Sample records for behavioral research

  1. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros


    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  2. Brain and Behavior Research Foundation. (United States)

    ... Stress Disorder View All > Donate DONATE TODAY! > The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused ... and breakthroughs in scientific research. Copyright © 2016 the brain & behavior research foundation Privacy Policy Legal Notices and Disclaimers

  3. Using Videotape Technology: Innovations in Behavioral Research. (United States)

    Niebuhr, Robert E.; And Others


    Reviews present and potential uses of videotape technology in behavioral research. Emphasis is placed on research methodology and the value of incorporating videotape in current research practices, including behavior observation studies, in modeling research, and in perceptual attribution investigations. Concludes with an analysis of advantages…

  4. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW) (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW...N000141512664 LONG-TERM GOALS The behavioral response of marine mammals to Navy sonar exposure has been a research...The overall objective is to review the status and future of research into behavioral responses of marine mammals to naval sonar exposure in order to

  5. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin


    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  6. Research on Container Behaviors Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the development of middleware technology, there are some new features to be adopted on demand in middleware platform based on container component. Aiming at the adaptation of middleware platform, from the nature of component container, this paper begins with behaviors features of EJB (Enterprise Java Bean) container, extracts general behaviors protocol of container, and defines its formal behaviors specification. In the end, the interactive relationship of components is described by WRIGHT language, and the configuration of whole system is shown. The method proposed in this paper mines the hidden features of framework of component container, and applies to refactor middleware platform in reflection and aspect-oriented programming technology.

  7. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J


    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  8. Integrating psychology research and behavioral management


    Igor Elman


    Igor ElmanDepartment of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USAI am grateful that about two years ago Dove Medical Press offered me the opportunity to edit the Journal of Psychology Research and Behavior Management. I find my work on the Journal to be a very gratifying experience and I particularly enjoy its eclectic multidisciplinary qualities that, by attracting contributions from a variety of perspectives and geographic locations, help to ease the artificial b...

  9. Research progress in avian dispersal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Zhengwang ZHANG


    Dispersal, defined as a linear spreading move-ment of individuals away from others of the population is a fundamental characteristic of organisms in nature. Dispersal is a central concept in ecological, behavioral and evolutionary studies, driven by different forces such as avoidance of inbreeding depression, density-dependent competition and the need to change breeding locations. By effective dispersal, organisms can enlarge their geo-graphic range and adjust the dynamic, sex ratio and gen-etic compositions of a population. Birds are one of the groups that are studied intensively by human beings. Due to their diurnal habits, diverse life history strategies and complex movement, birds are also ideal models for the study of dispersal behaviors. Certain topics of avian dispersal including sex-biased, asymmetric dispersal caused by differences in body conditions, dispersal pro-cesses, habitat selection and long distance dispersal are discussed here. Bird-ringing or marking, radio-telemetry and genetic markers are useful tools widely applied in dispersal studies. There are three major challenges regard-ing theoretical study and methodology research of dis-persal: (1) improvement in research methodology is needed, (2) more in-depth theoretical research is neces-sary, and (3) application of theoretical research into the conservation efforts for threatened birds and the manage-ment of their habitats should be carried out immediately.

  10. Prospects of Brand Choice Behavior Research from Cognitive Perspective (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Lin, Lin

    The article reviews relevant literature at home and abroad on consumer brand choice behavior and summarizes the study evolution of consumer brand choice behavior, and puts forward view on relevant research prospects from cognitive perspective in this field.

  11. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research. (United States)

    Eshleman, J W


    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a "paucity" of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s.

  12. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology. (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  13. The Research of College Students’English Classroom Behavior Investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By employing quantitative research methods, the paper investigates college students ’preferences to English classroom behaviors and the relations between behaviors and achievements. The results indicate that there are significant differences among the subjects’behavior, cognitive and emotional elements, and their classroom behaviors are mainly visual, individual, imitative and exterior-motivated;there are significant differences in behavior element and emotional element between high-result group and low-result group;confident and oral classroom behaviors have prominent relations with CET-4 achievements, and different teaching methods may make learning behaviors produce good or bad effects to achievements.

  14. Escalation research: providing new frontiers for applying behavior analysis to organizational behavior. (United States)

    Goltz, S M


    Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to "throw good money after bad," can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis.

  15. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani


    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  16. Organizational Behavior Research in Transition Time of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Kan


    The article is to introduce author's research results in recent years in the field of leadership behavior. The main researches conducted in this field include competency model of senior executives in communication industry and family firms; transformational leadership and its relationship with leadership effectiveness, the impact of supervisor's feedback on employees' behavior and the cross-culture study of supervisor's feedback. Theoretical and practical contributions of these researches are explained. Directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan


    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  18. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen


    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  19. Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. (United States)

    Prochaska, James O


    Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.

  20. Online Research Behaviors of Engineering Graduate Students in Taiwan (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Hsueh; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Previous studies have examined the online research behaviors of graduate students in terms of how they seek and retrieve research-related information on the Web across diverse disciplines. However, few have focused on graduate students' searching activities, and particularly for their research tasks. Drawing on Kuiper, Volman, and Terwel's (2008)…

  1. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.


    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  2. Research progress of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua GU


    Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006

  3. ANOVA for the behavioral sciences researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Rudolf N


    This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the

  4. Cooperative behavior, competition and operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.


    Game theory is the mathematical tool to study cooperation and competition. Since the beginnings of operations research and game theory both fields have been closely related. This thesis further investigates this relationship. Costs or rewards sharing problems arising from scheduling problems, travel

  5. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011


    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  6. Serious Leisure and Information Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang


    Full Text Available Along with the development of technology, social evolution, and global economics, leisure becomes an important aspect in modern societies, so do leisure industries. The author argues that studies of leisure information and leisure activities are increasingly significant with theoretical and practical impacts, and suggest library and information science scholars and practice communities pay attention to leisure research in general, and the concept of serious leisure in particular, which highly involves information acquisition and sharing activities. [Article content in Chinese

  7. The Economic Behavior of Academic Research Libraries: Toward a Theory. (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.


    Examines the economic behavior of academic research libraries, arguing that academic research libraries seek to maximize universities' utility by expanding library collections. Findings are consistent with those from a previous study using a different ranking system and sample data and reconfirm that library collections contribute significantly to…

  8. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying


    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  9. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective. (United States)

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A


    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  10. Ape language research: A review and behavioral perspective


    Hixson, Michael D.


    The ape language research of the Gardners, Fouts, Terrace, Rumbaugh, and Savage-Rumbaugh is reviewed. This research involved the raising of chimpanzees (and a bonobo) in human-like environments over extended time periods. The results indicate that apes are capable of learning small verbal repertoires in a fashion similar to that of human infants. The writings of the ape language researchers show an opposition to behavioral approaches to language. Although they characterize each other's work a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler


    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  12. The comeback of the interview in organizational behavior research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Ben


    Organizational behavior, as a theory-developing field of research, is highly questionnaire-based and highly dependent on quantitative methods. In its dominant methodology tradition, variables are measured in a sample of respondents or other units of observation and the calculated relationships betwe

  13. Behavioral State as a Lead Variable in Neonatal Research. (United States)

    Colombo, John; Horowitz, Frances Degen


    Research on perceptual and cognitive capacities of the newborn has revealed that state variables typically interfere with or override the neonate's attentional and stimulus processing tendencies. This finding argues for the power of early state variables as behavioral determinants and, further, that neonatal state measures might provide good…

  14. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  15. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A


    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  16. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice. (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea


    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  17. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  18. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science. (United States)

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H


    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  19. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.


    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  20. Behavior of Serbian Tourists During Economic Crisis: Two Empirical Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Najdić


    Full Text Available Tourist’s behavior research is focused on understanding and explaining the factors that affect tourist’s preferences and holiday destination choice. In this paper is analyzed the impact of the global economic crisis on the preferences toward leisure travels of the residents from Serbia. The paper is based on researches conducted in 2006-2009, through travel agencies and in 2011 on the general population major of age with support of TNS Medium Gallupa. Better understanding of the perception process and how tourists react to certain factor can give more accurate information on the dynamics of tourism demand and its dependence on tourist’s perception.

  1. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable? (United States)

    Wendler, D


    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  2. Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: unified perspective on personality research. (United States)

    Segal, N L; MacDonald, K B


    Behavioral geneticists and evolutionary psychologists have generally pursued human behavioral analyses with little theoretical or methodological exchange. However, significant benefits might accrue from increased communication between these disciplines. The primary goals of this article are (1) to identify meaningful junctures between behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology, (2) to describe behavioral genetic research designs and their applications to evolutionary analyses, and (3) to reassess current personality research in light of behavioral genetic and evolutionary concepts and techniques. The five-factor model of personality is conceptualized as subsuming variation in normative species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. Considered as universal evolved mechanisms, personality systems are often seen in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. However, genetically influenced individual differences in personality may also be understood within an evolutionary framework. Studies of the heritability of personality traits indicate broad-sense heritabilities in the 0.40-0.50 range with evidence of substantial nonadditive genetic variation and nonshared environmental influences. Evidence indicates that evolutionary theory (e.g., inclusive fitness theory) predicts patterns of social interaction (e.g., cooperation and bereavement) in relatives. Furthermore, variation in personality may constitute a range of viable strategies matching the opportunities available in the complex niche environment of human societies. Within this wide range of viable strategies, personality variation functions as a resource environment for individuals in the sense that personality variation is evaluated according to the interests of the evaluator (e.g., friendships, coalitions, or mate choice).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU


    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  4. Reconceptualizing emetophobia: a cognitive-behavioral formulation and research agenda. (United States)

    Boschen, Mark J


    Fear of vomiting (emetophobia) is a poorly understood anxiety disorder, with little research published into its conceptualization or treatment. The current article uses established cognitive and behavioral models of other anxiety disorders as a basis from which to propose a detailed model of emetophobia. The model proposes that emetophobia results from a constellation of factors including a general anxiety-vulnerability factor, a tendency to somatize anxiety as gastrointestinal distress, a tendency to catastrophically misappraise nausea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, hypervigilance to gastrointestinal cues, beliefs about the unacceptability of vomiting, negatively reinforced avoidance behavior, and selective confirmation biases. A formulation-based treatment package for emetophobia is outlined, including arousal management skills, distraction/attention training, exposure and cognitive restructuring.

  5. Real time lobster posture estimation for behavior research (United States)

    Yan, Sheng; Alfredsen, Jo Arve


    In animal behavior research, the main task of observing the behavior of an animal is usually done manually. The measurement of the trajectory of an animal and its real-time posture description is often omitted due to the lack of automatic computer vision tools. Even though there are many publications for pose estimation, few are efficient enough to apply in real-time or can be used without the machine learning algorithm to train a classifier from mass samples. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for the real-time lobster posture estimation to overcome those difficulties. In our proposed algorithm, we use the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for lobster segmentation. Then the posture estimation is based on the distance transform and skeleton calculated from the segmentation. We tested the algorithm on a serials lobster videos in different size and lighting conditions. The results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient and robust under various conditions.

  6. An empirical research of university students’ handset reading behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihong; MAO


    The author carried out an investigative survey by way of random sampling college students’ handset reading behavior at 10 universities in Nanjing. It was hoped that through such an undertaking and accompanied it with a scientific analysis of the collected data, we may gain a better understanding about the present handset reading situation of Chinese college students in general and the characteristics of the students’ handset reading behavior such as their needs of handset reading, their access techniques to handset reading,and their level of sophistication of handset reading utilization, etc. in particular. Based on his research findings, the author concludes his paper with a calling to those handset reading service providers, such as university library administrators and library and information professionals to strive for further professional advancement for their handset based information service delivery operation.

  7. Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan (United States)

    Majima, Yoshimasa; Nishiyama, Kaoru; Nishihara, Aki; Hata, Ryosuke


    Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk. We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions. The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several recommendations concerning this sample are presented.

  8. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li


    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  9. The Research Comment on Organic Food Consumer Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; WANG; Pengcheng; LIU


    Since the development of organic food,to a great extent,depends on the needs of consumers,the studies on the consumer behavior of organic food would have far-reaching significance to the development of the whole organic food industry. The recent studies in this field mainly include the following four aspects: the consumers’ recognition of organic food; the consumers’ attitude towards organic food; the consumers’ purchase of organic food; the consumers’ willingness to pay. The paper would review the recent domestic and foreign studies on the four aspects mentioned above,aiming to provide references to the researches in this field.

  10. Systematic behavior research for understanding consumer decision making. (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Feng


    This study incorporates means-end chain (MEC) theory and dynamic programming for understanding the implications of consumer decision making. The conceptual framework of this study can help programmers design information systems for analyzing consumption behaviors. Such analyses will provide marketers with meaningful information for formulating marketing strategies. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) to enable researchers to obtain information for consumer cognitive hierarchies utilizing an information system, (2) to enhance the functions of traditional MEC methodology and provide an integrated method for analyzing consumption information, and (3) to construct an information system for analyzing consumer decision-making processes.

  11. Nurses’ Research Behavior and Barriers to Research Utilization Into Clinical Nursing Practice: a Closer Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios Athanasakis


    Full Text Available Background: It is widely accepted that utilization of the best-known research evidence in nursing practice entails improvement of nursing care received by patients and strengthening of nursing profession.Aim: The aim of this paper was the review of nurses’ research behavior and the barriers that nurses meet in order to utilize research evidence into clinical nursing practice.Methodology: There has been conducted a literature search in Pubmed and Science Direct libraries, using specific search terms. An important inclusion criterion for the studies was the use of barriers to research utilization scale (BRUS, along or combined with another instrument.Results: A total of 37 original papers included in the present article. A table of the top five barriers to research utilization scale has been conducted. Data from the table indicate that the existence of barriers to incorporation of evidence into practice comes mainly from clinical settings characteristics. In addition, issues about nursing education, nurses’ research and reading habits, facilitators of research utilization and their relevance for nursing staff and clinical practice are also discussed.Conclusions: Since the barriers to research utilization are well identified in the nursing literature and there is a wealth of information on this subject, the next step is to find ways to overcome them and value the impact of the relevant interventions towards research utilization behavior.

  12. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly


    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  13. Behavioral Genetics: Concepts for Research and Practice in Language Development and Disorders. (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.


    This paper is an introduction to behavioral genetics for researchers and practitioners in language development and disorders. It identifies essential concepts and applies behavioral genetic research to the language sciences. It suggests that more complex questions may be successfully addressed through behavioral genetic paradigms. Research needs…

  14. Political Activism Research: Studying the Evoution of Political Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Memoli


    Full Text Available The study of political activism has grown significantly within the last fifty years. Political participation was always the cornerstone of research in political science, but the advent of comparative political behavior studies and quantitative analysis has paved the way for data-driven investigations of who votes, why people participate and what types of political activities citizens prefer. This article is an introduction to the main scholarship in political participation studies, its evolution since the beginning, the shift in focus from conventional activism to unconventional engagement, up to the most recent innovation of digital participation. The political behavior field has showed how citizens are not necessarily prepared to be polit-ical animals, how political interest and opportunities play a role in the levels of participation recorded and how individuals may choose newer, confrontational modes of political expression that better fit their needs. In the end, the entire development of this field of research highlights once more the relevance of political action, especially with regards to how participation has changed in Europe, over time and across borders.

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk


    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. A Proposal for Considering Research Integrity from the Perspective of Behavioral Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Anderson


    Full Text Available This paper proposes that theory and findings from behavioral economics may shed light on research integrity and misconduct.  It suggests ways in which strategies based on behavioral theory and research might be used by principal investigators to support research integrity among their research teams.

  17. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  18. Toward Proper Specification of the Effects of Leader Punitive Behavior: A Research Note. (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.; And Others


    Tested the impact of leader punitive behavior on employee satisfaction in 457 hospital employees. Controlling for leader reward behavior, there was no direct positive effect of leader punitive behavior, and no moderating impact of role ambiguity. Discusses the importance of considering spuriousness in leader punitive behavior research. (WAS)

  19. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems (United States)

    Schauer, James J.


    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  20. Customer engagement behavior : Theoretical foundations and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, J.; Lemon, K.N.; Mittal, V.; Nass, S.; Pick, D.; Pirner, P.; Verhoef, P.C.


    This article develops and discusses the concept of customer engagement behaviors (CEB), which we define as the customers' behavioral manifestation toward a brand or firm, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers. CEBs include a vast array of behaviors including word-of-mouth (WOM) activi

  1. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks


    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson; Lindblad, Anne


    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing ...

  2. The social control of behavior control: behavior modification, Individual Rights, and research ethics in America, 1971-1979. (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra


    In 1971, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights began a three-year study to investigate the federal funding of all research involving behavior modification. During this period, operant programs of behavior change, particularly those implemented in closed institutions, were subjected to specific scrutiny. In this article, I outline a number of scientific and social factors that led to this investigation and discuss the study itself. I show how behavioral scientists, both individually and through their professional organizations, responded to this public scrutiny by (1) self-consciously altering their terminology and techniques; (2) considering the need to more effectively police their professional turf; and (3) confronting issues of ethics and values in their work. Finally, I link this episode to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, whose recommendations resulted in changes to the ethical regulation of federally funded human subjects research that persist to the present day.

  3. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Leigland, Sam


    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  4. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: Improving Hallway Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports (United States)

    Leedy, Amanda; Bates, Perianne; Safran, Stephen P.


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a positive behavior support (PBS) intervention in a rural elementary school. Through this use of clear, consistent behavioral expectations, grade-level assemblies, and complimentary reinforcement, there was a substantial improvement in hallway behavior, with an overall increase of 134.9% for compliance…

  5. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects (United States)

    Lowe, Heather


    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  6. Researching Pupil Attending Behavior within Naturalistic Classroom Settings. (United States)

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Rogers, Constance J.


    Examines the relationship between teacher attitudes toward students and visual attending behavior in the classroom. Thirty-two students were identified in four categories, subsequently labeled accepted, indifferent, concerned and rejected. Results indicated significant differences in visual attending behavior and a two-way interaction with pupil…

  7. The Selective Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Empirical Research: A Reply to Schlinger (2008) (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno


    In a recent article, Schlinger (2008) marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) by considering its impact on the field of behaviorism and research on verbal behavior. In the present article, we comment on Schlinger's conclusions regarding the impact of the book and highlight the extensions and…

  8. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  9. Bridging Design and Behavioral Research With Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg


    Advertising research is a scientific discipline that studies artifacts (e.g., various forms of marketing communication) as well as natural phenomena (e.g., consumer behavior). Empirical advertising research therefore requires methods that can model design constructs as well as behavioral constructs,

  10. The Behavioral Economics of Education: New Directions for Research (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya


    Over the past several decades, researchers have used economics to understand a number of issues in education policy. This article argues that some education researchers have defined economics too narrowly, neglecting several areas of economics research that cut across disciplinary boundaries. One subdiscipline of economics that might be of use in…

  11. Searching and Archiving : Exploring Online Search Behaviors of Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, D.M.; Groot, de S.; Veer, van der G.C.; Dainoff, M.J.


    Searching for relevant peer-reviewed material is an integral part of corporate and academic researchers. Researchers collect huge amount of information over the years and sometimes struggle organizing it. Based on a study with 30 academic researchers, we explore, in combination, different searching

  12. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  13. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang


    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  14. Research of Tribological Behaviors of a New Aluminum Bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-lin; WANG Zhi-ping; CHEN Chao


    The tribological behaviors were investigated in a new high strength and wear resistant aluminum bronze, with its friction coefficient and wear-rate lower than those of ZQAl9-4 and ZQAl10-4-4 alloys in terms of Chinese national standard.The results showed that different tribological behaviors were attributed material itself. Under boundary lubrication condition, major wear mechanisms of aluminum bronze are adhesive wear and attrition wear. Its wearability depends mainly on material microstructure, shedding hard-particles, rakes and small pits that can store lubricant. The new aluminum bronze may find wide application in high sliding speed, heavy load and boundary lubrication condition.

  15. Research of Tribological Behaviors of a New Aluminum Bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJian-lin; WANGZhi-ping; CHENChao


    The tribological behaviors were investigated in a new high strength and wear resistant alurninum bronze, with its friction coefficient and wear-rate lower than those of ZQA19-4 and ZQAI10-4-4 alloys in terms of Chinese national standard. The results showed that different tribological behaviors were attributed material itself. Under boundary lubrication condition, major wear mechanisms of aluminum bronze are adhesive wear and attrition wear. Its. wearability depends mainly on material microstructure, shedding hard-particles, rakes and small pits that can store lubricant. The new aluminum bronze may find wide application in high sliding speed, heavy load and boundaty lubrication condition.

  16. Publication Trends Over 55 Years of Behavioral Genetic Research. (United States)

    Ayorech, Ziada; Selzam, Saskia; Smith-Woolley, Emily; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; DeFries, John C; Plomin, Robert


    We document the growth in published papers on behavioral genetics for 5-year intervals from 1960 through 2014. We used 1861 papers published in Behavior Genetics to train our search strategy which, when applied to Ovid PsychINFO, selected more than 45,000 publications. Five trends stand out: (1) the number of behavioral genetic publications has grown enormously; nearly 20,000 papers were published in 2010-2014. (2) The number of human quantitative genetic (QG) publications (e.g., twin and adoption studies) has steadily increased with more than 3000 papers published in 2010-2014. (3) The number of human molecular genetic (MG) publications increased substantially from about 2000 in 2000-2004 to 5000 in 2005-2009 to 9000 in 2010-2014. (4) Nonhuman publications yielded similar trends. (5) Although there has been exponential growth in MG publications, both human and nonhuman QG publications continue to grow. A searchable resource of this corpus of behavioral genetic papers is freely available online at and will be updated annually.

  17. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research. (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.


    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  18. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research. (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P


    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance.

  19. Natural Disasters and Human Behavior: Explanation, Research and Models. (United States)

    Glenn, Christopher


    A survey of published research determined that individual and group reactions to natural disasters differ greatly and depend partially on the predisaster personality. Four models are examined to explain individual and group reactions to natural disasters. A conglomerate model and a possible structure to future disaster research are offered.…

  20. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.


    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  1. Social, Behavioral and Economic Research in the Federal Context (United States)


    with a patient on nutrient recall. These data are used in field studies that evaluate the impact of dietary intake as it relates to nutrition and...treatment for schizo- phrenia, depression, autism and other forms of mental illness as well as better teaching methods for autistic children, based...individual behavior? • What are the bases of schizophrenia, autism , addiction and other forms of mental illness? • How are personalities shaped by the

  2. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors. (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol


    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  3. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Snell


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. Results: Preliminary results from both the survey and the pilot study have shown gender differences in regards to cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Results suggest that females are more often involved in cyberbullying activities both as victims and perpetrators. Conclusion: The current study has found evidence of gender trends in regards to females and cyberbullying behaviors. Future research needs to be conducted to further examine the gender trends emerging in cyberbullying related behaviors."

  4. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili


    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  5. Behavioral treatment of rumination: Research and clinical applications. (United States)

    Luiselli, James K


    This brief review describes research on rumination treatment that emphasizes functional analysis, recent intervention methods (supplemental feeding, fixed-time stimulus presentation, continuous access to preferred stimulation), clinical implications, and procedural recommendations.

  6. Use of Library Facilities: Behavioral Research as a Tool for Library Space Planning. (United States)

    Potthoff, Joy K.; Montanelli, Dale S.


    Reviews the literature of librarianship and related behavioral research to identify evaluation methods that have been successfully applied to the analysis of library space planning. The discussion covers the appropriate conditions for the use of various evaluation techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, behavior mapping, time budgets,…

  7. Recent Research on Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications and Future Directions (United States)

    Grow, Laura L.; Kodak, Tiffany


    Previous research on the acquisition of verbal behavior in children with developmental disabilities has focused on teaching four primary verbal operants: (1) "mand"; (2) "tact"; (3) "echoic"; and (4) "intraverbal". In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, he stated that each verbal operant is maintained by unique antecedent and consequence…

  8. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  9. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck


    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research discip

  10. Teacher Behaviors--Do They Make a Difference? A Review of the Research. (United States)

    Martin, William R.


    The author highlights research findings on the behaviors and personal characteristics of teachers which raise student achievement. These include warmth, interpersonal communication skill, orderliness, flexibility, acceptance of students, and sincerity. (SJL)

  11. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike


    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical integ

  12. The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Research on School Principals' Behaviors (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet


    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Spiritual Leadership and the dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) of school principals from the perspectives of primary school teachers. A quantitative survey was performed on a sample of teachers (N = 383) from primary schools to study the influence of spiritual leadership…

  13. Behavioral Economics Matters for HIV Research: The Impact of Behavioral Biases on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (ARVs). (United States)

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad


    Behavioral economics (BE) has been used to study a number of health behaviors such as smoking and drug use, but there is little knowledge of how these insights relate to HIV prevention and care. We present novel evidence on the prevalence of the common behavioral decision-making errors of present-bias, overoptimism, and information salience among 155 Ugandan HIV patients, and analyze their association with subsequent medication adherence. 36 % of study participants are classified as present-biased, 21 % as overoptimistic, and 34 % as having salient HIV information. Patients displaying present-bias were 13 % points (p = 0.006) less likely to have adherence rates above 90 %, overoptimistic clients were 9 % points (p = 0.04) less likely, and those not having salient HIV information were 17 % points (p < 0.001) less likely. These findings indicate that BE may be used to screen for future adherence problems and to better design and target interventions addressing these behavioral biases and the associated suboptimal adherence.

  14. Verbal Behavior Analysis: A Program of Research in the Induction and Expansion of Complex Verbal Behavior (United States)

    Greer, R. Douglas; Ross, Denise E.


    Both applied and conceptual experiments based on Skinner's theory of verbal behavior have led to significant benefits for: (a) persons with language disorders and delays, (b) students who need to bridge the achievement gap, (c) professionals who work with students, and (d) individuals who wish to design functional curricula and pedagogy to meet…

  15. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field


    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander


    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Deaf Trauma Survivors' Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons for Behavioral Clinical Trials Research. (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Wolf Craig, Kelly S; Ziedonis, Douglas M


    Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility during the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted an exploratory secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that originally explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors' help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that could be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged were not wholly dissimilar from the general preferences of members of other sociolinguistic minority groups-a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality procedures, trust, and transparency of the research process. Yet, how these themes are applied to the inclusion of Deaf research participants is distinct from any other sociolinguistic minority population, given Deaf people's unique sensory and linguistic characteristics. We summarize our findings in a preliminary "Checklist for Designing Deaf Behavioral Clinical Trials" to operationalize the steps researchers can take to apply Deaf-friendly approaches in their empirical work.

  17. Shared Learning: Feminist Student Research on Household Reuse Behavior (United States)

    Medley, Kimberly E.; Zhou, Ying; Condon, Darcy


    This paper describes collaborative student research on waste management that first compiled home interviews with women professors in Oxford, Ohio, USA, and Beijing, China, on household reuse for a graduate thesis and then communicated the findings in a handbook for undergraduate students. The women participants described diverse household reuse…

  18. Research on Personalized Behaviors Recommendation System Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dai


    Full Text Available Data scale becomes a bottleneck in user behaviors analysis, many data mining algorithms become Inefficient slow in this circumstances. This paper explores an effective approach to mine latent knowledge in large scale data, which combines the basal principles of association rules, MapReduce model and Hbase database. First, general principles and algorithm of association rules are given. Second, the work mechanism and traits of MapReduce model and HBase are introduced. Finally, it gives detailed design methods that how to combine the basal principles of association rules, MapReduce model and Hbase database. Sufficient experiments prove that the processing velocity of parallel approach nearly decuple unparallel approach’s. Therefore, the approach combined association-rule and cloud computing is a successful and valuable exploration.

  19. Challenge in Sharing Tacit Knowledge: Academicians’ Behavior towards Developing A Web Portal for Sharing Research Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Adenan


    Full Text Available Academicians’ collective memories soft information, such as research ideas, expertise, experiences, academic skills, know-what, know-how and know-why which inevitability it is considered should made accessible. The Higher Education Institution needs to identify, collect, classify, verbalize and diffuse the academicians’ soft information specifically research ideas present in the university for knowledge enrichment. This can be implemented by the academicians actively sharing their research ideas with others. Actively sharing research ideas by academicians will have great impact on the enrichment of their intellectual capability as most of the valuable knowledge resides in one’s brain. However, as there is no specific medium to bring their research ideas into the surface and be visible to others, the precious research ideas still remain in the academicians’ brains. Therefore, the objective of the study is to explore academicians’ behavior toward the development of a sharing research ideas web portal at private university colleges in Malaysia. This study used the qualitative method that is a multiple cases study. The study refers to four private university colleges in Malaysia. In-depth interview, focus group discussion and document analysis were formed the data collection for this study. The theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (1991 was used to determine academicians’ behavior. This study showed that the academicians’ attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards developing a web portal for sharing research ideas all affect their intention to share their research ideas with others.



    Roxana STOIAN


    Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven) support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard an...

  1. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society


    Quan Li; Wenbo Wei; Nian Xiong; Daici Feng; Xinyue Ye; Yongsheng Jiang


    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage...

  2. German Market Analysis: Tourist Behavior Research: case Rock and Lake


    Koppalova, Nadezhda


    The research problem of this thesis was to identify a potential tourist market segment in Germany for the Finnish company Rock and Lake which provides accommodation and activities. The main objectives of this work were to identify the current trends of a German travel market in selecting vacation destinations, study the attitude of German tourists towards different types of vacations and holiday parameters, analyze German tourist market segmentation and analyze “Rock and Lake’...

  3. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior. (United States)

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J; Roberts, Lynne D


    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18-53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices.

  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on the Behavior Therapy in China and Its Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵山明; 能昌华; 吴汉荣


    To get formed of the status of research and application of the domestic behavior therapy and its development trend, the time distribution and the subject distribution were bibliometricallly analyzed of the literature on behavior therapy from 1981 to 2000 in the CBMdisc. Our results showed that the number of literature of behavior therapy has been increasing in exponential manner over the past 20 years; the behavior modification, the biofeedback and the cognitive therapy are extensively used in China. In clinical practice, the behavior modification and the biofeedback have been applied in all departments of medical institutions, especially for treating the cardiovascular and the neurological conditions. The cognitive therapy has been employed mainly for the treatment of mental disorders (or dysphrenia), the aversive therapy mainly for material withdrawal, and the systematic desensitization for phobia. There was no report found on the clinical use of meditation. It is concluded that the study and application in behavior therapy in China is currently developing very fast.

  5. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav


    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  6. Twin studies in behavioral research: a skeptical view. (United States)

    Kamin, Leon J; Goldberger, Arthur S


    We review in detail two major ongoing research projects that employ samples of twins reared apart (and in one case, twins reared together). The studies attempt, via model fitting, to estimate proportions of genetic and environmental variance for many human traits. We discuss problems concerning the representativeness of samples, the accuracy and reliability of the data, the extent of contact of nominally separated twins, the measurement of selective placement effects, and the particular model-fitting procedures. The two studies agree in their conclusions, but we do not find the conclusions to be convincing. We suggest that no scientific purpose is served by the flood of heritability estimates generated by these studies.

  7. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition. (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1996


    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  8. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  9. Consumer decision and behavior research agenda for the Office of Building and Community Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, B.L.; Scheer, R.M.; Barnes, V.


    This report presents a research agenda of Consumer Decision and Behavior Projects related to improving, facilitating and planning Building and Community Systems, (BCS) research and development activities. Information for developing this agenda was gathered through focus group and depth interviews with BCS staff, directors and program managers.

  10. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.


    BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and so

  11. Barker's Behavior Setting Theory: A Useful Conceptual Framework for Research on Educational Administration. (United States)

    Eklund, S. J.; Scott, M. M.


    Research in educational administration needs a coherent empirical base for a comprehensive, ecologically valid theory of administration. This paper describes Roger Barker's Behavior Setting Theory and promotes it as a broad-based conceptual framework for research on educational administration. (Author/TE)

  12. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research. (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui


    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  13. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications. (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego


    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  14. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers. (United States)

    Harden, K Paige


    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  15. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.


    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  16. Educational attainment and life expectancy: a perspective from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. (United States)

    Spittel, Michael L; Riley, William T; Kaplan, Robert M


    The NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) furthers the mission of the NIH by stimulating behavioral and social sciences research throughout NIH and integrating these areas of research more fully into the NIH health research enterprise, thereby improving our understanding, treatment, and prevention of disease. OBSSR accomplishes this mission through several strategic priorities: (1) supporting the next generation of basic behavioral and social sciences research, (2) facilitating interdisciplinary research, (3) promoting a multi-level systems perspective of health and behavior, and (4) encouraging a problem-focused perspective on population health.

  17. Out of the bottleneck: the Diversity Outcross and Collaborative Cross mouse populations in behavioral genetics research. (United States)

    Chesler, Elissa J


    The historical origins of classical laboratory mouse strains have led to a relatively limited range of genetic and phenotypic variation, particularly for the study of behavior. Many recent efforts have resulted in improved diversity and precision of mouse genetic resources for behavioral research, including the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outcross population. These two populations, derived from an eight way cross of common and wild-derived strains, have high precision and allelic diversity. Behavioral variation in the population is expanded, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Variation that had once been canalized among the various inbred lines has been made amenable to genetic dissection. The genetic attributes of these complementary populations, along with advances in genetic and genomic technologies, makes a systems genetic analyses of behavior more readily tractable, enabling discovery of a greater range of neurobiological phenomena underlying behavioral variation.

  18. The concept of automatic reinforcement: implications for behavioral research in developmental disabilities. (United States)

    Vollmer, T R


    Automatic reinforcement refers to situations in which behavior is maintained by operant mechanisms independent of the social environment. A number of difficulties exist in conducting an adequate functional analysis of automatically reinforced aberrant behavior. For example, sources of reinforcement are often difficult or impossible to identify, manipulate, or control. Further, the development of treatments is often difficult because many behavioral interventions, such as timeout, involve manipulation of the social environment--an approach that may be functionally irrelevant in the case of automatic reinforcement. This article discusses the problems inherent in the analysis of automatically reinforced behavior and reviews four classes of treatment that are compatible with that behavioral function. The four types of intervention reviewed include manipulations of establishing operations, sensory extinction, differential reinforcement, and punishment. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  19. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  20. Elucidating the etiology of individual differences in parenting: A meta-analysis of behavioral genetic research. (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra


    Decades of research have indicated the foundational importance of parenting to offspring outcomes during childhood and beyond. Unearthing the specific origins of parenting is therefore a critically important research objective. Extant research on this topic has suggested that parenting behaviors are multidetermined (Belsky, 1984) and are associated with a wide range of contextual and familial characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, community, family financial stress), as well as characteristics of the parents (e.g., personality) and their children (e.g., temperament). Behavioral genetic studies have further indicated that parenting behaviors are in fact heritable-that is, individual differences in parenting are at least partially a function of genetic differences between persons. Critically, however, the estimates of these genetic influences have varied dramatically across studies. It is also unclear how factors such as parent gender, child age, and methodological considerations may impact genetic influences on parenting behavior. In the current set of meta-analyses, we sought to quantitatively synthesize twin and adoption studies (n = 56) examining the etiology of parenting behavior, with the goal of more definitively cataloguing genetic and environmental effects on parenting. Results reveal significant effects of parental genetic makeup on parental behavior, but also highlight the genetic makeup of the child as a particularly prominent source of genetic transmission (via evocative gene-environment correlation). Environmental contributions to parenting also emerged as important, including both shared and nonshared environmental effects. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Looking for information a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Donald O


    The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...

  2. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna;


    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....... Sonnenwald presents the "information horizon interview" (1999, 2005), the singular visual method native to the information behavior community. Second, Anna Lundh (2010) describes her techniques for capturing and analyzing primary school children's information activities utilizing video recordings. Third...

  3. Brain imaging in neurogenetic conditions: realizing the potential of behavioral neurogenetics research. (United States)

    Reiss, A L; Eliez, S; Schmitt, J E; Patwardhan, A; Haberecht, M


    Behavioral neurogenetics research is a new method of scientific inquiry that focuses on investigation of neurodevelopmental dysfunction associated with specific genetic conditions. This research method provides a powerful tool for scientific inquiry into human gene-brain-behavior linkages that complements more traditional research approaches. In particular, the use of specific genetic conditions as models of common behavioral and cognitive disorders occurring in the general population can reveal insights into neurodevelopmental pathways that might otherwise be obscured or diluted when investigating more heterogeneous, behaviorally defined subject groups. In this paper, we review five genetic conditions that commonly give rise to identifiable neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disability in children: fragile X syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome. While emphasis is placed on describing the brain morphology associated with these conditions as revealed by neuroimaging studies, we also include information pertaining to molecular genetic, postmortem, and neurobehavioral investigations to illustrate how behavioral neurogenetics research can contribute to an improved understanding of brain disorders in childhood.

  4. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group. (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L


    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  5. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions. (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y


    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  6. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research. (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck


    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  7. An initial study of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty/student team members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehua; HU; Juan; ZHANG; Dan; CHE; Aijing; LUO


    Purpose:This study was carried out to uncover the characteristics of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty/student team members.Design/methodology/approach:An inventory encompassing 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior was developed:Information awareness,information acquisition,information evaluation,information organization and management,information utilization and information ethics.Data was collected on 306 respondents from 52 faculty/student teams in Central South University in China and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software.Findings:Significant differences were found among researchers with different genders in information awareness and in different academic disciplines in information acquisition and information utilization.The survey shows the characteristics of information seeking behavior of different gender groups and different teams:1) male participants got higher scores in all of the 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior;2) small teams performed best,followed by middle-sized teams and large teams;3) faculty/doctoral student teams possessed better information seeking skills than faculty/master’s student teams or faculty/doctoral and master’s student teams:4) medical teams achieved the highest level in all of the 6 dimensions of information seeking behavior,whereas natural science teams the lowest level.Medical and engineering teams were rated higher than other teams in information acquisition and information utilization.Research limitations:The small population size and doctoral students accounting for only a small portion of the respondents in the sample limit the generalization of our findings.Practical implications:The findings of this study have some implications for research and practice,especially for educational institutions,library science and information literacy training.Originality/value:This paper is the first to describe and analyze the characteristics of information seeking behavior of researchers as faculty

  8. Future directions in communication research: individual health behaviors and the influence of family communication. (United States)

    Baiocchi-Wagner, Elizabeth A


    Although numerous fields continue to advance research toward various areas of health prevention, communication researchers have yet to examine fully the link between communication and health improvement. This is particularly true of those studying the intersections of family and health communication--unfortunate, given that family members serve as primary socialization agents in health attitudes and behaviors. Using the example of obesity-related health behaviors, the following essay advances the argument that continued research aimed at understanding the intersection of health and families' communicative influence may help to illuminate the nature, causes, and redress to health issues that are correlated with individual health practices. This is accomplished by (a) reviewing contributions and limitations of pioneering studies in (family) health literature and (b) offering three key research areas for health communication exploration that will move scholars toward communication-based solutions (e.g., family-level communication health interventions).

  9. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications. (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W


    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  10. Styles of Research and Scientific Self-Images of Researchers in Four Socio-Behavioral Fields. (United States)

    Haim, Gabriel

    This study explored competition and styles of research in the fields of education, political science, sociology, and psychology. The paper is based on a theory which considers science as a competitive activity. Basic, non-applied, experimental, and "high qualitative" research styles are considered more advantageous to competition because (1) they…

  11. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis. (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I


    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  12. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application. (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W


    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  13. Avian brood parasitism——a growing research area in behavioral ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eivin; RSKAFT; Wei; LIANG; Brd; G.STOKKE


    正We are pleased to be responsible guest editors for the two special issues of Chinese Birds(Vol.3,No.4,2012 and Vol.4,No.1,2013),entitled "Avian Brood Parasitism — a Growing Research Area in Behavioral Ecology".The goal of the two special issues is to publish accumulated knowledge and some of the recent developments in the fascinating research occurring in avian

  14. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior. (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian


    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.

  15. Prevention Tools and Clinical Research in the Field of Dependent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartsalkina V.V.


    Full Text Available The review discusses the relevance of analyses of some global and in-depth theoretical and practical innovations for research of addictive/dependent behavior. It gives ground for the necessity of elaboration of independent analytical research and expansion of information retrieval alongside with differentiation of publications on scientific and practical activities and provision of education as spheres of influence. The article presents the latest trends in search of tools for preventive and clinical work in the field of addictive/dependent behavior, namely: attention to related phenomena and effects in clinical practice; expanding the methods of psychological and pedagogical training to acquire professional skills in the field of addictive behaviors; in-depth analysis of scientific and practical resources and identification of new cause-effect relationships and the effects of relevance for anti-addictive practice. All the factors under the discussion are tied to educational environments.

  16. Structured evaluation of rodent behavioral tests used in drug discovery research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell


    Full Text Available A large variety of rodent behavioral tests are currently being used to evaluate traits such as sensory-motor function, social interactions, anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, substance dependence and various forms of cognitive function. Most behavioral tests have an inherent complexity, and their use requires consideration of several aspects such as the source of motivation in the test, the interaction between experimenter and animal, sources of variability, the sensory modality required by the animal to solve the task as well as costs and required work effort. Of particular importance is a test’s validity because of its influence on the chance of successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings. High validity may, however, have to be balanced against practical constraints and there are no behavioral tests with optimal characteristics. The design and development of new behavioral tests is therefore an ongoing effort and there are now well over one hundred tests described in the contemporary literature. Some of them are well established following extensive use, while others are novel and still unproven. The task of choosing a behavioral test for a particular project may therefore be daunting and the aim of the present review is to provide a structured way to evaluate rodent behavioral tests aimed at drug discovery research.

  17. Nanotechnology and Ethics: The Role of Regulation Versus Self-Commitment in Shaping Researchers' Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Harms, Rainer; Hatak, I.


    The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus regul

  18. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge


    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  19. The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Behavior. Research Report No. 63. (United States)

    Rondal, Jean A.

    Partial replication of the Luria and Tikhomirov experiments in the verbal regulation of behavior has led to results and conclusions contradictory to those of the Russian researchers. Subjects for these experiments included mentally handicapped children and adults. The results of four sets of experiments are presented. In general, the basic…

  20. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda


    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  1. Type-A Behavior, Gender, and Job Satisfaction: A Research on Instructors (United States)

    Yazici, Hikmet; Altun, Fatma


    There has been some research which investigates the relationship between gender, different personality traits, and job satisfaction in the field of behavioral sciences. The aim of this study is to examine the difference between male and female instructors' job satisfaction and to investigate the predict level of job satisfaction by Type-A…

  2. New Developments in Developmental Research on Social Information Processing and Antisocial Behavior (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith


    The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…

  3. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority. (United States)

    Riley, William T


    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  4. A Study of the Information Seeking Behavior of Communication Graduate Students in Their Research Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen


    Full Text Available Thesis is the research outcome that a graduate student spends most of his or her time and energies to achieve. Therefore, the research process of student’s thesis writing is an important topic to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to explore graduate students’ information seeking behavior during the process of thesis writing. Ten graduate students in the field of communication were interviewed, and their information horizon maps as well as bibliographical references were analyzed also. Results showed that the library, as a formal channel, is the primary source for graduate students. The documents that they used most often were theses and dissertations, monographs, and journals. In addition to the formal channels, social network also played as a very important role in students’ research process. The networks even changed their information seeking behaviors in formal channels. Students reported several problems encountered in the research process, such as lacking of the background knowledge of the interdisciplinary, being unable to find out the core and relevant documents from the search results, etc. In conclusion, graduate students’ information seeking behavior changed at different stages in the research process. [Article content in Chinese

  5. The research of moving objects behavior detection and tracking algorithm in aerial video (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Li, Xin; Yang, Xiao-ping; Li, Dong-hui


    The article focuses on the research of moving target detection and tracking algorithm in Aerial monitoring. Study includes moving target detection, moving target behavioral analysis and Target Auto tracking. In moving target detection, the paper considering the characteristics of background subtraction and frame difference method, using background reconstruction method to accurately locate moving targets; in the analysis of the behavior of the moving object, using matlab technique shown in the binary image detection area, analyzing whether the moving objects invasion and invasion direction; In Auto Tracking moving target, A video tracking algorithm that used the prediction of object centroids based on Kalman filtering was proposed.

  6. Military and veteran health behavior research and practice: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Haibach, Jeffrey P; Haibach, Michael Ann; Hall, Katherine S; Masheb, Robin M; Little, Melissa A; Shepardson, Robyn L; Dobmeyer, Anne C; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Hunter, Christopher L; Dundon, Margaret; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Trynosky, Stephen K; Goodrich, David E; Kilbourne, Amy M; Knight, Sara J; Talcott, Gerald W; Goldstein, Michael G


    There are 2.1 million current military servicemembers and 21 million living veterans in the United States. Although they were healthier upon entering military service compared to the general U.S. population, in the longer term veterans tend to be of equivalent or worse health than civilians. One primary explanation for the veterans' health disparity is poorer health behaviors during or after military service, especially areas of physical activity, nutrition, tobacco, and alcohol. In response, the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs continue to develop, evaluate, and improve health promotion programs and healthcare services for military and veteran health behavior in an integrated approach. Future research and practice is needed to better understand and promote positive health behavior during key transition periods in the military and veteran life course. Also paramount is implementation and evaluation of existing interventions, programs, and policies across the population using an integrated and person centered approach.

  7. Research on the Behavior Characteristics of Pedestrian Crowd Weaving Flow in Transport Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Yao


    Full Text Available Due to the poor transfer organization in urban public transport terminal, pedestrian crowd are often forced to weaving in their transfer flow lines. Frequent weaving behaviors not only decrease passengers’ transfer comfort, but may also trigger serious crowd disaster such as trampling. In order to get accurate understanding of the weaving features of pedestrian crowd and analyze the relevant evolution law, researches have been conducted on the basis of field investigation. First, the typical weaving phenomenon were defined and classified, and a microscopic parameters system of pedestrian crowd weaving flow was constructed. The detection and quantification methods of multiple indicator parameters were also given. Then, correlation between different behavioral parameters was analyzed based on the survey data of weaving pedestrian crowd on the stairs of DongZhiMen (DZM hub. The basic characteristics and evolution law of the weaving behaviors were then discussed, and conclusions were drawn.

  8. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education. (United States)

    Bottom, William P


    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  9. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  10. The Research on the Impact of Management Level’s Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior



    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is t...

  11. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications. (United States)

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D


    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research.

  12. Research of the factors which cause strategic changes in organization’s behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Romakhova


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is theoretical analysis of the influence of factors that cause strategic changes in organization’s behavior and systematization of these factors. Authors suggest recomendations for realization of the chosen directions of organization development. The results of the analysis. It is analyzed the main features of innovative strategy, organizational changes and organization’s behavior. Innovative strategy is understood as the algorithm of protracted purposeful measures necessary for the achievement of advantageous results under potential possibilities. Realization of innovative strategy supposes that organizations will be need to resort the system of strategic changes. Taking into account the folded theoretical and practical generalizations, it is possible to distinguish two groups of strategies that are the most actual nowadays – technological and marketing. During realization of innovative strategy to guidance of organization, it will be necessary to take into account the external and internal factors that influence the behavior of organization. It is possible to choose the directions of strategic changes that can increase the effectiveness of organization activity and terms of changeability of environment and the use of those possibilities that are opened. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Thus, it is possible to draw conclusions, that the offered systematization of factors of external and internal environment of organization is the basis for visualization of long-term prospects of organization, forming the directions of strategic changes in its behavior.

  13. Current status of research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan. (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Akiko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Ishii, Tomoko; Nakajima, Satomi


    Cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy was introduced into the field of psychiatry in the late 1980s in Japan, and the Japanese Association for Cognitive Therapy (JACT), founded in 2004, now has more than 1500 members. Along with such progress, awareness of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy has spread, not only among professionals and academics but also to the public. The Study Group of the Procedures and Effectiveness of Psychotherapy, funded by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, has conducted a series of studies on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy since 2006 and shown that it is feasible for Japanese patients. As a result, in April 2010 cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy for mood disorders was added to the national health insurance scheme in Japan. This marked a milestone in Japan's psychiatric care, where pharmacotherapy has historically been more common. In this article the authors review research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan.

  14. Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions. (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April


    Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute.

  15. Quantitative marketing research on behavior of the small and medium companies on financial advisory services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleana, L.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of quantitative marketing research conducted among small and medium enterprises in Braşov County. The research identified organizational elements of the consumer behavior in the use of the financial advisory services. The objective is to determine whether there is association between firm size and the number of financial advice services outsourced. Results of the study will be based construction of the price policy for financial advisory firms, tailored to the financial constraints faced by small and medium enterprises in Romania.

  16. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne


    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524

  17. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review. (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M


    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  18. How are academic age, productivity and collaboration related to citing behavior of researchers? (United States)

    Milojević, Staša


    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006-2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate as their junior colleagues, with similar rates of re-citation (use of same references in multiple papers). High Modified Price Index (MPI, which measures the speed of the research front more accurately than the traditional Price Index) of senior authors indicates that their research has the similar cutting-edge aspect as that of their younger colleagues. In all fields both the productive researchers and especially those who collaborate more use a significantly lower fraction of foundational references and have much higher MPI and lower re-citation rates, i.e., they are the ones pushing the research front regardless of researcher age. This paper introduces improved bibliometric methods to measure the speed of the research front, disambiguate lead authors in co-authored papers and decouple measures of productivity and collaboration.

  19. Research and Development Opportunities for Technologies to Influence Water Consumption Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    In April 2015, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a two-day workshop that convened water experts and stakeholders from across industry, government, and academia to undertake three primary tasks: 1) identify technology characteristics that are favorable for motivating behavioral change, 2) identify barriers that have prevented the development and market adoption of technologies with these characteristics in the water sector, and 3) identify concrete research and development pathways that could be undertaken to overcome these barriers, increase the penetration of technologies that influence water consumption behavior, and ultimately reduce domestic water consumption. While efforts to reduce water consumption have gained momentum in recent years, there are a number of key barriers that have limited the effectiveness of such efforts. Chief among these is the fact that many consumers have limited awareness of their water consumption patterns because of poor data availability, and/or are unmotivated to reduce their consumption because of low costs and split incentives. Without improved data availability and stronger price signals, it will be difficult to effect true transformative behavioral change. This report also reviews a number of technology characteristics that have successfully motivated behavioral change in other sectors, as well as several technologies that could be developed specifically for the water sector. Workshop participants discussed how technologies that provide active feedback and promote measurable goals and social accountability have successfully influenced changes in other types of behavior. A range of regulatory and policy actions that could be implemented to support such efforts are also presented. These include institutional aggregation, revenue decoupling, and price structure reforms. Finally, several R&D pathways were proposed, including efforts to identify optimal communication strategies and to better understand consumer perceptions and

  20. Ensuring PhD development of responsible conduct of research behaviors: who's responsible? (United States)

    Titus, Sandra L; Ballou, Janice M


    The importance of public confidence in scientific findings and trust in scientists cannot be overstated. Thus, it becomes critical for the scientific community to focus on enhancing the strategies used to educate future scientists on ethical research behaviors. What we are lacking is knowledge on how faculty members shape and develop ethical research standards with their students. We are presenting the results of a survey with 3,500 research faculty members. We believe this is the first report on how faculty work with and educate their PhD students on basic research standards. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether individual faculty members, who are advisors or mentors, differ in how they implemented components of responsible conduct of research (RCR) with their PhD students. Mentors were more likely than advisors or supervisors to report working with all of their PhDs, who graduated in the last 5 years, on the 17 recognized critical components of RCR training and research skill development. We also found about half of the faculty members believe RCR is an institutional responsibility versus a faculty responsibility. Less than a quarter have had opportunities to participate in faculty training to be a better mentor, advisor, or research teacher, and about one third of faculty did not or could not remember whether they had guidelines related to their responsibilities to PhD students. We discuss the implications of our findings and focus on ways that PhD research mentoring can be enhanced.

  1. Behavioral Recommendations in Health Research News as Cues to Action: Self-Relevancy and Self-Efficacy Processes. (United States)

    Chang, Chingching


    This study argues that behavioral recommendations in health news function as cues to action. A proposed self-oriented model seeks to explore the impacts of behavioral recommendations in health research news as cues to action through their influences on self-relevancy and self-efficacy. A content analysis (Study 1) first establishes that health research news commonly features behavioral recommendations. A message experiment (Study 2) then explores the utility of behavioral recommendations as cues to action by demonstrating a self-relevancy effect: Health research news with, as opposed to without, behavioral recommendations increases the self-relevancy of advocated health behaviors, which then improve people's attitudes toward and intentions to adopt those behaviors. A second message experiment (Study 3) tests whether varying presentations of behavioral recommendations alter their effectiveness as cues to action and thus people's behavioral intentions through a dual effect process. In addition to the previously demonstrated self-relevancy effect, this experiment shows that concrete, as opposed to abstract, behavioral recommendations trigger a self-efficacy effect, increasing perceived self-efficacy and further improving behavioral intentions.

  2. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lederle

    behavior (food magazine head entries. Overall, these assays provide robust paradigms for future studies using the mouse to elucidate the neural, molecular and genetic factors underpinning reward-related behaviors relevant to addiction research.

  3. Healthy Variability in Organizational Behavior: Empirical Evidence and New Steps for Future Research. (United States)

    Navarro, José; Rueff-Lopes, Rita


    The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance. Second, we discuss an opposite pattern, unhealthy stability, i.e., the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and lower variability. Again, we provide evidence from diverse areas, from affective processes to disruptive organizational comportments like mobbing. Third, we provide a critical evaluation of current methodological trends and highlight what we believe to be the main factors that are stopping organizational research from advancing in the field. Theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications are discussed. To conclude, we draw a compilation of the lessons learned, which hopefully provide insights for prolific research avenues. Our main purpose is to raise awareness of the healthy variability thesis and to enthuse organizational researchers to consider it in order to advance existing knowledge, revisit old theories and create new ones.

  4. Research Domain Criteria: cognitive systems, neural circuits, and dimensions of behavior. (United States)

    Morris, Sarah E; Cuthbert, Bruce N


    Current diagnostic systems for mental disorders were established before the tools of neuroscience were available, and although they have improved the reliability of psychiatric classification, progress toward the discovery of disease etiologies and novel approaches to treatment and prevention may benefit from alternative conceptualizations of mental disorders. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is the centerpiece of NIMH's effort to achieve its strategic goal of developing new methods to classify mental disorders for research purposes. The RDoC matrix provides a research framework that encourages investigators to reorient their research perspective by taking a dimensional approach to the study of the genetic, neural, and behavioral features of mental disorders, RDoCs integrative approach includes cognition along with social processes, arousal/regulatory systems, and negative and positive valence systems as the major domains, because these neurobehavioral systems have all evolved to serve the motivational and adaptive needs of the organism. With its focus on neural circuits informed by the growing evidence of the neurodevelopmental nature of many disorders and its capacity to capture the patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors and symptoms, the RDoC approach holds promise to advance our understanding of the nature of mental disorders.

  5. Engaging Nurses in Research for a Randomized Clinical Trial of a Behavioral Health Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lona Roll


    Full Text Available Nurse involvement in research is essential to the expansion of nursing science and improved care for patients. The research participation challenges encountered by nurses providing direct care (direct care nurses include balancing patient care demands with research, adjusting to fluctuating staff and patient volumes, working with interdisciplinary personnel, and feeling comfortable with their knowledge of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to describe efforts to engage nurses in research for the Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART study. SMART was an NIH-funded, multisite, randomized, behavioral clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents/young adults (AYA undergoing stem cell transplant for an oncology condition. The study was conducted at 8 sites by a large multidisciplinary team that included direct care nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse researchers, as well as board-certified music therapists, clinical research coordinators, and physicians. Efforts to include direct care nurses in the conduct of this study fostered mutual respect across disciplines in both academic and clinical settings.

  6. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Chinese Resident Best Fitness Behavior Method Research. (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Lan


    With explosive development in Chinese economy and science and technology, people's pursuit of health becomes more and more intense, therefore Chinese resident sports fitness activities have been rapidly developed. However, different fitness events popularity degrees and effects on body energy consumption are different, so bases on this, the paper researches on fitness behaviors and gets Chinese residents sports fitness behaviors exercise guide, which provides guidance for propelling to national fitness plan's implementation and improving Chinese resident fitness scientization. The paper starts from the perspective of energy consumption, it mainly adopts experience method, determines Chinese resident favorite sports fitness event energy consumption through observing all kinds of fitness behaviors energy consumption, and applies fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to make evaluation on bicycle riding, shadowboxing practicing, swimming, rope skipping, jogging, running, aerobics these seven fitness events. By calculating fuzzy rate model's membership and comparing their sizes, it gets fitness behaviors that are more helpful for resident health, more effective and popular. Finally, it gets conclusions that swimming is a best exercise mode and its membership is the highest. Besides, the memberships of running, rope skipping and shadowboxing practicing are also relative higher. It should go in for bodybuilding by synthesizing above several kinds of fitness events according to different physical conditions; different living conditions so that can better achieve the purpose of fitness exercises.

  7. Research of the Behavior of Consumers in the Insurance Market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marešová Petra


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to familiarize with research aim, goal of which is to map out consumer behavior in the choice of insurance against death was carried out. This insured risk was chosen because for most insurers in the product offering as one of the key and it occurs within the highly competitive bid. At consumer behavior specification is also taken into account their classifying that can influence potential irrational behavior elements and help to clarify studied dilemma more (e.g. income brackets, age or other demographic information. Results will contribute to decision-making theory enrichment in given specific segment. From view of practice, they will be used in co-operative institution with the aim of a better client comprehension, product optimization and thereby contracts decline prevention and permanent clientele expansion.The results of the research project showed that most consumers under the influence of certain factors act irrationally. These factors include media coverage of the causes of claims discount, offer extension of insurance coverage.

  8. Research on Behavior Intentions of Tourists Based on the Rural Image Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajing; HU; Changjiang; TAO


    During the construction of new socialist countryside, rural tourism has presented its irreplaceable strategic significance in balancing urban and rural development, and in building a socialist harmonious society. It, therefore, has drawn sustained attention both from the government and the academics. By empirical research, a conceptual relationship model has been established of rural image and behavior intentions of tourists. The general rural image in rural tourism is comprised of rural scenery, rural architecture and rural culture image. Furthermore, the overall rural image has a positive effect on tourists’ willingness to pay a premium price, to recommend and to repeat purchase. At the end of this paper, reasonable suggestions have been proposed for rural image enhancement aimed to promote the attractiveness of rural tourism, and to enhance the tourists’ positive behavior intentions.

  9. An Exploratory Research on Deviant Behaviors of Problem Patrons in Taiwan’s Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih


    Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.

  10. Means – End Chain Theory and Laddering Technique: Applications in Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Kangal


    Full Text Available Means – end chain (MEC theory and laddering technique uncovers the decision making process of consumers related to marketing offerings such as goods, services and experiences in a cognitive approach from a consumer perspective view which are popularly used approaches in marketing context. The purpose of the study is to discusss and present the laddering techique to Turkish literature, which is a frequently used qualitative research method in consumer behavior, both with related theoretical structure and practice. With this purpose, the overview of the literature within the frame of means – end chain theory, practices in consumer behavior, laddering technique, data collection, data analyze and interperation steps, limits of the laddering technique and alternatives of soft laddering (hard laddering is discussed. Laddering technique among with alternative data collection tools are anticipated Turkish researchers’ interest.

  11. Egyptian and American Internet-Based Cross-Cultural Information Seeking Behavior. Part I: Research Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Hover


    Full Text Available This article is the first of three in an exploratory study of the cross-cultural, cross-language information-seeking (IS behavior of a group of eighty-four academic and public reference librarians from Egypt and the USA. The present article describes the design of the cross-cultural research instrument used to record the behavior of participants when presented with a choice of information resources in several languages unfamiliar to them. A review of literature demonstrates the need in cross-cultural investigations for a multi-tiered approach that allows analysis from different perspectives. A detailed description of the design rationale for the interview model is given, which includes a cultural background questionnaire providing data designed to enable comparative analysis of the search performance of sub-groups. Instructions on how to manage cross-language searches complete the interview. A discussion of the usefulness of the methodology in discerning cultural universals, differences, and the IS needs of cross-cultural researchers is followed by conclusions and suggestions for further research.

  12. Stimulating Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB Research For Theory Development: Exploration Of Leadership Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Ja’afaru Bambale


    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes major leadership paradigms for the purpose of identifying possible ways of influencing Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs to improve the functioning of organizations. The leadership paradigms were extended to old and modern categories toprovide for systematic understanding of their antecedents and potential influence patterns. The leadership approaches reported to have positive relationships with organizational citizenshipbehaviors include transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and ethical leadership paradigms. We have found many modern leadership paradigms not to have been empiricallyinvestigated for possible relationships with OCB. This paper therefore discusses the dynamics and potentials for researches within the realms of the leadership paradigms and the OCB field.

  13. A Theory of Planned Behavior Research Model for Predicting the Sleep Intentions and Behaviors of Undergraduate College Students (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Bernard, Amy L.


    The purpose of this study was to operationalize the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students attending a Midwestern University. Data collection spanned three phases. The first phase included a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 11), readability by…

  14. Research data supporting "Differentiation of online text-based advertising and the effect on users’ click behavior"


    Jacques, Jason T.; Kristensson, Per Ola


    Click data for "Differentiation of Online Text-based Advertising and the Effect on Users’ Click Behavior" as published in "Computers in Human Behavior" ( This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Research Council [DTA]. ESPRC

  15. Exporting analogue behavioral observation from research to clinical practice: useful or cost-defective? (United States)

    Mash, E J; Foster, S L


    The special section on analogue behavioral observation (ABO) provided an in-depth review of various ABO assessment procedures. Despite their availability, however, these procedures are rarely used in clinical practice. This may result in part from the traditions on which most ABO assessments are based, from distinctions between clinical and research assessment environments, and from the need for more information about the cost-effectiveness of ABO strategies for meeting specific needs of clinicians in applied settings. Suggestions for bridging the research-clinical gap involve investigating more thoroughly when ABO does and does not provide useful information for various purposes in applied settings and increasing accessibility and cost-effectiveness of ABO procedures for practitioners.

  16. Can behavioral research advance mandatory law, information duties, standard terms and withdrawal rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Tscherner


    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Current European consumer law mainly acts on the assumption that people behave in line with the ‘rational man’ (homo oeconomicus, who has stable preferences and can absorb all available information and process as well as integrate it into her consumer decisions. This assumption has been challenged by findings of behavioral sciences such as behavioral economics, psychology and neurosciences. This article examines if and how findings from behavioral research are in a position to advance European consumer contract law (mandatory law in general as well as information duties, standard terms and rights to withdraw in specific. DEUTSCH: Das Europäische Verbraucherschutzrecht stützt sich in weiten Teilen auf das ökonomische Menschenbild des homo oeconomicus. Dieser verfügt über stabile Präferenzen und kann unbegrenzt Informationen aufnehmen sowie diese in seinen Entscheidungsprozess integrieren. Dieses Menschenbild wurde durch Forschungsergebnisse in Verhaltensökonomik, Psychologie und Gehirnforschung in Frage gestellt. De r Aufsatz geht der Frage nach, inwieweit das Verbrauchervertragsrecht (in Form von zwingendem Recht, vor - vertraglichen Informationspflichten, Fairnesskontrolle Allgemeiner Geschäftsbedingungen und Widerrufsrechten von Erkenntnissen dieser sog Verhaltensforschung profitieren kann.

  17. Anomia treatment platform as behavioral engine for use in research on physiological adjuvants to neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kendall, PhD


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a "behavioral treatment engine" for future use in research on physiological adjuvants in aphasia rehabilitation. We chose the behavioral target anomia, which is a feature displayed by many persons who have aphasia. Further, we wished to saturate the treatment approach with many strategies and cues that have been empirically reported to have a positive influence on aphasia outcome, with the goal being to optimize the potential for positive response in most participants. A single-subject multiple baseline design with replication across eight participants was employed. Four men and four women, with an average age of 62 yr and an average of 63.13 mo poststroke onset, served as participants. Word-retrieval treatment was administered 3 d/wk, 1 h/d for a total of 20 treatment hours (6–7 wk. Positive acquisition effects were evident in all eight participants (d effect size [ES] = 5.40. Treatment effects were maintained 3 mo after treatment termination for five participants (d ES = 2.94. Within and across semantic category, generalization was minimal (d ES = 0.43 within and 1.09 across. This study demonstrates that this behavioral treatment engine provides a solid platform on which to base future studies whereby various treatment conditions are manipulated and pharmacologic support is added.

  18. Anomia treatment platform as behavioral engine for use in research on physiological adjuvants to neurorehabilitation. (United States)

    Kendall, Diane; Raymer, Anastasia; Rose, Miranda; Gilbert, JoEllen; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J


    The purpose of this study was to create a "behavioral treatment engine" for future use in research on physiological adjuvants in aphasia rehabilitation. We chose the behavioral target anomia, which is a feature displayed by many persons who have aphasia. Further, we wished to saturate the treatment approach with many strategies and cues that have been empirically reported to have a positive influence on aphasia outcome, with the goal being to optimize the potential for positive response in most participants. A single-subject multiple baseline design with replication across eight participants was employed. Four men and four women, with an average age of 62 yr and an average of 63.13 mo poststroke onset, served as participants. Word-retrieval treatment was administered 3 d/wk, 1 h/d for a total of 20 treatment hours (6-7 wk). Positive acquisition effects were evident in all eight participants (d effect size [ES] = 5.40). Treatment effects were maintained 3 mo after treatment termination for five participants (d ES = 2.94). Within and across semantic category, generalization was minimal (d ES = 0.43 within and 1.09 across). This study demonstrates that this behavioral treatment engine provides a solid platform on which to base future studies whereby various treatment conditions are manipulated and pharmacologic support is added.

  19. Research on Power Producer’s Bidding Behavior Based on the Best-Response Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun


    Full Text Available As China’s electricity market is facing many problems, the research on power producer’s bidding behavior can promote the healthy and sustainable development of China’s electricity market. As a special commodity, the “electricity” possesses complicated production process. The instable market constraint condition, nonsymmetric information, and a lot of random factors make the producer’s bidding process more complex. Best-response dynamic is one of the classic dynamic mechanisms of the evolutionary game theory, which applies well in the repeated game and strategy evolution that happen among a few bounded rational players with a quick learning capability. The best-response dynamic mechanism is employed to study the power producer’s bidding behavior in this paper, the producer’s best-response dynamic model is constructed, and how the producers would engage in bidding is analyzed in detail. Taking two generating units in South China regional electricity market as the example, the producer’s bidding behavior by following the producer’s best-response dynamic model is verified. The relationships between the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS of power producer’s bidding and the market demand, and ceiling and floor price as well as biding frequency are discussed in detail.

  20. Addiction treatment outcomes, process and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at Texas Christian University. (United States)

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Dansereau, Donald F; Flynn, Patrick M


    For more than 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs-the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-89), the second focused upon modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus upon adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices.

  1. How are academic age, productivity and collaboration related to citing behavior of researchers?

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša


    References are an essential component of research articles and therefore of scientific communication. In this study we investigate referencing (citing) behavior in five diverse fields (astronomy, mathematics, robotics, ecology and economics) based on 213,756 core journal articles. At the macro level we find: (a) a steady increase in the number of references per article over the period studied (50 years), which in some fields is due to a higher rate of usage, while in others reflects longer articles and (b) an increase in all fields in the fraction of older, foundational references since the 1980s, with no obvious change in citing patterns associated with the introduction of the Internet. At the meso level we explore current (2006-2010) referencing behavior of different categories of authors (21,562 total) within each field, based on their academic age, productivity and collaborative practices. Contrary to some previous findings and expectations we find that senior researchers use references at the same rate a...

  2. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  3. Current Methods in Health Behavior Research Among U.S. Community College Students: A Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Herzog, Thaddeus A


    The majority of health behavior research involving college students in the United States has focused on 4-year college students. Two-year or community college students have been less studied, although a significant proportion of U.S. undergraduates, primarily those from disadvantaged socioeconomic and/or racial/ethnic background, are enrolled in community colleges. Thus, there is a need to enhance health behavior and health promotion research among community college students. This study systematically reviewed 42 published, peer-reviewed health behavior studies conducted among U.S. community college students in order to determine the current state of research in the area with regard to behaviors studied, research designs used, recruitment and data collection strategies practiced, rates of student participation, and characteristics of the participants represented. Findings identified the methodological limitations of current research and suggested optimal recruitment and data collection methods suitable for various research needs. Findings are discussed in the context of enhancing health behavior research among U.S. community college students.

  4. Exploring Graduate Students’ Attitudes towards Team Research and Their Scholarly Productivity: A Survey Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianlan Wei


    Full Text Available This study explores the attitudinal and motivational factors underlying graduate students’ attitudes towards team research. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are three major determinants of graduate students’ intentions to conduct team research. An instrument was developed to measure the influences of these factors on students’ intentions and relevant scholarly productivity. A total of 281 graduate students from a large, comprehensive university in the southwest United States participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics reveal that around two-thirds of graduate students have no co-authored manuscripts submitted for publication since they started graduate school. Factor analyses validated the factor structure of the instrument, and the results of Structural Equation Modeling show that (a graduate students’ attitudes towards team research have a positive correlation with their attitudes towards individual research; (b attitude towards team research, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, along with students’ discipline/major areas and classification, account for 58% of the variance in the intention to conduct team research; and (c subjective norm appears to be the most influential factor in the model, followed by attitude; while perceived behavioral control is not of much importance. These findings provide implications for academic departments and programs to promote graduate students’ team research. Specifically, creating a climate for collaborative research in academic programs/disciplines/universities may work jointly with enhancing students’ appraisals of such collaborations.

  5. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.


    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  6. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia


    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  7. Based on Wide Area Environment Abnormal Behavior Analysis and Anomaly Detection Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lin


    Full Text Available Group anomaly identification and location is an important issue in the field of artificial intelligence. Capture of the accident source and rapid prediction of mass incidents in public places are difficult problems in intelligent video identification and processing, but the traditional group anomaly detection research has many limitations when it comes to accident source detection and intelligent recognition. We are to research on the algorithms of accident source location and abnormal group identification based on behavior analysis in the condition of dramatically changing group geometry appearance, including: 1 to propose a logic model of image density based on the social force model, and to build the crowd density trend prediction model integrating “fast and fuzzy matching at front-end” and “accurate and classified training at back-end”; 2 to design a fast abnormal source flagging algorithm based on support vector machine, and to realize intelligent and automatic marking of abnormal source point; 3 to construct a multi-view human body skeleton invariant moment model and a motion trajectory model based on linear parametric equations. The expected results of the research will help prevent abnormal events effectively, capture the first scene of incidents and the abnormal source point quickly, and play a decision support role in the proactive national security strategy.

  8. Analysis of FP aerosol behavior in piping in WIND project. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Maruyama, Yu; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akio; Harada, Yuhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nagashima, Toshio; Yoshino, Takehito; Sugimoto, Jun


    In the analyses of aerosol behavior test in piping in WIND (Wide Range Piping Integrity Demonstration) project at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), ART code developed by JAERI and VICTORIA code developed by Sandia National Laboratories are used to perform WIND test analysis and to validate the models in the both codes. It is noted that VICTORIA code is supposed to be used as reference code of ART at JAERI. As a part of these activities, WIND Aerosol Deposition tests (WAD4 and 5) and FP aerosol behaviors in safety relief valve (SRV) line during BWR high pressure sequence which will be performed in future WIND experiment were analyzed with ART and VICTORIA codes. The present analyses showed that the portion and mass with relatively large amount of cesium iodide (CsI) deposition observed in WAD4 and 5 tests were reasonably reproduced by ART and VICTORIA codes. A difference was found in condensation and revaporization behaviors of gaseous CsI between the two codes. VICTORIA overestimated the condensed mass of CsI vapor while ART reproduced better the experimental data than the VICTORIA calculation. Further investigation is needed for this issue. Although the deposition mass at the pipe connection part in WAD4 and 5 experiments was not measured, the mass at that portion will be measured from next experiment because relatively large amount of CsI could be deposited there and the measurement is considered to be useful for code verification. The predicted principal aerosol deposition mechanism in SRV line is turbulence. Temperature of SRV line could increase by about 300 K by decay heat from deposited FPs. However, the SRV line made of carbon steel would not be failed because the predicted temperature is still far lower than the melting temperature of carbon steel. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Ozaltun & Herman Shen


    This article presents assessment of the mechanical behavior of U-10wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy based monolithic fuel plates subject to irradiation. Monolithic, plate-type fuel is a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities within the reactor core to allow the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in high-performance reactors. Identification of the stress/strain characteristics is important for understanding the in-reactor performance of these plate-type fuels. For this work, three distinct cases were considered: (1) fabrication induced residual stresses (2) thermal cycling of fabricated plates; and finally (3) transient mechanical behavior under actual operating conditions. Because the temperatures approach the melting temperature of the cladding during the fabrication and thermal cycling, high temperature material properties were incorporated to improve the accuracy. Once residual stress fields due to fabrication process were identified, solution was used as initial state for the subsequent simulations. For thermal cycling simulation, elasto-plastic material model with thermal creep was constructed and residual stresses caused by the fabrication process were included. For in-service simulation, coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction was considered. First, temperature field on the plates was calculated and this field was used to compute the thermal stresses. For time dependent mechanical behavior, thermal creep of cladding, volumetric swelling and fission induced creep of the fuel foil were considered. The analysis showed that the stresses evolve very rapidly in the reactor. While swelling of the foil increases the stress of the foil, irradiation induced creep causes stress relaxation.

  10. Research on Memory Behavior of Java Programs%Java程序内存行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章婧; 卢凯; 周旭


    The research on memory behavior of Java programs is the primary work for energy consumption optimization on Java platform storage management system. This paper tests a large number of memory behavior data of typical Java applications. Through a-nalysis of the data, we find obvious qualities of Java application's memory allocation model and memory usage tracks, including the staged representation, periodicity and stationarity. These qualities have a significant importance for the Java virtual machine garbage collection and Java programs energy consumption optimization.%Java程序内存行为研究是对Java平台存储管理系统进行能耗优化的首要工作.测试了大量典型Java应用程序的内存行为数据,通过对数据的分析发现Java程序的内存分配模式和内存使用轨迹存在明显的规律.最终得出了Java程序内存行为具有阶段性、周期性和平稳性等结论,这些规律对于Java虚拟机优化垃圾收集和Java程序的能耗优化有着重要的指导意义.

  11. A metatheory integrating social, biological and technological factors in information behavior research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon James


    Full Text Available A metatheory is presented and diagrammed as an integrated conceptual framework for information seeking and use. It represents the symbiotic relationship between users and the technological environment. Receiving and adapting to information is achieved through each user’s biological satisficing procedures defined by group information practices, namely, noticing information, appraising it and evaluating it. Information use is achieved through optimizing procedures, namely, activating goal-setting intentions, constructing a plan and executing it through acting upon the technological environment to attain one’s goals. Evidence is given by listing a variety of information seeking behaviors that others have identified in their review of the literature, then showing how each element fits within the model, as well as by analyzing the interpretive discourse of college students while engaged in carrying out assigned information tasks. Each discourse segment in the samples was categorized as either an affective, cognitive or sensorimotor procedure carried out by the user, and transcribed as a string or sequence. This code sequence was then compared with the sequence produced when the model’s mapping is followed. Every discourse sample inspected contained the six categories specified by the model. The metatheory is suitable for providing a common framework for discussing various areas of information behavior research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  13. Recent trends in the U.S. Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (BSSR) workforce (United States)


    While behavioral and social sciences occupations comprise one of the largest portions of the “STEM” workforce, most studies of diversity in STEM overlook this population, focusing instead on fields such as biomedical or physical sciences. This study evaluates major demographic trends and productivity in the behavioral and social sciences research (BSSR) workforce in the United States during the past decade. Our analysis shows that the demographic trends for different BSSR fields vary. In terms of gender balance, there is no single trend across all BSSR fields; rather, the problems are field-specific, and disciplines such as economics and political science continue to have more men than women. We also show that all BSSR fields suffer from a lack of racial and ethnic diversity. The BSSR workforce is, in fact, less representative of racial and ethnic minorities than are biomedical sciences or engineering. Moreover, in many BSSR subfields, minorities are less likely to receive funding. We point to various funding distribution patterns across different demographic groups of BSSR scientists, and discuss several policy implications. PMID:28166252

  14. Behavior of complex mixtures in aquatic environments: a synthesis of PNL ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Vaughan, B.E. (eds.)


    The term complex mixture has been recently applied to energy-related process streams, products and wastes that typically contain hundreds or thousands of individual organic compounds, like petroleum or synthetic fuel oils; but it is more generally applicable. A six-year program of ecological research has focused on four areas important to understanding the environmental behavior of complex mixtures: physicochemical variables, individual organism responses, ecosystems-level determinations, and metabolism. Of these areas, physicochemical variables and organism responses were intensively studied; system-level determinations and metabolism represent more recent directions. Chemical characterization was integrated throughout all areas of the program, and state-of-the-art methods were applied. 155 references, 35 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Iconicity in the lab: a review of behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging research into sound-symbolism. (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark


    This review covers experimental approaches to sound-symbolism-from infants to adults, and from Sapir's foundational studies to twenty-first century product naming. It synthesizes recent behavioral, developmental, and neuroimaging work into a systematic overview of the cross-modal correspondences that underpin iconic links between form and meaning. It also identifies open questions and opportunities, showing how the future course of experimental iconicity research can benefit from an integrated interdisciplinary perspective. Combining insights from psychology and neuroscience with evidence from natural languages provides us with opportunities for the experimental investigation of the role of sound-symbolism in language learning, language processing, and communication. The review finishes by describing how hypothesis-testing and model-building will help contribute to a cumulative science of sound-symbolism in human language.

  16. Experiment research on mechanical behavior of the aluminum laminate in the low-high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Guo-chang; XIE Zhi-min; WAN Zhi-min; DU Xing-wen


    Aluminum laminate is one kind of the rigidizable composite materials and plays an important role in construction of the inflatable space structure ( ISS), which has potential application in space in the future. But the study of the predecessors mainly focuses on the research of the mechanical behavior in the room temperature,for this reason, mechanical properties of the aluminum laminate in low-high temperature have been studied in this paper. The failure mechanism of the aluminum laminate is also analyzed in the microscopic view by JCXA - T33electron probe. The results show that the temperature has significant influence on the strength and Young's modulus of the aluminum laminate. With the increase of temperature, both the strength and Young's modulus of the aluminum laminate decrease. A model between Young's modulus of the aluminum laminate and temperatures is obtained by using Arrhenius equation. The predicted values by the model agree well with the experiment values.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Bahadır


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess healthy living behaviors of archery coaches and boxing coaches in terms of sportive branch, sportive experience and gender. The study was conducted with boxing coaches (n=119 and archery coaches (n=131. As the data collection tool; “ The Health - Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP - II which was developed by Walker et al . and validity and reliability tests of which were performed by Bahar et al . (2008 was employed. In the study; it was found out that mean score of boxing coaches on P hysical activity subscale was higher than archery coaches . Besides; no statistically significant difference s existed between archery coaches and boxing coaches in terms of gender and sportive experience.

  18. Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Av-Gay, Hadas


    Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe…

  19. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M.; Addison, Aaron; Ghoshal, Nupur; Stout, Sarah H.; Vernon, Elizabeth K.; Sellan, Mark; Roe, Catherine M.


    Background: The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods: Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds), at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM), afternoon (2:00-5:00PM) and night (7:00-10pm). The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results: Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion: Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look at changes or

  20. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public. (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won


    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P responders expressed willingness to participate was 39.3%, a significantly lower rate than the result of the India (58.9% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.001). Treatment benefit was the single most influential reason for participation, followed by financial gain. Concern about safety was the main reason for refusal, succeeded by fear and lack of trust. Public awareness and educational programs addressing these negative perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  1. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice. (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R


    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  2. The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: scale development and validation. (United States)

    Bell, Rick; Marshall, David W


    The construct of involvement has been found to influence brand loyalty, product information search processing, responses to advertising communications, diffusion of innovations, and ultimately, product choice decisions. Traditionally, involvement has been defined as being a characteristic of either a product or of an individual. In the present research, we make an assumption that an individual's 'food involvement' is a somewhat stable characteristic and we hypothesized that involvement with foods would vary between individuals, that individuals who are more highly involved with food would be better able to discriminate between a set of food samples than would less food involved individuals, and that this discrimination would operate both in affective and perceptive relative judgments. Using standard scale construction techniques, we developed a measure of the characteristic of food involvement, based on activities relating to food acquisition, preparation, cooking, eating and disposal. After several iterations, a final 12-item measure was found to have good test-retest reliability and internal consistency within two subscales. A behavioral validation study demonstrated that measures of food involvement were associated with discrimination and hedonic ratings for a range of foods in a laboratory setting. These findings suggest that food involvement, as measured by the Food Involvement Scale, may be an important mediator to consider when undertaking research with food and food habits.

  3. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors. (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; An, Lawrence C


    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments - Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students.

  4. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.


    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18–25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments – Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

  5. Research on Browsing Behavior in the Libraries: An Empirical Analysis of Consequences, Success and Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang


    Full Text Available Browsing as an important part of human information behavior has been observed and investigated in the context of information seeking in the library in general and has assumed greater importance in human-machine interaction in particular. However, the nature and consequences of browsing are not well understood, and little is known of the success rate of such behavior.In this research, exploratory empirical case studies from three types of libraries were conducted, using questionnaires, observation logs, interviews, and computer search logs, to derive the empirical evidence to understand, from the user point of view, what are the consequences of browsing, what constitutes successful browsing, and what factors influence the extent of browsing. Content analysis and statistical analysis were conducted to analyze and synthesize the data. The research results show: (1 There are nine categories of the consequence of browsing, including accidental findings, modification of information need, found the desirable information, learning, feeling relaxation/recreational, information gathering, keeping updated, satisfying curiosity, and not finding what is needed. (2 Four factors that produce successful browsing: intention, the amount or quality of information, the utility of what is found, and help for solving problem or making judgment. (3 Three types of reasons for unsuccessful experience in browsing: not finding what one wanted, inadequate volume or quality of information, and not finding some things useful or interesting. (4 Three types of reasons for partial success: found the intended object but not happy with the quality or amount of information in it, not finding what one wanted but discovering new or potential useful information, not accomplish one purpose but achieve another one given multiple purposes. (5 The influential factors that affect the extent one engages in browsing include browser’s time, scheme of information organization, proximity to

  6. Ecologic Momentary Assessment: Perspectives on Applications and Opportunities in Research and Practice Regarding Nutrition Behaviors. (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Perzynski, Adam T


    Retrospective self-reported data have limitations, making it important to evaluate alternative forms of measurement for nutrition behaviors. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) attempts to overcome the challenges of recalled data with real-time data collection in a subject's natural environment, often leveraging technology. This perspective piece 1) introduces the concepts and terminology of EMA, 2) provides an overview of the methodological and analytical considerations, 3) gives examples of past research using EMA, and 4) suggests new opportunities (including combining assessment and intervention) and limitations (including the need for technology) for the application of EMA to research and practice regarding nutrition behaviors.

  7. Predictive Value of Baseline Electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC–SSRS) Assessments for Identifying Risk of Prospective Reports of Suicidal Behavior During Research Participation


    Greist, John H.; Mundt, James C.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Jefferson, James W.; Posner, Kelly


    Objective: Examine the ability of baseline electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior categories to predict prospective reports of suicidal behavior in psychiatric and non-psychiatric research participants.

  8. Interdisciplinarity and systems science to improve population health: a view from the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. (United States)

    Mabry, Patricia L; Olster, Deborah H; Morgan, Glen D; Abrams, David B


    Fueled by the rapid pace of discovery, humankind's ability to understand the ultimate causes of preventable common disease burdens and to identify solutions is now reaching a revolutionary tipping point. Achieving optimal health and well-being for all members of society lies as much in the understanding of the factors identified by the behavioral, social, and public health sciences as by the biological ones. Accumulating advances in mathematical modeling, informatics, imaging, sensor technology, and communication tools have stimulated several converging trends in science: an emerging understanding of epigenomic regulation; dramatic successes in achieving population health-behavior changes; and improved scientific rigor in behavioral, social, and economic sciences. Fostering stronger interdisciplinary partnerships to bring together the behavioral-social-ecologic models of multilevel "causes of the causes" and the molecular, cellular, and, ultimately, physiological bases of health and disease will facilitate breakthroughs to improve the public's health. The strategic vision of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is rooted in a collaborative approach to addressing the complex and multidimensional issues that challenge the public's health. This paper describes OBSSR's four key programmatic directions (next-generation basic science, interdisciplinary research, systems science, and a problem-based focus for population impact) to illustrate how interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives can foster the vertical integration of research among biological, behavioral, social, and population levels of analysis over the lifespan and across generations. Interdisciplinary and multilevel approaches are critical both to the OBSSR's mission of integrating behavioral and social sciences more fully into the NIH scientific enterprise and to the overall NIH mission of utilizing science in the pursuit of

  9. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta). (United States)

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L


    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research.

  10. Evaluating Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a tool for experimental behavioral research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J C Crump

    Full Text Available Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT is an online crowdsourcing service where anonymous online workers complete web-based tasks for small sums of money. The service has attracted attention from experimental psychologists interested in gathering human subject data more efficiently. However, relative to traditional laboratory studies, many aspects of the testing environment are not under the experimenter's control. In this paper, we attempt to empirically evaluate the fidelity of the AMT system for use in cognitive behavioral experiments. These types of experiment differ from simple surveys in that they require multiple trials, sustained attention from participants, comprehension of complex instructions, and millisecond accuracy for response recording and stimulus presentation. We replicate a diverse body of tasks from experimental psychology including the Stroop, Switching, Flanker, Simon, Posner Cuing, attentional blink, subliminal priming, and category learning tasks using participants recruited using AMT. While most of replications were qualitatively successful and validated the approach of collecting data anonymously online using a web-browser, others revealed disparity between laboratory results and online results. A number of important lessons were encountered in the process of conducting these replications that should be of value to other researchers.

  11. Research on the interfacial behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong


    The three-dimensional constitutive relations are constructed, respectively, for the fuel particles, the metal matrix and the cladding of dispersion nuclear fuel elements, allowing for the effects of large deformation and thermal-elastoplasticity. According to the constitutive relations, the method of modeling their irradiation behaviors in ABAQUS is developed and validated. Numerical simulations of the interfacial performances between the fuel meat and the cladding are implemented with the developed finite element models for different micro-structures of the fuel meat. The research results indicate that: (1) the interfacial tensile stresses and shear stresses for some cases will increase with burnup, but the relative stresses will decrease with burnup for some micro-structures; (2) at the lower burnups, the interfacial stresses increase with the particle sizes and the particle volume fractions; however, it is not the case at the higher burnups; (3) the particle distribution characteristics distinctly affect the interfacial stresses, and the face-centered cubic case has the best interfacial performance of the three considered cases.

  12. The Research on the Impact of Management Level’s Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian


    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  13. Press CRTT to measure aggressive behavior: the unstandardized use of the competitive reaction time task in aggression research. (United States)

    Elson, Malte; Mohseni, M Rohangis; Breuer, Johannes; Scharkow, Michael; Quandt, Thorsten


    The competitive reaction time task (CRTT) is the measure of aggressive behavior most commonly used in laboratory research. However, the test has been criticized for issues in standardization because there are many different test procedures and at least 13 variants to calculate a score for aggressive behavior. We compared the different published analyses of the CRTT using data from 3 different studies to scrutinize whether it would yield the same results. The comparisons revealed large differences in significance levels and effect sizes between analysis procedures, suggesting that the unstandardized use and analysis of the CRTT have substantial impacts on the results obtained, as well as their interpretations. Based on the outcome of our comparisons, we provide suggestions on how to address some of the issues associated with the CRTT, as well as a guideline for researchers studying aggressive behavior in the laboratory.

  14. Four Decades of Music Therapy Behavioral Research Designs : A Content Analysis of Journal of Music Therapy Articles


    ,; 藤原, 志帆; 高田, 艶子; 曹, 念慈; 吉富, 功修


    本訳稿は、Dianne Gregory著 "Four Decades of Music Therapy Behavioral Research Designs : A Content Analysis of Journal of Music Therapy Articles", Journal of Music Therapy, 2002, 41(1), pp.56-71を全訳したものである。

  15. Behavioral Outcomes of Supervisory Education in the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education: A Qualitative Research Study. (United States)

    Ragsdale, Judith R; Orme-Rogers, Charles; Bush, Johnny C; Stowman, Sheryl Lyndes; Seeger, Rodney W


    This study advances the work of developing a theory for educating Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) Supervisors by describing the behaviors which result from the successful completion of CPE supervisory education. Twenty-eight Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE) Certification Commissioners were interviewed to identify the behaviors demonstrated by Supervisory Education Students (Candidates) which influenced the decision to certify them at the level of Associate Supervisor. Specific behavioral descriptors are listed for each ACPE supervisory competency.

  16. Integrating behavioral and biomedical research in HIV interventions: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Rausch, Dianne M; Grossman, Cynthia I; Erbelding, Emily J


    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated overwhelming success of biomedical tools to prevent the spread of HIV infection. However, the complex and somewhat disparate results of some of these trials have highlighted the need for effective integration of biomedical and behavioral sciences in the design and implementation of any future intervention trial. Integrating behavioral and biomedical sciences will require appropriate behavioral theories that can be used in the context of biomedical clinical trials and multidisciplinary teams working together from the earliest stages of trial design through to completion. It is also clear that integration of behavioral science will be necessary to implement prevention at the population level and reverse the HIV epidemic.

  17. A Research on Class Teachers Related to Determining the Effects of Consumers’ Personal Values on Sustainable Consumption Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Karalar


    Full Text Available The world’s sources about to running out have been realised as a result of that population increase and economic development to be lived in the twentieth century have caused the transformation from the notion of unlimited economic development to sustainable development notion. Sustainable development is a model that predicts existing generation satisfies their needs without that next generation’s satisfy their need. Projection of sustainable development on marketing area have been actualized by means of coming up with sustainable marketing approach. Sustainable marketing approach predict to create sustainable solutions by adding conformity with eco-system in addition to achieving organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs which traditional marketing’s goals. The target of sustainable development notion in regard of consumption is to be accepted sustainable consumption behavior. It requires inquiring factors affecting behavior in question because sustainable consumption pattern to be accepted and spread to the world. In the study examined that individual values affecting sustainable consumption behavior of class teacher who work at elementary schools in Kutahya, Merkez. The findings indicate the significant effect of universalism and security values type in sustainable consumption behavior. Also, it is found that frequency of sustainable consumption behavior is mid-level. The results of this research have significant implications for stakeholders of sustainable consumption and future research.

  18. Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive theory of anisotropic viscoelastic liquids and its hydrodynamic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Research advances of un-symmetric constitutive equation of anisotropic fluid,influence of un-symmetric stress tensor on material functions,vibrational shear flow of the fluid with small amplitudes and rheology of anisotropic suspension were reported.A new concept of simple anisotropic fluid was introduced.On the basis of anisotropic principle,the simple fluid stress behaviour was described by velocity gradient tensor F and spin tensor W instead of velocity gradient tensor D in the classic Leslie-Ericksen continuum theory.Two relaxation times analyzing rheological nature of the fluid and using tensor analysis a general form of the constitutive equation of co-rotational type was introduced.More general model LCP-H for the fluid was developed.The unsymmetry of the shear stress was predicted by the present continuum theory for anisotropic viscoelastic fluid-LC polymer liquids.The influence of the relaxation times on material functions was specially studied.It is important to study the unsteady vibrational rotating flow with small amplitudes,as it is a best way to obtain knowledge of elasticity of the LC polymer,i.e.dynamic viscoelasticity.For the shear-unsymmetric stresses,two shear stresses were obtained thus two complex viscosities and two complex shear modulus(i.e.first and second one) were introduced by the constitutive equation which was defined by rotating shear rate introduced by author.For the two stability problems of fluid,such as stability of hydrodynamic flow and orientational motion,were discussed.The results show that the polymer suspension systems exhibit anisotropic character.The PNC systems can exhibit significant shear-thinning effects.For more concentrated polymer nano-suspensions,the first normal stress difference change from positive to negative,which is similar to LC polymer behavior.

  19. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre


    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  20. Health Behavior Theories and Research: Implications for Suicidal Individuals' Treatment Linkage and Adherence (United States)

    Gipson, Polly; King, Cheryl


    Treatment linkage and adherence to psychotherapeutic interventions can be challenging with suicidal individuals. Health behavior theories, specifically the Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, and Theory of Planned Behavior, focus on individuals' beliefs, their readiness to change, their perceptions of illness severity and "threat," their…

  1. About Skinner and Time: Behavior-Analytic Contributions to Research on Animal Timing (United States)

    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc; Wearden, J. H.


    The article discusses two important influences of B. F. Skinner, and later workers in the behavior-analytic tradition, on the study of animal timing. The first influence is methodological, and is traced from the invention of schedules imposing temporal constraints or periodicities on animals in "The Behavior of Organisms," through the rate…

  2. Information-Seeking Behavior in the Digital Age: A Multidisciplinary Study of Academic Researchers (United States)

    Ge, Xuemei


    This article focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information-seeking process in the social sciences and humanities. It examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in these fields, and extends the David Ellis model of information-seeking behavior for social scientists, which includes six characteristics:…

  3. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.


    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  4. Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors and Online Student Engagement: Bringing Past Instructional Research into the Present Virtual Classroom (United States)

    Dixson, Marcia D.; Greenwell, Mackenzie R.; Rogers-Stacy, Christie; Weister, Tyson; Lauer, Sara


    Nonverbal immediacy behaviors are underresearched in the online teaching environment. Using social presence theory as a guiding framework, this study explores several online nonverbal immediacy behaviors: emoticons/figurative language, color, cohesion, visual imagery, and audio in course design; response latency, length, time of day, and message…

  5. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline


    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  6. The research in the interaction of the mass media social image and the peculiarities of personal media behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhina M. V.


    Full Text Available The results of the study of the correlation of an individual’s personal ideas about mass media with the organization of social behavior in media environment are represented in this article. The types of an individual’s relation to mass media as well as the types of media consumers in accordance with their dominating motivational orientation: emotionally-centered, communication-centered, information-centered, sense-centered – are revealed in the study. The research of mass media as an object of social images can demonstrate new approaches to the study of psychological regularity of an individual’s media behavior.

  7. Failure to Report Effect Sizes: The Handling of Quantitative Results in Published Health Education and Behavior Research. (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Ji, Qian; Wilson, Kelly L; Thompson, Bruce


    Given the American Psychological Association's strong recommendation to always report effect sizes in research, scholars have a responsibility to provide complete information regarding their findings. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the frequencies with which different effect sizes were reported in published, peer-reviewed articles in health education, promotion, and behavior journals and (b) discuss implications for reporting effect size in social science research. Across a 4-year time period (2010-2013), 1,950 peer-reviewed published articles were examined from the following six health education and behavior journals: American Journal of Health Behavior, American Journal of Health Promotion, Health Education & Behavior, Health Education Research, Journal of American College Health, and Journal of School Health Quantitative features from eligible manuscripts were documented using Qualtrics online survey software. Of the 1,245 articles in the final sample that reported quantitative data analyses, approximately 47.9% (n = 597) of the articles reported an effect size. While 16 unique types of effect size were reported across all included journals, many of the effect sizes were reported with little frequency across most journals. Overall, odds ratio/adjusted odds ratio (n = 340, 50.1%), Pearson r/r(2) (n = 162, 23.8%), and eta squared/partial eta squared (n = 46, 7.2%) accounted for the most frequently used effect size. Quality research practice requires both testing statistical significance and reporting effect size. However, our study shows that a substantial portion of published literature in health education and behavior lacks consistent reporting of effect size.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ÖZYER


    Full Text Available In this study it has been investigated is there any relationship between emotional intelligence, organisational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. In daily life these factors (emotinal intelligence, organisational commtiment and organizational citizenship behavior are very effective in Professional life and also social life, thats why intraction between these variables are very important. To measure variables different scales are used. For emotinal intelligence Schutte et al. (1998, for organisatioanl commitment Allen and Meyer (1990 and for organisational behavior Bolat and Bolat (2008 scales are used. The study was helded with totally 73 participants. To the result of the study it has been found important relations between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment and 2 dimensions of commitment. And also it has been found some important relations emotional intelligence and organisational citizenship behavior and dimensions of organisational citizenship behavior.

  9. Research on Influence Factors of Pig Farmers’ Ecological Farming Behavior: Based on the TPB and SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengying HAN; Zhenhong QI; Dongmin ZHANG; Xinrui LI


    China’s extensive development model of pig industry gives rise to serious resource and environment bottleneck restriction,it is urgent to transform the existing development model into ecological farming model. In this process,farmers’ behavior will play a key role. On the basis of summarizing development connotation and characteristics of ecological agriculture,using survey data of 323 pig farmers in 6 provinces,based on the Theory of Planned Behavior( TPB) it introduced individual characteristics and external environment constraint variables,and made an empirical analysis on factors influencing intention and behavior of pig farmers’ ecological farming using the Structural Equation Model( SEM). Results indicate:( i) ecological farming intention of pig farmers has the largest direct effect on their ecological farming behavior;( ii)ecological farming cognition of pig farmers has significant positive effect on their ecological farming behavior;( iii) external environment has the largest indirect effect on their ecological farming behavior,followed by the overall effect,and external environment has significant positive effect on ecological farming attitude and cognition of pig farmers;( iv) individual characteristics( educational level and income level) of pig farmers influence ecological farming behavior of pig farmers through their ecological farming attitude and intention,but the degree of influence is limited.

  10. Psychology-Based Research on Unsafe Behavior by Pedestrians When Crossing the Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqiang Ding


    Full Text Available Pedestrians are some of the worst victims, as one of the weaker groups in road traffic accidents, but, at the same time, their unsafe behaviors are also an important factor in traffic accidents. This paper builds a pedestrian crossing hazard automatic-balance model and waiting-time threshold model by analyzing the process by which pedestrians cross the street. Then, the reasons for pedestrians’ unsafe behavior when crossing the street are analyzed by using traffic psychology. Finally, this paper puts forward some measures, based on aspects of pedestrian psychology, to reduce or alleviate pedestrians’ unsafe behaviors.

  11. Empirical research on evolutionary behavior of covert network with preference measurement (United States)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Duoyong; Bai, Guanghan


    A key ingredient of studying the topological evolution of covert network is the individual behaviors which generate the evolutionary dynamics of covert organizational network. In this paper, we proposed an improved preference measurement method and used it to analyze three evolutionary behaviors of a real covert network, namely node addition, node deletion and link formation. Simulation experiment demonstrated that the improved method is robust on the small organizational network. The empirical study showed the specific pattern of evolutionary behaviors by offering direct quantitative support from preferential measurement. The measured property is then extended from degree to multiple node properties. The results indicate that the preferences of different behaviors follow different distributions with linear or nonlinear tendency across the process according to the type of node property. We conclude that the general scale-free network model is not suitable to model the evolutionary process of covert network.

  12. Behavioral Health and Performance at NASA JSC: Recent Successes and Future Plan for BHP Research and Operations (United States)

    Leveton, L. B.; VanderArk, S. T.


    The Behavioral Health and Performance discipline at NASA Johnson Space Center is organized into two distinct Divisions (Biomedical Research and Environmental Science Division and Space and Clinical Operations Division) but is integrated and interrelated in its day-to-day work. Ongoing operations supporting NASA's spaceflight goals benefit from the research portfolios that address risks to mission success. Similarly, these research portfolios are informed by operations to ensure investigations stay relevant given the dynamic environment of spaceflight. There are many success stories that can be presented where initial work begun as a BHP Research project, and funded through the Human Research Program, was fully implemented in operations or addressed an operational need. Examples include improving effectiveness of the debriefings used within Mission Control by the Mission Operations Directorate and countermeasures for fatigue management. There is also ongoing collaboration with research and operations for developing selection methods for future generation astronauts, and to enhance and inform the current family support function. The objective of this panel is to provide examples of recent success stories, describe areas where close collaboration is benefitting ongoing research and operations, and summarize how this will come together as NASA plans for the one year ISS mission - a unique opportunity for both BHP operations and research to learn more about preparing and supporting crewmembers for extended missions in space. The proposed panel will be comprised of six presentations, each describing a unique aspect of research or operations and the benefits to current and future spaceflight.



    Özyer, Kubilay; İsmail ALICI


    In this study it has been investigated is there any relationship between emotional intelligence, organisational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. In daily life these factors (emotinal intelligence, organisational commtiment and organizational citizenship behavior) are very effective in Professional life and also social life, thats why intraction between these variables are very important. To measure variables different scales are used. For emotinal intelligence Schutte et al...

  14. About Skinner and Time: Behavior-Analytic Contributions to Research on Animal Timing


    Lejeune, Helga; Richelle, Marc; Wearden, J H


    The article discusses two important influences of B. F. Skinner, and later workers in the behavior-analytic tradition, on the study of animal timing. The first influence is methodological, and is traced from the invention of schedules imposing temporal constraints or periodicities on animals in The Behavior of Organisms, through the rate differentiation procedures of Schedules of Reinforcement, to modern temporal psychophysics in animals. The second influence has been the development of accou...

  15. Consistent Treatment of Variables and Causation Poses a Challenge for Behavioral Research Methods: A Commentary on Nesselroade and Molenaar (2016). (United States)

    Markus, Keith A


    Nesselroade and Molenaar presented the ideographic filter as a proposal for analyzing lawful regularities in behavioral research. The proposal highlights an inconsistency that poses a challenge for behavioral research more generally. One can distinguish a broadly Humean approach from a broadly non-Humean approach as they relate to variables and to causation. Nesselroade and Molenaar rejected a Humean approach to latent variables that characterizes them as nothing more than summaries of their manifest indicators. By contrast, they tacitly accepted a Humean approach to causes characterized as nothing more than summaries of their manifest causal effects. A non-Humean treatment of variables coupled with a Humean treatment of causation creates a theoretical tension within their proposal. For example, one can interpret the same model elements as simultaneously representing both variables and causes. Future refinement of the ideographic filter proposal to address this tension could follow any of a number of strategies.

  16. Progress and Promise: Research and Engineering for Human Sociocultural Behavior Capability in the U. S. Department Of Defense (United States)


    economies and transnational criminal issues, humanitarian and disaster relief, and cyber threats. Continued sociocultural behavior research can make...and Beyond: A Comprehensive Account of the Foundation, Development, and Present State of al-Muhajiroun as a Transnational Radical Organization...Halverson, J. R. & Way, A. K. (2011). “Islamist Feminism : Constructing Gender Identities in Postcolonial Muslim Societies.” Politics and Religion, 4

  17. Conceptualizing Context and Its Relationship to the Information Behavior in Disseertation Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L.Chang、Yu-Ya Lee


    Full Text Available


    Context has been addressed as an influential factor of human information behavior. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes a context, or what the relationship between context and information behavior is. In this paper we explore the notions of context and describe the relationship between context and information behavior based on empirical findings, and reviews of current· literature. Our finding suggests that context is stratified and dynamic.

    A context is consisted of several situations, and each situation is defined by a set of related contextual factors. In this way, we propose a new approach to represent the context and situation. At different levels of context, multiple relationships between context and information behavior are identified, including the association relationship, the interaction relationship, and the one-directional relationship. These findings substantiate the concept of situation in Dervin's Sense-making approach, the concept of information horizon proposed by Sonnenwald, and Ingwersen's cognitive model of IR interaction. The multiple relationships between context and information behavior imply that information behavior is related to, but not equal to the process of problem solving. In contrast, information behavior can be viewed as a response of certain situation in the context.

  18. Using Multiple Interviewers in Qualitative Research Studies: The Influence of Ethic of Care Behaviors in Research Interview Settings (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.


    This study considered the methodological implications of a qualitative study that involved two research practitioners as interviewers, one male and one female, who conducted semistructured cognitive interviews with middle school students. During the reading and analysis of interview transcriptions, differences were noted between the interviewers'…

  19. Behavioral health referrals and treatment initiation rates in integrated primary care: a Collaborative Care Research Network study. (United States)

    Auxier, Andrea; Runyan, Christine; Mullin, Daniel; Mendenhall, Tai; Young, Jessica; Kessler, Rodger


    Although the benefits of integrating behavioral health (BH) services into primary care are well established (World Health Organization and World Organization of Family Doctors, 2012; Chiles et al. in Clin Psychol-Sci Pr 6:204-220, 1999; Cummings 1997; O'Donohue et al. 2003; Olfson et al. in Health Aff 18:79-93, 1999; Katon et al. in Ann Intern Med 124:917-925, 2001; Simon et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:850-856, 1995; Anderson et al. in Diabetes Care 24:1069-1078, 2001; Ciechanowski et al. in Arch Intern Med 160:3278-3285, 2000; Egede et al. in Diabetes Care 25:464-470, 2002), research has focused primarily on describing the types of interventions behavioral health providers (BHPs) employ rather than on reasons for referral, treatment initiation rates, or the patient characteristics that may impact them. This study presents the results of a multisite card study organized by The Collaborative Care Research Network, a subnetwork of the American Academy of Family Physicians' National Research Network devoted to conducting practice-based research focused on the provision of BH and health behavior services within primary care practices. The goals of the study included: (1) identifying the characteristics of patients referred for BH services; (2) codifying reasons for referral and whether patients were treated for the referral; (3) exploring any differences between patients who initiated BH contact and those who did not; and (4) assessing the types and frequency of BH services provided to patients who attended at least one appointment. Of the 200 patients referred to a BHP, 81 % had an initial contact, 71 % of which occurred on the same day. Men and women were equally likely to engage with a BHP although the time between appointments varied by gender. Depression and anxiety were the primary reasons for referral. Practice-based research is a viable strategy for advancing the knowledge about integrated primary care.

  20. Prevalence and types of mobbing behavior: A research on banking employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gök


    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the most frequently observed types of mobbing behavior, the level of exposure to mobbing behavior according to the characteristics of participants and the prevalence of bullying among a group of banking employees in Istanbul, Turkey. 384 participants were assessed by a questionnaire including 18 item mobbing behaviors. The results has shown that exposure to mobbing in this study group is widespread. 32% of the participants were determined to be victims of mobbing (during the entire working life. 16% of participants reported that they had been bullied at their workplaces within the last year. Significant difference was found between the tenure of the participants and their exposure to mobbing. Also, the supervisor was reported as a perpetrator by 69.9% of mobbing victims in the sample.

  1. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.


    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  2. Verbal behavior


    Michael, Jack


    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  3. Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research. (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Staplefoote-Boynton, B Lynette; Martinez, Angel; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Meeker, Daniella; Scharf, Deborah


    Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a "second generation" of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and self-report data, we provide a framework for researchers interested in developing and using second-generation mobile apps to study health behaviors. Our Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework breaks the app development process into four phases: (1) information and resource gathering, (2) software and hardware decisions, (3) software development and testing, and (4) study start-up and implementation. At each phase, we address common challenges and ethical issues and make suggestions for effective and efficient app development. Our goal is to help researchers effectively balance priorities related to the function of the app with the realities of app development, human subjects issues, and project resource constraints.

  4. Can Decision Making Research Provide a Better Understanding of Chemical and Behavioral Addictions? (United States)

    Engel, Anzhelika; Cáceda, Ricardo


    We reviewed the cognitive and neurobiological commonalities between chemical and behavioral addictions. Poor impulse control, limited executive function and abnormalities in reward processing are seen in both group of entities. Brain imaging shows consistent abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and the limbic system. In drug addiction, exaggerated risk taking behavior and temporal discounting may reflect an imbalance between a hyperactive mesolimbic and hypoactive executive systems. Several cognitive distortions are found in pathological gambling that seems to harness the brain reward system that has evolved to face situations related to skill, not random chance. Abnormalities in risk assessment and impulsivity are found in variety of eating disorders, in particularly related to eating behavior. Corresponding findings in eating disorder patients include abnormalities in the limbic system, i.e. orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum and insula. Similarly, internet addiction disorder is associated with risky decision making and increased choice impulsivity with corresponding discrepant activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate and insula. Sexual addictions are in turn associated with exaggerated impulsive choice and suggestive evidence of abnormalities in reward processing. In sum, exploration of executive function and decision making abnormalities in chemical and behavioral addictions may increase understanding in their psychopathology and yield valuable targets for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Research and Teaching: A New Tool for Measuring Student Behavioral Engagement in Large University Classes (United States)

    Lane, Erin S.; Harris, Sara E.


    The authors developed a classroom observation protocol for quantitatively measuring student engagement in large university classes. The Behavioral Engagement Related to instruction (BERI) protocol can be used to provide timely feedback to instructors as to how they can improve student engagement in their classrooms.

  6. Oral Cancer Risk Behaviors among Indiana College Students: A Formative Research Study (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Swati; Lohrmann, David K.


    Objectives: In fall 2004, the authors used a survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, motivations, and behaviors of college students relative to oral cancer prevention to inform development of targeted prevention programming. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,003 undergraduate students at one public university in Indiana participated.…

  7. The Computer as a Research and Teaching Instrument for Students in the Behavioral Sciences. (United States)

    Rowland, David L.; Crisler, Larry J.

    A program designed to provide students a background in computers and computing that was implemented by the Department of Behavioral Sciences at Millikin University, Illinois, is described. The program was implemented in three overlapping stages: faculty preparation; course preparation; and course implementation. The development of faculty…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOIER Rodica


    Full Text Available Starting from a model of the factors which are directly involved in the consumer’s buying behavior – brand image, the perception of purchase risk, the attitude towards the product category and, in this context, the attitude towards the brand, the buying i

  9. A Systematic Review of Factors Utilized in Preconception Health Behavior Research (United States)

    Delissaint, Dieula; McKyer, E. Lisako J.


    This systematic review critically synthesizes the literature focusing on factors related to preconception health behaviors (PCHBs) among childbearing age women in the United States, developed countries, and developing countries. Ovid Medline and CINAHL databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2008 relating to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feedingand elimination behavior of the dam-calf couple during the first week after calving.The experiments were carried out in winter on 5 dam-calf couples. During theexperiments the following feeding and elimination behavior aspects weredetermined: number of feeding periods, the length of feeding periods, number ofruminating periods, the length of ruminating periods, the number of drinkingperiods, number of defecations and urinations. Data was computed byANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the mother cows spent daily in average on aday 256.5 minutes for feeding and 306.8 minutes for ruminating. The cows drankwater 7.7 times per day. The calves suckled on average 4.4 times daily and thelength of a suckling period was 11.9 minutes. Mother cows defecated in average 6.4times daily and urinated on average 3 times a day.Key words: feeding behavior, elimination behavior

  11. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior. (United States)

    Nigg, Claudio R; Geller, Karly S; Motl, Rob W; Horwath, Caroline C; Wertin, Kristin K; Dishman, Rodney K


    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions.

  12. Emergence of Relations and the Essence of Learning: A Review of Sidman's Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.


    Sidman addresses two very important questions in Equivalence Relations and Behavior: A Research Story: What are the bases of behavioral competence? And how do units of learning become related? The book recounts the story of how an understanding of emergent relations and competencies was achieved through studies in his teaching-research program with mentally retarded subjects. Although children normally accrue vast networks of relations between stimuli and events, those with mental retardation typically do not. Consequently, by learning how to establish those networks, Sidman and his students contribute richly both to the cultivation of competencies by their subjects and, more generally, to an understanding of real-world human behavior. The basic equivalence paradigm affords the subject feedback and reinforcement for very specific choices during training, but the test is not for those choices! Rather, tests for equivalence look for new choices, ones seemingly quite foreign to the training regimen. The tests for equivalence relations entail presentations of stimuli that were the options for conditional choice during reinforced training. In tests of equivalence, correct choices are novel; hence, they have never been reinforced during training. The study of equivalence relations can encourage the emergence of new perspectives that are more symbiotic than competitive. In full acknowledgment of the important role and contributions made by those who identify themselves as experimental analysts of behavior, it is timely that rapprochements be worked toward, as indeed they are, to meld that perspective with others of our time. Both our research methods and our expectations about the nature of the learning process and the abilities of our subjects can delimit what they might learn and what we, in turn, learn about their learning. The text will be of great value for instruction at the upper-division and graduate levels. Its impact will be substantial, for it defines an

  13. Social communication network analysis of the role of participatory research in the adoption of new fish consumption behaviors. (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna


    The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to

  14. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.A.S.A.; K. Tromp (Krista); E.M. Bunnik (Eline); Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; C. Brayne (Carol); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); Richard, E.


    textabstractBackground: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behav

  15. Ethical Considerations for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists in Psychotherapy Research Trials (United States)

    Haman, Kirsten L.; Hollon, Steven D.


    Psychotherapy research studies, which balance the pursuit of knowledge with the provision of treatment, can place unique demands on clinicians, patients, and research staff. However, the literature on ethical considerations in psychotherapy trials is minimal. The current paper depicts CBT community standards of practice in the context of two…

  16. The Electronic Academic Library: Undergraduate Research Behavior in a Library Without Books (United States)

    Van Scoyoc, Anna M.; Cason, Caroline


    This study examines undergraduate students' research habits in a strictly electronic library environment at a large public university. Unlike most information commons, the campus' electronic library is not housed within a traditional library space and provides access to electronic research materials exclusively. This study finds that undergraduate…

  17. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic


    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  18. Book Review: Information and Emotion: The Emergent Affective Paradigm in Information Behavior Research and Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali


    Full Text Available Information behaviour is one of the most researched areas in library and information sciences and yet there are areas that have not received enough attention. This is because of the complexity of human behaviour, broadness of the area of information behaviour and constant changes in the information services and the way we make use of information for different aspects of our lives. We have witnessed the development of different paradigms, theories and models in information behaviour research over the last half-century of serious research in this area. As the time passes we can see the different aspects in the field of information behaviour research become granulated and form the focus of new research domains. One of these less researched areas is the role of emotion in our information behaviour. The new edited book Information and Emotion plays an important role in establishing the affective and emotional dimensions in human information behaviour as a developing research area. The book is a collection of an introduction by Diane Nahl and seventeen chapters by twenty four contributors. The introduction briefly presents some background information on the research in the area of affect and emotion in information science and then it introduces the content of the book and summarises the individual chapters.

  19. Eating behavior: a research concerning the relation between children’s BMI and their perception about parental feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Prazeres Pinheiro Carozzo


    Full Text Available Parental feeding practices are strategies used by parents while educating child's eating behavior, aiming to increase appropriate behaviors and reduce inappropriate ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between children’s perception of their parental feeding practices and their body mass index – BMI. The survey was cross-sectional and correlational type. Consisted of 114 children, 8-11 years, included via non-probability sampling, with the voluntary and anonymous participation by signing the Informed Consent Form and the Statement of Consent. Children were weighed, measured and answered the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire - Children Version (CFPQ. There were significant differences in parental feeding practices according to the BMI of the child: pressure to eat (p ? 0.01 and dietary restriction for weight (p ? 0.05. The research showed that there is a relation between the children’s BMI and the feeding practices to be used by parents.

  20. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 31: The information-seeking behavior of engineers (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.


    Engineers are an extraordinarily diverse group of professionals, but an attribute common to all engineers is their use of information. Engineering can be conceptualized as an information processing system that must deal with work-related uncertainty through patterns of technical communications. Throughout the process, data, information, and tacit knowledge are being acquired, produced, transferred, and utilized. While acknowledging that other models exist, we have chosen to view the information-seeking behavior of engineers within a conceptual framework of the engineer as an information processor. This article uses the chosen framework to discuss information-seeking behavior of engineers, reviewing selected literature and empirical studies from library and information science, management, communications, and sociology. The article concludes by proposing a research agenda designed to extend our current, limited knowledge of the way engineers process information.

  1. Effects of Theodore Millon's Teaching, Mentorship, Theory, and Scientific Contributions on Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine Research and Practice. (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H


    This article summarizes the impact of Theodore Millon's work on the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine over the past 5 decades spanning from the late 1960s to present. The article is written from my perspectives as a graduate student mentored by Millon on through my faculty career as a collaborator in test construction and empirical validation research. Several of the most recent entries in this summary reflect projects that were ongoing at the time of his passing, revealing the innovation and visionary spirit that he demonstrated up until the end of his life. Considering that this summary is restricted to Millon's contributions to the disciplines of health psychology and behavioral medicine, this work comprises only a small portion of his larger contribution to the field of psychology and the areas of personality theory and psychological assessment more broadly.

  2. Experimental research on seismic behavior of recycled concrete frame under varying cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuedong SUN; Jianzhuang; XIAO Research


    A study is conducted on the seismic behavior of one natural concrete frame and two recycled concrete frames with 100% recycled coarse aggregate whose scales are 1:2 entirely, and a comparative study is conducted under low-reversed cyclic lateral loading and different ver-tical loading. This work aims to estimate the failure mech-anism, hysteresis loops, displacement ductility, deterioration of strength and stiffness and energy dissipa-tion of recycled concrete frames under low-reversed cyclic loading as well as the influence of different vertical load-ing. Analysis on the basis of the experiment proves that it is entirely feasible to apply recycled concrete to practical engineering for the sake of its good seismic behaviors. Theoretical base is provided for further study and prac-tical application of recycled concrete structure.



    Makeeva, A.G.


    Results of nutrition behavior study among 14-15 y.o. students are presented. The study allows to identify key challenges, which can be overcome with the help of nutrition education program aimed to teenagers. The main topics are prevention of obesity due to teaching students maintain a healthy energy balance, developing of positive attitudes towards healthy products in order to motivate students to consume them regularly, promoting school nutrition  and development of teenager’s ability to ma...

  4. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Interventions in China: A Literature Review and Recommendation for Future Research


    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming


    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South–West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowl...

  5. Behavioral Criteria in Research and the Study of Racism: Performing the Jackal Function. Part I. (United States)


    function of pathological personality traits ( Adorno , et al., 1950) or as irrational perceptions or attitudes, such as stereotypes (Simpson and Yinger...position which includes projection as a symptom of racist behavior. In 1950, Adorno , Frenkle-Brunswick, Levinson and Sanford developed a concept of a type of...1967). 5. Social Distance Scale (Bogardus, 1956). 6. Ethnocentrism Scale ( Adorno et al., 1950). 7. Racial Stereotype Index (Matthews and Prothro

  6. Research of quasi-solid fracture behavior of casting Al-4.5Cu alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influencing mechanisms of elements Ti and Ce and their interactions on fracture behaviors of casting alloys Al-4.5Cu-0.6Mn were studied by observing tensile fracture behavior in quasi-solid zone under SEM and EDX instruments.The results indicate that the resistance stress against hot cracking can be improved obviously by addition of Ti, because of its grain refining function. It is also found that, when Ce is added into the alloys, besides its effect in refining crystalline, the mechanical behavior of lower melting point eutectic phase in quasi-solid zone can be improved efficiently by some compounds with Ce formed and deposited between dendrites. Therefore, a coiligating effect of Ti and Ce on improving resistance stress against hot cracking is more efficient than that only single alloy element is applied. When hot cracking occurs, grains yield at first, and then crack spreads. Both inter-grain and trans-grain fractures are observed, but the major fracture manner is brittleness.

  7. HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions in China: a literature review and recommendation for future research. (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming


    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South-West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowledge education and behavioral skill training. All studies reported positive intervention effects including improved HIV-related knowledge, increased condom use, reduced needle sharing, and reduced STI. Literature also suggests a lack of intervention among other at-risk populations such as MSM, migrant workers, and non-injecting drug users, lack of studies with rigorous evaluation design, inadequate follow-up, limited outcome measurement, and lack of multi-faceted structural interventions. The existing intervention studies document strong evidence of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic through effective behavioral intervention. More efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate environmental or structural factors for different populations at risk of HIV infection in China.

  8. Research of opportunistic behavior in the market of non-standard products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Sergeyevna Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available Objective to study the characteristic features of opportunistic behavior in the markets of complex products not subject to standardization by the example of rendering services during constructionandassembling operations. Methods analysis synthesis collection and description of empirical data. Results a significant amount of theoretical material has been analyzed budgets of constructionandassembling operations have been analyzed normative documents have been studied. A poll of quantity surveyors supervisors of constructionandassembling operations consumers of services and works have been carried out. The differences were revealed in the kinds of opportunistic behavior in the nonstandard products markets compared to the standard products markets the results of those surveys were presented in the earlier works by the author. Scientific novelty it has been shown that in case of individual elaboration of each project due to the uniqueness of the result of economic activity as a single complex the opportunistic behavior has such prerequisites as high costs for measurements and control of the quantity and quality of the rendered services and used materials lack of professional competencies of the consumers in the sphere of activity of the producer. Practical value the key provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and educational activity when viewing the issues of opportunistic revelations between economic subjects. nbsp

  9. Research of quasi-solid fracture behavior of casting AI-4.5Cu alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengquan DONG


    Full Text Available The influencing mechanisms of elements Ti and Ce and their interactions on fracture behaviors of casting alloys AI-4.5Cu-0.6Mn were studied by observing tensile fracture behavior in quasi-solid zone under SEM and EDX instruments.The results indicate that the resistance stress against hot cracking can be improved obviously by addition of Ti, because of its grain refining function. It is also found that, when Ce is added into the alloys, besides its effect in refining crystalline, the mechanical behavior of lower melting point eutectic phase in quasi-solid zone can be improved efficiently by some compounds with Ce formed and deposited between dendrites. Therefore, a colligating effect of Ti and Ce on improving resistance stress against hot cracking is more efficient than that only single alloy element is applied. When hot cracking occurs, grains yield at first, and then crack spreads. Both inter-grain and trans-grain fractures are observed, but the major fracture manner is brittleness.

  10. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research. (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Hariri, Ahmad R


    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makeeva, A.G.


    Full Text Available Results of nutrition behavior study among 14-15 y.o. students are presented. The study allows to identify key challenges, which can be overcome with the help of nutrition education program aimed to teenagers. The main topics are prevention of obesity due to teaching students maintain a healthy energy balance, developing of positive attitudes towards healthy products in order to motivate students to consume them regularly, promoting school nutrition  and development of teenager’s ability to make positive food choices themselves.

  12. Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Micro-crystal Muscovite/UHMWPE Composites to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huarong


    Full Text Available UHMWPE composites were prepared by hot pressing process with micro-crystal muscovite as reinforced particulates. The mechanical behaviors of composites to impact loading was evaluated by split Hopkinson bar. The results demonstrated that dynamic yield stress and failure stress of UHMWPE composites were gradually increased when the filling amount was less than 20%; when the filling content of muscovite was around 15%, the energy absorption efficiency of the composite reaches maximum value. It was also found that when strain rate within 3200/s, the dynamic yield stress, failure stress and energy absorption efficiency of UHMWPE composites increased with the increase of strain rate and display strain rate enhancement effect.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new design of robot gripper with electrorheological fluid (ERF) semiactive tips is described. There are two remarkable properties using this fingertip. One is the higher lifting capability at little grasp force, which can realize stable grasp. Another is the damping controllable which can be used for controlling contact forces. A viscoelastic-plastic model for normal direction of the fingertip is proposed to explore the contact behavior. The electric field strength is induced into the dynamic model of contact transition for simulations. The simulation results and conclusions are given.

  14. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Research Data That Supports the Clinical and Personality Hypotheses of Ret and Other Modes of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (United States)

    Ellis, Albert


    This article examines 32 important clinical and personality hypotheses of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and other modes of cognitive-behavior therapy and lists a large number of research studies that provide empirical confirmation of these hypotheses. (Author)

  15. Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design. (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit K; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita


    Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.

  16. Experimental research of mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue under rotational shear stress. (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Kan; Wang, Mingyu; Gao, Changqing; Ma, Chao


    The objective of this paper is to investigate mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue with a series of rotational shear stress control experiments. To this end, several experiments including stress sweep tests, frequency sweep tests and quasi-static creep tests were designed and conducted with a standard rheometer (HAAKE RheoStress6000). The effects of the loading stress rates to mechanical properties of brain tissue were also studied in stress sweep tests. The results of stress sweep tests performed on the same brain showed that brain tissue had an obvious regional inhomogeneity and the mechanical damage occurred at the rotational shear stress of 10-15Pa. The experimental data from three different loading stress rates demonstrated that the mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue was loading stress rate dependent. With the decrease of loading stress rate, a stiffer mechanical characteristic of brain tissue was observed and the occurrence of mechanical damage can be delayed to a higher stress. From the results of frequency sweep tests we found that brain tissue had almost completely elastic properties at high frequency area. The nonlinear creep response under the rotational shear stress of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9Pa was shown in results of creep tests. A new nonlinear viscoelastic solid model was proposed for creep tests and matched well with the test data. Considering the regional differences, loading stress rates and test conditions effects, loss tangent tan δ in porcine brain tissue showed a high uniformity of 0.25-0.45.

  17. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling. (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G


    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.

  18. [Ethnography for nursing research, a sensible way to understand human behaviors in their context]. (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Anne


    Understanding human behaviours is at the heart of the nursing discipline. Knowledge development about behaviours is essential to guide nursing practice in the clinical field, for nursing education or in nursing management. In this context, ethnography is often overlooked as a research method to understand better behaviours in their sociocultural environment This article aims to present the principles guiding this qualitative method and its application to nursing research. First, the ethnographic method and some of its variants will be described. The conduct of an ethnographic study will then be exposed. Finally, examples of ethnographic studies in nursing will be presented. This article provides a foundation for the development of research protocols using ethnography for the advancement of nursing knowledge, as well as better use of ethnographic findings to improve care practices.

  19. Research on the mechanical behavior of high strength steel%高强钢结构研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years the behavior of high strength steel structures has become one of the major researches in the field of building engineering.A state-of-the-art review of behavior of high strength steel is presented, including the material properties. In general,the research work on the material properties is relatively mature at abroad, while the corresponding study is very limited at home.%高强度结构钢的力学性能是近年来建筑结构领域的热点研究课题之一。本文总结了国内外在高强钢结构领域的应用现状以及高强钢的材料性能。文献分析表明,目前针对国外高强钢钢种力学性能的研究已经比较成熟,而国内相关研究非常匮乏。

  20. Eating Behaviors and Weight Development in Obesity-Prone Children and the Importance of the Research of Albert J. Stunkard. (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E


    Albert J. Stunkard, MD, was an internationally recognized leader and pioneer in the field of obesity and eating disorders research. He was also among the first scientists to study eating phenotypes and early life risk factors for childhood obesity at a time when childhood obesity prevalence rates were still comparatively low. The aim of this review is to highlight select findings from the work of Albert J. Stunkard which significantly advanced our understanding of eating traits of children with a different familial predisposition to obesity and genetic and environmental influences on weight outcomes. Collectively, Stunkard's early work on childhood obesity had a significant impact on the field of ingestive behavior and obesity research in that he was one of the first investigators who pointed to genetic influences underlying behavioral eating traits and child weight status. His work also inspired numerous subsequent investigations on the relative contributions of specific genes (e.g., polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene) on individual differences in child eating traits (e.g., satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger) and body weight.

  1. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao


    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  2. Intervention research, theoretical mechanisms, and causal processes related to externalizing behavior patterns. (United States)

    Hinshaw, Stephen P


    Intervention research with children and adolescents has suffered from a dearth of relevant theoretical grounding and from the lack of a reciprocal "feedback" mechanism by which clinical trials can inform relevant theorizing and conceptualization. There are hopeful signs, however, of increasing confluence between clinical efforts and theoretical models. Indeed, the key issue I discuss is how intervention studies can yield information about developmental and clinical theory as well as mechanisms related to psychopathology. Specific research examples in the field, particularly those emanating from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (MTA study), reveal that probes of moderator and mediator variables can clearly enhance our knowledge of relevant processes and mechanisms. In fact, recent MTA findings have relevance for models of genetic and epigenetic influence on symptomatology related to attentional deficits and hyperactivity. It would be overzealous, however, to make premature claims regarding etiologic variables from intervention research, as treatment studies typically address variables that are causally far "downstream" from primary causal factors and most clinical trials have statistical power that is barely sufficient for main outcome questions, much less mediational linkages. Overall, the field has severely underutilized experimental intervention research to subserve the dual ends of improving the lives of youth and advancing theoretical conceptualization regarding development and psychopathology.

  3. An Evaluation of Professional Development to Improve Teachers' Perspectives and Behaviors: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne


    The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…

  4. Service Learning Experience and Undergraduate Leadership Behaviors: An Action Research Case Study (United States)

    Kenary, Judy


    Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning…

  5. Best Practices in Teaching Statistics and Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences [with CD-ROM (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S., Ed.; Smith, Randolph A., Ed.; Beins, Barney, Ed.


    This book provides a showcase for "best practices" in teaching statistics and research methods in two- and four-year colleges and universities. A helpful resource for teaching introductory, intermediate, and advanced statistics and/or methods, the book features coverage of: (1) ways to integrate these courses; (2) how to promote ethical conduct;…

  6. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review: Behavior Based Analysis and Detection of Mobile Malware (United States)


    Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Presenter Last Name and Date © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Analysis Methodology - Approach •Strace Android APK ...logcat, network information, apk and signature data - can run up to 30 minutes, average around 4 minutes to complete all activities 11 Fall

  7. Leadership, Motivation, and Teamwork Behaviors of Principal Investigator's in Interdisciplinary Teams: A Synthesis of Research (United States)

    Adams, Brittany L.; Cain, Holly Reed; Giraud, Vivana; Stedman, Nicole L. P.


    Increased demand, limited resources, knowledge gaps, and seemingly less time to produce results are the challenges facing researchers and others in higher education today. Working together across disciplines is almost a requirement to stay afloat in the competitive arena most principal investigators are finding themselves in. This study sought to…

  8. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research (United States)

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina


    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  9. Evacuation Behavior and Problems: Findings and Implications from the Research Literature. (United States)


    of disrupting everyday routines, the pyschological stress of presenting threatening information, etc. (Anderson, 1970b; Barton, 1970; Dynes, 1975...research argues that disasters do not bring about serious or long lasting pyschological consequences. Stress may be experienced, but it is not said to result

  10. A Research Method to Investigate Information Seeking using the Concept of Information Horizons: An Example from a Study of Lower Socio-economic Students’ Information Seeking Behavior


    Sonnenwald, D. H.; Wildemuth, B. S.; Harmon, G. L.


    As research questions and topics in information studies evolve, there is a continual need to seek out innovative research methods to help us investigate and address these questions. This paper presents an emerging research method, the creation and analysis of information horizon maps, and discusses the use of such maps in an ongoing research study. Sonnenwald's (1999) framework for human information behavior provides a theoretical foundation for this method. This theoretical framework suggest...

  11. Creep testing and viscous behavior research on carbon constructional quality steel under high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余敏; 罗迎社; 彭相华


    Creep tests under at a certain temperature and different stress levels were performed on two carbon constructional quality steels at a certain stress level and different temperatures,and their creep curves at high temperature were obtained based on analyzing the testing data.Taking 45 steel at a certain temperature and stress as the example,the integral creep constitutive equation and the differential stress-strain constitutive relationship were established based on the relevant rheological model,and the integral core function was also obtained.Simultaneously,the viscous coefficients denoting the viscous behavior in visco-plastic constitutive equation were determined by taking use of the creep testing data.Then the viscous coefficients of three carbon steels(20 steel,35 steel and 45 steel) were compared and analyzed.The results show that the viscosity is different due to different materials at the same temperature and stress.

  12. Behavioral trading strategies and investor sentiment: Empirical research in Tehran stock exchange (TSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kiarash mehrani


    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze contrarian and momentum strategies in periods associated with optimism or pessimism, and we compare them to the normal market sentiment condition. We evaluate the sentiment using the Arms adjusted index. Then, using the vector autoregressive test, we analyze the relationships among sentiment, stock returns, excess returns, and volatility. The results show that the formation of a short-term portfolio in one- and three-month periods of optimism and pessimism do not create additional returns and results in losses. In addition, the outcomes indicate that combining normal market sentiment with behavioral finance strategies increases performances, with more significant results seen using contrarian strategies compared to momentum strategies.

  13. Experimental research on the behavior of the pneumatic transport of fine-grained iron (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Hritac, M.; Constantin, N.; Dobrescu, C.


    Mixed injection of fine-grained iron ore and pulverized coal in the furnace, involves determining the behavior of these materials during pneumatic transport in a dense state through the pipe and setting possibilities for adjusting the flow rate of material transported with the corresponding values of the process. Parameters of the pneumatic transport were determined for the main types of iron ore and chalk used in Arcelor Mittal Galati. Outside the intended purpose of injecting iron ore and flux, it was considered also the experimental check of the possibility for injecting ilmenite in the furnace for crucible protection purpose. The possibility of injecting cinder mill into the furnace was also considered. Injecting cinder could be taken into account for the recycling of ferrous waste in the furnace, also as additive for intensifying the combustion process around the tuyeres.

  14. Research on spring-back behavior of high strength steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Junping; Fang Gang; Ma Mingtu; Jin Qingsheng


    To investigate the spring-back behavior of dual-phase (DP) steel,V-shape spring-back experiments with different bending angles,relative bending radii and blank holding forces were carried out in this paper. It is concluded that with the increase of V-shape angle or blank holding force,the spring-back of DP steel sheets de-creases;while raising fillet radius of punch,which has the most apparent effects on spring-back,advances spring-back angle. Among DP590,DP780 and DP980,higher strength yields more notable spring-back due to larger elastic deformation. The difference of spring-back among these materials is relevant with the microstruc-ture and mechanical properties. The total elastic deformation approximately equals the ratio of the strength corre-sponding to the applied load to the modulus of elasticity.

  15. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing (United States)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.


    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  16. Morbidity among bystanders of bullying behavior at school: concepts, concerns, and clinical/research issues. (United States)

    Rivers, Ian


    The role of the bystander is not one that is easily understood in the anti-bullying literature. Roles within the unofficial hierarchy of the school-yard and playground overlap considerably, and each role has its own social dynamic that brings with it a shifting behavioral landscape that affects every student. In this article, the mental health correlates of three categories of bystander are explored: the co-victim, the isolate, and the confederate. Each category of bystander has its own characterizations and mental health correlates. Reports of post-traumatic stress, internalized hostility, substance use, and suicide ideation are discussed with reference to studies involving witnesses of family abuse, community and school violence as well as bullying. It is argued that bystanders are the key to challenging bullying in schools, and their mental health and well-being is pivotal to the effectiveness of anti-bullying interventions.

  17. Robust Rapid Change-Point Detection in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion and Behavior Research (United States)


    Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 The 2- CUSUM Model for Two-Choice Reaction Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3 Publications 15 4 Appendix...Manuscript C: The 2- CUSUM Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 1 Introduction The overall goal of our AFOSR sponsored research program is to... CUSUM 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1

  18. Low-Dose Alcohol Effects on Human Behavior and Performance: A Review of Post-1984 Research (United States)


    induced impairments in laboratory studies begin reduction of legal BAC limits to 0.05% or lower." at BACs of 25-30 mg%, well below the increased ( 23...AND D. B. O’HARA. Effr’ects of Alco- the legal limits. British Medical Journal of hol on pilot performance in simulated flight. Aviat Clinical Research...Interactions between marihuana and etha- 154. REED, T. E. The myth of "the average alcohol nol: Effects on psychomotor performance. Alc: response

  19. Knowledge Development and Scientific Status in Consumer-Behavior Research: A Social Exchange Perspective.


    Zinkhan, George M; Roth, Martin S; Saxton, Mary Jane


    The communication patterns (1977 through 1988) between the JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH (JCR) and other related disciplines are examined from a social exchange perspective. As one way of assessing scientific status, we completed a citation analysis to consider both the journals that JCR authors cite and the journals that cite JCR. The results reveal that JCR performs an important bridging function between the psychology and marketing literatures. However, JCR has had considerably less impact ...

  20. Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang


    Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.

  1. Paradoxical sleep deprivation: neurochemical, hormonal and behavioral alterations. Evidence from 30 years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tufik


    Full Text Available Sleep comprises approximately one-third of a person's lifetime, but its impact on health and medical conditions remains partially unrecognized. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing in modern societies, with significant repercussions on people's well-being. This article reviews past and current literature on the paradoxical sleep deprivation method as well as data on its consequences to animals, ranging from behavioral changes to alterations in the gene expression. More specifically, we highlight relevant experimental studies and our group's contribution over the last three decades.O sono ocupa cerca de um terço de nossas vidas, entretanto seu impacto na saúde e sua influência nas condições patológicas ainda não foi completamente elucidado. A prevalência dos distúrbios de sono é cada vez maior, sobretudo nas regiões mais industrializadas, repercutindo diretamente no bem-estar da população. Este artigo tem como objetivo sintetizar e atualizar a literatura a respeito do método de privação de sono paradoxal e seu panorama de conseqüências desde comportamentais até genéticas em animais. Ainda, destacamos a contribuição e relevância dos estudos experimentais realizados por nosso grupo nas ultimas três décadas.

  2. Mobile devices for the remote acquisition of physiological and behavioral biomarkers in psychiatric clinical research. (United States)

    W Adams, Zachary; McClure, Erin A; Gray, Kevin M; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Treiber, Frank A; Ruggiero, Kenneth J


    Psychiatric disorders are linked to a variety of biological, psychological, and contextual causes and consequences. Laboratory studies have elucidated the importance of several key physiological and behavioral biomarkers in the study of psychiatric disorders, but much less is known about the role of these biomarkers in naturalistic settings. These gaps are largely driven by methodological barriers to assessing biomarker data rapidly, reliably, and frequently outside the clinic or laboratory. Mobile health (mHealth) tools offer new opportunities to study relevant biomarkers in concert with other types of data (e.g., self-reports, global positioning system data). This review provides an overview on the state of this emerging field and describes examples from the literature where mHealth tools have been used to measure a wide array of biomarkers in the context of psychiatric functioning (e.g., psychological stress, anxiety, autism, substance use). We also outline advantages and special considerations for incorporating mHealth tools for remote biomarker measurement into studies of psychiatric illness and treatment and identify several specific opportunities for expanding this promising methodology. Integrating mHealth tools into this area may dramatically improve psychiatric science and facilitate highly personalized clinical care of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Conflicting research on the demography, ecology, and social behavior of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) (United States)

    Hoogland, John L.; Cully, Jack F.; Rayor, Linda S.; Fitzgerald, James P.


    Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) are rare, diurnal, colonial, burrowing, ground-dwelling squirrels. Studies of marked individuals living under natural conditions in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s showed that males are heavier than females throughout the year; that adult females living in the same territory are consistently close kin; and that females usually mate with the sexually mature male(s) living in the home territory. Research from 2007 through 2010 challenges all 3 of these findings. Here we discuss how different methods might have led to the discrepancies.

  4. The gains and losses of collusion: An empirical research on the market behaviors of China’s power enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruize Gao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Collusion is a common behavior of oligarch enterprises aiming to get an advantage in market competition. The purpose of the thesis is to use the empirical research methods to explore positive or negative effects that the electricity generation manufacturers’ collusion has caused at the macro level of Market Economy and the micro level of enterprises’ behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: The designed research model in the thesis is an extension of Porter’s model (Porter, 1984. It applies a more advanced measurement method, FIML. In the example of price bidding project that started by electricity generation enterprises of China’s power industry, the thesis analyzes the relevant price data of subordinate power plants of China’s five power generation groups in pilots of price bidding Policy. Findings: It is found in the thesis that power generation enterprises are facing collusion issues in the market. To be exact, it is such a situation in which non-cooperative competition and collusion alternate. Under the competition, market is relatively steady, thus forming a lower network price. It is helpful to the development of the whole industry. However, once Cartel is formed, the price will rise and clash with power enterprises and transmission-distribution companies concerning the interests conflicts. At the same time, a higher power price will form in the market, making consumers suffer losses. All of these are bad for industry development. Not only the collusion of power enterprises affects power price but also the market power that caused by long-time Cartel will reduce the market entrant in electricity generation. Market resources are centralized in the hands of Cartel, causing a low effective competition in the market, which has passive effects on users. Implications: The empirical research also indicates that collusion undoubtedly benefits the power enterprises that involved. As a cooperation pattern, collusion can lead to

  5. [Eating behavior and life styles: research and action on nutrition in a rural area]. (United States)

    Grand-Filaire, A; Monnier, E; Grand, A; Pous, J; Douste-Blazy, P; Palustran, N


    Nutrition education has sometimes been portrayed as a normative discourse, forgetting that nutrition is at the heart of basic lifestyle habits. In fact, eating not only satisfies a basic need, it is a social and communication action that develops an interaction with a person's socio-economic and cultural framework. This article describes an educational programme that involved all 2,200 inhabitants of a small rural town in the south of France. The purpose of the study was to better define what was involved in the development of eating behaviours in order to adapt information for the population. Two hundred families, 28% of the town, were provided with a survey questionnaire. Questions about socio-economic and cultural data of the families, types of food provisions, cooking initiation, perceived knowledge of dietetics, and ways of sociability were included. This research permitted the identification of different profiles of eaters: working class families, the elderly, families without children, etc... The subsequent information campaign attempted to adapt its message to each category identified, taking into consideration economic and psychosocial factors, the attachment of the population to its culinary patrimony, and the pejorative vision of dietetics perceived by part of the population. The entire community collaborated at each stage of the programme. Conceived as a research project, it contributed to motivating the population to take an active role in the management of its health problems.

  6. Formal models in animal-metacognition research: the problem of interpreting animals' behavior. (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A


    Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.

  7. Research Students in the Electronic Age: Impacts of Changing Information Behavior on Information Literacy Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Williamson


    Full Text Available Because of the rapid uptake of information and communication technology (ICT, understanding the ways in which information seeking has changed over the past decade is crucial to gaining a picture of how information literacy needs may also be changing in the electronic age. This qualitative research took an interpretivist/ constructivist approach in examining the ways in which access to electronic information-seeking affects the information literacy needs of 15 research students in an Australian university setting. An ethnographic technique, the interview, was used for the data collection. Three particular areas, related to information seeking and use, were selected: (1 information source use because of the burgeoning availability of electronic sources; (2 knowing when to stop collecting information because the advent of the Internet has the consequence of greater quantities of information being more easily available than was the case in the past; and 3 managing information following its collection, which has also been affected by the vast amount of information that is now accessible. The conclusion points to enhanced roles for both supervisors and academic librarians, with the need for the latter to become perceived as educators within their university communities.

  8. Research review of low-cycle fatigue behavior of steel brace%钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海丰; 张学辉; 李其廉


    总结了国际上有关钢支撑低周疲劳性能试验及有限元研究方面的现状,指出了钢支撑低周疲劳性能研究的方向。%Low-cycle fatigue behavior research of the steel brace is prerequisite to the understanding of the seismic performance of concentrically braced frame with moment resisting frame dual systems. In this paper, the current test and finite element research in the low-cycle fatigue behavior of the steel brace is reviewed and the further research direction is pointed out.

  9. 基于三角测量法的信息行为研究%Research on Information Behavior Based on Triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭骏; 惠朝阳


    The paper introduces a new research strategy " triangulation" in the information behavior research area,concretely elaborates the concept,connotation,advantages,characteristics and its application in information behavior research,so as to promote its further application in information behavior research area.%介绍信息行为研究领域一种新的研究策略"三角测量法",详细阐述三角测量法的概念、内涵、优点、特点及其在信息行为研究中的应用,以期推进该研究方法在信息行为研究领域中的进一步应用。

  10. Modeling menopause: The utility of rodents in translational behavioral endocrinology research. (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A


    The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging.

  11. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L


    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals’ current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Objective Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. Methods The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study’s infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. Results The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system’s functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants’ response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of

  12. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors. (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A


    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Fangwen


    Full Text Available The main beam of a cable-stayed bridge with a floating system may have a larger longitudinal displacement subject to earthquake effect. Thus, seismic control and isolation are crucial to bridge safety. This paper takes Huai’an Bridge, which has elastic coupling devices and viscous dampers set at the joint of the tower and the beam, as the research background. Its finite element model is established, and the elastic stiffness of elastic coupling devices and damper parameters are analyzed. Viscous damper and elastic coupling devices are simulated using Maxwell model and spring elements, and their damping effects are analyzed and compared through structural dynamic time-history analysis. Results show that viscous damper and elastic coupling device furnished at the joint of tower and beam of a cable-stayed bridge tower beam can effectively reduce the longitudinal displacement of the key part of the construction subject to earthquake effect, perfect the internal force distribution, and improve the aseismic performance. Between the two, viscous damper has better damping effects.

  14. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.


    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  15. 组织行为研究的新领域:积极行为研究述评及展望%Proactive Behavior: A New Field of Organizational Behavior Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 赵西萍; 周密; 徐海波


    The new competitive era calls for a new employee behavior. Based on comments on the traditional behavior research and managerial practices, the present paper introduces proactive behavior, a new area of organizational behavior research. The authors review proactive behavior' concept development, classification, measuring instrument, theoretical foundations, antecedents and consequences comprehensively, analyze problems in literatures normatively, and provide research proposals with a view to Chinese culture traits.%新的竞争时代呼唤新的员工行为.在对传统行为研究与管理实践进行评论的基础上,介绍了组织行为学研究的新领域——积极行为,从概念发展、分类问题、测量工具、理论基础、前因及后果研究等方面做了述评,对文献中存在的问题进行了分析,并结合中国传统文化特征提出了若干研究建议.

  16. Behavioral science applied to cardiovascular health: progress and research needs in the modification of risk-taking habits in adult populations. (United States)

    McAlister, A L; Farquhar, J W; Thoresen, C E; Maccoby, N


    Epidemiological and experimental studies provide evidence that a complex of behavioral, biological and environmental factors interact in the etiology of many cardiovascular diseases. A survey of research and theory concerning training and counseling programs for adult populations is provided. Six basic behavioral recommendations are made for the maintenance of cardiovascular health. Problems in the design of mass media and interpersonal campaigns to alter the health habits of large populations are considered.

  17. New Li-ion Battery Evaluation Research Based on Thermal Property and Heat Generation Behavior of Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Lv; Xun Guo; Xin-ping Qiu


    We do a new Li-ion battery evaluation research on the effects of cell resistance and polarization on the energy loss in batteries based on thermal property and heat generation behavior of battery.Series of 18650 cells with different capacities and electrode materials are evalu ated by measuring input and output energy which change with charge-discharge time and current.Based on the results of these tests,we build a model of energy loss in cells' chargedischarge process,which include Joule heat and polarization heat impact factors.It was reported that Joule heat was caused by cell resistance,which included DC-resistance and reaction resistance,and reaction resistance could not be easily obtained through routine test method.Using this new method,we can get the total resistance R and the polarization parameter η.The relationship between R,η,and temperature is also investigated in order to build a general model for series of different Li-ion batteries,and the research can be used in the performance evaluation,state of charge prediction and the measuring of consistency of the batteries.

  18. New Li-ion Battery Evaluation Research Based on Thermal Property and Heat Generation Behavior of Battery (United States)

    Lv, Zhe; Guo, Xun; Qiu, Xin-ping


    We do a new Li-ion battery evaluation research on the effects of cell resistance and polarization on the energy loss in batteries based on thermal property and heat generation behavior of battery. Series of 18650 cells with different capacities and electrode materials are evaluated by measuring input and output energy which change with charge-discharge time and current. Based on the results of these tests, we build a model of energy loss in cells' charge-discharge process, which include Joule heat and polarization heat impact factors. It was reported that Joule heat was caused by cell resistance, which included DC-resistance and reaction resistance, and reaction resistance could not be easily obtained through routine test method. Using this new method, we can get the total resistance R and the polarization parameter η. The relationship between R, η, and temperature is also investigated in order to build a general model for series of different Li-ion batteries, and the research can be used in the performance evaluation, state of charge prediction and the measuring of consistency of the batteries.

  19. Using Formative Research to Design a Behavior Change Strategy to Increase the Use of Improved Cookstoves in Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Martin


    Full Text Available Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework—opportunity, ability, and motivation—was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  20. Using formative research to design a behavior change strategy to increase the use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L; Arney, Jennifer K; Mueller, Lisa M; Kumakech, Edward; Walugembe, Fiona; Mugisha, Emmanuel


    Household air pollution from cooking with biomass fuels negatively impacts maternal and child health and the environment, and contributes to the global burden of disease. In Uganda, nearly 20,000 young children die of household air pollution-related pneumonia every year. Qualitative research was used to identify behavioral determinants related to the acquisition and use of improved cookstoves in peri-urban Uganda. Results were used to design a behavior change strategy for the introduction of a locally-fabricated top-lit updraft gasifier (TLUD) stove in Wakiso district. A theoretical framework--opportunity, ability, and motivation--was used to guide the research and behavior change strategy development. Participants consistently cited financial considerations as the most influential factor related to improved cookstove acquisition and use. In contrast, participants did not prioritize the potential health benefits of improved cookstoves. The theoretical framework, research methodology, and behavior change strategy design process can be useful for program planners and researchers interested in identifying behavioral determinants and designing and evaluating improved cookstove interventions.

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  2. Panic disorder with agoraphobia from a behavioral neuroscience perspective: Applying the research principles formulated by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O; Richter, Jan; Pané-Farré, Christiane; Westphal, Dorte; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Gerlach, Alexander L; Gloster, Andrew T; Ströhle, Andreas; Lang, Thomas; Kircher, Tilo; Gerdes, Antje B M; Alpers, Georg W; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen


    In the current review, we reconceptualize a categorical diagnosis-panic disorder and agoraphobia-in terms of two constructs within the domain "negative valence systems" suggested by the Research Domain Criteria initiative. Panic attacks are considered as abrupt and intense fear responses to acute threat arising from inside the body, while anxious apprehension refers to anxiety responses to potential harm and more distant or uncertain threat. Taking a dimensional view, panic disorder with agoraphobia is defined with the threat-imminence model stating that defensive responses are dynamically organized along the dimension of the proximity of the threat. We tested this model within a large group of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (N = 369 and N = 124 in a replication sample) and found evidence that panic attacks are indeed instances of circa strike defense. This component of the defensive reactivity was related to genetic modulators within the serotonergic system. In contrast, anxious apprehension-characterized by attentive freezing during postencounter defense-was related to general distress and depressive mood, as well as to genetic modulations within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Patients with a strong behavioral tendency for active and passive avoidance responded better to exposure treatment if the therapist guides the patient through the exposure exercises.

  3. Lessons from the evolution of 401(k) retirement plans for increased consumerism in health care: an application of behavioral research. (United States)

    DiCenzo, Jodi; Fronstin, Paul


    Employment-based health and retirement benefit programs have followed a similar path of evolution. The relative decision-making roles of the employer and the worker have shifted from the employer to the worker, and workers are more responsible than perhaps they ever have been for their well being--both in terms of their health in general and their financial security during retirement. This shift has been supported, in part, by legislation--namely ERISA, the HMO Act of 1973, the Revenue Act of 1978, and most recently, the Pension Protection Act. This Issue Brief does not pass judgment on this development or address who should bear the responsibilities of preparing workers for retirement or of rationing health care services. The current trend in health care design is toward increased "consumerism." Consumer-driven health is based on the assumption that the combination of greater cost sharing (by workers) and better information about the cost and quality of health care will engage workers to become better health care decision makers. It is hoped that workers will seek important, necessary, high-quality, cost-effective care and services, and become less likely to engage providers and services that are unnecessary and ineffective from either a quality or cost perspective. As employers look ahead toward continually improved plan design, there may be benefits in considering the lessons learned from studying worker behaviors. Specifically, there is evidence about the effects of choice, financial incentives, and information on worker decision making. As a result of research in this area, many retirement plan sponsors have moved toward plan designs and programs that recognize the benefits of well-designed defaults, simplified choices, required active decision making, framing, and commitment to future improvements. With respect to choice, it is now known that more is not always better and may even be worse in some cases. Just as fewer shoppers actually bought a jar of jelly

  4. Behavioral treatment of drooling: a methodological critique of the literature with clinical guidelines and suggestions for future research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, J.J. van der; Didden, R.; Jongerius, P.H.; Rotteveel, J.J.


    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavior

  5. Dealing With Missing Behavioral Endpoints in Health Promotion Research by Modeling Cognitive Parameters in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Behavioral Interventions: A Validation Study. (United States)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job


    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of incorporating cognitive parameters of behavior change in CEAs. The CEA from a randomized controlled trial on smoking cessation was reanalyzed. First, relevant cognitive antecedents of behavior change in this dataset were identified. Then, transition probabilities between combined states of smoking and cognitions at 6 weeks and corresponding 6 months smoking status were obtained from the dataset. These rates were extrapolated to the period from 6 to 12 months in a decision analytic model. Simulated results were compared with the 12 months' observed cost-effectiveness results. Self-efficacy was the strongest time-varying predictor of smoking cessation. Twelve months' observed CEA results for the multiple tailoring intervention versus usual care showed € 3188 had to be paid for each additional quitter versus € 10,600 in the simulated model. The simulated CEA showed largely similar but somewhat more conservative results. Using self-efficacy to enhance the estimation of the true behavioral outcome seems a feasible and valid way to estimate future cost-effectiveness.

  6. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.


    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury and other self-directed violent behaviors in India: A review of definitions and research. (United States)

    Gandhi, Amarendra; Luyckx, Koen; Maitra, Shubhada; Claes, Laurence


    The interpersonal theory of suicide suggests that most forms of self-directed violent behaviors lie on a continuum, with each behavior successively increasing the capability of committing suicide. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the continuum may begin with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI). This theory can be important in developing interventions for suicide prevention. However, in India, consistent usage of definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors is lacking. In the present study, we reviewed definitions of various forms of self-directed violent behaviors that have been investigated in India. Further, we compared the usage of these definitions with the usage by WHO. Additionally, we reviewed NSSI research in India. Thirty-eight publications were identified by a comprehensive electronic search undertaken in Indian psychiatry, psychology, and mental health-related databases. Inconsistent definitions of eight self-directed violent behaviors were observed in Indian literature. Agreement on consistent definitions of various forms of self-directed behaviors is essential. Based on the findings of the current review, it can be suggested that culturally relevant large-scale research on NSSI in India is required to confirm the limited evidence that suggests high prevalence of NSSI in India.

  8. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  9. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L


    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  10. Existing Research and Future Directions for Self-Regulated Strategy Development with Students with and at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine


    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic deficits that affect their success in school. However, there are few research studies investigating what strategies work best for this population, especially in the area of writing. One promising intervention to support the writing skills of students with and at risk for E/BD is…

  11. The Research on Consumers' Web Information Search Behavior%消费者网络信息搜寻行为研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓东; 王蕾


    伴随着互联网对经济结构和商业运作方式的深远影响,作为电子商务核心要素的消费者的网络行为逐渐成为研究的热点.以消费者网络行为、信息搜寻、消费者网络信息搜寻行为三个彼此相关的概念界定为切入点,对网络信息搜寻行为及作为其前导与触发因素的信息需求相关研究展开综述,主要包括网络信息搜寻的起止条件、衡量、影响因素、研究方法、过程及消费者网络信息搜寻行为建模,最后指出目前研究中存在的问题及原因分析.通过此综述可以为进一步的消费者网络信息搜寻研究提供此领域整体研究现状,为深入研究内容的选择提供便利.%With the Internet's profound influence on economic structure and business operation model,network behaviors of consumers,which is acted as a core element of electronic business has gradually become focus research. The three interrelated concepts of network behaviors of consumers, information search and search behaviors of network information of consumers > are taken as a start point, then corresponding research on search behaviors of network information and information demands as its preceding and triggering factor are surveyed, mainly including starting and terminating conditions, measure, influence factors, research methods and process of search behaviors of network information and modeling of search behaviors of network information of consumers. Finally,existing problems of this research are pointed out and reasons are analyzed. This study can provide all-round research situation in this field for further disccusion of search behaviors of network information of consumers and provide conveniences for choices of thorough research.

  12. A Review of Research on Children's Bullying Behavior%幼儿欺负行为研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巧锋; 郑福明


    欺负行为一直受到发展心理学家的关注,它对幼儿发展的影响不容忽视。本文通过梳理国内外有关欺负行为研究的文献后发现,研究者对欺负行为的概念界定不一,对幼儿欺负行为的研究较少。尤其是有关干预研究更为稀少。%Children's bullying behavior, whose influence upon children development is undeniable, has attracted the attention of developmental psychologists. This paper, with a review of research in this field at home and abroad, discovers that there were disagreements in the definitions of children' s bullying behavior, and relevant research on preschoolers is few and the intervention research is even scarcer.

  13. 中国行为地理学研究近期进展%Recent progress of behavioral geographic research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴彦威; 塔娜


    在中国人文地理学人本主义转向的背景下,中国的行为地理学研究进入新一轮学习与借鉴西方行为地理学理论与方法的高潮,并力求构建具有中国特色的行为地理学研究框架,实施全方位的实证研究与规划应用.本文简要评述了西方行为地理学的最新进展,指出中国行为地理学发展需要借鉴多学科视角和先进技术手段,提升研究的学术价值与应用价值.2003年后中国行为地理学进入了重要的研究转向与繁荣发展阶段.本文介绍了中国行为地理学近期的发展动态,指出空间行为与规划研究会等对促进中国行为地理学发展以及扩大行为论方法的影响等方面起到了重要推动作用.中国的行为地理学研究从理论、方法、实证、应用等方面全面展开,研究主题和研究内容日益丰富,本文从迁居与通勤行为、消费者行为、认知地图和城市意象、空间行为与行为空间等方面评述了最新研究进展.中国行为地理学研究的发展方向将更加转向"空间中的行为"和日常行为,认知地图、行为决策过程、时空行为空间及行为规划将是未来关注的焦点.%In the context of human -oriented turning of China's human geography, behavioral geography in China has come to a new developping period. There has been a new round of studying and introcducing the theories and methods of Western behavioral geography. Meanwhile, schalors have begun to establish behavioral geographic resreach frameworks with Chinese characteristics, and implement comprehensive empirical researches and planning application. This paper briefly reviews the latest progress of western behavioral geography, and pointed out that China 's behavioral geography needs to draw on multi -disciplinary perspectives and leading- edge technologies to enhance the academic value and application. Since 2003, behavioral geography in China has come into an important phase characterized

  14. 基于光流能量的人体异常行为检测研究%Research on Human Abnormal Behavior Detection Based on Optical Flow Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超宇; 李小曼; 李浩


    研究并比较了当前常用的3种异常行为检测算法,分析了的各算法的研究现状,介绍了当前光流能量用于异常行为检测技术中的研究进展,提出一种基于区域光流能量的人体异常行为检测算法。采用Lucas-Kanade算法计算区域光流特征,实现对视频中打斗等剧烈异常行为的检测。仿真实验表明,算法具有较高的识别率和较低的误检率,具有一定研究意义。%This paper studies and compares three commonly-used kinds of abnormal behavior detection algorithms, analyzes their research status, introduces the research progress of optical flow energy used in abnormal behavior detection technology, proposes a human abnormal behavior detection algorithm based on regional optical flow energy. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is used to calculate the regional optical flow characteristics and realize the severe abnormal behavior detection in the video such as fighting. The simulation test shows that the algorithm has such features as higher recognition rate and lower false detecting rate and presents certain research significance.

  15. Furniture of Consumer Buying Behavior and Model Research%家具消费者购买行为及模式研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思淼; 张怀; 李英


    Furniture purchase behavior of consumer researching for innovative development plays an important role to stimulate consumption and industry, consumer buying patterns of research to guide enterprise innovation business model to meet consumer demand. The paper review and summarize the furniture consumers purchasing behavior and patterns, the study respectively from purchase behavior and buying patterns carding analysis. Then the paper briefly summarized the problems and progress of furniture consumers purchasing behavior and patterns. Fthe future research direction is put forward. Finally, the paper put forward the factors of coping with the impact of consumers buy furniture.%家具消费者的购买行为研究对于刺激消费和家具行业创新性发展有着重要作用,消费者购买模式的研究引导企业创新商业模式以满足消费者需求.对家具消费者购买行为和模式进行回顾和总结,从购买行为和购买模式分别进行梳理探析,对家具消费者购买行为及模式的问题和进展简要总结,提出未来应对影响家具消费者购买的因素.

  16. Predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients Referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Centre Based on Extended Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghianimoghadam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is the most common disease related to metabolism disorders with long term complications. It needs lifelong specific self-care, as it causes a promotion in quality of life and decreases disease costs. The Health Belief Model (HBM is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The model has been used for studying diabetes self care behaviors. The aim of this study was determination of predictors of self-care behaviors among diabetes patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre based on extended health belief model. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out on 120 diabetic patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre who were entered in the study by convenience sampling. A questionnaire was used for data collection with a private interview which included questions regarding extended health belief model constructs including perceived benefits, barriers, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and locus of control and some demographic variables. Results: There was a positive significant correlation between model variable of perceived benefits, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and internal locus of control with self-care behaviors, and also a negative significant correlation between perceived barriers (P=0.001,chance locus of control (P=0.037 and self-care behaviors. The above variables explained 45.3 % of variance in diabetes self-care behaviors, with self-efficacy as the strongest predictor. Conclusion: The results of this study approved the effectiveness of extended health belief model in predicting self-care behaviors among diabetic patients, which can therefore be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational intervention programs for control of diabetes.

  17. Behavioral Treatment of Drooling: A Methodological Critique of the Literature with Clinical Guidelines and Suggestions for Future Research (United States)

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.


    Many children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities suffer from the consequences of chronic drooling. Behavioral treatment for drooling should be considered before other, more intrusive treatments such as medication and surgery are implemented. However, empirical studies on behavioral procedures are scarce. This article reviews 19…

  18. Rule- and Norm- Related Behavior and the Individual Psychological Crisis in Competitive Situations: Theory and Research Findings. (United States)

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Tenenbaum, Gershon


    Basketball experts (N=28) responded to "rule- and norm-related behavior" questionnaire, assessing crisis relevance of behaviors which were against rules of situation and were either fair or unfair, called or not called by officials. Results revealed that officials' calls and fairness of violations substantially influenced diagnostic…

  19. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.


    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  20. The Present Situation of the Research on Behavior of Nurse Check%护士查对行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠华; 王国蓉; 巴智明


    Objective To explore the quality and factors of checking for providing proof to regulation and improving chec-king quality and looking for ideas in study. Methods A systematic search of eight electronic databases-wanfangmed data,CNKI data,vipdata,ScienceDirect,Springerlink ACS,EBSCO,OVID-for all articles describing checking of nurse,patient's safe, checking of medication in both adults and children since 2004 up to and including November 2014. Results The papers's researches in-clude implementing situation,developing new methods and teaching and training for checking,in which the status isn't good thoughchecking system always develops along with medical and society,the focus of study is new methods and training of checking but received less supporting from researches in behavior,medical safety culture etc. Conclusion The shortness of classification research combination of personal,organizational,environmental factors induces the lacking of high quality empirical basis for building refine-ment checking procedure and content points.%目的 了解护士查对行为质量和影响因素,为规范和提升查对制度落实提供依据,进一步探索护士查对行为的研究方向. 方法 通过中文万方数据库、CNKI数据库、维普数据库,ACS,EBSCO,OVID,ScienceDirect,Springerlink数据库,检索与护士查对行为和患者安全给药查对相关文献,文章时间为2004至2014年. 结果 按文献内容分为查对制度落实现状研究,查对方式研究和查对培训研究三部分. 护理查对制度在方法和要求上随着医疗模式和社会发展不断演变和发展,但给药的查对措施落实现状并不乐观,个人和系统因素对护士查对行为均有影响. 发展查对方法和加强护士查对培训是目前研究主要的关注点,但对社会行为学、医院安全文化等组织环境因素对查对行为培养和实施的影响研究较少. 结论 我国目前还缺乏结合个人、组织、环境因素对不同查

  1. “环境行为学”课程实践环节教学研究%Teaching Research in Environmental Behavior Course Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许芗斌; 夏义民; 杜春兰


    As one of the important theoretical support of Landscape Architecture and City Planning discipline education, Environmental Behavior mainly takes the interaction of external conditions and human behaviors as the research object. The main task of Environmental Behavior includes grasping the basic theory and principle relating to Environmental Behavior, learning and applying the survey method of Environmental Behavior, mastering human behavior regulation, aiming to guide landscape planning and outdoor space design. And it suggests taking progressive spatial scales as the core of the practice training in education design, mainly including space behavior research and analysis with micrographic, medium and microcosmic levels, emphasizing practice application of course knowledge, establishing a direct correlation between Environmental Behavior research production and city image and space design practice at the same time.%"环境行为学"作为风景园林、城市规划学科教育中的重要理论支撑之一,以外部环境与人类行为的相互作用作为主要研究对象。"环境行为学"课程任务包括把握该学科基本理论、原则,学习环境行为调查研究方法,强调学科知识的实践综合应用,同时建立其与规划设计的联系。本文提出并介绍了以渐进式空间尺度为核心的实践环节教学研究,主要包括宏观、中观、微观这三个层次的空间行为分析。该研究建构了学科研究成果与城市形象认知、空间规划设计实践的直接关联。

  2. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation. (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R


    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  3. Research on Factors Affecting the MOOC Learning Behavior%MOOC学习行为影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    from investigating some major platforms shows that although the passing rates of some MOOCs ’ can reach 40%, those of most MOOCs are below 10%. Venkatesh ( 2008 ) puts forward a TAM3 model by combining TAM2 and perceived ease of use model. The TAM3 model has many advantages including its comprehensiveness and operability. Based on TAM3 model, this paper conducted an empirical research and built an MOOC learning behavior influencing factors model. We designed and administrated a questionnaire through both face-to-face and the Internet network. As a result, a total of 325 effective questionnaires are returned. The data was or-ganized and analyzed using SPSS17. 0 and AMOS 21. 0 as statistical tools. The result shows that the intention of learning MOOC has a significant positive correlation with MOOC learning behavior. Subjective norm and perceived usefulness have significant positive correlations with MOOC behavior intention. Perceived ease of use has a positive cor-relation with MOOC behavior intension, but the correlation is not significant. The perceived usefulness has the highest positive correlation with MOOC behavior intention ( regression coefficient is 0 . 444 ) , and followed by subjective norm and perceived ease of use. The subjective norm, image,job relevance and output quality have significant positive corre-lations with MOOC perceived useless. Output quality have the highest positive correlation with perceived usefulness( re-gression coefficient is 0. 413) and followed by subjective norm,study relevance,image,result demonstrability and per-ceived ease of use in turn depending on the regression coefficient size. Computer self-efficacy,perceptions of external control,perceived enjoyment and objective usability all have significant positive correlations with MOOC perceived ease of use. Computer anxiety has a negative correlation with perceived ease of use, but not at a significant degree. Com-puter playfulness has a positive correlation with perceived ease of

  4. 情感影响下的人类认知行为建模研究概述%Research on Human Cognitive Behavior Modeling Under Influence of Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡记文; 尹全军; 陈伟; 查亚兵


    Emotion has important influence on human cognitive behavior.The integration of emotion into the modeling process could significantly enhance the authenticity and adaptability of cognitive behavior models.Firstly,the development of theoretical research on emotion's influence to human cognitive behavior was divided into three phases,and the representative theories in each phase were expatiated.Secondly,the fundamental ideas and methods in modeling cognitive behavior under the influence of emotion were introduced.In addition,a few typical emotional behavior models were proposed.The merits and drawbacks of these methods and models were analyzed.At last,according to the state of art of emotional behavior modeling,the accurate representation and modeling of human emotion,the multi-level interaction model of emotion and behavior,the general component based framework for modeling emotional behavior were pointed out as three main research directions which should be pay more attention to in next phase.An instructive framework for modeling emotional behavior based on component was proposed.%情感对人类认知行为具有重要影响作用,在认知行为建模过程中加入情感因素可以显著提高认知行为模型的真实性和适应性。首先将情感对认知行为影响作用的理论研究发展脉络划分为三个阶段,对各阶段代表性理论成果进行了阐述;其次,研究了情感影响下的认知行为模型的基本建模思想和方法,给出了若干典型的情感行为模型,并对各种方法和模型的优缺点进行了分析;最后,根据情感行为建模研究的现状,指出个体情感的精确描述与建模、多层次的情感-认知交互模型和组件化的通用情感行为建模框架是下一步需要着重研究的三个方向,并且给出了指导性的组件化的情感行为建模框架。

  5. 网络预定行为检测及还原技术研究%Research on OnIine Booking Behavior Detection and Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着互联网经济的飞速发展,网络预定行为(包括定机票、定酒店、定餐等)已经成为人们生活中非常重要的一环。从研究网络预订行为通信过程和协议分析着手,针对网络预定行为特征检测,网络协议数据重组,及网络预订行为检测及还原系统设计几个方面展开研究工作。在实际中,网络预定行为检测及还原技术研究,可以为网络监管提供一种辅助措施。%With the rapid development of the Internet economy, online booking behavior (including booking flights, a hotel, set meals, etc.) has be-come a very important part of peopleˊs lives. Started with the communication process and protocol analysis, the research focuses on the detection of on online booking behavior characteristics, the reorganization of network protocol data, and the design and of online booking behavior detection and recovery system. In practice, the online booking behavior detection and recovery technology research can provide an additional measure to network supervision.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 45: A comparison of the information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.


    To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.

  7. The Internet Procrastination Behavior and Psychological Research%网络拖延行为与心理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金运; 黄丽芬


    In the period of networking,Internet procrastination is a universal phenomenon. Overusing the internet will change the biological function of brain and the nerve predilection. As a result,the internet procrastination behavior will lower the innovation and implementation,moreover,it will influence the individual psychology and behavior profoundly. It is a good beginning through overcoming internet procrastination behavior,establishing new acknowledge and behavior propensity,furthermore,it needs optimum interactive among the sentiment,will and behavior,so as to construct a permanent mechanism to remove the procrastination.%网络化时代,网络拖延无处不在。过度沉迷网络可能会改变大脑生物功能与神经偏好,因此造成的网络拖延正在降低人们的创新力与执行力,并深刻影响个体的心理与行为。克服网络拖延,新的认知与新的行为习性是一个良好的开端,同时,亦要在情绪、意志与行为三者之间形成良性互动,构建去拖延化的长效机制。

  8. The Effect of Manager s’ Ethical Behavior on Boundary Spanning Role Employees’ Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Research in Adana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Sökmen


    Full Text Available Like manufacturing companies, hotels implement several strategies in order to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants. These strategies play critical roles in the context of unique characteristics of hotel services and interaction between boundary spanning role employee and consumer, when they are examined from the service firms’ perspectives. Having outlined this basic information, managerial ethical behaviors are assumed to depict relationships with frontline employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. In light of the aforementioned information, this study aims to make boundary spanning role employees assess the managerial ethical behaviors. Therefore, Managerial Ethical Behavior and Job Satisfaction Survey was conducted with 836 frontline employees in four and five star hotels in Adana. The reliability and validity dimensions of the scale were taken into consideration so as to be capable of obtaining reasonable results and making contribution to the related literature. Frequency tests and means were employed, and regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of managerial ethical behavior on employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. Managerial ethical behavior has positive effects on both employees' motivation and their job satisfaction. And as expected, employees motivation has positive and moderate effect on their job satisfaction in the subject 4 and 5 Star hotel companies

  9. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences" (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe


    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  10. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers. (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C


    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day.

  11. 非常规介质离子液体中气泡行为研究进展%Research Progress of Bubble Behavior in Ionic Liquid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍迪; 张香平; 张欣; 董海峰; 张锁江


    离子液体作为一种新型绿色介质,具有极低的蒸气压、相对高的黏度和结构功能可设计等优势,特别是其对多种气体具有较高的吸收容量和选择性,使其在气体分离领域展现了良好的应用前景。然而,实现离子液体气体分离新技术的工业化,关键之一就是要对离子液体体系这一非常规介质中的流动性质开展系统研究。本文从气液反应器中最常见的气泡行为出发,对离子液体体系中的单气泡、多气泡、微通道气泡行为,分别从实验研究和数值模拟两个角度进行了系统评述,进一步提出此领域的发展趋势和研究难点。%As a new class of green solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) are very promising for gas separation due to their high capacity and selectivity of gases. Among the research on ILs, the hydrodynamics in IL systems is essen-tial for industrial application. This paper reviews the bubble behavior in IL systems, which is common in reactors for gas separation. The single bubble behavior, multi-bubble behavior and bubble behavior in microchannels are discussed in the aspects of experiment and numerical simulation respectively. Furthermore, the tendency and chal-lenges of research on bubble behavior in IL systems are proposed.

  12. Are dopaminergic genes involved in a predisposition to pathological aggression? Hypothesizing the importance of "super normal controls" in psychiatricgenetic research of complex behavioral disorders. (United States)

    Chen, Thomas J H; Blum, Kenneth; Mathews, Daniel; Fisher, Larry; Schnautz, Nancy; Braverman, Eric R; Schoolfield, John; Downs, Bernard W; Comings, David E


    We hypothesize that pathological aggression, a complex behavioral disorder, in adolescents may in part involve polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system. While a number of neurotransmitter systems must be involved, due to polygenic inheritance, one major pathway should involve the dopaminergic system. Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of aggression and violence have given rise to rational pharmacological treatments for these behaviors. The main biological systems that are known to be involved are certain reward neurotransmitters including: serotonin, opioid peptides, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine). It is our notion that pathological aggressive behavior is in part similar mechanistically to other forms of impulsive behaviors such as pathological gambling. By analogy to drug dependence, it has been speculated that the underlying pathology in pathological gambling is a reduction in the sensitivity of the reward system. While studying pathological gamblers and controls during a guessing game using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Reuter et al. observed a reduction of ventral striatal and ventromedial prefrontal activation in the pathological gamblers that were negatively correlated with gambling severity. Subsequently, linking hypo activation of these areas to disease severity. A positive correlation of both the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) polymorphisms were observed with pathological violence in adolescents in a blinded clinical trial. Thus, this and other cited work preliminary suggest a role for both the DRD2 and DAT genes in pathological aggressive behavior. We further hypothesize that follow-up gene research in this area, albeit premature, resulting in confirmation of positive correlations with dopaminergic polymorphisms, and utilizing highly screened controls (eliminating any addictive, compulsive and impulsive behaviors in both proband and family) may

  13. 国内外信息行为主题领域的比较研究%Comparative Analysis of Domestic and International Information Behavior Research Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the keywords of information behavior from Web of Science and CNKI,this paper constructs two undirected keywords network by using social network analysis software,and performs a cluster analysis on both of the domestic and international keywords net-work. The international research is divided into eight areas and the domestic research is divided into ten branches. Using the comparative analysis method,this paper summarizes the characteristics of the similarities and differences between the domestic and foreign research and deduces information behavior research trends.%通过Web of Science和CNKI获取国内外有关信息行为领域研究的文献数据,使用社会网络分析软件构建关键词的概念网络,并利用G-N算法进行聚类,分别得到国外信息行为研究的8个热点领域和国内信息行为研究的10个热点领域,对其进行比较分析,总结国内外相关研究的特点及异同,推演出信息行为研究可能的发展趋势。

  14. What Works for People with Mental Retardation? Critical Commentary on Cognitive-Behavioral and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research. (United States)

    Beail, Nigel


    This paper reviews what is known about the effectiveness of the more controversial use of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy with people who have mental retardation. It examines self-management approaches (problem solving, anger management, and cognitive therapy) and psychodynamic psychotherapy. The paper concludes that there has…

  15. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan


    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical ques

  16. Academic Generations and Academic Work: Patterns of Attitudes, Behaviors, and Research Productivity of Polish Academics after 1989 (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek


    This paper focuses on a generational change taking place in the Polish academic profession: a change in behaviors and attitudes between two groups of academics. One was socialized to academia under the communist regime (1945-1989) and the other entered the profession in the post-1989 transition period. Academics of all age groups are beginning to…

  17. Solving Sleep Behavior Disorders in Infants and Toddlers: The Munich Research and Intervention Program for Fussy Babies (United States)

    Papousek, Mechthild


    Sleep behavior disorders do not only affect infants' well-being, they also challenge the parents' physical and emotional resources, promote risks for the growing parent-infant relationships, and burden the parents' co-parenting relationship. Sleep-onset and night waking problems are widely spread among otherwise healthy infants, and they tend to…

  18. The Effect of Manager s’ Ethical Behavior on Boundary Spanning Role Employees’ Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Research in Adana


    Alptekin Sökmen; Emre Burak Ekmekçioğlu


    Like manufacturing companies, hotels implement several strategies in order to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants. These strategies play critical roles in the context of unique characteristics of hotel services and interaction between boundary spanning role employee and consumer, when they are examined from the service firms’ perspectives. Having outlined this basic information, managerial ethical behaviors are assumed to depict relationships with frontline employees’ mot...

  19. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management (United States)

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.


    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  20. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Frixione

    Full Text Available Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists, as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is

  1. 项目教学情境中学习行为研究综述%The Research Summary of Learning Behavior of Project Teaching Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    学生的学习行为是教学效果和学习效果最真实的表征,普通教育中的研究成果颇丰,如何借鉴普通教育中的研究成果来研究项目教学情境中学习行为,是当前要解决的首要问题。从情境学习的特征,学习行为的内涵,问题与对策,影响因素和心理机制等五个方面进行探究,并提出预期突破,。%The students'behavior is the most authentic representation of effectiveness of teaching and learning.There are fruitful results in general education,how to learn from general education research project to study the learning behavior in the teaching situation,is currently the most important issue to be solved.These research was studied from the feature of situatied learning,content,problems and solutions,factors and psychological mechanisms in learning behavior,and made the expected breakthrough.

  2. The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: a meta-analysis of experimental research 1990-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N Carey

    Full Text Available The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044, conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01. The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17. This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.

  3. The Research on Knowledge Inheritance Behavior of Old TCM Experts Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior%基于计划行为理论的名老中医知识传承的行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤少梁; 倪杰


    通过计划行为理论,探讨名老中医知识传承行为的影响机理.认为名老中医的知识垄断的心理、医院归属感以及自身传授能力等因素,会影响其传承意愿,从而间接影响其知识传承行为.提出应从建立激励机制、医院文化和政府扶持3个方面激励名老中医进行知识传承.%The paper explores the influences of old TCM Experts inherited behavior by the theory of planned behavior. It considers the factors including knowledge monopolization psychology, the sense of belonging in hospital, the ability to teach can indirectly influence the inherited behavior of old TCM Experts by inheritance intention. At last the research considers to promote the old TCM Expert's knowledge inheritance by establishing an incentive mechanism, the hospital culture and government support.

  4. Quantitative comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and music therapy research: a methodological best-practices analysis to guide future investigation for adult psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J


    While the music therapy profession is relatively young and small in size, it can treat a variety of clinical populations and has established a diverse research base. However, although the profession originated working with persons diagnosed with mental illnesses, there is a considerable lack of quantitative research concerning the effects of music therapy with this population. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have reported on this lack of evidence and the difficulty in conducting psychosocial research on their interventions (Choi, 1997; Silverman, 2003a). While published studies have provided suggestions for future research, no studies have provided detailed propositions for the methodology and design of meticulous high quality randomized controlled psychiatric music therapy research. How do other psychotherapies accomplish their databases and could the music therapy field borrow from their rigorous "methodological best practices" to strengthen its own literature base? Therefore, as the National Institutes of Mental Health state the treatment of choice for evidence-based psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), aspects of this psychotherapy's literature base were analyzed. The purpose of this literature analysis was to (a) analyze and identify components of high-quality quantitative CBT research for adult psychiatric consumers, (b) analyze and identify the variables and other elements of existing quantitative psychiatric music therapy research for adult consumers, and (c) compare the two data sets to identify the best methodological designs and variables for future quantitative music therapy research with the mental health population. A table analyzing randomized and thoroughly controlled studies involving the use of CBT for persons with severe mental illnesses is included to determine chief components of high-quality experimental research designs and implementation of quantitative clinical research. The table also shows the same analyzed

  5. Research (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973


    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  6. Going Places: Exploring the Impact of Intra-Sectoral Mobility on Research Productivity and Communication Behaviors in Japanese Academia (United States)

    Horta, Hugo; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi


    This study analyzes the impact of intra-sectoral mobility of academics on research productivity and R&D information exchange dynamics in Japan. The analysis shows intra-sectoral mobility impacting positively both research productivity and information exchange dynamics, but that this effect--except for information exchange with peers based…

  7. A Longitudinal Assessment of Graduate Student Research Behavior and the Impact of Attending a Library Literature Review Workshop (United States)

    Rempel, Hannah Gascho


    This article discusses findings from a longitudinal research study that examined the way graduate students carry out the literature review and how they were impacted by attending a library literature review workshop. The literature review research process serves as an important gateway for graduate students into their scholarly communities'…

  8. Attribution research on irrational consumption behaviors of contemporary college students%当代大学生非理性消费行为归因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艺; 杨月


    Irrational consumption is an important source of profit of retail enterprises, which receives widely attention in academic field. College life is the key period of fostering personal brand loyalty, therefore college students become improtant target customers of retail enterprises. College students are taken as research objects, and categorized according to their life styles, and the purchasing motivation behind irrational consumption behaviors of them is tried to reveal from perspectives of the type and consumption demand of them. The research finds that irrational consumption behaviors can be devided into two dimensions, namely, blind consumption behaviors and impulsive consumption behaviors. Irrational consumption demands can be divided into seven aspects of achievement demand, difference-seeking demand, curiosity-seeking demand, cheap-seeking demand, sociality demand, brand demand and pressure-releasing demand. Difference-seeking demand and brand demand lead to blind consumption behaviors, while achievement demand, curiosity-seeking demand, cheap-seeking demand, sociality demand and pressure-releasing demand are important factors which lead to blind consumption behaviors and impulsive consumption behaviors. This research enriches theories of irrational consumption behaviors, offers theoretical support for enterprises to better understand the consumption behaviors of college students, provides differentiated marketing advices for the merchants whose target customer is college students, and makes personalized marketing plan according to different types of college students.%非理性消费是零售企业利润的重要来源,受到学术界的广泛关注。大学阶段是个人品牌忠诚培养的关键期,因此大学生成为零售企业重要的目标顾客。以大学生为研究对象,根据生活方式对大学生群体进行分类,并试图从大学生类型和消费需要的角度揭示大学生非理性消费行为背后的购买动因。研究

  9. The predictive capacity of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in exercise research: an integrated literature review. (United States)

    Blue, C L


    Although the association between habitual exercise and health benefits has been well documented, physical activity levels in the United States are lower than is necessary to reach the nation's health potential. Beliefs that people hold can be a motivating factor in engaging in exercise. A critical review of the literature was conducted to assess the efficacy of using the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior with respect to exercise. Evidence for the predictive utility of the theories was found. The Theory of Planned Behavior is a more promising framework for the study of exercise because it includes beliefs about control of factors that would facilitate or inhibit carrying out exercise. Strategies for use of the theories in planning exercise programs are provided and suggestions for future research discussed.

  10. Participatory Action Research on Help-Seeking Behaviors of Self-Defined Ritual Abuse Survivors: A Brief Report. (United States)

    Matthew, Laurie; Barron, Ian G


    The existence of ritual abuse is the subject of much debate. Ritual abuse survivor perceptions of seeking help have not been explored, and studies have yet to utilize self-defined survivors as collaborative researchers. This study addresses both issues. Participatory action research was utilized to design a survey and semistructured interview to investigate ritual abuse survivor experience of seeking help. Sixty-eight participants completed the survey, and 22 were interviewed. A group approach to thematic analysis aided validity and reliability. Participants reported experiencing disbelief and a lack of ritual abuse awareness and help from support services. In contrast, participatory action research was reported by participants as educative and emancipatory. Future research should explore the benefits of participatory action research for survivors of different forms of oppression.

  11. Behaviorism and Neuroscience. (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.


    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  12. 幼儿情绪与行为问题调查研究%Children's emotional and behavioral problems research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Children's emotion and behavior is an important symbol of children mature, their psychological behavior development orientation and procedural, emotional cause young children's behavior. Therefore, conform to perceive movement to the development of the emotion, from the children's emotional motivation to the development of various ability, from the intuitive thinking action to the development of the thinking in images, to evaluate children's emotional and behavioral development, can provide specific Suggestions on the development of early childhood; Through parenting skills at the same time, the church adult and children's communication and the way of the game, to help cultivate their good mood emotion, social adaptability and learning skills, etc., to promote health, harmony and all-round development.%幼儿情绪与行为是幼儿成熟的重要标志,其心理行为发展具有定向性和程序性,情绪诱发幼儿的行为。因此,遵从感知运动到情绪的发展,从幼儿情绪动机到各种能力的发展,从直觉行动思维到形象思维的发展,通过对儿童的情绪和行为发育进行评估,能够提供儿童早期发展的针对性建议;同时通过提高育儿技能,教会成人与幼儿交流和游戏方式,帮助培养孩子良好的情绪情感、社会适应能力和学习技能等,促进幼儿健康、和谐、全面发展。

  13. 信息行为研究的知识图谱分析%Knowledge Mapping Analysis of Information Behavior Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A total of 1303 papers published between 1975 and 2011 are retrieved from Web of Science with the topic search of information behavior, Using Citespace Ⅱ ,the relative data about cited papers and keywords have been processed, and we find that information behavior is a inter-disciplinary domain, mainly involves LIS, computer science, psychology science. With the analysis of core journal, 11 significant information sources are found. Through displaying high influence authors and their representative papers on Knowledge mapping, we find some important theories and models which represent the knowledge foundations in information behavior research, and these theories also lay a good foundation for cognition of information science. Through burst detection and keywords clustering, it shows research hotspots and frontiers of information behavior.%以WebofScience数据库(1975-2011年)信息行为主题的1303条文献为数据源,借助CitespaceⅡ软件对相关被引文献数据和主题词等数据进行分析和处理,以知识图谱的方式,对信息行为研究的跨学科属性、核心刊物、高影响力著者及代表性文献、研究热点和前沿进行分析,从而直观地揭示信息行为领域的研究现状和发展趋势。

  14. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research. (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B


    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention?

  15. A Novel Research on Behavior of Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Different Concentration of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimah Mohamed Kamari


    Full Text Available Zinc ferrite nanocrystals were prepared from an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and various of concentrations of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, i.e., 0, 15, 40, and 55 g/L, as a capping agent. To stabilize the particles, they were thermally treated at 873 K, as an optimum calcination temperature. The behaviors of the polymeric precursor were analyzed by use of simultaneous thermo-gravimetry (TG and derivative thermo-gravimetry analyses (DTG. The presence of the crystalline phase in each sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The average particle size and the morphology of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and these parameters were found to differ at various concentrations of PVP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the PVP concentrations and confirmed the absence of organic bands for PVP concentrations less than 55 g/L. Measurements of the magnetization value of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, which showed that, in the absence of PVP, the sample exhibited a paramagnetic behavior while, in the presence of PVP, samples have a super-paramagnetic behavior.

  16. Report on ONR Conference on ’Dolphin Behavior and Cognition: Comparative and Ecological Aspects’, Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, San Diego, California, 92109, July 6-9, 1983. (United States)


    Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, IL 60513 Robert Buhr Animal communication and cognition; Department of Linguistics neurolinguistics and neuropsychology Brown...Rockefeller University 1230 York Avenue New York, NY 10021 Henry Halff (observer) Personnel and Training Research Program .,,; Code 442 PT Arlington, VA Physiology and Neurobiology Research Program Code 441 NP e., Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 Bernd Wursig Cetacean behavior

  17. Information Behavior Research in the Recent Decade:Status Quo, Hot Research Topics and Trends%国外信息行为研究十年:现状、热点与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    运用共词、词串(cluster)及社会网络分析方法,对收录入WoS和LISTA数据库并发表于2001~2010年的68 563篇研究文献的摘要进行了文献计量分析.检出了信息行为研究的8个子领域和5个中心问题,勾画了当前信息行为研究领域的全貌.通过对信息行为各子维度的分析,概述了信息行为研究的特征.针对当前研究者普遍关注的一些关键问题,分别对信息行为与认知科学的交叉研究、心智评估测量研究、信息行为模型构建、仿真研究和扎根理论在信息行为研究中的运用进行了深入考察,揭示了这些领域的主要动向和代表性成果.基于对现有研究成果的梳理,概述了信息行为研究的趋势.%Present paper conducted a bibliometric study on information behavior research in recent decade via co-wordanalysis, words clusters and Social Network Analysis. As research materials, 68563 abstracts from academic articles in WoF and LISTA were chosen. This research found that there are 8 sub-fields exist among present information behavior study and 5 areas seem to attract more attention of researchers then others. Through a sub-dimension analysis procedure, we summarized predominate traits of information behavior research. Besides, this study shed a light on the 5 highly intentionedresearch topics and described the trend of research in information behavior.

  18. Researchers' Adoption Behavior of Google Scholar%科研人员对Google Scholar的采纳行为及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章以TAM模型为基础并结合Google Scholar的实际情况,构建了科研人员对Google Scholar的采纳行为模型,并通过问卷调查开展实证研究。结果表明感知有用性、感知易用性、态度、信息资源质量、系统质量、和界面可用性对科研人员采纳行为产生显著影响。最后根据实证研究结果提出了对图书馆开展服务的若干启示。%s Based on TAM and combined the actual situation of Google Scholar, the paper constructed the model of researchers' adoption behavior of Google Scholar, and conducted the empirical research. The results show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude, information resource quality, system quality, and interface usability has significant impact on the researchers' adoption behavior, and the inspiration for library service is suggested in the end.

  19. A Research for the Unemployment People’ s Job-seeking Behavior%失业人员求职行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 吴江


    文章基于计划行为理论的视角对失业人员求职行为及其影响因素进行研究。通过实证研究的方法对构建的理论模型进行验证,得到的模型适配度很好。并验证主观规范、行为态度和求职自我效能对求职意向具有积极的显著正向作用,且求职意向在各变量对求职行为的影响过程中起显著的中介作用。求职自我效能对求职强度影响作用显著,且在求职自我效能与求职行为作用的过程中起显著中介作用,但该变量在求职意向对求职行为作用的过程中的中介作用不显著。%Based on the theory of planned behavior, this paper closely surrounds the research project that the job⁃seeking behavior of unemployment people. And test the theory model by the empirical analysis. Subjective norm, behavioral attitude and job search self⁃efficacy have significant positive effect on job⁃seeking intention of unemployment people, and job⁃seeking intention as an intermediary variable between variables of job⁃seeking behavior and others, the effect is significant. Job self⁃efficacy has significant positive effect on job search which as an intermediary variable between job self⁃efficacy and others, the effect is significant. Job intensity as an intermediary variable between job⁃seeking intention an job⁃seeking behavior, however, the effect isn ’ t significant.

  20. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.


    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  1. Inductive inference or inductive behavior: Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches to statistical testing in psychological research (1940-1960). (United States)

    Halpin, Peter F; Stam, Henderikus J


    The application of statistical testing in psychological research over the period of 1940-1960 is examined in order to address psychologists' reconciliation of the extant controversy between the Fisher and Neyman-Pearson approaches. Textbooks of psychological statistics and the psychological journal literature are reviewed to examine the presence of what Gigerenzer (1993) called a hybrid model of statistical testing. Such a model is present in the textbooks, although the mathematically incomplete character of this model precludes the appearance of a similarly hybridized approach to statistical testing in the research literature. The implications of this hybrid model for psychological research and the statistical testing controversy are discussed.

  2. 我国火灾中人的行为研究动态%Developments of human behavior research in fires of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫文华; 孔祥昆; 郝爱玲; 邱培芳


    简要回顾我国火灾中人的行为研究历程,综合评述了人的行为研究中涉及到的研究内容如基础资料研究和模型研究,总结了主要研究方法如调查研究法、模拟研究法、实验研究法,指出了现有研究内容和研究方法存在的问题,针对我国今后的火灾中人的行为研究工作,建议加强对行为特征基础数据资料的搜集;在疏散模型的理论研究方面,注重个体特性和个体间的相互作用以及人员集群流动规律;尽量采取多种研究手段进行结合研究、比照研究.%The research history of human behavior in fires of China was reviewed briefly. Related research contents such as basic data and model were overviewed. Research methods such as investigation, simulation and experiments were summarized. The most popular problems of the existing research were pointed out. Suggestions on further study on this field in the future were carried out, including collecting basic data of behavior characteristics, focusing on the individual feature and interaction between individuals, and the laws of trunked in model and theoretical study, and comparing multiple research methods.

  3. 基于认同的消费者行为研究综述%Review of Research on Consumer Behavior Based on Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈韵清; 朱虹; 夏少昂


    It becomes an important way to explain consumer purchase motives by buying goods with the symbolic function to express self-identity or gain social identity,which is also the latest research topic of consumer behavior. The paper system⁃atically reviews the relevant western literature on the impact of identity on consumer behavior. First,it introduces the defini⁃tions of identity and symbol consumption, and the research path of consumer identity theory. Second, it discusses the im⁃pact of identity on consumer behavior from four aspects: identity salience, identity association, identity threat and identity conflict. Finally,it puts forward future research directions.%通过购买具有符号象征功能的商品,来表达自我认同或者获得社会认同,已经成为解释消费者购买动机的重要路径,也是消费者行为学研究的前沿主题。文章系统回顾了认同对消费行为影响的西方相关文献,首先介绍了认同与符号消费的含义、消费认同理论的研究路径,然后从认同凸显、认同关联、认同威胁和认同冲突四个方面探讨了认同对消费行为的影响,最后探讨了未来研究方向。

  4. Teaching Generative Grammar to Mentally Retarded Children: A Review and Analysis of a Decade of Behavioral Research. (United States)

    Welch, Steven J.


    Research (1968-1978) on the development of generative grammar in mentally retarded students is summarized for such topics as noun pluralization and suffixes, pronouns, adjectives, articles, verbs, prepositions, interrogatives, and generalization. Unresolved issues in generalization are noted. (CL)

  5. Study on Integrated Information Behavior Research Framework%信息行为集成化研究框架初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王知津; 韩正彪


    With the development of Web2.0 and with the advent of all kinds of information technologies, human information behaviors have become more complex than before. The study of information behaviors from the integrated perspectives has aroused increasing interests. Integrated information behavior research framework includes four parts, that is, time and space environment, multidisciplinary, research method and sub-behaviors. This framework studies the micro-level information behaviors from the perspective of macro-level. We found that on time and space environment level, we should analyze information behaviors under the process of human evolution and in the context of several envi- ronments and situations; on the disciplinary level, we should make comprehensive analysis in the macro background of sociology and anthropology; on the research method level, we should integrate qualitative and quantitative methods; on its content level, information seeking/search/retrieval, information organizing and information use should develop in a circular way with the propel of information sharing. More in-depth information behavior research should follow the prin- ciples of integration and diversification. 3 figs. 41 refs.%在Web2.0环境下,从集成化的角度对信息行为进行研究已逐渐成为新的热点。信息行为集成化研究框架包括时空环境、多学科、研究方法和多个子环节四部分,是一种从宏观视角对微观层面的信息行为进行研究的框架。在时空环境层面,需要定位于人类进化的历程和多层次的环境与情境中进行分析;在学科层面,应以情报学为核心,以心理学为辅助,以社会学和人类学为宏观背景进行综合分析;在研究方法层面,应综合应用质性方法与量性方法;在构成层面,信息搜寻/搜索/检索、信息组织、信息利用三个子环节在信息共享的促进下循环发展。对信息行为进行深入研究应坚持多

  6. Chaotic behavior in a system simulating the pressure balanced injection system. Analysis of passive safety reactor behavior. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H12-012 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madarame, Haruki; Okamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Gentaro; Morimoto, Yuichiro [Tokyo Univ., School of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Akira [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Kondou, Masaya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The pressure Balanced Injection System (PBIS) was proposed in a passive safety reactor. Pressurizing Line (PL) connects the Reactor Vessel (RV) and the gas area in the Contain Vessel (CV), and Injected Line (IL) connects two vessels at relatively lower position. In an accident, the two lines are passively opened. The vapor generated by the residual heat pressed downward the water level in the RV. When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, vapor is ejected into the CV through the PL attaining the pressure balance between the vessels. Then boron water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. This process is repeated by the succeeding vapor generation. In an experiment, the oscillating system was replaced by water column in a U-shaped duct. The vapor generation was simulated by cover gas supply to one end of the duct, while the other end was open to the atmosphere. When the water level reached a certain level, electromagnetic valves opened and the cover gas was ejected. The gas pressure decreased rapidly, resulting in a surface rise. When the water level reached another level, the valves closed. The cover gas pressure increased again, thus, gas ejection occurred intermittently. The interval of the gas ejection was not constant but fluctuated widely. Mere stochastic noise could hardly explain the large amplitude. Then was expressed the system using a set of linear equations. Various types of piecewise linear model were developed to examine the cause of the fluctuation. There appeared tangential bifurcation, period-doubling bifurcation, period-adding bifurcation and so on. The calculated interval exhibited chaotic features. Thus the cause of the fluctuation can be attributed to chaotic features of the system having switching. Since the piecewise linear model was highly simplified the behavior, a quantitative comparison between the calculation and the experiment was difficult. Therefore, numerical simulation code considering nonlinear

  7. Questionnaire Study of Chinese Medical Researchers Information Behavior%医学研究者科研信息行为的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章旨在了解国内医学研究者科研信息行为的基本状况,通过在线问卷调查工具调查了531名医学研究者,针对与科研信息行为相关的信息获取、信息资源、信息素养、信息利用习惯和对图书馆服务的评价等因素进行调查,分析结果提出建议,以期医学图书馆能够有针对性地对研究者提供科研信息服务,促进医学科研发展.%The primary purpose of this paper is to understand the basic sintation of the Chinese medical researchers' information behavior.531 medical researchers were investigated through online survey tools. Access to information for research, information resources, information literacy, information use habits, and evaluation of library services woe investigated in older to provide research information services, and to promote the development of medical research.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.


    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  9. Diversity Research on Income Difference and Consumption Behavior of Rural Residents in China - Empirical Analysis Based on AIDS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By building up an AIDS model of Chinese rural residents, classified into fivegroups by income, concluding six commodities (services), analyses the diversity of consumption behavior out of income difference. We draw the following conclusions: Firstly, there exists some difference between different income groups in commodities (services) consumption.Secondly, increase of farmers' income will be favorable to the enhancement of consumption level and upgrading of consumption structure. Thirdly, the medium income group, as one special mass, features a transitional main body of consumption structure. Finally, the policymakers should support the farmers with lower income in compulsory education, such as more and necessary transfer payments.

  10. Evaluation Research of the Effects of Longitudinal Speed Reduction Markings on Driving Behavior: A Driving Simulator Study. (United States)

    Ding, Han; Zhao, Xiaohua; Ma, Jianming; Rong, Jian


    The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) on vehicle maneuvering and drivers' operation performance on interchange connectors with different radii. Empirical data were collected in a driving simulator. Indicators-relative speed change, standard deviation of acceleration, and gas/brake pedal power-were proposed to characterize driving behavior. Statistical results revealed that LSRMs could reduce vehicles' travel speed and limit drivers' willingness to increase speed in the entire connector. To probe the impacts of LSRMs, the connecter was split into four even sections. Effects of LSRMs on driving behavior were stronger in the second and the final sections of connectors. LSRMs also enhanced drivers' adaptability in the first three quarters of a connector when the radius was 50 m. Drivers' gas pedal operation would be impacted by LSRMs in the entire connector when the radius was 50 m. LSRMs could only make drivers press brake pedal more frequently in the second section with 80 m and 100 m radius. In the second quarter section of a connector-from the FQP (the first quartile point) to the MC (the middle point of curve)-LSRMs have better effects on influencing vehicle maneuvering and drivers' operation performance.

  11. Analytical study on creep behavior of a tube of coolant piping system in nuclear power plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Hagihara, Seiya [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan); Chino, Eiichi; Maeda, Akio [MRI Systems Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Maruyama, Yu; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    During severe accident of a light water reactor (LWR), reactor coolant piping would be damaged when the piping is subjected to high internal pressure and very high temperature due to heat transfer from high-temperature gas and decay heat from wall-deposited fission product (FP), both from degraded core. In such a case, high-temperature fast creep deformation could be the main cause for the pipe failure. For the evaluation of piping integrity during severe accidents, a method to predict such high-temperature fast creep deformation should be developed, using a creep constitutive equation considering tertiary creep behavior which has not been considered well in the pipe failure analyses. In this study, a creep constitutive equation was developed first based on the Kachanov-Ravotnov isotropic damage rule that considers the tertiary creep behavior. JAERI creep tensile test data for both nuclear-grade cold-drawn SUS316N and hot-extruded SUS316 materials were used to determine coefficients of the developed constitutive equation. Using the developed constitutive equation, finite element analyses were performed for local creep deformation of coolant piping under two temperature conditions: uniform temperature and temperature gradient. The analytical results indicated the damage variable being integrated following the evolution of creep damage can indicate pipe wall internal damage condition quantitatively. The damage variable was confirmed further to be able to reproduce the observation in JAERI piping failure tests, that is, pipe failure from the wall outside. (author)

  12. [Modeling research on impact of pH on metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues from MSW incinerator]. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Xin-Jie; Shao, Li-Ming


    Metals leaching behavior of air pollution control residues (APC residues) from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is greatly dependent on the leachate pH. pH-varying leaching tests and Visual MINTEQ modeling were conducted to investigate the mechanism of pH effect on the metals leaching characteristics from MSWI APC residues. Results show that, under acidic environment (for Cd, Zn, and Ni, pH < 8; for Pb, Cu, and Cr, pH < 6; for Al, pH < 4), leaching concentrations of metals increase greatly with the decrease of pH. Release of amphoteric metals, Pb and Zn, can be induced in strong alkaline leachate, reaching to 42 and 2.4 mg x L(-1) at pH 12.5 respectively. The equilibrium modeling results are well in agreement with the analyzed leaching concentrations. Variation of leachate pH changes the metals speciation in the leaching system, thus influencing their leaching concentrations. Speciation and leaching behavior of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ca, and Al mainly depend on their dissolution/precipitation reactions under different leachate pH. Leachability of Cd, Cr, and Ni can be lowered under acidic and neutral leachate pH due to HFO adsorption, while under alkaline conditions, the effect of adsorption is not significant and dissolution/precipitation becomes the major reactions controlling the leaching toxicity of these heavy metals.

  13. Research on Economics and Management%Social Factors of Knowledge-sharing Behavior in Online Learning Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔; 马吟秋; 李旋


    This paper mainly discusses knowledge-sharing behavior in the online learning community,and focuses on exploring how the rational and emotional motivations influence members to participate and share knowledge on the online learning community.Through the empirical analysis,it is found members' expected returns,the knowledge to use and emotion significantly affect members' participation and involvement,and these factors also significantly affect knowledge-sharing behavior.%本文主要研究的是网络学习共同体中成员进行知识分享的行为动机,并重点探索成员的理性动机和情感动机,对成员自身加入网络学习共同体的介入影响以及对网络学习共同体知识贡献行为的影响。通过实证分析,笔者发现成员预期相关回报和知识利用行为以及成员的情绪与成员的网络学习共同体的参与度和投入度显著正相关,而这些因素又显著影响成员的知识分享行为。

  14. Radical behaviorism and interdisciplinary research: would a new synthesis be possible in psychology? / O behaviorismo radical e a interdisciplinaridade: possibilidade de uma nova síntese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenice Santos Chaves


    Full Text Available Psychology as science is historically engaged in theoretical disputes resulting from divergent viewpoints concerning the nature of knowledge generated by different epistemological, theoretical and methodological approaches, and by the particular divisions in the subject matter made by the researchers themselves. At the present time, epistemology of the complexity calls attention to the incompleteness, characteristic of scientific knowledge, that in turn affects the conduct of researchers, creating conditions for new dialogues between differing perspectives within and between disciplines. This article proposes a renewal of the dialogue between radical behaviorism and formal critical constructivism that, by emphasizing complementary relationships and opposing polarized thinking which has permeated these disciplines, may result in a new synthesis or new general theory of meaning. A new synthesis between the two approaches would reformulate the understanding of meaning development and the role of the reinforcement in the construction and enhancement of meaning.

  15. Research on Traffic Herding Behavior-Opportunity and Challenge%交通从众行为研究——机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超仲; 万平; 张晖; 李亚秋


    从众是1种常见的社会现象,道路交通系统中的从众行为也非常普遍.从众效应直接影响驾驶人及行人的决策行为,进而影响交通流特性,对于交通规划、设计与管理都具有重要的意义.文中分析了国内外从众行为的研究现状,从我国交通行为的研究方向,研究内容,研究方法等角度提出了交通从众行为研究的机遇,并从实验手段,数据获取,研究结果的不确定性角度提出了交通从众行为研究的挑战.交通从众现象的研究在学术上可以促进心理学与交通工程的学科交叉;在理论上可完善微观交通流模型;在实践上可以为有效利用从众效应进行交通规划、设计与管理等提供理论指导,具有广阔的应用前景.%Conformity is a common social psychological phenomenon, and also commonly happens in road traffic system. The decision-making behaviors for vehicle drivers and pedestrians are directly affected by the bandwagon effect, resulting in the influence on traffic flow characteristics. The Bandwagon effect is significantly important for traffic planning and design. After the review of the research on traffic herd behavior from home and aboard, the opportunity of the research on the conformity of the traffic behavior is proposed from the perspective of research direction, contents, and methods while the challenge is proposed from the perspective of the experiment method, data acquisition and uncertainty of the research results. The expected achievements can academically promote the interdisciplinary research in the aspect of psychology and traffic engineering, theoretically perfect the microscopic traffic flow model in the aspect of modeling, and practically guide the traffic planning, design, management and other applications.

  16. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  17. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  18. A Research Review on Managerial Stewardship Behavior%经理人管家主义行为研究回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 张文勤


    公司治理研究主要从两个视角来研究委托人与经理人之间的关系,即代理主义视角和管家主义视角。代理主义视角把经理人视为代理人,从而形成代理主义理论;管家主义视角把经理人视为公司资产的管家,从而形成管家主义理论。文章介绍了经理人管家主义行为的理论基础、概念内涵、结构测量,并且探讨了经理人管家主义行为的影响因素、心理过程模型,最后指出未来研究应该集中在管家主义行为的影响因素和影响结果、管家主义文化或气氛、员工管家主义行为、集体管家主义行为等方面。%There are two different perspectives used to explore the relationship between principals and managers in corporate governance research field,one is agency perspective,the other is stewardship perspective. The agency perspective views man-agers as agents,thereby agency theory is developed. While the stewardship perspective views managers as stewards of organiza-tional assets, thereby stewardship theory is developed. Based on the review of past researches about stewardship, this article comprehensively introduced the theoretical foundation,definition,dimension and measurement of managerial stewardship be-havior, and also discussed the influencing factors and psychological process model of managerial stewardship behavior. At the end of this article,we pointed out that future research should focus on the antecedents and outcome variables of stewardship be-havior,stewardship culture or climate,employee stewardship behavior,collective stewardship behavior,and so on.

  19. 顾客抱怨行为影响因素研究述评%Research Review on Influence Factor of Customer Complaint Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    顾客抱怨是消费者行为研究中一项重要的研究主题,了解抱怨原因、行为方式等有助于企业进行服务补救,降低流失率,提高企业竞争力。本文回顾国内外学者关于顾客抱怨的研究成果,对相关文献进行了总结与述评,主要包括顾客抱怨的内涵、顾客抱怨的分类,以及顾客抱怨的影响因素。%Customer complaint is an important topic in consumer behavior research. To understand the rea-sons for complaining and behavior contribute to remedial services, reduce turnovers and improve the competitive-ness of enterprises. This paper reviews research papers home and abroad on customer complaints, including the connotation, classification and effects.

  20. Research on the Classroom Teaching Behavior of University Physics Teachers%大学物理教师课堂教学行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The use of literature, questionnaire, expert interviews, video analysis, research methods for physics teachers in the physics classroom teaching behavior were comprehensive study, results show that: in relation to classroom teaching behavior of six level indicators, physical expert teachers in narration, Q & A behavior, discussion and practice behavior, to stimulate the motivation and interest in training, classroom management behavior scores are higher than the novice teachers, in class present behavior index on novice teachers a slim majority. Recommendations relevant departments should be a full range of training for novice teachers, help novice teachers lack of understanding, improve the ability to use the novice teachers' pedagogical knowledge and professional knowledge, to help novice teachers to form accurate schematic knowledge, enhance the ability of classroom management.%运用文献资料,问卷调查,专家访谈,录像分析等研究方法对物理教师的课堂教学行为进行了全面的研究,结果显示:在涉及课堂教学行为的六个一级指标方面,物理专家教师在讲述行为、问答行为、讨论和练习行为、动机激发与兴趣培养、课堂管理行为方面的得分都高于新手教师,在课堂呈现行为指标上新手教师占有微弱优势。建议有关部门应该对新手教师进行全方位的培训,帮助新手教师了解不足,提高新手教师的教学法知识和专业知识的运用能力,以帮助新手教师形成精确的知识图示,提升课堂管理能力。

  1. The Research of Private Consumption Behavior of China%我国居民消费行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Form the viewpoint of the conjunction of theory and experimental research, the paper analyses the preference of consumers of different income level, together with the consuming activites of constraint hypothesis, and thereby establishes the consumption model suitable for the private consumption situation of China. The paper further provides the relevant suggestions on stimulating consumption growth.

  2. A Universalist-Evolutionary Approach in Ethnographic Semantics. Working Paper of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 27. (United States)

    Berlin, Brent

    Criticism has been directed at a growing body of literature broadly referred to as ethnoscience, ethnosemantics, folk science, ethnographic semantics, and cognitive anthropology. Criticisms concern methodological and analytic aspects of ethnoscientific procedure, and the directions of ethnosemantic research from a theoretical point of view. The…

  3. Research Review: The Importance of Callous-Unemotional Traits for Developmental Models of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; White, Stuart F.


    The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and…

  4. Science Supports Education: The Behavioral Research Base for Psychology's Top 20 Principles for Enhancing Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell


    Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…

  5. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Disruptive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research (United States)

    Klingbeil, David A.; Fischer, Aaron J.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Bloomfield, Bradley S.; Polakoff, Ben; Willenbrink, Jessica B.; Copek, Rebecca A.; Chan, Kai Tai


    The popularity of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is growing rapidly in schools. Decisions regarding the use of these interventions must be based on empirical evidence. There is robust evidence for the use of MBIs with adults, but research on MBIs with youth is nascent. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to add to the literature…

  6. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon


    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  7. Reviews of Counterfeit Luxury Purchase Behavior Research%仿冒奢侈品购买行为的研究综述与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了世界范围内仿冒奢侈品消费的现状、仿冒行为可能造成的危害以及正牌奢侈品制造商在应对仿冒行为时所遇到的难题,明确了从需求端研究仿冒奢侈品消费的重要性.在前人已有研究成果的基础上,从计划行为、认知失调等理论的视角分析了仿冒奢侈品购买行为,进而总结了消费者个人特征、产品特征、社会文化背景、情境与情绪四个方面影响仿冒奢侈品购买行为的因素.最后分析了相关领域现有研究的不足,并提出了一些值得注意的未来研究方向.%The worldwide situation of counterfeit luxury goods consumption, the threats that might be caused by counterfeiting and the troubles the genuine luxury manufacturers had when coping with counterfeiting are introduced.The importance of studying the issues of counterfeit luxury goods consumption from the demand end is emphasized.Based on previous researches, the behavior of counterfeit luxury consumption is analyzed in a view of theories such as planned behavior and cognitive dissonance.The influencing factors on counterfeit luxury purchase behavior are summarized in four aspects: consumer characteristics, product characteristics, social context and situational and emotional factors.At last,the limitations of previous studies are pointed out,with some advice for future researches.

  8. The semantics of sexual behavior and their implications for HIV/AIDS research and sexual health: US and UK gay men's definitions of having "had sex". (United States)

    Hill, B J; Rahman, Q; Bright, D A; Sanders, S A


    Understanding the definition and meaning of the word "sex" has implications for sexual medicine, HIV/AIDS research, and clinical practices. Previous studies have reported variations in the definition of having "had sex" and the necessity of using behaviorally specific terminology when taking sexual histories and assessing sexual risk. The purpose of the current study is to assess gay men's definitions of what constitutes having "had sex." Two international convenience samples are compared: a UK sample of 180 self-identified gay men ranging from 18 to 56 years of age (M=36 years; SD=8.29) and a US sample of 190 self-identified gay men ranging 18-74 years of age (M=33.9 years; SD=12.49). Both groups were asked to indicate whether each of a list of sexual behaviors was considered having "had sex." Almost all participants (~95%) believed that penile-anal intercourse constituted having "had sex." US and UK gay men differed in defining the following as having "had sex": giving oral-genital stimulation (US 71.6%, UK 84.9%, P=0.002); giving (G) and receiving (R) manual-anal stimulation (G: US 53.4%, UK 70.9%, P=0.001; R: US 53.7%, UK 71.2%, P=0.001); giving and receiving oral-anal stimulation (G: US 61.2%, UK 78.4%, Psex-toy stimulation (G: US 55%, UK 77.1%, Psex." These findings reinforce the need for behavioral specificity in documenting sexual histories and assessing sexual risk. Further, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution by not assuming that their own definitions of the term "sex" is shared by their gay male participants or patients.

  9. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.


    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agah Sinan Ünsar


    Full Text Available In leadership definitions, it is generally approved that superior personality traits are one of the factors which form successful leadership. Furthermore, individuals follow leaders consistently and choose leaders as their role models. In this context; the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of personality traits on leadership behaviors. Thus; a questionnaire has been implemented on the students of Trakya University Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences (FEAS and Vocational School of Social Sciences, Departments of Business Administration (Edirne-Turkey. Subsequently the findings have been commented by means of analyses and tables. Gender, grow-up places, educational level of students’ parents and types of high schools which students graduated from were found to affect the adopted leadership styles. Besides that, there are differences between the FEAS and the Vocational School students on extravert, responsible, open to experience personality traits and laissez-faire leadership style.

  11. 人工生命行为选择情绪机制研究进展%Research Progress on Emotional Behavior Selection Mechanism of Artificial Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国锋; 李祖枢


    基于智能的行为选择机制(BSM)存在两个缺陷:不确定性环境下,不能实现自主行为选择,在相同环境条件下,缺乏行为反应的多样性.受情绪机制应用于情感计算与强化学习研究的启发,将其应用于行为选择机制研究,以解决上述问题,从而,提出三类情绪行为选择机制:情绪影响机制、情绪驱动机制、情绪涌现机制.但这些机制存在:未能将其所需涉及的基本因素进行涵盖,有系统性缺陷;各种选择机制体系结构和情绪计算模型彼此各异,没有继承性;基于设计思想,缺乏相关学科关于情绪行为理论的支撑.另外,研究方法上,也存在各行为机制之间、智能机制和情绪机制之间缺乏系统性分析和比较的问题.提出,要揭示情绪行为选择机制,应从认真挖掘动物行为学、心理学、经济学等领域有关情绪研究结果之间的内在一致性入手.同时,比较方法的使用,将是加速这一过程的有效手段.%There are two defects on intelligence-based Behavior selection mechanism (BSM): under uncertainty conditions, behavior selection can't be achieved autonomously; under same conditions, behavioral response is absence of diversity. Being inspirited by research achievements in emotion mechanism application for emotion calculation and reinforcement learning, emotion mechanism is applied to research on BSM to settle the above problems. Therefore, the three kinds of emotional BSM( EBSM) are suggested :emotion-affected mechanism, emotion-driven mechanism,emotion-emerged mechanism. However, these mechanisms have three problems: a systematic drawback exists that the necessary elements, which BSM should have had, have not involved in; The EBSM architectures and their emotion models are different from each other, there is no inheritane; They are design-based, there are not the corresponding academic supports for them on emotion behavior mechanism. In addition, there exists a problem on the

  12. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth


    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention.

  13. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  14. eHealth Literacy, Online Help-Seeking Behavior, and Willingness to Participate in mHealth Chronic Disease Research Among African Americans, Florida, 2014–2015 (United States)

    Harville, Cedric


    Introduction The high rate of ownership of smartphones among African Americans provides researchers with opportunities to use digital technologies to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population. This study aimed to assess the association between eHealth literacy (EHL) and access to technology, health information–seeking behavior, and willingness to participate in mHealth (mobile health) research among African Americans. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 881 African American adults from April 2014 to January 2015 in north central Florida. EHL was assessed by using the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) with higher scores (range, 8–40) indicating greater perceived skills at using online health information to help solve health problems. Results Overall eHEALS scores ranged from 8 to 40, with a mean of 30.4 (standard deviation, 7.8). The highest score was for the item “I know how to find helpful health resources on the Internet,” and the lowest score was for “I can tell high quality from low quality health resources on the Internet.” Most respondents owned smartphones (71%) and searched online for health information (60%). Most were also willing to participate in health research that used text messages (67%), smartwatches/health tracking devices (62%), and health apps (57%). We found significantly higher eHEALS scores among women, smartphone owners, those who use the Internet to seek health information, and those willing to participate in mHealth research (P < .01 for all). Conclusion Most participants owned smartphones, used the Internet as a source of information, and were willing to participate in mHealth research. Opportunities exist for improving EHL and conducting mHealth research among African Americans to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases. PMID:27854421

  15. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon


    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  16. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors. (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace


    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  17. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)] [and others


    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Advance in Research of the Coalescence Behavior of Multiphase Ploymer Blends%多相聚合物体系的归并行为研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绪煌; 余鹏; 李纯清; 盛京


    The coalescence of multiphase polymer systems is a process which effective collision and coarsening behavior of dispersed particles happened after phase separation of thermodynamics incompatible polymer blending systems.In this paper,the phase coalescence mechanism and research methods of multiphase polymer systems and the coalescence behavior during processing were summarized.The coalescence process could happenned either in annealing conditions or in shearing conditions.Static coalescence means the aggregation of dispersed particles caused by multiphase polymers's annealing under molten status.Flow driven coalescence means the aggregation of dispersed particles caused by polymers's shearing flow under certain flow conditions.SALS(small-angle laser light scattering)is a in situ and in real time on-line observation technique,which is fit for theoretical research.Because it is inconvenient to use light scattering method in injection and screw,on-line sampling method was mainly used to research the coalescence of multiphase polymers during processing by TEM and SEM.Current coalescence researches were mainly focused on theoretical method of rheometer.Researches on coalescence behavior during processing were few although its was more significant in practice.Not only the research of regularity,mechanism and dynamical equation of coalescenceduring processing,but also the design of appropriate interfacial structure and processing technology to control the coalescence behavior of processing could achieve the stability of phase structure.%多相聚合物体系的相归并指热力学不相容的聚合物共混体系,发生相分离后,分散相粒子发生有效碰撞,分散颗粒聚集而长大的过程.本文综述了多相聚合物体系的相归并机理、研究方法及加工过程的归并行为.归并过程可以在退火条件下进行,也可以在剪切条件下进行.多相聚合物在熔融状态下的退火会引起分散相颗粒之间的聚集,称为静态

  19. Advances and frontiers in research of organizational behavior and leadership%组织行为与领导力研究的进展与前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志学; 施俊琦; 刘军


    This paper first describes the characteristics of organizational behavior and leadership research, and delineates the status quo of Chinese and international research. We can see that Chinese scholars have made fast progress in this field in the past decade and have tremendous potentials. Second, after comparing Chinese and oversea researchers in studied topics and methods, we point out the shortcomings of the current Chinese research. The third section of the paper presents the innovations of the organizational behavior and leadership research in theory, method and paradigm. Scholars are encouraged to focus on the phenomena relevant to Chinese economic and social development, to identify the research questions that are relevant to this field, and to conduct research in rigorous and creative ways. To achieve this goal, Chinese scholars need to learn from the existing theories and methods, and choose appropriate perspectives to examine the identified questions. In order to inspire Chinese scholars to investigate the important phenomena in the Chinese context, and therefore to contribute to the international academy, the third section also introduces several recent studies with high impacts. The paper concludes with the future research directions in the field of organizational behavior and leadership.%本文首先简要介绍了组织行为和领导力的研究特色和该领域国内外的研究现状。从中可以看出,在过去的10多年中,中国学者在该领域中进步快速,并蕴含巨大的潜力。随后,比较了国际和国内学术界的研究话题和采用的方法,指出国内目前研究存在的问题。文章的第三部分介绍了当今组织行为和领导力领域在理论、方法和研究范式上的创新。针对当前中国经济和社会发展的现状,文章指出了学者可以重点关注的领域。学者可以借鉴学术界已有的理论和方法,选择恰当的角度对这些问题进行深入而系统的探索

  20. Jump-starting urban rat research: Conspecific pheromones recruit wild rats into a behavioral and pathogen-monitoring assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons


    Full Text Available Wild rats, Rattus spp, have adapted so well to urbanization that humans may be obligatory to their survival. Consequently, rats foul human food sources, predate threatened fauna and serve as reservoirs for disease, costing the US economy $19 billion in losses year -1. Urban rat ecology however, remains vastly unexplored because these animals are cryptic, crepuscular, difficult to identify, and hazardous to handle. Additionally, the high-rise buildings that block satellite link-ups, underground sewers and subway tunnels, and rebar enforced concrete covered landscape make it difficult—if not impossible— to track urban animals using traditional radio telemetry. Consequently, there are few ecological studies with free-ranging urban rats. Therefore, we set out to monitor the behaviors and health of free-ranging rats in metropolitan New York. Recognizing that wild rats are attracted to live laboratory-reared conspecifics and that they are sensitive to pheromones, we used soiled rat bedding to repