior of distinct composite coatings (silica/titania/zirconia on Ti–6Al–4V deposited by EPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chellappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized composite powders (ZrO2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2, and SiO2/ZrO2 were successfully deposited on Ti–6Al–4V by electrophoretic deposition method (EPD to improve its electrochemical characteristics for better biomedical applications. In the present investigation, the three composite powders were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and its phase purity was analyzed by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. Further, the performance of the deposited coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, scratch resistance test. The electrochemical properties of the composite coatings were analyzed by Potentiodynamic (Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies. From the results, we observed that the corrosion resistance behavior of the different composite coated metallic substrate exhibited divergent corrosion resistance nature than blank Ti–6Al–4V. Of all these coatings on Ti–6Al–4V, the composite made up of, ZrO2/TiO2 has pronounced corrosion resistance behavior in Ringer’s solution when compared to others. This behavior is due to the presence of strong adherent coating owing to the existence of uniform deposition on Ti–6Al–4V.

  15. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing carbon fiber composite or by protecting the previously used epoxy-based composite with some fire resistant coating. In this context, work is carried out to evaluate the fire resistance performance o...

  16. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  17. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  18. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance Is Not Futile: An Experimental Analogue of the Effects of Consultee "Resistance" on the Consultant's Therapeutic Behavior in the Consultation Process--A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautilli, Joseph; Tillman, T. Chris; Axelrod, Saul; Dziewolska, Halina; Hineline, Philip

    2006-01-01

    In the school system, school psychologist serves a role as consultant to teachers in regard to children's behavioral problems (Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990). The defining feature of children's success is plan implementation (Bergan & Kratochwill, 1990). For school psychologists, ensuring consistent and accurate implementation of behavior strategies…

  20. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole and cut nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and on nopalitos salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Torres-Vitela, M Refugio; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-09-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Nopalito is a cactaceous that is commonly consumed either raw or cooked in Mexico and other countries. The presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole nopalitos (RWN, without prickles), raw nopalitos cut into squares (RNCS) and in cooked nopalitos salads (CNS) samples was determined. In addition, the behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates on RWN, RNCS and CNS at 25° ± 2 °C and 3° ± 2 °C was investigated. One hundred samples of RWN, 100 of RNCS and 100 more of CNS were collected from public markets. Salmonella strains were isolated and identified in 30, 30 and 10% of the samples, respectively. Seventy multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from all the nopalitos samples. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates survived at least 15 days on RWN at 25° ± 2 °C or 3° ± 2 °C. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates grew in the RNCS and CNS samples at 25° ± 2 °C. However, at 3° ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. This is the first report about multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolation from raw nopalitos and nopalitos salads. Nopalitos from markets are very likely to be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Prelimbic Stimulation Ameliorates Depressive-Like Behaviors and Increases Regional BDNF Expression in a Novel Drug-Resistant Animal Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, Hagar; Gal, Ram; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Gulevsky, Tatiana; Alyagon, Uri; Zangen, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one third of all major depression patients fail to respond to conventional pharmacological antidepressants, and brain stimulation methods pose a promising alternative for this population. Recently, based on repeated multifactorial selective inbreeding of rats for depressive-like behaviors, we introduced a novel animal model for MDD. Rats from this Depressive Rat Line (DRL) exhibit inherent depressive-like behaviors, which are correlated with lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in specific brain regions. In addition, DRL rats do not respond to antidepressant medication but respond to electroconvulsive treatment, and they can thus be utilized to test the effectiveness of brain stimulation on hereditary, medication-resistant depressive-like behaviors. To test the effect of sub-convulsive electrical stimulation (SCES) of the prelimbic cortex, using TMS-like temporal pattern of stimulation, on depressive-like behaviors and regional BDNF levels in DRL rats. SCES sessions were administered daily for 10 days through chronically implanted electrodes. Temporal stimulation parameters were similar to those used in TMS for major depression in human patients. Depressive-like behaviors were assayed after treatment, followed by brain extraction and regional BDNF measurements. SCES normalized both the depressive-like behaviors and the reduced BDNF levels observed in DRL rats. Correlation analyses suggest that changes in specific behaviors are mediated, at least in part, by BDNF expression in reward-related brain regions. Brain stimulation is effective in a drug-resistant, inherited animal model for depression. BDNF alterations in specific regions may mediate different antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  3. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  4. Pyrethroid Resistance Alters the Blood-Feeding Behavior in Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Exposed to Treated Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging insecticide resistance is a major issue for vector control; it decreases effectiveness of insecticides, thereby requiring greater quantities for comparable control with a net increase in risk of disease resurgence, product cost, and damage risk to the ecosystem. Pyrethroid resistance has b...

  5. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing

  6. Feeding behavior and performance of Nasonovia ribisnigri on grafts, detached leaves, and leaf disks of resistant and susceptible lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Cindy J.M.; Dicke, Marcel; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are dependent on the phloem sap of plants as their only source of nutrients. Host-plant resistance in lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae), mediated by the Nr gene is used to control the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The resistance is located in the

  7. Creep behavior and wear resistance of Al 5083 based hybrid composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Ali [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Alireza, E-mail: alirezaabdollahi1366@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials & Manufacturing Processes, Malek-e-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biukani, Hootan [Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    In the current research, aluminum based hybrid composite reinforced with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was produced by powder metallurgy method. creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and hardness of the samples were investigated. To prepare the samples, Al 5083 powder was milled with boron carbide particles and carbon nanotubes using planetary ball mill under argon atmosphere with ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1 for 5 h. Afterwards, the milled powders were formed by hot press process at 380{sup °}C and then were sintered at 585{sup °}C under argon atmosphere for 2 h. There was shown to be an increase in hardness values of composite with an increase in B{sub 4}C content. The micrograph of worn surfaces indicate a delamination mechanism due to the presence of CNTs and abrasion mechanism in composite containing 10 vol.%B{sub 4}C. Moreover, it was shown that increasing B{sub 4}C content increases the wear resistance by 3 times under a load of 20 N and 10 times under a load of 10 N compared to CNTs-reinforced composite. surface roughness of the composite containing 5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples. The results of creep test showed that adding carbon nanotubes increases creep rate of Al 5083 alloy; however, adding B{sub 4}C decreases its creep rate. - Highlights: • Al 5083/(CNTs + B{sub 4}C) hybrid composite was produced by powder metallurgy method. • Creep behavior, wear resistance, surface roughness, and Hardness of samples were investigated. • Addition of CNTs to Al 5083 matrix reduces alloy hardness, wear resistance and creep strength. • By addition of B{sub 4}C and composite hybridization, creep strength and wear resistance increased. • Surface roughness of Al-5 vol.%CNT has shown to be more than other samples.

  8. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  9. The influence of electrical resistivity, magnetic field strength, boundary conditions, and injection conditions on the behavior of the magnetically injected plasma in the PBFA-II opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, J.J.; Frese, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Opening Switch used on PBFA-II uses a source plasma which is injected into the inter-electrode gap along the field lines of a modest-strength applied poloidal magnetic field. The distribution of this plasma within the gap plays an important role in the behavior of the switch. Knowledge of this distribution is critical for performing relevant switch calculations and for interpreting experimental data. In the work reported here, the influence on that distribution of the plasma electrical resistivity, the applied magnetic field strength, and the boundary and injection conditions have been investigated with the 2 1/2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation code, MACH2. The injected plasma has density in the 10 14 cm -3 range and temperature in the several eV range. In this parameter regime, the classical collision time scale is on the order of 10 ns, which, when compared to the 100 ns time scale of the inflowing plasma, means that the plasma is classically collisionless. However, mechanisms other than classical collisions are likely to contribute to electrical resistivity. The authors have investigated the effect of an anomalous resistivity which scales with the plasma frequency, varying the scaling from the electron plasma frequency to the ion plasma frequency. They will compare these results with results based on the assumption of an ideal plasma, and discuss other anomalous resistivity models

  10. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Human and Animal Health Students towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, Oliver James; Hills, Holly; Seitz, Lara-Turiya; Perry, Alex; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane

    2018-01-30

    The Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance highlights the importance of training all healthcare professionals. No study has assessed patterns of students' knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning antibiotic use simultaneously across different healthcare course types. We conducted a cross-sectional multi-center survey among UK students. The survey was advertised through local survey coordinators at 25 universities. The online survey was accessible from 10th October to 17th November 2016 (before European Antibiotic Awareness Day). A total of 255 students from 25 universities participated, including students on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, physician associate, dentistry and veterinary medicine courses. Antibiotic resistance was considered to be a more important global challenge than climate change, obesity or food security ( p < 0.001). Most students (95%) believed that antibiotic resistance will be a problem for their future practice, but fewer (69%) thought that the antibiotics they will prescribe, administer or dispense will contribute to the problem. A fifth of students felt they had sufficient knowledge of antibiotic use for their future work. Our exploratory study suggests that UK human and animal healthcare students are aware of the importance of antibiotic resistance, but many still have certain misconceptions. Campaigns and improved educational efforts applying behavioral insights methodology could address these.

  11. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Human and Animal Health Students towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver James Dyar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance highlights the importance of training all healthcare professionals. No study has assessed patterns of students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning antibiotic use simultaneously across different healthcare course types. We conducted a cross-sectional multi-center survey among UK students. The survey was advertised through local survey coordinators at 25 universities. The online survey was accessible from 10th October to 17th November 2016 (before European Antibiotic Awareness Day. A total of 255 students from 25 universities participated, including students on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, physician associate, dentistry and veterinary medicine courses. Antibiotic resistance was considered to be a more important global challenge than climate change, obesity or food security (p < 0.001. Most students (95% believed that antibiotic resistance will be a problem for their future practice, but fewer (69% thought that the antibiotics they will prescribe, administer or dispense will contribute to the problem. A fifth of students felt they had sufficient knowledge of antibiotic use for their future work. Our exploratory study suggests that UK human and animal healthcare students are aware of the importance of antibiotic resistance, but many still have certain misconceptions. Campaigns and improved educational efforts applying behavioral insights methodology could address these.

  12. Behavioral and physiological responses of cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to steam distillates from resistant versus susceptible soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z R; Ciepiela, A; Norris, D M

    1987-08-01

    Soybean plant volatiles, extracted as steam distillates, significantly affected the behavior and biology of the cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Distillates from the susceptible Davis variety attractedT. ni larvae and female adults, whereas those from resistant PI 227687 plants repelled them. When mixed in an artificial diet, steam distillates from PI 227687 plants caused mortality of first-instar larvae. Adults emerging from pupae topically treated with 5 μg of such PI 227687 extractable showed developmental abnormalities. Larval feeding was significantly less on Davis leaves treated with PI 227687 volatiles as compared to solvent (acetone) or such Davis extractables. However, Davis volatiles on PI 227687 leaves did not increase larval feeding. HPLC analyses of steam distillates from susceptible Davis versus resistant PI 227687 indicated differences.

  13. Microstructure Characterization and Corrosion Resistance Behavior of New Cobalt-Free Maraging Steel Produced Through ESR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikh, Asiful H.; Halfa, Hossam; Baig, Muneer; Khan, Sohail M. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two different grades (M23 and M29) of cobalt-free low nickel maraging steel have been produced through electroslag remelting (ESR) process. The corrosion resistance of these ESR steels was investigated in 1 M H2SO4 solution using linear potentiodynamic polarization (LPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The experiments were performed for different immersion time and solution temperature. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the ESR steels, some significant characterization parameters from LPP and EIS curves were analyzed and compared with that of conventional C250 maraging steel. Irrespective of measurement techniques used, the results show that the corrosion resistance of the ESR steels was higher than the C250 steel. The microstructure of ESR steels was composed of uniform and well-distributed martensite accompanied with little amount of retained austenite in comparison with C250 steel.

  14. Abrogated Freud-1/Cc2d1a Repression of 5-HT1A Autoreceptors Induces Fluoxetine-Resistant Anxiety/Depression-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid-Ansari, Faranak; Daigle, Mireille; Manzini, M Chiara; Tanaka, Kenji F; Hen, René; Geddes, Sean D; Béïque, Jean-Claude; James, Jonathan; Merali, Zul; Albert, Paul R

    2017-12-06

    Freud-1/Cc2d1a represses the gene transcription of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors, which negatively regulate 5-HT tone. To test the role of Freud-1 in vivo , we generated mice with adulthood conditional knock-out of Freud-1 in 5-HT neurons ( cF1ko ). In cF1ko mice, 5-HT1A autoreceptor protein, binding and hypothermia response were increased, with reduced 5-HT content and neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe. The cF1ko mice displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior that was resistant to chronic antidepressant (fluoxetine) treatment. Using conditional Freud-1/5-HT1A double knock-out ( cF1/1A dko ) to disrupt both Freud-1 and 5-HT1A genes in 5-HT neurons, no increase in anxiety- or depression-like behavior was seen upon knock-out of Freud-1 on the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-negative background; rather, a reduction in depression-like behavior emerged. These studies implicate transcriptional dysregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors by the repressor Freud-1 in anxiety and depression and provide a clinically relevant genetic model of antidepressant resistance. Targeting specific transcription factors, such as Freud-1, to restore transcriptional balance may augment response to antidepressant treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered regulation of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor has been implicated in human anxiety, major depression, suicide, and resistance to antidepressants. This study uniquely identifies a single transcription factor, Freud-1, as crucial for 5-HT1A autoreceptor expression in vivo Disruption of Freud-1 in serotonin neurons in mice links upregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors to anxiety/depression-like behavior and provides a new model of antidepressant resistance. Treatment strategies to reestablish transcriptional regulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors could provide a more robust and sustained antidepressant response. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711967-12$15.00/0.

  15. Brain kinin B1 receptor is upregulated by the oxidative stress and its activation leads to stereotypic nociceptive behavior in insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Gariépy, Helaine De Brito; Ongali, Brice; Couture, Réjean

    2015-07-01

    Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is virtually absent under physiological condition, yet it is highly expressed in models of diabetes mellitus. This study aims at determining: (1) whether B1R is induced in the brain of insulin-resistant rat through the oxidative stress; (2) the consequence of B1R activation on stereotypic nocifensive behavior; (3) the role of downstream putative mediators in B1R-induced behavioral activity. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 10% D-glucose in their drinking water or tap water (controls) for 4 or 12 weeks, combined either with a standard chow diet or a diet enriched with α-lipoic acid (1 g/kg feed) for 4 weeks. The distribution and density of brain B1R binding sites were assessed by autoradiography. Behavioral activity evoked by i.c.v. injection of the B1R agonist Sar-[D-Phe(8)]-des-Arg(9)-BK (10 μg) was measured before and after i.c.v. treatments with selective antagonists (10 μg) for kinin B1 (R-715, SSR240612), tachykinin NK1 (RP-67580) and glutamate NMDA (DL-AP5) receptors or with the inhibitor of NOS (L-NNA). Results showed significant increases of B1R binding sites in various brain areas of glucose-fed rats that could be prevented by the diet containing α-lipoic acid. The B1R agonist elicited head scratching, grooming, sniffing, rearing, digging, licking, face washing, wet dog shake, teeth chattering and biting in glucose-fed rats, which were absent after treatment with α-lipoic acid or antagonists/inhibitors. Data suggest that kinin B1R is upregulated by the oxidative stress in the brain of insulin-resistant rats and its activation causes stereotypic nocifensive behavior through the release of substance P, glutamate and NO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of deep cryogenic treatment and tempering on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of a wear-resistant austempered alloyed bainitic ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of deep cryogenic treatment in combination with conven- tional heat treatment process was investigated on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of alloyed bainitic ductile iron. Three processing schedules were employed to treat this alloyed ductile iron including direct tempering treatment, tempering.+deep cryogenic treatment and deep cryogenic treatment.+tempering treatments. The microstructure and mechanical behavior, especially the wear resistance, have been evaluated after treated by these three schedules. The results show that martensite microstructure can be obviously refined and the precipitation of dispersed carbides is promoted by deep cryogenic treatment at .−196 ∘C for 3 h after tempered at 450 ∘C for 2 h. In this case, the alloyed bainitic ductile iron possesses rather high hardness and wear-resistance than those processed by other two schedules. The main wear mechanism of the austempered alloyed ductile iron with deep cryogenic treatment and tempering is micro-cutting wear in association with plastic deformation wear.

  17. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials ( E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance ( R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance ( R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  18. Microstructure, Wear Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of WC-FeCrAl and WC-WB-Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on investigating the quality of two grades of thermally sprayed coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF technology. One grade contains WC hard particles in an environmentally progressive Ni- and Co-free FeCrAl matrix, while the second coating contains WC and WB hard particles in a cobalt matrix. The aim of the experimental work was to determine the effect of thermal cyclic loading on the coatings’ resistance to adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear. Abrasive wear was evaluated using abrasive cloth of two grit sizes, and erosive wear was evaluated by a dry-pot wear test in a pin mill at two sample angles. Adhesion wear resistance of the coatings was determined by a sliding wear test under dry friction conditions and in a 1 mol water solution of NaCl. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization tests. Metallographic cross-sections were used for measurement of the microhardness and thickness and for line energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. The tests proved the excellent resistance of both coatings against adhesive, abrasive, and erosive wear, as well as the ability of the WC-WB-Co coating to withstand alternating temperatures of up to 600 °C. The “green carbide” coating (WC-FeCrAl can be recommended as an environmentally friendly replacement for Ni- and Co-containing coatings, but its operating temperature is strictly limited to 500 °C in air.

  19. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, Elsa M.; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1‒/‒ mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.

  20. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, Elsa M.

    2016-03-09

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1‒/‒ mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.

  1. Exploring the Factors Influencing Gifted Adolescents' Resistance to Report Experiences of Cyberbullying Behavior: Toward an Improved Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Justin Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Academically gifted adolescents frequently experience cyberbullying behavior. Successful intervention and prevention of such bullying is, to a large degree, dependent on such incidents being reported to an adult caregiver. However, research shows that adolescents who have experienced cyberbullying tend not to inform parents or teachers. Despite…

  2. Microstructure and failure behavior of dissimilar resistance spot welds between low carbon galvanized and austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marashi, P.; Pouranvari, M.; Amirabdollahian, S.; Abedi, A.; Goodarzi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Resistance spot welding was used to join austenitic stainless steel and galvanized low carbon steel. The relationship between failure mode and weld fusion zone characteristics (size and microstructure) was studied. It was found that spot weld strength in the pullout failure mode is controlled by the strength and fusion zone size of the galvanized steel side. The hardness of the fusion zone which is governed by the dilution between two base metals, and fusion zone size of galvanized carbon steel side are dominant factors in determining the failure mode

  3. Multi-level resistive switching behaviors and retention characteristics in ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Weifeng; Jia, Caihong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on SrTiO3:Nb (NSTO) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering method. The multi-level resistance states were observed by applying different amplitudes and/or polarities of voltage pulses, which is supposed to be related to the drift of oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the decay of retention is also corresponding to the migration of oxygen vacancies. The retention and cycle stability implies that the ZnO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunctions are promising for high density memory application.

  4. Low energy gamma induced radiation damage in YBCO: electrical resistivity and the induced metal - insulator transition behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Carlos M.; Pinnera, Ibrahin; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Sirgado, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution the superconducting YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior on the irradiation dose and accumulative time are studied for gamma quanta of E γ = 132 keV ( 57 Co) and 1,25 MeV ( 60 Co) at room temperature. In both cases, possible radiation effects on grain boundary and intragrain zones are evaluated by means of different gamma ray microscopic interaction models. It was conclude that 57 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 132 keV) modules YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior through enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion motions which collapse the electron percolative conduction paths in the grain boundary zones, effects which are not observed by irradiation with 60 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 1,25 MeV), in which case main irradiation effects on the electrical conduction mechanisms are limited to the intragrain zones. (Author)

  5. Environmental enrichment induces behavioral recovery and enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation in an antidepressant-resistant animal model for PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrikus Hendriksen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD can be considered the result of a failure to recover after a traumatic experience. Here we studied possible protective and therapeutic aspects of environmental enrichment (with and without a running wheel in Sprague Dawley rats exposed to an inescapable foot shock procedure (IFS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IFS induced long-lasting contextual and non-contextual anxiety, modeling some aspects of PTSD. Even 10 weeks after IFS the rats showed reduced locomotion in an open field. The antidepressants imipramine and escitalopram did not improve anxiogenic behavior following IFS. Also the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate did not alleviate the IFS induced immobility. While environmental enrichment (EE starting two weeks before IFS did not protect the animals from the behavioral effects of the shocks, exposure to EE either immediately after the shock or one week later induced complete recovery three weeks after IFS. In the next set of experiments a running wheel was added to the EE to enable voluntary exercise (EE/VE. This also led to reduced anxiety. Importantly, this behavioral recovery was not due to a loss of memory for the traumatic experience. The behavioral recovery correlated with an increase in cell proliferation in hippocampus, a decrease in the tissue levels of noradrenalin and increased turnover of 5-HT in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This animal study shows the importance of (physical exercise in the treatment of psychiatric diseases, including post-traumatic stress disorder and points out the possible role of EE in studying the mechanism of recovery from anxiety disorders.

  6. Melatonin supplementation plus exercise behavior ameliorate insulin resistance, hypertension and fatigue in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kwon, Han-Sol; Kim, Myung-Jin; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Oak, Min-Ho; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin and exercise on insulin resistance (IR), hypertension and fatigue syndrome in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into 5 groups namely normal control (NC), T2DM control group (DC), diabetes plus exercise (DE), diabetes plus oral melatonin supplement (DM) and diabetes plus melatonin and exercise (DME) groups. Melatonin was administered orally 5mg/kg twice daily and 40min swimming/day 5days/week were regimented after diabetes induction. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, IR, serum leptin, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation increased significantly (Phypertension, IR, biochemical alteration induced by diabetes and significantly increased exercise performance (Phypertension and exercise performance or fatigue possibly by improving antioxidative activities, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory cytokines via up-regulation of GLUT4, PGC-1 α and mitochondrial biogenesis in T2DM rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior and Continuously Tunable Resistivity Exponents in the Anderson-Hubbard Model at Finite Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Niravkumar D. [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mukherjee, Anamitra [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni (India); Kaushal, Nitin [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Moreo, Adriana [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [The Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-24

    Here, we employ a recently developed computational many-body technique to study for the first time the half-filled Anderson-Hubbard model at finite temperature and arbitrary correlation U and disorder V strengths. Interestingly, the narrow zero temperature metallic range induced by disorder from the Mott insulator expands with increasing temperature in a manner resembling a quantum critical point. Our study of the resistivity temperature scaling Tα for this metal reveals non-Fermi liquid characteristics. Moreover, a continuous dependence of α on U and V from linear to nearly quadratic is observed. We argue that these exotic results arise from a systematic change with U and V of the “effective” disorder, a combination of quenched disorder and intrinsic localized spins.

  8. Creep behavior of 8Cr2WVTa martensitic steel designed for fusion DEMO reactor. An assessment on helium embrittlement resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Norikazu; Murase, Yoshiharu; Nagakawa, Johsei; Shiba, Kiyoyuki

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical response against transmutational helium production, alternatively susceptibility to helium embrittlement, in a nuclear fusion reactor was examined on 8Cr2WVTa martensitic steel, a prominent structural candidate for advanced fusion systems. In order to simulate DEMO (demonstrative) reactor environments, helium was implanted into the material at 823 K with concentrations up to 1000 appmHe utilizing an α-beam from a cyclotron. Creep rupture properties were subsequently determined at the same temperature and were compared with those of the material without helium. It has been proved that helium caused no meaningful deterioration in terms of both the creep lifetime and rupture elongation. Furthermore, failure occurred completely in a transgranular and ductile manner even after high concentration helium introduction and there was no symptom of grain boundary decohesion which very often arises in helium bearing materials. These facts would mirror preferable resistance of this steel toward helium embrittlement. (author)

  9. RKIP inhibition in cervical cancer is associated with higher tumor aggressive behavior and resistance to cisplatin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, being high-risk group the HPV infected, the leading etiological factor. The raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several human neoplasms, however its role on cervical cancer is unclear. In the present study, 259 uterine cervix tissues, including cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas, were analyzed for RKIP expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that RKIP expression was significantly decreased during malignant progression, being highly expressed in non-neoplastic tissues (54% of the samples; 73/135, and expressed at low levels in the cervix invasive carcinomas (∼15% (19/124. Following in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we observed a viability and proliferative advantage of RKIP-inhibited cells over time, which was associated with an altered cell cycle distribution and higher colony number in a colony formation assay. An in vitro wound healing assay showed that RKIP abrogation is associated with increased migratory capability. RKIP downregulation was also associated with an increased vascularization of the tumors in vivo using a CAM assay. Furthermore, RKIP inhibition induced cervical cancer cells apoptotic resistance to cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, we described that RKIP protein is significantly depleted during the malignant progression of cervical tumors. Despite the lack of association with patient clinical outcome, we demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that loss of RKIP expression can be one of the factors that are behind the aggressiveness, malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of cervical cancer.

  10. Pressure dependence of coherence-incoherence crossover behavior in KFe2As2 observed by resistivity and 75As-NMR/NQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecki, P.; Taufour, V.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and resistivity measurements in KFe2As2 under pressure (p ). The temperature dependence of the NMR shift, nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and resistivity show a crossover between a high-temperature incoherent, local-moment behavior and a low-temperature coherent behavior at a crossover temperature (T*). T* is found to increase monotonically with pressure, consistent with increasing hybridization between localized 3 d orbital-derived bands with the itinerant electron bands. No anomaly in T* is seen at the critical pressure pc=1.8 GPa where a change of slope of the superconducting (SC) transition temperature Tc(p ) has been observed. In contrast, Tc(p ) seems to correlate with antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the normal state as measured by the NQR 1 /T1 data, although such a correlation cannot be seen in the replacement effects of A in the A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs) family. In the superconducting state, two T1 components are observed at low temperatures, suggesting the existence of two distinct local electronic environments. The temperature dependence of the short T1 s indicates a nearly gapless state below Tc. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the long component 1 /T1 L implies a large reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level due to the SC gap formation. These results suggest a real-space modulation of the local SC gap structure in KFe2As2 under pressure.

  11. Effects of small-grit grinding and glazing on mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuan; Si, Wenjie; Jiang, Danyu; Sun, Ting; Shao, Longquan; Deng, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of small-grit grinding on the mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia and to investigate the necessity of glazing for the small-grit ground zirconia. Small-grit grinding was performed using two kinds of silicon carbide abrasive papers. The control group received no grinding. The unground surfaces and the ground surfaces were glazed by an experienced dental technician. Finally, the zirconia materials were thermally aged in water at 134°C for 5h. After aforementioned treatments, we observed the surface topography and the microstructures, and measured the extent of monoclinic phase, the nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the possible transformed zone and the flexural strength. Small-grit grinding changed the surface topography. The zirconia microstructure did not change obviously after surface treatments and thermal ageing; however, the glaze in contact with zirconia showed cracks after thermal ageing. Small-grit grinding did not induce a phase transformation but improved the flexural strength and ageing resistance. Glazing prevented zirconia from thermal ageing but severely diminished the flexural strength. The nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the surface layer were increased by ultrafine grinding. The results suggest that small-grit grinding is beneficial to the strength and ageing resistance of the super-translucent dental zirconia; however, glazing is not necessary and even impairs the strength for the super-translucent dental zirconia. This study is helpful to the researches about dental grinding tools and maybe useful for dentists to choose reasonable zirconia surface treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  13. Corrosion behavior of Nb-based and Mo-based super heat-resisting alloys in liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, J.; Kano, S.; Morinaga, M.

    1998-07-01

    Research on structural materials which will be utilized even in the severe environment of high-temperature liquid alkali metals has been promoted in order to develop the frontiers of materials techniques. The super-heat resisting alloys which are based on refractory metals, Nb and Mo, are aimed as promising materials used in such an environment. The corrosion resistance in liquid Li and the mechanical properties such as creep and tensile strengths at high temperatures are important for these structural materials. On the basis of many experiments and analyses of these properties at 1473 K, the material design of Nb-based and Mo-based alloys has been carried out successfully. In this report, all the previous experimental results of corrosion tests in liquid Li were summarized systematically for Nb-based and Mo-based alloys. The corrosion mechanism was proposed on the basis of a series of analyses, in particular, focussing on the deposition mechanism of corrosion products on the surface and also on the initiation and growth mechanism of cracks on the corroded surface of Nb-based alloys. The principal results are as follows. (1) For the deposition mechanism, a reaction took place first between dissolved metallic elements and nitrogen which existed as an impurity in liquid Li and then corrosion products (nitrides) precipitated on the metal surface. Subsequently, another reaction took place between dissolved metallic elements in liquid Li, and corrosion products (intermetallic compounds) precipitated on the metal surface. The composition of deposited corrosion products could be predicted on the basis of the deposition mechanism. (2) For the crack initiation mechanism, the chemical potential diagrams were utilized in order to understand the formation of Li-M-O ternary oxides which caused cracks to be formed on the corroded surface. Consequently, it was evident that not only the concentration of the dissolved oxygen in the alloy but also the concentration of Li which

  14. Evaluation of damage accumulation behavior and strength anisotropy of NITE SiC/SiC composites by acoustic emission, digital image correlation and electrical resistivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Asakura, Yuuki; Kohyama, Akira; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cracking process of the composites is essential to establish the design basis for practical applications. This study aims to investigate the damage accumulation process and its anisotropy for nano-infiltration transient eutectic sintered (NITE) SiC/SiC composites by various characterization techniques such as the acoustic emission (AE), digital image correlation (DIC) and electrical resistivity (ER) measurements. Cracking behavior below the proportional limit stress (PLS) was specifically addressed. Similar to the other generic SiC/SiC composites, the 1st AE event was identified below the PLS for NITE SiC/SiC composites with a dependency of fabric orientation. The DIC results support that the primary failure mode depending on fiber orientation affected more than the other minor modes did. Detailed AE waveform analysis by wavelet shows a potential to classify the failure behavior depending on architecture. Cracking below the PLS is a potential concern in component deign but the preliminary ER measurements imply that the impact of cracking below the PLS on composite function was limited

  15. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. Roberge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed.

  16. Effect of Aging on Precipitation Behavior and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of SAF2906 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Guoping; Liang, Wei; Han, Peide; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-09-01

    The effect of aging temperature and holding time on the precipitation of secondary phases and pitting corrosion resistance of SAF2906 super duplex stainless steel was examined. Chromium nitride and σ phase were observed to preferentially precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface. An amount of nitrides was also observed within the ferrite grain. The precipitation of chromium nitride occurred before the σ phase. The increase in aging temperature and holding time did not affect the concentration of the nitrides but increased the area fraction of the σ phase at a faster rate. The Cr2N precipitation in SAF2906 is more evident than that of the other duplex stainless steels. The variation tendency of the precipitation concentrations is primarily consistent with the prediction results of Thermo-Calc software. The electrochemical results showed that Cr2N and σ phase significantly reduced the pitting potential. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that pits appear mainly in regions adjacent to sigma phase and Cr2N.

  17. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Bernhard; Glasnov, Toma N; Razzaq, Tahseen; Goessler, Walter; Roberge, Dominique M

    2011-01-01

    Summary The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed. PMID:21647324

  18. Precipitation behavior and martensite lath coarsening during tempering of T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin-qing; Zhang, Dan-tian; Liu, Yong-chang; Ning, Bao-qun; Qiao, Zhi-xia; Yan, Ze-sheng; Li, Hui-jun

    2014-05-01

    Tempering is an important process for T/P92 ferritic heat-resistant steel from the viewpoint of microstructure control, as it facilitates the formation of final tempered martensite under serving conditions. In this study, we have gained deeper insights on the mechanism underlying the microstructural evolution during tempering treatment, including the precipitation of carbides and the coarsening of martensite laths, as systematically analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicate the formation of M3C (cementite) precipitates under normalized conditions. However, they tend to dissolve within a short time of tempering, owing to their low thermal stability. This phenomenon was substantiated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Besides, we could observe the precipitation of fine carbonitrides (MX) along the dislocations. The mechanism of carbon diffusion controlled growth of M23C6 can be expressed by the Zener's equation. The movement of Y-junctions was determined to be the fundamental mechanism underlying the martensite lath coarsening process. Vickers hardness was estimated to determine their mechanical properties. Based on the comprehensive analysis of both the micro-structural evolution and hardness variation, the process of tempering can be separated into three steps.

  19. Weld Growth Mechanisms and Failure Behavior of Three-Sheet Resistance Spot Welds Made of 5052 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yan, Fuyu; Luo, Zhen; Chao, Y. J.; Ao, Sansan; Cui, Xuetuan

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the weld nugget formation in three-sheet aluminum alloy resistance spot welding. The nugget formation process in three equal thickness sheets and three unequal thickness sheets of 5052 aluminum alloy were studied. The results showed that the nugget was initially formed at the workpiece/workpiece interfaces (i.e., both upper interface and lower interface). The two small nuggets then grew along the radial direction and axial direction (welding direction) as the welding time increased. Eventually, the two nuggets fused into one large nugget. During the welding process, the Peltier effect between the Cu-Al caused the shift of the nugget in the welding direction. In addition, the mechanical strength and fracture mode of the weld nuggets at the upper and lower interfaces were also studied using tensile shear specimen configuration. Three failure modes were identified, namely interfacial, mixed, and pullout. The critical welding time and critical nugget diameter corresponding to the transitions of these modes were investigated. Finally, an empirical failure load formula for three-sheet weld similar to two-sheet spot weld was developed.

  20. Comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana de gérmenes aislados en heridas por quemaduras Behavior of antimicrobial resistance germs isolated from burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pérez Hera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Son objetivos de este trabajo determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia de diferentes microorganismos aislados frente a antimicrobianos probados en las heridas por quemadura, en pacientes ingresados en el servicio de quemados del Hospital General Provincial «Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola», durante los años 2001, 2003 y 2005. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 96 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizó cultivo con antibiograma según la técnica descrita para el método de Kirby Bauer, y en algunos pacientes se empleó el sistema DIRAMIC. Se procesaron los datos en el programa computarizado Microsoft Excel, y los resultados se representaron en tablas y gráficos, con números absolutos y porcentajes. RESULTADOS. Durante el 2001, la resistencia antimicrobiana alcanzada por el germen que con mayor frecuencia se aisló (Pseudomonas aeruginosa abarca a la kanamicina (65,5 % y la ceftriazona (55,1 %, en orden decreciente. Durante el 2003 el resultado fue muy similar y se aisló, también en orden de frecuencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Proteus mirabilis, este último con una resistencia sobre el 33,3 % a todos los antimicrobianos probados. En el 2005 se observó predominio de Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Escherichia coli, con una resistencia marcada a los aminoglucósidos y betalactámicos superior al 50 %. CONCLUSIONES. Se diagnosticaron 8 especies bacterianas con una elevada resistencia antimicrobiana. Los gérmenes aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mostró una tendencia al aumento de la resistencia frente a antimicrobianos como el cloranfenicol, los aminoglucósidos y las cefalosporinas.INTRODUCTION: The aims of present paper is to determine the resistance behavior of different isolated microorganisms towards antimicrobials detected in burn wounds in patients admitted in

  1. Growth Kinetics of Laves Phase and Its Effect on Creep Rupture Behavior in 9Cr Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xin XIA; Chuan-yang WANG; Chen LEI; Yun-ting LAI; Yan-fen ZHAO; Lu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Laves phase formation and growth on creep rupture behaviors of P92 steel at 883 K were studied.The microstructural evolution was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission elec-tron microscopy.Kinetic modeling was carried out using the software DICTRA.The results indicated Fe2 (W,Mo) Laves phase has formed during creep with 200 MPa applied stress at 883 K for 243 h.The experimental results showed a good agreement with thermodynamic calculations.The plastic deformation of laths is the main reason of creep rupture under the applied stress beyond 160 MPa,whereas,creep voids initiated by coarser Laves phase play an effective role in creep rupture under the applied stress lower than 160 MPa.Laves phase particles with the mean size of 243 nm lead to the change of creep rupture feature.Microstructures at the vicinity of fracture surface,the gage portion and the threaded ends of creep rupture specimens were also observed,indicating that creep tensile stress enhances the coarsening of Laves phase.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  3. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  4. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  5. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2013-01-01

    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  6. Resistant to the Recession: Low-Income Adults’ Maintenance of Cooking and Away-From-Home Eating Behaviors During Times of Economic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. Methods. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents’ AFH consumption patterns. Results. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents’ cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Conclusions. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients. PMID:24625145

  7. Resistant to the recession: low-income adults' maintenance of cooking and away-from-home eating behaviors during times of economic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-05-01

    We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents' AFH consumption patterns. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents' cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients.

  8. Influences of MCrAlY coatings on oxidation resistance of single crystal superalloy DD98M and their inter-diffusion behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Long [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xin, Li, E-mail: xli@imr.ac.cn [Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Xinyue; Wang, Xiaolan; Wei, Hua; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui [Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Oxidation and interdiffusion behaviors of Ni-based single crystal superalloy DD98M with nominal compositions Ni–5.0Co–6.0Cr–6.3Al–6.0W–2.0Mo–6.0Ta–1.0Ti (in wt.%) and two types of MCrAlY coatings at 1000 °C and 1050 °C were investigated. Complex oxides formed on the surface of DD98M alloy when oxidized at 1000 °C and 1050 °C, which stratified, cracked and spalled. The faceted-like AlN and the particle-like and strip-like TiN formed in the alloy. The application of the NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlYHfSi coatings greatly improved the oxidation resistance of DD98M alloy. After 500 h oxidation, α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was still the dominate phase in the oxide scales formed on the coated specimens. The adhesion of the oxide scale on the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coating was much better than that on the NiCrAlY coating. Interdiffusion occurred between the coatings and the substrate, which led to the formation of the IDZ and SRZ. The IDZ of the NiCrAlY coated specimen was composed of γ phase and Al- and Ta-rich γ′ phase. The γ′ phase in the IDZ accommodated most of the inward diffusing aluminum, so the SRZ formation was suppressed when oxidized at 1050 °C. However the formation of SRZ with μ-TCP still occurred when oxidized at 1000 °C probably due to the low solubility and slow diffusion rate of the alloying elements at lower temperature. The IDZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coated specimen was a single γ phase. A large amount of μ-TCP precipitated in the SRZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coated specimen when oxidized at 1000 °C and 1050 °C. It can be concluded coating composition has a significant effect on the development of the IDZ and SRZ. Thermal exposure temperature also has influences on the formation of the SRZ. The mechanism of SRZ formation and TCP precipitation are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The TEM micrograph of the IDZ and SRZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi-coated specimen oxidized at 1050 °C for 100 h and the respective diffraction patterns of the needle-like and the

  9. Effect of molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dong, E-mail: 1078155409@qq.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Luo, Xudong, E-mail: luoxudongs@aliyun.com [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Guodong [School of High Temperature Materials and Magnesium Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Xie, Zhipeng [Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the relationship between the property of MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics and molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, especially the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance, the MgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} composite ceramics were fabricated with micro-size MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and nano-size SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials. The sample was characterized by phase analysis, densification and thermal shock times. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscope was also conducted to study microstructure of the samples before and after thermal shock. Effect of different molar ratios of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics were investigated. The results showed that the sample possess better sintering behavior and thermal shock resistance with the molar ratio of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} equal to 2/1. Grains of periclase and spinel were directly bonded together, resulting in a dense and compact microstructure, and the bulk density of obtained sample reached 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}. The microstructure of sample after thermal shock revealed that the crack propagation path was deflected and bifurcated, the main-crack propagation was restricted and more fracture energy was consumed, the thermal shock resistance of composite ceramics was greatly improved. - Highlights: • Effect of MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the composite ceramic was firstly researched with 1 mol% SiO{sub 2}. • Microcracks for a short distance by interlinking can eliminate the crack propagation. • The composite ceramic have optimal synthetic property with MgO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 2/1.

  10. Enhanced resistive switching and multilevel behavior in bilayered HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} structures for non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faita, F. L., E-mail: fabriciofaita@gmail.com [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, J. P. B., E-mail: josesilva@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-14

    In this work, hafnium aluminum oxide (HfAlO) thin films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition technique on Si substrate. The presence of oxygen vacancies in the HfAlO{sub x} layer deposited in oxygen deficient environment is evidenced from the photoluminescence spectra. Furthermore, HfAlO(oxygen rich)/HfAlO{sub x}(oxygen poor) bilayer structures exhibit multilevel resistive switching (RS), and the switching ratio becomes more prominent with increasing the HfAlO layer thickness. The bilayer structure with HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} thickness of 30/40 nm displays the enhanced multilevel resistive switching characteristics, where the high resistance state/intermediate resistance state (IRS) and IRS/low resistance state resistance ratios are ≈10{sup 2} and ≈5 × 10{sup 5}, respectively. The switching mechanisms in the bilayer structures were investigated by the temperature dependence of the three resistance states. This study revealed that the multilevel RS is attributed to the coupling of ionic conduction and the metallic conduction, being the first associated to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments related to oxygen vacancies and the second with the formation of a metallic filament. Moreover, the bilayer structures exhibit good endurance and stability in time.

  11. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devulder, Wouter; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 -C/Al 2 O 3 /Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al 2 O 3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al 2 O 3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents

  12. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Wouter; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Belmonte, Attilio; Muller, Robert; De Schutter, Bob; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu0.6Te0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu0.6Te0.4-C/Al2O3/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al2O3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al2O3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  13. Why Johnny Won't Cooperate: An Examination of Behavior and Motivation Theory to Understand Resistance to Change in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis is advanced by synthesizing the motivation theories of Maslow, McGregor, and Merzberg to develop a model which describes behavior as a function of human need and points to the existence...

  14. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  15. INSULATION RESISTANCE OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS. BEHAVIOR OF CERTAIN TYPES AND MAKES UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. En undersoegelse af en raekke typer og fabrikater under forskellige klimatiske forhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, S. T.

    1971-11-15

    The present study embraces measurements of insulation resistance on a number of types and makes of printed-circuit boards. The insulation measurements were performed on boards just received from the manufacturer, as well as on boards exposed to humidity or to elevated temperatures. A total of 33 types from five different material categories were obtained. The test material used thus originated from a variety of independent sources. The purpose of the project was to investigate the frequency with which batches with insufficiently baked material - and consequently having a poor insulation resistance - were encountered in practice. No such batches were in fact found, and it is likely that they do not occur as often as had previously been assumed.

  16. Employee Resistance to Computer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of computers to the work place may cause employee stress. Aggressive, protective, and avoidance behaviors are forms of staff resistance. The development of good training programs will enhance productivity. Suggestions for evaluating computer systems are offered. (DF)

  17. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...

  18. Mobility dynamics of migrant workers and their socio-behavioral parameters related to malaria in Tier II, Artemisinin Resistance Containment Zone, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Thaung; Wai, Khin Thet; Oo, Tin; Sint, Nyan; Min, Tun; Myar, Shwe; Lon, Khin Nan; Naing, Myo Myint; Tun, Tet Toe; Maung, Nay Lin Yin; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Thimarsan, Krongthong; Wai, Tin Tin; Thaung, Lwin Ni Ni

    2015-09-14

    Areas with dynamic population movements are likely to be associated with higher levels of drug-resistant malaria. Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC) Project has been launching since 2012. One of its components includes enhancing strategic approaches for mobile/migrant populations. We aimed to ascertain the estimated population of mobile migrant workers and their families in terms of stability in work setting in townships classified as tier II (areas with significant inflows of people from areas with credible evidence of artemisinin resistance) for Artemisinin resistance; to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices related to prevention and control of malaria and to recommend cost-effective strategies in planning for prevention and control of malaria. A prospective cross-sectional study conducted between June to December 2013 that covered 1,899 migrant groups from 16 tier II townships of Bago Region, and Kayin and Kayah States. Trained data collectors used a pre-tested and subsequently modified questionnaire and interviewed 2,381 respondents. Data of migrant groups were analyzed and compared by category depending upon the stability of their work setting. The estimated population of the 1,899 migrant groups categorized into three on the nature of their work setting was 56,030. Bago region was the commonest reported source of origin of migrant groups as well as their transit. Malaria volunteers were mostly within the reach of category 1 migrant groups (43/66, 65.2 %). Less stable migrant groups in category 3 had limited access to malaria information (14.7 %) and malaria care providers (22.1 %), low level of awareness and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (46.6 and 38.8 %). Also, they had poor knowledge on malaria prevention on confirming suspected malaria and on using artemisinin combined therapy (ACT). Within two weeks prior to the survey, only 16.5 % of respondents in all categories combined reported acute undifferentiated fever

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  1. Differential behaviors of trastuzumab-sensitive and -resistant SKBR3 cells treated with menadione reveal the involvement of Notch1/Akt/FOXO1 signaling elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadimajd, Soraya; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2015-10-01

    Given that HER2 serves as a putative target for therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer, intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to trastuzumab (T) has been proposed to be the major obstacle in treatments. In addition, chemoresistance is commonly attributed to increased antioxidant capacity. In that regard, we evaluated the effect of menadione (M) alone and/or its combination with trastuzumab on proliferation, intracellular GSH and ROS contents as well as HER2 and Notch1 signaling pathways in both trastuzumab-resistant (SKBR3(R)) and -sensitive SKBR3 (SKBR3(S)) cells. In spite of increased level of ROS and reduced level of GSH in M-treated SKBR3(S) cells, M-treated SKBR3(R) cells showed a decreased content of ROS and GSH compared to untreated cells. However, M/T co-treatment of SKBR3 cells indicated no effect on ROS content, while decreased the level of GSH compared to untreated control cells. Based on the extent of apoptosis, colony formation and wound healing assays, M alone, and/or in combination with T had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation of SKBR3(R) cells relative to SKBR3(S) cells. These effects might be due to the stronger effects of M and/or M/T on downregulation of p-Akt, Hes1, NICD, and upregulation of FOXO1 among SKBR3(R) cells relative to the sensitive SKBR3 cells. These findings would certainly shed light on some of the signaling factors involved in induction of trastuzumab resistance and would be of value in designing more efficient chemosensitization strategies.

  2. Mechanism of rectification and two-type bipolar resistance switching behaviors of Pt /Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 /Nb:SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. W.; Jia, C. H.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    Epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films have been grown on Nb:SrTiO3 (NSTO) (1 0 0) substrates. The films are a tetragonal perovskite phase with good density and homogeneity. Rectification behavior and two types of bipolar resistance switching (BRS) have been observed in the Pt/PZT/NSTO device. It exhibits rectification below 3 V. According to piezo force microscopy analysis, PZT film has a multidomain structure below 8 V and the device shows abnormal BRS between 3 V and 8 V. When the voltage increases above 8 V, the polarization of the PZT film tends to saturation and it becomes single domain and displays normal BRS behavior. In addition, the device demonstrates good retention and anti-fatigue properties. The transition from abnormal bipolar to normal bipolar behavior caused by ferroelectric polarization can broaden device applications and enable large flexibility in terms of memory architecture.

  3. Mechanism of rectification and two-type bipolar resistance switching behaviors of Pt /Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 /Nb:SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W W; Jia, C H; Zhang, Q; Zhang, W F

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films have been grown on Nb:SrTiO 3 (NSTO) (1 0 0) substrates. The films are a tetragonal perovskite phase with good density and homogeneity. Rectification behavior and two types of bipolar resistance switching (BRS) have been observed in the Pt/PZT/NSTO device. It exhibits rectification below 3 V. According to piezo force microscopy analysis, PZT film has a multidomain structure below 8 V and the device shows abnormal BRS between 3 V and 8 V. When the voltage increases above 8 V, the polarization of the PZT film tends to saturation and it becomes single domain and displays normal BRS behavior. In addition, the device demonstrates good retention and anti-fatigue properties. The transition from abnormal bipolar to normal bipolar behavior caused by ferroelectric polarization can broaden device applications and enable large flexibility in terms of memory architecture. (paper)

  4. Study of swelling behavior in ArF resist during development by the QCM method (3): observations of swelling layer elastic modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    The QCM method allows measurements of impedance, an index of swelling layer viscosity in a photoresist during development. While impedance is sometimes used as a qualitative index of change in the viscosity of the swelling layer, it has to date not been used quantitatively, for data analysis. We explored a method for converting impedance values to elastic modulus (Pa), a coefficient expressing viscosity. Applying this method, we compared changes in the viscosity of the swelling layer in an ArF resist generated during development in a TMAH developing solution and in a TBAH developing solution. This paper reports the results of this comparative study.

  5. Transport Properties, Mechanical Behavior, Thermal and Chemical Resistance of Asymmetric Flat Sheet Membrane Prepared from PSf/PVDF Blended Membrane on Gauze Supporting Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Kusumawati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric polysulfone (PSf membrane is prepared using phase inversion method and blending with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF on the gauze solid support. Casting solution composition optimization has been done to get PSf/PVDF membrane with best characteristics and permeability. The result shows that blending on PSf with PVDF polymer using phase inversion method has been very helpful in creating an asymmetric porous membrane. Increased level of PVDF in casting solution has increased the formation of asymmetry structure and corresponding flux membrane. The result from thermal test using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC-Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA shows the resistance of the membrane to temperature 460 °C. Membrane resistance against acid looks from undetectable changes on infrared spectra after immersion process in H2SO4 6–98 v/v%. While membrane color changes from white to brownish and black is detected after the immersion process in sodium hydroxide (NaOH 0.15–80 w/v%.

  6. Microstructure, Wear Resistance and Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Ti-Si Coatings Fabricated on Ti6Al4V by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peilei; Li, Mingchuan; Yan, Hua; Yu, Zhishui; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-10-30

    The Ni-Ti-Si composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding. The microstructure were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer). It has been found that Ti₂Ni and Ti₅Si₃ phases exist in all coatings, and some samples have TiSi₂ phases. Moreover, due to the existence of these phases, coatings presented relatively higher microhardness than that of the substrate (826 HV (Vickers hardness)) and the microhardness value of coating 3 is about twice larger than that of the substrate. During the dry sliding friction and wear test, due to the distribution of the relatively ductile phase of Ti₂Ni and reinforcement phases of Ti₅Si₃ and TiSi₂, the coatings performed good wear resistance. The oxidation process contains two stages: the rapid oxidation and slow oxidation by high temperature oxidation test at 800 °C for 50 h. Meanwhile, the value of the oxidation weight gain of the substrate is approximately three times larger than that of the coating 4. During the oxidation process, the oxidation film formed on the coating is mainly consisted of TiO₂, Al₂O₃ and SiO₂. Phases Ti₂Ni, Ti₅Si₃, TiSi₂ and TiSi were still found and it could be responsible for the improvement in oxidation resistance of the coatings by laser cladding.

  7. Microstructure, Wear Resistance and Oxidation Behavior of Ni-Ti-Si Coatings Fabricated on Ti6Al4V by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqiao Zhuang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-Ti-Si composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding. The microstructure were studied by SEM (scanning electron microscopy and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer. It has been found that Ti2Ni and Ti5Si3 phases exist in all coatings, and some samples have TiSi2 phases. Moreover, due to the existence of these phases, coatings presented relatively higher microhardness than that of the substrate (826 HV (Vickers hardness and the microhardness value of coating 3 is about twice larger than that of the substrate. During the dry sliding friction and wear test, due to the distribution of the relatively ductile phase of Ti2Ni and reinforcement phases of Ti5Si3 and TiSi2, the coatings performed good wear resistance. The oxidation process contains two stages: the rapid oxidation and slow oxidation by high temperature oxidation test at 800 °C for 50 h. Meanwhile, the value of the oxidation weight gain of the substrate is approximately three times larger than that of the coating 4. During the oxidation process, the oxidation film formed on the coating is mainly consisted of TiO2, Al2O3 and SiO2. Phases Ti2Ni, Ti5Si3, TiSi2 and TiSi were still found and it could be responsible for the improvement in oxidation resistance of the coatings by laser cladding.

  8. Antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Frieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control. Virulence, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile infection, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and control in the Emergency Department are also discussed. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilms, Infections, Public health, Emergency Department

  9. Microstructure and wear behaviors of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-WS2 high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Fan, Ji-Wei; He, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Shi-Hong; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di; Chen, Shu-Fa

    2012-02-01

    The high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 coating and wear-resistant NiCr/Cr3C2 coating were fabricated on 0Cr18Ni9 austenitic stainless steel by laser cladding. Phase constitutions and microstructures were investigated, and the tribological properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc wear tester under dry sliding condition at room-temperature (17 °C), 300 °C and 600 °C, respectively. Results indicated that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2 coating consisted of Cr7C3 primary phase and γ-(Fe,Ni)/Cr7C3 eutectic colony, while the coating added with WS2 was mainly composed of Cr7C3 and (Cr,W)C carbides, with the lubricating WS2 and CrS sulfides as the minor phases. The wear tests showed that the friction coefficients of two coatings both decrease with the increasing temperature, while the both wear rates increase. The friction coefficient of laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 is lower than the coating without WS2 whatever at room-temperature, 300 °C, 600 °C, but its wear rate is only lower at 300 °C. It is considered that the laser clad NiCr/Cr3C2-30%WS2 composite coating has good combination of anti-wear and friction-reducing capabilities at room-temperature up to 300 °C.

  10. Ion-induced secondary electron emission, optical and hydration resistant behavior of MgO, Mg–Mo–O and Mg–Ce–O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thota, Subhash; Deva, Dinesh; Kumar, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Optical transmittance, hydration resistance and secondary electron emission characteristics of e-beam evaporated pure and Mo- or Ce-containing MgO thin films have been investigated. While the increased grain size and pyramidal columnar morphology following incorporation of molybdenum and cerium in MgO are responsible for the excellent discharge characteristics, emergence of neutral {100} and {110} MgO surfaces preferentially give rise to high optical transmittance (∼ 92–100%) and stability against hydration. Further, addition of Mo (or Ce) in MgO causes significant increase in defect density which, in turn, enhances the photoluminescence (PL) emission from 5-, 4- and 3-coordination sites. The changes lead to lowering of the breakdown voltage and hence improvement in the secondary electron emission (SEE) efficiency. These facts have been supported by ion-induced SEE yield (γ) deduced from the a.c. breakdown voltage observed, taking neon as a discharge gas, and determined semi-empirically as well with Hagstrum's theory based on Auger neutralization process using (i) band offset parameters and surface band gap data derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy signal and (ii) information of defect energy levels obtained from photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The experimental values of neon ion-induced SEE yield (γ) are found to be 0.35, 0.42 and 0.39 for MgO, Mg–Mo–O (x = 0.035) and Mg–Ce–O (x = 0.01) thin films, respectively. - Highlights: • Higher hydration resistance • Increased photoluminescence emission • Higher secondary electron emission

  11. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  12. Pressure Dependence of Coherence-Incoherence Crossover Behavior in KFe2As2 Observed by Resistivity and 75As-NMR/NQR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiecki, P.; Taufour, V.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Bud' ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2018-02-13

    We present the results of 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and resistivity measurements in KFe2As2 under pressure (p). The temperature dependence of the NMR shift, nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and resistivity show a crossover between a high-temperature incoherent, local-moment behavior and a low-temperature coherent behavior at a crossover temperature (T *). T * is found to increase monotonically with pressure, consistent with increasing hybridization between localized 3d orbitalderived bands with the itinerant electron bands. No anomaly in T * is seen at the critical pressure pc = 1.8 GPa where a change of slope of the superconducting (SC) transition temperature Tc(p) has been observed. In contrast, Tc(p) seems to correlate with antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the normal state as measured by the NQR 1/T1 data, although such a correlation cannot be seen in the replacement effects of A in the KFe2As2 (A = K, Rb, Cs) family. In the superconducting state, two T1 components are observed at low temperatures, suggesting the existence of two distinct local electronic environments. The temperature dependence of the short T1s indicates a nearly gapless state below Tc. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the long component 1/T1L implies a large reduction in the density of states at the Fermi level due to the SC gap formation. These results suggest a real-space modulation of the local SC gap structure in KFe2As2 under pressure.

  13. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  14. Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate on Tensile Deformation Behavior of 9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W-VNb Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Weng, Xiaoxiang; Jiang, Yong; Gong, Jianming

    2017-09-01

    A series of uniaxial tensile tests were carried out at different strain rate and different temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on tensile deformation behavior of P92 steel. In the temperature range of 30-700 °C, the variations of flow stress, average work-hardening rate, tensile strength and ductility with temperature all show three temperature regimes. At intermediate temperature, the material exhibited the serrated flow behavior, the peak in flow stress, the maximum in average work-hardening rate, and the abnormal variations in tensile strength and ductility indicates the occurrence of DSA, whereas the sharp decrease in flow stress, average work-hardening rate as well as strength values, and the remarkable increase in ductility values with increasing temperature from 450 to 700 °C imply that dynamic recovery plays a dominant role in this regime. Additionally, for the temperature ranging from 550 to 650 °C, a significant decrease in flow stress values is observed with decreasing in strain rate. This phenomenon suggests the strain rate has a strong influence on flow stress. Based on the experimental results above, an Arrhenius-type constitutive equation is proposed to predict the flow stress.

  15. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    High chromium cast irons (HCCIs) have been demonstrated to be an effective material for a wide range of applications in aggressive environments, where resistances to abrasion, erosion and erosion-corrosion are required. For instance, machinery and facilities used in mining and extraction in Alberta's oil sands suffer from erosion and erosion-corrosion caused by silica-containing slurries, which create challenges for the reliability and maintenance of slurry pumping systems as well as other processing and handling equipment. Considerable efforts have been made to determine and understand the relationship between microstructural features of the HCCIs and their wear performance, in order to guide the material selection and development for specific service conditions with optimal performance. The focus was previously put on a narrow group of compositions dictated by ASTM A532. However, with recent advances in casting technology, the HCCI compositional range can be significantly expanded, which potentially brings new alloys that can be superior to those which are currently employed. This work consists of three main aspects of study. The first one is the investigation of an expanded system of white irons with their composition ranging from 1 to 6 wt.% C and 5 to 45 wt.% Cr, covering 53 alloys. This work has generated wear and corrosion maps and established correlation between the performance and microstructural features for the alloys. The work was conducted in collaboration with the Materials Development Center of Weir Minerals in Australia, and the results have been collected in a database that is used by the company to guide materials selection for slurry pump components in Alberta oil sands and in other mining operations throughout the world. The second part consists of three case studies on effects of high chromium and high carbon, respectively, on the performance of the HCCIs. The third aspect is the development of an approach to enhance the wear resistance of

  16. Irradiation behavior of developed radiation resistance optical-fibers and observed optical radiation from their SiO2 cores under reactor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Narui, Minoru; Kayano, Hideo; Kakuta, Tsunemi; Sagawa, Tsutomu; Sanada, Kazuo; Shamoto, Naoki; Uramoto, Toshimasa.

    1994-01-01

    Two kinds of optical fibers were irradiated in a fission reactor, JMTR(Japan Materials Testing Reactor), up to a 1.55x10 19 n/cm 2 fast neutron fluence and a 3.3x10 9 Gy ionizing dose at 370K. Optical transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-1750nm, in-situ. Growth of strong optical absorption bands were observed in the range of wavelength shorter than 750nm. In the meantime, the fibers showed good radiation-resistance in the range of wavelength longer than 750nm. Optical radiations were observed from SiO 2 optical fibers under irradiation. A major part of the observed optical radiations is thought to be composed of broad optical radiation in the whole wavelength range studied in the present experiment. This broad optical radiation will be generated by the process of so-called Cerenkov radiation. Also, a sharp optical radiation peak was found at 1270nm on a F-doped fiber. This peak is thought to relate with doped Fluorine ions and ionizing gamma-ray irradiation. (author)

  17. Corrosion behaviors and contact resistances of the low-carbon steel bipolar plate with a chromized coating containing carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ching-Yuan; Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan, 335 (China); Wu, Min-Sheng [Department of Weapon System Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan, 335 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This work improved the surface performance of low-carbon steel AISI 1020 by a reforming pack chromization process at low temperature (700 C) and investigated the possibility that the modified steels are used as metal bipolar plates (BPP) of PEMFCs. The steel surface was activated by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with different currents before the chromizing procedure. Experimental results indicate that a dense and homogenous Cr-rich layer is formed on the EDM carbon steels by pack chromization. The chromized coating pretreated with electrical discharge currents of 2 A has the lowest corrosion current density, 5.78 x 10{sup -8} Acm{sup -2}, evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the smallest interfacial contact resistance (ICR), 11.8 m{omega}-cm{sup 2}, at 140 N/cm{sup 2}. The carbon steel with a coating containing carbides and nitrides is promising for application as metal BPPs, and this report presents the first research in producing BPPs with carbon steels. (author)

  18. Effect of carburizing helium environment on creep behavior of Ni-base heat-resistant alloys for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Ogawa, Yutaka; Nakajima, Hajime

    1988-01-01

    Creep tests were conducted on Ni-base heat-resistant alloys Hastelloy XR and XR-II, i.e. versions of Hastelloy X modified for nuclear applications, at 950degC using four types of helium environment with different impurity compositions, and mainly the effect of carburization was examined. For all the materials tested, the values of creep rupture time obtained under the carburizing conditions were similar to or longer than those in the commonly used, standard test environment (JAERI Type B helium). The difference among the results was interpreted by the counterbalancing effects of the strengthening due to carburization and possible weakening caused under very low oxidizing potential. In the corrosion monitoring specimens pronounced carbon pick-up was observed in the environment with high carbon activity and very low oxidizing potential. Based on the results obtained in the present and the previous works, it is suggested that a moderate control of the impurity chemistry is important rather than simple purification of the coolant in protecting the material from the environment-enhanced degradation. Either condition with high or low extremes in the oxidizing and carburizing potentials may cause enhanced degradation and thus are desirable to be avoided at the elevated temperatures. (author)

  19. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  20. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    . Glucuronides were found at equal levels in both parental and resistant colon cancer cell lines for epirubicin and to a lesser extent for SN-38 and mitoxantrone. Low levels of glucuronidation could also be detected in the resistant breast cancer cells. These results were confirmed by analysis of the UGT1A...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...... of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug combinations...

  2. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-dependent high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of nickel-base heat-resistant alloys for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1988-06-01

    A series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests at 900 deg C in the simulated HTGR helium environment were conducted on Hastelloy X and its modified version, Hastelloy XR in order to examine time-dependent high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior. In the tests with the symmetric triangular strain waveform, decreasing the strain rate led to notable reductions in the fatigue life. In the tests with the trapezoidal strain waveform with different holding types, the fatigue life was found to be reduced most effectively in tensile hold-time experiments. Based on the observations of the crack morphology the strain holding in the compressive side was suggested to play the role of suppressing the initiation and the growth of internal cracks or cavities, and to cause crack branching. When the frequency modified fatigue life method and/or the prediction of life by use of the ductility were applied, both the data obtained with the symmetric triangular strain waveform and those with the tensile hold-time experiments lay on the straight line plots. The data, however, obtained with the compressive and/or both hold-time experiments could not be handled satisfactorily by those methods. When the cumulative damage rule was applied, it was found that the reliability of HTGR components was ensured by limiting the creep-fatigue damage fraction within the value of 1. (author)

  4. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past two decades due to the increase in immunocompromised and elderly patients, increasing use of invasive indwelling ... aureus developing resistance to vancomycin, a very powerful antibiotic prescribed for the most intractable bacterial infections. In ...

  6. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  7. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  8. Implementing a patient education intervention about Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and effect on knowledge and behavior in veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlesnika T; Hill, Jennifer N; Guihan, Marylou; Chin, Amy; Goldstein, Barry; Richardson, Michael S A; Anderson, Vicki; Risa, Kathleen; Kellie, Susan; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2014-03-01

    To assess the feasibility and effect of a nurse-administered patient educational intervention about Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention on knowledge and behavior of Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Blinded, block-randomized controlled pilot trial. Two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI Centers. Veterans were recruited March-September 2010 through referral by a healthcare provider from inpatient, outpatient, and residential care settings. Thirty participants were randomized to the nurse-administered intervention and 31 to the usual care group. The intervention included a brochure and tools to assist nurses in conducting the education. Pre- and post-intervention measurement of knowledge and behaviors related to MRSA and prevention strategies and feasibility measures related to implementation. Participants were primarily male (95.1%), white (63.9%), with tetraplegia (63.9%) and mean age and duration of injury of 64.3 and 20.5 years, respectively. The intervention groups mean knowledge score significantly increased between pre- and post-test (mean change score = 1.70, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.25-3.15) while the usual care groups score did not significantly change (mean change score = 1.45, 95% CI -0.08-2.98). However, the mean knowledge change between intervention and usual care groups was not significantly different (P = 0.81). Overall behavior scores did not significantly differ between treatment groups; however, the intervention group was more likely to report intentions to clean hands (90.0% vs. 64.5%, P = 0.03) and asking providers about MRSA status (46.7% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.01). Nurse educators reported that the quality of the intervention was high and could be implemented in clinical care. A targeted educational strategy is feasible to implement in SCI/D clinical practices and may improve some participants' knowledge about MRSA and increase intentions to improve hand hygiene and engagement with providers

  9. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  10. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  11. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  12. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  13. Aditivos e sua influência no comportamento de secagem e resistência à tração de concretos refratários Additives and their influence in the refractory castables drying and traction strength behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução tecnológica de concretos refratários tem tornado mais difícil a etapa de secagem devido a redução da sua permeabilidade e conseqüente aumento da dificuldade para que o vapor de água migre do interior do corpo para a superfície. A hidratação do cimento de aluminato de cálcio também causa decréscimo da permeabilidade dos concretos. Tal processo é significativamente afetado pela presença de aditivos utilizados para a dispersão do concreto. Neste contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo relacionar o tipo de aditivo utilizado no processamento de concretos refratários com seu comportamento de secagem e resistência à tração. Foi verificado que os aditivos não atuam somente na dispersão das partículas da matriz e ligante, mas o efeito da sua atuação pode influenciar no tipo de hidrato formado. O aditivo CS se mostrou um eficiente dispersante promovendo a redução no consumo de água. Isso acarretou na formação preferencial dos hidratos C3AH6 disponibilizando mais alumina para a formação de AH3. Essa fase apresenta alta capacidade de preencher vazios interparticulas contribuindo para aumentar a resistência à tração do material. Por outro lado, o aditivo AC desfavoreceu a formação desses tipos de hidratos uma vez que atua como retardador da hidratação do cimento por meio do consumo de íons cálcio. Também a presença de um maior teor de água nos concretos preparados com este aditivo pode explicar o aumento da porosidade e decréscimo da resistência à tração do concreto.The growing technology applied in the refractory castables production has become more difficult the drying process due the reduction of their permeability and the consequent increasing difficult of vapor migration from the inner region of the body to the surface. The hydration of calcium aluminate cement is also responsible for the castables permeability reduction. This process is significatively affected by the presence of

  14. Safety Behavior After Extinction Triggers a Return of Threat Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uijen, S.L.; Leer, A.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Safety behavior is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders, presumably because it prevents the violation of negative expectancies. Recent research showed that safety behavior is resistant to fear extinction. This fear conditioning study investigated whether safety behavior after fear

  15. Beyond Student Resistance: A Pedagogy of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Critiques the concept of resistance in interpreting students' behaviors and attitudes, examining political, social, and psychological connotations of resistance and contradictory ways that educators employ the concept. The paper explains limitations imposed on education by the concept, noting the work of educators who reassess the implications of…

  16. On Being "Attractive" With Resistant Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; Wells, Don

    1990-01-01

    Calls client resistance a frequent occurrence within the helping profession. Defines client resistance, provides a brief review of related literature, and offers counselor attractiveness as one way of addressing the issue. Identifies attractive counselor behaviors and attitudes and presents case study illustrating specific attractive counselor…

  17. Photo-stimulated resistive switching of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung

    2012-01-01

    Resistive switching memory devices are promising candidates for emerging memory technologies because they yield outstanding device performance. Storage mechanisms for achieving high-density memory applications have been developed; however, so far many of them exhibit typical resistive switching behavior from the limited controlling conditions. In this study, we introduce photons as an unconventional stimulus for activating resistive switching behaviors. First, we compare the resistive switching behavior in light and dark conditions to describe how resistive switching memories can benefit from photons. Second, we drive the switching of resistance not by the electrical stimulus but only by the modulation of photon. ZnO nanorods were employed as a model system to demonstrate photo-stimulated resistive switching in high-surface-area nanomaterials, in which photo-driven surface states strongly affect their photoconductivity and resistance states. (paper)

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  20. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  1. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  2. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective. Also, a large range of complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, vitamin C and probiotics) are proposed for preventing and treating ARIs, but evidence for efficacy is scarce. General practitioners' (GPs) attitudes towards...... wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs' diagnostic uncertainty - often leading...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....

  3. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of what has been referred to as the European refugee crisis. It further reflects upon what it means to be a Danish citizen facing the dilemma of law-abiding conduct versus human decency, in line with what Foucault (1983) referred to as ‘ethical self-formation’. This is illustrated through a case study...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...

  4. Effect of AlN layer on the bipolar resistive switching behavior in TiN thin film based ReRAM device for non-volatile memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an additional AlN layer in the Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt stack configuration deposited using sputtering has been investigated. The Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt device shows a tristate resistive switching. Multilevel switching is facilitated by ionic and metallic filament formation, and the nature of the filaments formed is confirmed by performing a resistance vs. temperature measurement. Ohmic behaviour and trap controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanisms are confirmed as dominant conduction mechanism at low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS). High resistance ratio (102) corresponding to HRS and LRS, good write/erase endurance (105) and non-volatile long retention (105s) are also observed. Higher thermal conductivity of the AlN layer is the main reasons for the enhancement of resistive switching performance in Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt cell. The above result suggests the feasibility of Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt devices for multilevel nonvolatile ReRAM application.

  5. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  6. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 2. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates ... It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition ...

  7. Comportamento da flexibilidade após 10 semanas de treinamento com pesos Comportamiento de la flexibilidad después de 10 semanas de entrenamiento con pesos Flexibility behavior after 10 weeks of resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino

    2004-08-01

    flexibilidad. ANOVA y ANCOVA para medidas repetidas, seguidas por el test post hoc de Tukey, cuando P The objective of this study was to analyze the flexibility behavior of different articulations after 10 weeks of resistance training (RT. That is why, 16 inactive men (23.0 ± 2.1 years; 68.0 ± 7.0 kg; 178.8 ± 8.7 cm apparently healthy were randomly divided into training group (TG, n = 8 and control group (CG, n = 8. The group TG was submitted to 10 consecutive weeks of RT (three weekly sessions in alternated days, whereas for group CG, no systematized program of physical activities was developed in this period. The 11 exercised that composed the RT program were performed in three series of 8-12 RM. The shoulder flexion and extension, trunk flexion, lateral flexion and extension, hip extension and flexion, elbow extension and flexion and knee flexion were used for the analysis of the flexibility behavior. The ANOVA and ANCOVA for repeated measures, followed by the Tukey post hoc test for P < 0.05 were used for data treatment. Significant increase on flexibility between pre and post experiment were found in TG in shoulder flexion movements (right hemisphere, P < 0.05, hip extension (left hemisphere, P < 0.05, trunk extension (P < 0.05, trunk flexion (P < 0.05 and trunk lateral flexion (right hemisphere, P < 0.05; left hemisphere, P < 0.01. Although, the effect of the interaction group vs time was only identified in elbow flexion movements (right and left hemisphere, P < 0.05, hip extension (left hemisphere, P < 0.05 and trunk lateral flexion (left hemisphere, P < 0.01. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that the 10 first weeks of RT practice may contribute effectively for the maintenance or improvement of the flexibility levels observed in the pre-training period, in different articulations.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacteria Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: ...

  10. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  12. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  14. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  15. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  19. Patterns of Force, Sequences of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Daniël De Vries, Thomas; Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Robberies are improvised encounters involving offender threat, sometimes force, and often victim resistance. While the association between threat, force, and resistance in robberies is well-established, sequential patterns are disputed due to biases of retrospective studies. To overcome these bia...... the likelihood of victim resistance despite having no effect on offender vio- lence. By providing more reliable and detailed accounts of real-life behavior during robberies, our analysis illustrates the potential of a newly emergent field of studies of crimes caught on camera....

  20. Origin of negative resistance in anion migration controlled resistive memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Writam; Wu, Facai; Hu, Yuan; Wu, Quantan; Wu, Zuheng; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the most promising emerging nonvolatile technologies for the futuristic memory devices. Resistive switching behavior often shows negative resistance (NR), either voltage controlled or current controlled. In this work, the origin of a current compliance dependent voltage controlled NR effect during the resetting of anion migration based RRAM devices is discussed. The N-type voltage controlled NR is a high field driven phenomena. The current conduction within the range of a certain negative voltage is mostly dominated by space charge limited current. But with the higher negative voltage, a field induced tunneling effect is generated in the NR region. The voltage controlled NR is strongly dependent on the compliance current. The area independent behavior indicates the filamentary switching. The peak to valley ratio (PVR) is > 5. The variation of PVR as a function of the conduction band offset is achieved. Compared to other reported works, based on the PVR, it is possible to distinguish the RRAM types. Generally, due to the higher electric field effect on the metallic bridge during RESET, the electrochemical metallization type RRAM shows much higher PVR than the valance change type RRAM.

  1. Electroforming-free resistive switching memory effect in transparent p-type tin monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, M. K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; McLachlan, M. A.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    We report reproducible low bias bipolar resistive switching behavior in p-type SnO thin film devices without extra electroforming steps. The experimental results show a stable resistance ratio of more than 100 times, switching cycling performance up

  2. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  3. Influence of Al3+ substitution on the electrical resistivity and dielectric behavior of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites synthesized by solid state reaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. R.; Chowdhury, F.-U.-Z.; Khan, M. N. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of Al3+ substitution on the electrical and dielectric properties of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites with x = 0.0, 0.05. 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20, synthesized by solid state reaction has been reported. Using two probe method, the DC resistivity has been investigated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 300 °C. Activation energy was calculated from the Arrhenius plot. The electrical conduction is explained on the basis of the hopping mechanism. The frequency dependent dielectric properties of these spinel ferrites have been studied at room temperature by measuring AC resistivity, conductivity (σac), dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 120 MHz. The study of dielectric properties showed that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increased with increasing non-magnetic Al ions. The dependence of dielectric constant with frequency has been explained by Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. Cole-Cole plots show semicircular arc(s) for the samples, and equivalent RC circuits have been proposed to clarify the phenomena involved therein. The analysis of complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between the grain and grain boundary contribution to the total resistance.

  4. Solvent Resistant Elastomers and High TG Materials from the Same Carbosilane Backbone: Broadening the Materials Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagener, K

    2003-01-01

    .... We have directed our efforts towards solvent resistant materials that improve upon butyl rubber. Polycarobcsilanes combine the behavioral characteristics of hydrocarbon polymers and siloxane elastomers...

  5. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I.-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays.

  6. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays

  7. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  8. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment...

  9. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  10. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  11. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  12. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  13. Uniform Self-rectifying Resistive Switching Behavior via Preformed Conducting Paths in a Vertical-type Ta2O5/HfO2-x Structure with a Sub-μm(2) Cell Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Ho; Yoo, Sijung; Song, Seul Ji; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Kwon, Dae Eun; Kwon, Young Jae; Park, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hye Jin; Shao, Xing Long; Kim, Yumin; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-20

    To replace or succeed the present NAND flash memory, resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) should be implemented in the vertical-type crossbar array configuration. The ReRAM cell must have a highly reproducible resistive switching (RS) performance and an electroforming-free, self-rectifying, low-power-consumption, multilevel-switching, and easy fabrication process with a deep sub-μm(2) cell area. In this work, a Pt/Ta2O5/HfO2-x/TiN RS memory cell fabricated in the form of a vertical-type structure was presented as a feasible contender to meet the above requirements. While the fundamental RS characteristics of this material based on the electron trapping/detrapping mechanisms have been reported elsewhere, the influence of the cell scaling size to 0.34 μm(2) on the RS performance by adopting the vertical integration scheme was carefully examined in this work. The smaller cell area provided much better switching uniformity while all the other benefits of this specific material system were preserved. Using the overstressing technique, the nature of RS through the localized conducting path was further examined, which elucidated the fundamental difference between the present material system and the general ionic-motion-related bipolar RS mechanism.

  14. Optimization of resistively hardened latches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, G.; Savaria, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital circuits tolerant to single-event upsets is considered. The results of a study are presented on which an analytical model was used to predict the behavior of a standard resistively hardened latch. It is shown that a worst case analysis for all possible single-event upset situations (on the latch or in the logic) can be derived from studying the effects of a transient disturbed write cycle. The existence of an intrinsic minimum write period to tolerate a transient of a given duration is also demonstrated

  15. [Unconscious resistance to contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, P A

    1978-12-01

    The Swiss penal code of 1942 requires the presence of a psychiatrist in all decisions about termination of pregnancy and of sterilization. The so called sexual revolution of the last 20 years has brought about a dissociation of the traditional psychosexual behavior, where eroticism, affection, and desire of a child do not integrate as harmoniously as before. Narcissistic libido, inherent in all of us, can make an individual want a baby for reasons other than normal, but as a reflection of a parent, as a toy for an infantile mother, as a termination to free, sexual life, felt as sin, for a young couple, as a hope for the future, as the rival of one of the parents, as a remedy for something lost. These are just some of the reasons why contraception, completely accepted on a conscious level, can be rejected on an unconscious one, leading to unwanted pregnancies. Family planning, through a better and deeper psychological preparation of its personnel, should better identify patients more at risk of contraceptive failure, and the unconscious resistances of individuals and couples. This very important task can be started in schools with sex education, and in family planning centers with sexual therapy for the couple. This new approach would imply an increased interest for psychology on the part of doctors assisting young couples.

  16. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  17. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  19. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  20. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body ... will stay in the healthy range. What is prediabetes? Prediabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher ...

  1. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  2. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... development of new agents with potential clinical utility for treating resistant ... data on the emergence of resistance among Thai women given zidovudine ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml).

  3. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...... site, but probably efflux might also play a role. The resistance is still rare in surveillance studies, but outbreaks of resistant clones from hospitals have been observed. So far the main mechanisms of resistance are occurrence of mutations in ribosomal genes or obtaining plasmids with a gene coding...... for a methyltransferase providing resistance. The most obvious way to avoid resistance may be development of derivatives of linezolid overcoming the known resistance mechanisms....

  4. Experimental Studies on the Changes in Resistivity and Its Anisotropy Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three measuring lines were arranged on one of free planes of magnetite cuboid samples. Apparent resistivity data were acquired by MIR-2007 resistivity meter when samples were under uniaxial compression of servocontrol YAW-5000F loadingmachine in laboratory. Then we constructed the residual resistivity images using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and plotted the diagrams of apparent resistivity anisotropy coefficient (ARAC λ∗ and the included angle α between the major axis of apparent resistivity anisotropy ellipse and the axis of load with pressure and effective depth. Our results show that with increasing pressure, resistivity and the decreased (D region and increased (I region resistivity regions have complex behaviors, but when pressure is higher than a certain value, the average resistivity decrease and the area of D region expand gradually in all time with the increase of pressure, which may be significant to the monitoring and prediction of earthquake, volcanic activities, and large-scale geologic motions. The effects of pressure on λ∗ and α are not very outstanding for dry magnetite samples.

  5. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  6. Resisting persuasion by the skin of one's teeth: the hidden success of resisted persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormala, Zakary L; Clarkson, Joshua J; Petty, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that when people resist persuasion they can perceive this resistance and, under specifiable conditions, become more certain of their initial attitudes (e.g., Z. L. Tormala & R. E. Petty, 2002). Within the same metacognitive framework, the present research provides evidence for the opposite phenomenon--that is, when people resist persuasion, they sometimes become less certain of their initial attitudes. Four experiments demonstrate that when people perceive that they have done a poor job resisting persuasion (e.g., they believe they generated weak arguments against a persuasive message), they lose attitude certainty, show reduced attitude-behavioral intention correspondence, and become more vulnerable to subsequent persuasive attacks. These findings suggest that resisted persuasive attacks can sometimes have a hidden yet important success by reducing the strength of the target attitude. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  8. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  9. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  10. Metallic behavior and negative differential resistance properties of (InAs)n (n = 2 − 4) molecule cluster junctions via a combined non–equilibrium Green's function and density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Li, Rong; Xu, Yuanlan; Zhang, Jianbing; Miao, Xiangshui; Zhang, Daoli

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, the geometric structures and electronic transport properties of (InAs) n (n = 2, 3, 4) molecule cluster junctions are comparatively investigated using NEGF combined with DFT. Results indicate that all (InAs) n molecule cluster junctions present metallic behavior at the low applied biases ([−2V, 2V]), while NDR appears at a certain high bias range. Our calculation shows that the current of (InAs) 4 molecule cluster–based junction is almost the largest at any bias. The mechanisms of the current–voltage characteristics of all the three molecule cluster junctions are proposed.

  11. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  12. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  13. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  14. Corrosion-Resistant High-Entropy Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhu Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion destroys more than three percent of the world’s gross domestic product. Therefore, the design of highly corrosion-resistant materials is urgently needed. By breaking the classical alloy-design philosophy, high-entropy alloys (HEAs possess unique microstructures, which are solid solutions with random arrangements of multiple elements. The particular locally-disordered chemical environment is expected to lead to unique corrosion-resistant properties. In this review, the studies of the corrosion-resistant HEAs during the last decade are summarized. The corrosion-resistant properties of HEAs in various aqueous environments and the corrosion behavior of HEA coatings are presented. The effects of environments, alloying elements, and processing methods on the corrosion resistance are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the possible directions of future work regarding the corrosion behavior of HEAs are suggested.

  15. Plasma resistivity in a slow rising current theta-pinch device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayama, Milton Eiji; Dobrowolsky, Marcelo Shubert; Honda, Roberto Yzumi; Aramaki, Emilia Akemi; Algatti, Mauricio Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of plasma resistivity was observed in a Theta-pinch plasma. A comparative analysis was performed with a hybrid numerical code where the Chodura s resistivity algorithm is included. Good agreement was found in the radial plasma dynamic description. The experimental value of resistivity at null field point was found to be one order of magnitude greater than the theoretical prediction. (author)

  16. EFECTO EN LA RESISTENCIA DE LAS ESCORIAS DE FUNDICIÓN DE COBRE COMO AGREGADO FINO EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO RESISTENTE DEL HORMIGÓN EFFECT OF SMELTING COPPER SLAG AS FINE AGGREGATE ON THE RESISTANT BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Cendoya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Las escorias de fundición de cobre son residuos industriales provenientes de la fundición del cobre las cuales procesadas en forma de granallas y sometidas a un proceso de molienda adquieren características similares a las de un árido fino. La presente investigación estudia la influencia que tiene su incorporación en el comportamiento mecánico a flexotracción y compresión en hormigones que emplean como árido fino una combinación de arenas del río Bío-Bío con proporciones de 25%, 40% y 50% en volumen de escorias de fundición de cobre. El árido fino resultante se utiliza en la confección de hormigones dosificados para relaciones de agua cemento de 0,45 y 0,52 asociadas a resistencias especificadas a la flexotracción de 3,6 y 4,3 MPa. Se mide la trabajabilidad en el hormigón fresco, la densidad, la carga de rotura por flexotracción y la carga de rotura por compresión en el hormigón endurecido comparando los resultados con un hormigón de referencia que no contiene escorias. Los resultados señalan que la docilidad de la mezcla se incrementa debido a la textura lisa de las escorias, se produce un aumento de la densidad del hormigón endurecido y las resistencias tanto a flexotracción como compresión se incrementan en función del contenido de escorias de fundición de cobre utilizado en la mezcla.Copper slag is a by product of the copper smelting industry. We took granulated copper slag and milled it until it acquired characteristics similar to those of a fine aggregate, which was then incorporated into concrete, in combination with Bio-Bio river sand in proportions of 25%, 40% and 50% by volume of copper slag. We then examined the impact of the different combinations on the mechanical behaviour to flexotraction and compression in the resulting concrete. Our specification was to produce concrete for water-cement ratios of 0,45 and 0,52 associated to breakage resistances to flexotraction of 3.6 and 4.3 MPa, respectively. We

  17. The Effects of Gd-Free Impurity Phase on the Aging Behavior for the Microwave Surface Resistance of Ag-coated GdBa2Cu3O7-δ at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Yang, Woo Il; Jung, Ho Sang; Oh, Won-Jae; Jang, Jiyeong; Lee, Jae-Hun; Kang, Kihyeok; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Im; Lee, Sang Young

    2018-05-01

    High-T C GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBCO) superconductor has been popular for making superconductive tapes that have much potential for various fields of large-scale applications. We investigated aging effects on the microwave surface resistance (R S) of Ag-coated GdBCO layer on Hastelloy substrate, so called GdBCO coated conductors (CCs), and Ag-coated GdBCO films on LaAlO3 (LAO) single-crystal substrates at cryogenic temperatures and compared them with each other. Unlike the R S of Ag-coated GdBCO films showing significant degradation in 4 weeks, no significant aging effects were found in our Ag-coated GdBCO CCs aged 85 weeks. The reactive co-evaporation deposition and reaction (RCE-DR) method was used for preparing the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs. Such durability of the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs in terms of the R S could be explained by existence of a protective impurity phase, i.e., Gd-free Ba-Cu-O phase as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy study combined with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Although the scope of this study is limited to the Ag-coated GdBCO CCs prepared by using the RCE-DR method, our results suggest that a solution for preventing the aging effects on transport properties of other kinds of Ag-coated GdBCO CCs could be realized by means of an artificially-grown protective impurity layer.

  18. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  19. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  20. Trastuzumab Resistance: Role for Notch Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnari Mehta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB-2/HER2 is a potent breast oncogene that has been shown to be amplified in 20% of breast cancers. Overexpression of ErbB-2 predicts for aggressive tumor behavior, resistance to some cytotoxic and antihormonal therapies, and poor overall survival. Trastuzumab, the humanized, monoclonal antibody directed against ErbB-2 has shown tremendous efficacy and improved overall survival for women when combined with a taxane-based chemotherapy. However, resistance to trastuzumab remains a major concern, most notably in women with metastatic breast cancer. Numerous mechanisms that include overexpression of alternate receptor tyrosine kinases and/or loss of critical tumor suppressors have been proposed in the last several years to elucidate trastuzumab resistance. Here we review the many possible mechanisms of action that could contribute to resistance, and novel therapies to prevent or reverse the resistant phenotype. Moreover, we provide a critical role for Notch signaling cross-talk with overlapping or new signaling networks in trastuzumab-resistant breast.

  1. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature....... The contributors deal with strategies for handling dissent by individuals or groups, specifically dissent through resistance. Resistance can be a location of intense personal, interpersonal and cultural negotiation, and that is the primary reason for interest in this phenomenon. Ordinary life events contain...

  3. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  4. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  5. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  6. Behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  7. Bacterial Cheating Limits the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Xiao Chao, Hui; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tatiana; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removal of the antibiotic. The presence of a cooperative mechanism of resistance suggests that a cheater strain - which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic - may be able to take advantage of resistant cells. We find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We use a simple model in conjunction with difference equations to explain the observed population dynamics as a function of cell density and antibiotic concentration. Our experimental difference equations resemble the logistic map, raising the possibility of oscillations or even chaotic dynamics.

  8. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  9. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  11. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  12. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  17. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  18. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  19. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  20. Feedback control of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Liu Chen

    1986-01-01

    Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of Tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m ≥ 2 is fairly straighforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles

  1. Feedback control of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Chen, L.

    1985-12-01

    Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs

  2. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  3. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  5. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  6. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  7. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  8. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have ...

  10. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  11. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given

  12. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  13. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  14. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  16. Linear waves in a resistive plasma with Hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaguer, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Dispersion relations for the case of a magnetized plasma are determined taking into account the Hall current and a constant resistivity, η, in Ohm's law. It is found that the Hall effect is relevant only for parallel (to the equilibrium magnetic field) wave numbers in the case of uniform plasmas, giving place to a dispersive behavior. In particular, the cases of η→0 and small (nonzero) resistivity are discussed

  17. FRC collisionless resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Ions in the field reversed configuration (FRC) exhibit stochastic orbits due to the field null and the curvature of poloidal field lines. Velocity correlations of these particles decay in a power law fashion t -m where 1 ≤ m ≤ 2. This decay of the single particle correlation function is characteristic of the long tail correlations of strongly chaotic or nonlinear systems found in other problems of statistical physics. This decay of correlations gives rise to a collisionless resistivity that can far exceed the collisional resistivity in an FRC plasma. The finite correlation τ c of a single particle limits the acceleration in the electric field producing the finite resistivity. Maxwellian test particle distributions are integrated to find the measure of the set of stochastic ions that contribute to the collisionless resistivity. The computed conductivity is proportional to the square root of the characteristic ion gyroradius in both simulation and theory

  18. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  19. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  2. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  5. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  6. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Low Resolution ...

  7. Cotrimoxazole Resistant Chancroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlender Singh

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Four male young adults, after contact with prostitutes, developed clinically typical chancroid which was resistant to cotrimoxazole alone and also in combination with tetracycline. With chloramphenicol, the response was quick and complete with no untoward side effects.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  10. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    health, with the focus of DOTS programmes on cure of infectious TB patients and prevention of drug resistance. ... Despite highly effective drugs and disease control strategies, morbidity and mortality .... notification and registration system.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One of the major obstacles to understanding the issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  12. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  13. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all that ails you. Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. ... Information for Consumers and Health Professionals Information by drug class Antimicrobial Resistance Animal and Veterinary Related Resources Further information ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate ... and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  16. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  17. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  18. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of tra...

  20. Does Culture Affect how People Receive and Resist Persuasive Messages? Research Proposals about Resistance to Persuasion in Cultural Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Kolodziej-Smith; Daniel Patrick Friesen; Attila Yaprak

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Even though persuasion has been a widely researched topic in consumer behavior, the great majority of these studies have involved American consumers and focused on persuasion itself, with very few addressing resistance to persuasive attempts. None has addressed resistance to persuasion in a cross-cultural context. We aim to contribute to closing this gap in the literature with this paper. Specifically, we aim to expand knowledge of the persuasive process by applying the cultural dime...

  1. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  2. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  3. Assessing hygienic behavior and attraction to Varroa mite (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three days later, the number of female Varroa in the capped cells were counted as attraction criteria for each treatment separately. ... The negative correlation between 2 major resistance traits (hygienic behavior and attraction traits) in the breeding stock deems that selection for resistance against Varroa mite and improved ...

  4. Nonlocal nature of the resistance in classical ballistic transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, E.V.; Levinson, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is made of the resistance of ballistic microstructures formed in the two-dimensional electron gas of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction representing combinations of long channels. It is shown that the nonlocal nature of the resistance (dependence on the measurement method) is unrelated to the quantum nature of the electron behavior, but is solely due to the ballistic nature of microstructures and does not disappear in the classical limit. An analog of the Landauer equation is obtained for the resistance measured by the four-probe method allowing for the geometry of the measuring probes

  5. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  6. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  7. The Kapitza thermal boundary resistance between two solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the author develops a model of the Kapitza resistance between two solids in which this resistance is seen to be related to the refraction of thermal phonons at the interface, which is a function of the accoustic properties of the two solids. By calculating a kapitza boundary resistance for the two solids in an ideal case (with ideal temperature, ideal interface, and phonon scattering produced only by the interface) and then producing a summation of the three phonon modes, the angles of incidence, and the phonon frequencies, the author produces an equation which expresses the resistance; this equation is known as the accoustic-mis-match model. By then removing the conditions of ideality and adjusting the equation accordingly, the author finds that the acoustic mismatch model is successful in describing the resistance behavior

  8. Cooperative Antibiotic Resistance in a Multi-Drug Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Dai, Lei; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. A frequent mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the production of an enzyme which inactivates the antibiotic. By inactivating the antibiotic, resistant cells can ``share'' their resistance with other cells in the bacterial population, suggesting that it may be possible to observe cooperation between strains that inactivate different antibiotics. Here, we experimentally track the population dynamics of two E. coli strains in the presence of two different antibiotics. We find that together the strains are able to grow in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either of the strains individually. We observe that even when there is stable coexistence between the two strains, the population size of each strain can undergo large oscillations. We expect that our results will provide insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  9. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  10. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  11. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David S

    2017-01-01

    Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  13. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  14. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  15. Use of and microbial resistance to antibiotics in China: a path to reducing antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Liu, Xinliang; Hawkey, Peter; Li, Hao; Wang, Quan; Mao, Zongfu; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed China's current use of and microbial resistance to antibiotics, and possible means of reducing antimicrobial resistance. Interventions like executive orders within clinical settings and educational approach with vertical approaches rather than an integrated strategy to curb the use of antimicrobials remain limited. An underlying problem is the system of incentives that has resulted in the intensification of inappropriate use by health professionals and patients. There is an urgent need to explore the relationship between financial and non-financial incentives for providers and patients, to eliminate inappropriate incentives. China's national health reforms have created an opportunity to contain inappropriate use of antibiotics through more comprehensive and integrated strategies. Containment of microbial resistance may be achieved by strengthening surveillance at national, regional and hospital levels; eliminating detrimental incentives within the health system; and changing prescribing behaviors to a wider health systems approach, to achieve long-term, equitable and sustainable results and coordinate stakeholders' actions through transparent sharing of information.

  16. THE BEHAVIOR OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, in Balkyldak Lake w...

  17. Behavioral evidence for local reduction of aphid-induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five aphids of three different species, Brevicoryne brassicae L, Myzus persicae Schulzer, and Rhopalosiphum padi L(Hemiptera: Aphididae) were each allowed to infest leaves of a young plant of their respective host plant species for 4 days, except that the oldest expanded leaf (the `systemic¿

  18. Resistive switching in Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Doo Seok

    2008-08-15

    Recently, the resistive switching behavior in TiO{sub 2} has drawn attention due to its application to resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. TiO{sub 2} shows characteristic non-volatile resistive switching behavior, i.e. reversible switching between a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS). Both unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) are found to be observed in TiO{sub 2} depending on the compliance current for the electroforming. In this thesis the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis in three different states of TiO{sub 2}, pristine, URS-activated, and BRS-activated states, was investigated and understood in terms of the migration of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}. The I-V hysteresis of pristine TiO{sub 2} was found to show volatile behavior. That is, the temporary variation of the resistance took place depending on the applied voltage. However, the I-V hysteresis of URS- and BRS-activated states showed non-volatile resistive switching behavior. Some evidences proving the evolution of oxygen gas during electroforming were obtained from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis and the variation of the morphology of switching cells induced by the electroforming. On the assumption that a large number of oxygen vacancies are introduced by the electroforming process, the I-V behavior in electroformed switching cells was simulated with varying the distribution of oxygen vacancies in electroformed TiO{sub x} (x behavior including the

  19. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  20. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  1. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  2. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  3. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  4. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  5. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  6. Fire resistance of prefabricated monolithic slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prefabricated monolithic slab (PMS has a number of valuable advantages, they allow to significantly decrease the weight of construction keeping the necessary structural-load capacity, to speed up and cheapen work conduction, to increase the heat isolating properties of an enclosure structure [1]. In order to create a design method of prefabricated monolithic slab fire-resistance, it's necessary to perform a series of PMS testing, one of which is being described in this article. Subjected to the test is a fragment of prefabricated monolithic slab with polystyrene concrete inserts along the beams with bent metal profile 250 mm thick, with a 2.7 m span loaded with evenly spread load equal to 600 kg/m2. After 3 hour testing for fire-resistance [2] no signs of construction ultimate behavior were detected.

  7. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  8. [Resistance risk, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-lian; Liu, Jin; Li, Xu-ke; Chi, Jia-jia; Liu, Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the resistance development law and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin, spraying rice seedlings was used to continuously screen resistant strains of L. striatellus and dipping rice seedlings was applied to determine the toxicity and cross-resistance of L. striatellus to insecticides. After 32-generation screening with buprofezin, L. striatellus developed 168.49 folds resistance and its reality heritability (h2) was 0.11. If the killing rate was 80%-90%, L. striatellus was expected to develop 10-fold resistance to buprofezin only after 5 to 6 generations breeding. Because the actual reality heritability of field populations was usually lower than that of the resistant strains, the production of field populations increasing with 10-fold resistance would need much longer time. The results of cross-resistance showed that resistant strain had high level cross-resistance with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, low level cross-resistance with acetamiprid, and no cross-resistance with pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. The activity of detoxification enzymes of different strains and the syergism of synergist were measured. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a major role in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin, the esterase played a minor role and the GSH-S-transferase had no effect. Therefore, L. striatellus would have high risk to develop resistance to buprofezin when used in the field and might be delayed by using pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos.

  9. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP Z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reasses properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e., the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable, at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp-up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities of these processes may lead to the compression oscillations around an evolving rather stable equilibrium. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. (orig.)

  10. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langham, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  11. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  12. The resistance brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm; Uldam, Julie

    “The Trump-resistance will be commercialized” (Hess, 2017). Paraphrasing political activist and artist Gil Scott-Heron’s famous title seems increasingly apt as one corporation after the other voices sympathy with social protesters and/or dismay at the politics of the White House incumbent. But how...

  13. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  14. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1985-10-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e. the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities if these processes in EXTRAP may lead to the compression oscillations around and evolving rather stable equilibrium. The frequency of these oscillations is given. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. With 4 figures and 21 refs. (Author)

  15. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ...

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  19. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  20. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  1. A simple test procedure for evaluating low temperature crack resistance of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The current means of evaluating the low temperature cracking resistance of HMA relies on extensive test : methods that require assumptions about material behaviors and the use of complicated loading equipment. The purpose : of this study was to devel...

  2. Wear-resistant powder materials with intermetallic hardening. I. Nonporous materials for antifriction purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, G.K.; Akopov, N.L.; Karapetyan, F.K.; Manukyan, N.N.

    1987-09-01

    This article investigates the wear resistance, microhardness, microstructure, and crystal-phase behavior of a molybdenum alloy solid lubricant under cyclic wear and sliding friction tests against steel 45. Calculated and experimental results are given.

  3. Preference, resistance to change, and the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2018-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components. Residuals from fits of the cumulative decision model to preference and resistance to change data were positively correlated, supporting the prediction of behavioral momentum theory. Although some questions remain, the learning process assumed by the cumulative decision model, in which outcomes are compared against a criterion that represents the average outcome value in the current context, may provide a plausible model for the acquisition of differential resistance to change. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Isotropic compression of cohesive-frictional particles with rolling resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Benz, Thomas; Nordal, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Cohesive-frictional and rough powders are the subject of this study. The behavior under isotropic compression is examined for different material properties involving Coulomb friction, rolling-resistance and contact-adhesion. Under isotropic compression, the density continuously increases according

  5. Stalking Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Common Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, David; Boeke, Caroline; Josowitz, Rebecca; Loya, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The study developed a simple experimental protocol for studying antibiotic resistant bacteria that will allow students to determine the proportion of such bacteria found on common fruit and vegetable crops. This protocol can open up the world of environmental science and show how human behavior can dramatically alter ecosystems.

  6. Cumulative Beam Breakup due to Resistive-Wall Wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The cumulative beam breakup problem excited by the resistive-wall wake is formulated. An approximate analytic method of finding the asymptotic behavior for the transverse bunch displacement is developed and solved. Comparison between the asymptotic analytical expression and the direct numerical solution is presented. Good agreement is found. The criterion of using the asymptotic analytical expression is discussed

  7. Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.

  8. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transfo......Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side...

  9. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    to Southern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance......OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...

  10. Role of nutrition in preventing insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasetti, Annalisa; Franchini, Simone; Comegna, Laura; Prezioso, Giovanni; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition during prenatal, early postnatal and pubertal period is crucial for the development of insulin resistance and its consequences. During prenatal period fetal environment and nutrition seems to interfere with metabolism programming later in life. The type of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, protein, fat and micronutrient content in maternal nutrition could influence insulin sensitivity in the newborn. The effects of lactation on metabolism and nutritional behavior later in life have been studied. Dietary habits and quality of diet during puberty could prevent the onset of a pathological insulin resistance through an adequate distribution of macro- and micronutrients, a diet rich in fibers and vegetables and poor in saturated fats, proteins and sugars. We want to overview the latest evidences on the risk of insulin resistance later in life due to both nutritional behaviors and components during the aforementioned periods of life, following a chronological outline from fetal development to adolescence.

  11. Fire Resistant Panels for the Tunnel Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of experimental and theoretical research fire resistance fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T. Owing to the assembly simplicity, materials cheapness, high ecological standard, recycling, reuse potential, are benefit. Research work is running to improve the knowledge about fireproof panels Pyro-Safe Aestuver T for tunnel lining, its basic performance, its long term behavior and in particular also its fire proof for example when used for the lining of road tunnels.

  12. Bi-stability resistant to fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2017-12-01

    We study a simple micro-mechanical device that does not lose its snap-through behavior in an environment dominated by fluctuations. The main idea is to have several degrees of freedom that can cooperatively resist the de-synchronizing effect of random perturbations. As an inspiration we use the power stroke machinery of skeletal muscles, which ensures at sub-micron scales and finite temperatures a swift recovery of an abruptly applied slack. In addition to hypersensitive response at finite temperatures, our prototypical Brownian snap spring also exhibits criticality at special values of parameters which is another potentially interesting property for micro-scale engineering applications.

  13. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  14. Adolescents' Compliance-Resistance: Effects of Parents' Compliance Strategy and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined choice of compliance-resisting behaviors among adolescents. Findings from 118 high school students revealed significant differences in resistance strategy the adolescent selected on basis of parent gender, adolescent gender, and compliance-gaining strategy (manipulation, nonnegotiation, emotional appeal, personal rejection, empathic…

  15. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  16. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple drug resistance isolates causing UTI has seri- ous implications for the empiric therapy against patho- genic isolates and for the possible co-selection of antimicrobial resistant mediated by multi drug resistant plasmids21,22. E. coli from clinical isolates are known to harbour plasmids of different molecular sizes23.

  17. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  18. Adipokines mediate inflammation and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Pessin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years, adipose tissue was considered as an inert energy storage organ that accumulates and stores triacylglycerols during energy excess and releases fatty acids in times of systemic energy need. However, over the last two decades adipose tissue depots have been established as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs that modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. In rodents, brown adipose tissue plays an essential role in non-shivering thermogenesis and in energy dissipation that can serve to protect against diet-induced obesity. White adipose tissue collectively referred too as either subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue is responsible for the secretion of an array of signaling molecules, termed adipokines. These adipokines function as classic circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including brain, liver, muscle, the immune system and adipose tissue itself. The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, inflammatory responses in adipose tissue have been shown as a major mechanism to induce peripheral tissue insulin resistance. Although leptin and adiponectin regulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure, these adipokines are also involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Adipose tissue secrete various pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines to modulate inflammation and insulin resistance. In obese humans and rodent models, the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines is enhanced to induce insulin resistance. Collectively, these findings have suggested that obesity-induced insulin resistance may result, at least in part, from an imbalance in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Thus we will review the recent progress regarding the physiological and molecular functions of adipokines in the obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance with perspectives on future directions.

  19. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  20. Resistive switching in TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin

    2011-10-26

    The continuing improved performance of the digital electronic devices requires new memory technologies which should be inexpensively fabricated for higher integration capacity, faster operation, and low power consumption. Resistive random access memory has great potential to become the front runner as the non volatile memory technology. The resistance states stored in such cell can remain for long time and can be read out none-destructively by a very small electrical pulse. In this work the typically two terminal memory cells containing a thin TiO{sub 2} layer are studied. Polycrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films are deposited with atomic layer deposition and magnetron reactive sputtering processes, which are both physically and electrically characterized. The resistive switching cells are constructed in a metal/TiO{sub 2}/metal structure. Electroforming process initiate the cell from the beginning good insulator to a real memory cell to program the resistive states. Multilevel resistive bipolar switching controlled by current compliance is the common characteristic observed in these cells, which is potentially to be used as so called multi-bit memory cells to improve the memory capacity. With different top electrodes of Pt, Cu, Ag the resistive switching behaviors are studied. The switching behaviors are different depending on the top metal such as the minimum current compliance, the endurance of the programmed resistance states and the morphology change during the switching. The temperature dependence of different resistance states are investigated. A reduction of the activation energy and their possible conduction mechanisms is discussed on the base of the basic current conduction models. It is found that the resistance state transfers from semiconductor to metallic property with the reducing resistances. The calculated temperature coefficients of their metallic states on the Cu/TiO{sub 2}/Pt and Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Pt are very close to the reported literature data

  1. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. Persistence and resistance to extinction in the domestic dog: Basic research and applications to canine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J

    2017-08-01

    This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings. In the second part of this review, I highlight more basic research on behavioral persistence with dogs, and how breed differences and experiences with humans as alternative sources of reinforcement can influence dogs' resistance to extinction of a target behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Momentum Theory have important applications for behavioral treatments to reduce the persistence of problem behavior in dogs and for the development of enhanced training methods that enhance the persistence of working dogs. Dogs can also be leveraged as natural models of stereotypic behavior and for exploring individual differences in behavioral persistence by evaluating breed and environmental variables associated with differences in canine persistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity.

  5. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  6. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  8. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  9. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  10. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  11. Testing and Modeling of Contact Problems in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    together two or three cylindrical parts as well as disc-ring pairs of dissimilar metals. The tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of the model. A theoretical and experimental study is performed on the contact resistance aiming at a more reliable model for numerical simulation of resistance welding......As a part of the efforts towards a professional and reliable numerical tool for resistance welding engineers, this Ph.D. project is dedicated to refining the numerical models related to the interface behavior. An FE algorithm for the contact problems in resistance welding has been developed...... for the formulation, and the interfaces are treated in a symmetric pattern. The frictional sliding contact is also solved employing the constant friction model. The algorithm is incorporated into the finite element code. Verification is carried out in some numerical tests as well as experiments such as upsetting...

  12. Subharmonic frequency locking in the resistive Josephson thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Veldhuizen, M.; Fowler, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Phase-locked oscillatory solutions are examined as a basis for the dc impedance of the resistive superconducting quantum-interference device Josephson thermometer. The calculations are based on the resistively shunted junction model in the limit 2πL/sub s/I/sub c//Phi 0 > or =1, where L/sub s/ is the loop inductance and I/sub c/ is the junction critical current, and for a junction resistance large compared with the external shunt resistance. An algorithm for representing frequency entrainment in (kappa,ω) space (drive amplitude, frequency) leads to zones with rotation number p/q having the form of leaf-shaped regions joined and overlapping at their tips. High-resonance zones are very thin and locally similar. No chaotic behavior has been observed. The model can simulate the ''rising'' curves of dc impedance as a function of drive amplitude

  13. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  15. Resistance and sheet resistance measurements using electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, A.; Pluska, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Szerling, A.; KaPtcki, J.

    2006-01-01

    A method for measurement of spatially uniform or nonuniform resistance in layers and strips, based on electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique, is described. High electron beam currents are used so that the overall resistance of the measurement circuit affects the EBIC signal. During the evaluation, the electron beam is scanned along the measured object, whose load resistance varies with the distance. The variation is compensated by an adjustable resistance within an external circuit. The method has been experimentally deployed for sheet resistance determination of buried regions of lateral confinements in semiconductor laser heterostructures manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy

  16. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  17. Mechanisms of ouabain resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanism of ouabain resistance in two distinct types of transfected cells derived from ouabain-sensitive CV-1 cell parents. The first type of transfectant is the recipient of a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the rodent renal Na,K-ATPase (R-alphal gene); the second type of transfectant is the recipient of the mouse ouabain resistance gene. Measurements of 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K=ATPase activity in R-alphal gene transfectant cells and CV-1 parent cells indicate that the ouabain-resistant phenotype of the transfectants is due to expression of a relatively ouabain-insensitive Na,K=ATPase. CV-1 parent cells express one component of ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and one component of ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase activity. R-alpha 1 gene transfectants express the parental forms of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, but in addition express new,relatively ouabain-insensitive forms of 86 Rb + uptake activity and Na,K-ATPase activity

  18. Radiation resistant lining material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  19. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  20. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A heat-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber is described. The outer surface of the shell is coated with a fire-resistant elastomer and liner. Generally conforming and secured to the shell and disposed inwardly of the shell, the liner is made of a felt fabric of temperature-resistant aromatic polymide fiber.

  1. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  2. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsun, A.S.; Sokolova, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  3. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  4. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  5. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics of low temperature grown ZnO thin films by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Yang Hui; Zhang Qilong; Dong Shurong; Luo, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) have been used to investigate resistive memory behavior. The bipolar resistance switching properties were observed in the Al/PEALD-ZnO/Pt devices. The resistance ratio for the high and low resistance states (HRS/LRS) is more than 10 3 , better than ZnO devices deposited by other methods. The dominant conduction mechanisms of HRS and LRS are trap-controlled space charge limited current and Ohmic behavior, respectively. The resistive switching behavior is induced upon the formation/disruption of conducting filaments. This study demonstrated that the PEALD-ZnO films have better properties for the application in 3D resistance random access memory.

  6. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, A.; Cihal, V. Jr.; Vanek, V.; Herzan, J.; Protiva, K.; Cihal, V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  7. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, O.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Zizak, I.; Cordill, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance

  8. Temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of amorphous Co80-xErxB20 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touraghe, O.; Khatami, M.; Menny, A.; Lassri, H.; Nouneh, K.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of amorphous Co 80-x Er x B 20 alloys with x=0, 3.9, 7.5 and 8.6 prepared by melt spinning in pure argon atmosphere was studied. All amorphous alloys investigated here are found to exhibit a resistivity minimum at low temperature. The electrical resistivity exhibits logarithmic temperature dependence below the temperature of resistivity minimum T min . In addition, the resistivity shows quadratic temperature behavior in the interval T min < T<77 K. At high temperature, the electrical resistivity was discussed by the extended Ziman theory. For the whole series of alloys, the composition dependence of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity α shows a change in structural short range occurring in the composition range 8-9 at%

  9. High temperature oxidation behavior of ODS steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, T.; Narita, T.; Ukai, S.; Matsuda, Y.

    2004-08-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developing for application as advanced fast reactor cladding and fusion blanket materials, in order to allow increased operation temperature. Oxidation testing of ODS steel was conducted under a controlled dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature oxidation behavior. This showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steels have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11 mass% Cr PNC-FMS and 17 mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel. This high temperature resistance is attributed to earlier formation of the protective α-Cr 2O 3 on the outer surface of ODS steels.

  10. Understanding Resistance to Climate Change Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Fifty years after the emergence of warnings over the effects of the environmental impacts of industrialization and other conditions of a planet subjugated by humans, we are still entertaining discussions about the existence of the phenomena of climate change. Worse still, we have not checked the behaviors and conditions that exacerbate the rate of environmental destruction. Older people, particularly those who are economically vulnerable, are among those most at risk in disasters, including events resulting from climate change. By applying the "epistemologies of ignorance" outlined by Nancy Tuana, I attempt to understand the rooted ignorance that prevents acceptance of the environmental impact of human kind's unrepentant misuse of the world's natural resources and the refusal to curb the excesses that have lead to environmental damage that has had, and that will continue to have, dire consequences on the planet and for the most vulnerable denizens of Earth. Far from being a pessimistic project of abjection and despair, this article proposes that an examination of climate change denial can provide guidance for the development of a better counter-narrative. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  12. Resistance in Popular Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuilenburg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Much of the existing research on video games seems to stall over the issue of whether or not violence in games is as innocent as is alleged. Scientists are still divided as to whether or not there is a causal link between the behavior of young people and violence in video gaming. Much less

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  14. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  15. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  16. Controlling antibiotic resistance in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derde, L.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are frequently colonized with (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria, which may lead to healthcare associated infections. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

  17. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Resistance is not futile: The response of hardwoods to fire-caused wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Kevin Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fires wound trees; but not all of them, and not always. Specific fire behavior and differences among tree species and individual trees produce variable patterns of wounding and wound response. Our work focuses on the relationships between fire behavior and tree biology to better understand how hardwood trees resist injury to the lower stem and either survive or succumb...

  19. Proliferation resistance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans, J.; Mladineo, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; BNL; Univ. of California at Berkely; PNNL

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments. A working group on Nonproliferation Assessment Methodology (NPAM) assembled a toolbox of methods for various applications in the nonproliferation arena. One application of this methodology is to the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. This paper first summarizes the key results of the NPAM program and then provides results obtained thus far in the ongoing application, which is co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. In NPAM, a top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed from a hierarchy of metrics. The problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and evaluates the outcomes. In addition to proliferation resistance (PR) evaluation, the application also addresses physical protection (PP) evaluation against sabotage and theft. The Generation IV goal for future nuclear energy systems is to assure that they are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against terrorism. An Expert Group, addressing this application, has identified six high-level measures for the PR goals (six measures have also been identified for the PP goals). Combined together, the complete set of measures provides information for program policy makers and system designers to compare specific system design features and integral system characteristics and to make choices among alternative options. The Group has developed a framework for a phased evaluation approach to analyzing PR and PP of system characteristics and to quantifying metrics and measures. This approach allows evaluations to become more detailed and representative

  20. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  1. Resistance and resistance fluctuations in random resistor networks under biased percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, Cecilia; Reggiani, L; Trefán, Gy; Alfinito, E

    2002-06-01

    We consider a two-dimensional random resistor network (RRN) in the presence of two competing biased processes consisting of the breaking and recovering of elementary resistors. These two processes are driven by the joint effects of an electrical bias and of the heat exchange with a thermal bath. The electrical bias is set up by applying a constant voltage or, alternatively, a constant current. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to analyze the network evolution in the full range of bias values. Depending on the bias strength, electrical failure or steady state are achieved. Here we investigate the steady state of the RRN focusing on the properties of the non-Ohmic regime. In constant-voltage conditions, a scaling relation is found between /(0) and V/V(0), where is the average network resistance, (0) the linear regime resistance, and V0 the threshold value for the onset of nonlinearity. A similar relation is found in constant-current conditions. The relative variance of resistance fluctuations also exhibits a strong nonlinearity whose properties are investigated. The power spectral density of resistance fluctuations presents a Lorentzian spectrum and the amplitude of fluctuations shows a significant non-Gaussian behavior in the prebreakdown region. These results compare well with electrical breakdown measurements in thin films of composites and of other conducting materials.

  2. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J. T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  3. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  4. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A weed resistance management game: a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, George B

    2018-04-15

    This article provides instructions and materials to moderate an interactive resistance management game. The game is designed to generate discussion about the challenges and possibilities of coordinating resistance management activities among groups of farmers. The game has been successfully applied in classroom settings, extension workshops, and at professional weed science meetings. Research has found farmers often perceive the success of their own resistance management may be thwarted if their neighbors are not adequately managing resistance as well. This can lead to negative 'tragedy of the commons' outcomes. In past applications of the game exercise, participants have often responded in ways consistent with similar studies in experimental and behavioral economics. This includes dividing benefits evenly (even though this is not a requirement of the game) or treating one-time transactions as potentially repeated exchanges. Player behavior may also be greatly influenced by their attitudes toward monetary risks. The game allows participants to explore ways to overcome the tragedy of the commons and illustrates the roles of information sharing and economic incentives in finding solutions. It also allows participants to experiment with bottom-up voluntary approaches toward resistance management as an alternative to top-down regulatory approaches. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  7. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  8. A case illustration of resistance from a gestalt-experiential perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, David; Holiman, Marjorie

    2002-02-01

    The case of Victoria illustrates psychotherapy with a woman faced with a difficult and unexpected divorce. The authors present a summary of typical struggles faced by Victoria through three phases of therapy. The therapy focused initially on coping with the divorce, then moved to work on her career dissatisfaction, and finally to her efforts to develop a new relationship. The case presentation illustrates resistance as it manifested itself in both a behavioral manner and as in-session resistance to awareness of internal states. The behavioral mode of resistance is manifested by her inability to follow through on decisions made in therapy sessions and by her interruptions of ongoing therapy. A transcript of a typical in-session exchange illustrates the resistance to awareness. The authors also describe interventions intended to work with the resistance. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  10. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  11. Outwitting the series resistance in scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Cao, R.; Eyben, P.; Hantschel, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of nanoelectronics devices critically depends on the distribution of active dopants inside these structures. For this reason, dopant profiling has been defined as one of the major metrology challenges by the international technology roadmap of semiconductors. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) has evolved as one of the most viable approaches over the last decade due to its excellent spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. However, in case of advanced device architectures like fins and nanowires a proper measurement of the spreading resistance is often hampered by the increasing impact of parasitic series resistances (e.g. bulk series resistance) arising from the confined nature of the aforementioned structures. In order to overcome this limitation we report in this paper the development and implementation of a novel SSRM mode (fast Fourier transform-SSRM: FFT-SSRM) which essentially decouples the spreading resistance from parasitic series resistance components. We show that this can be achieved by a force modulation (leading to a modulated spreading resistance signal) in combination with a lock-in deconvolution concept. In this paper we first introduce the principle of operation of the technique. We discuss in detail the underlying physical mechanisms as well as the technical implementation on a state-of-the-art atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate the performance of FFT-SSRM and its ability to remove substantial series resistance components in practice. Eventually, the possibility of decoupling the spreading resistance from the intrinsic probe resistance will be demonstrated and discussed. - Highlights: • A novel electrical AFM mode for carrier profiling in confined volumes is presented. • Thereby the force and hence the contact area between AFM probe and sample is modulated. • Information on the spreading resistance is derived using a lock-in approach. • Bulk series resistance components are

  12. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  13. A resistência olha a resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponciano Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resistência é um processo humano que acontece quando a pessoa se encontra sob algum tipo de ameaça. Não é essencialmente um acontecimento psicoterapêutico. Ocorre na terapia não como uma oposição a si mesmo ou ao terapeuta, mas como uma forma de se ajustar a uma nova situação. A resistência, é por natureza, a atualização do instinto de auto-preservação. E o organismo inteligentemente segue a lei da preferência. Resistência é uma forma de contato que não pode ser destruída, mas administrada, porque ela surge como uma defesa da totalidade vivenciada pela pessoa. A Resistência é, às vezes, resistência e awareness mais que ao contato. Ela revela mais o caminho seguido do que oculta a caminhada feita. A resistência é um processo natural, porque o corpo que não resiste, morre, mas falamos em processos de auto-regulação organísmica. Valorizamos mais o que mantêm a resistência funcionando do que à própria resistência. O terapeuta também resiste, ou seja, ele se auto-regula na sua relação com o cliente. Não questionamos a resistência, mas o processo que a mantêm. Trabalhamos com nove mecanismos de defesa, também tradicionalmente, chamados de resistência.

  14. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof

  15. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  16. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical resistivity of UBe13 in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedeshoff, G.M.; Lacerda, A.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependent electrical resistivity of single and polycrystal samples of UBe 13 in high magnetic fields. Two maxima in the resistivity are observed at T M1 and T M2 . T M1 , the temperature of the colder maximum, increases quadratically with magnetic field H, a field dependence previously observed under hydrostatic pressure. The high temperature maximum at T M2 emerges in fields above about 4 T and increases linearly with H, a behavior which may be due to a sharpening of the crystal field levels associated with a depression of the Kondo effect by high magnetic fields. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  19. Magnetoresistance and Hall resistivity of semimetal WTe2 ultrathin flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Fang, Chi; Wan, Caihua; Cai, Jialin; Liu, Yong; Han, Xiufeng; Lu, Zhihong; Shi, Wenhua; Xiong, Rui; Zeng, Zhongming

    2017-04-07

    This article reports the characterization of WTe 2 thin flake magnetoresistance and Hall resistivity. We found it does not exhibit magnetoresistance saturation when subject to high fields, in a manner similar to their bulk characteristics. The linearity of Hall resistivity in our devices confirms the compensation of electrons and holes. By relating experimental results to a classic two-band model, the lower magnetoresistance values in our samples is demonstrated to be caused by decreased carrier mobility. The dependence of mobility on temperature indicates the main role of optical phonon scattering at high temperatures. Our results provide more detailed information on carrier behavior and scattering mechanisms in WTe 2 thin films.

  20. Effects of prestressing on impact resistance of concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, H.; Kishi, N.; Matsuoka, K.G.; Mikami, T.; Nomachi, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of prestressing on impact resistance of concrete beams using two types of prestressed concrete (PC) tendons are discussed based on experimental results. Aramids Fiber Reinforced Plastic rods and PC steel strand were used as PC tendons. To clarify the effects of prestressing on concrete beam impact resistance, dynamic behavior of prestressed and/or non-prestressed concrete beams with different PC tendon arrangements were considered. Impact test were performed using a 200 kg f free falling steel weight on to the center of beam. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs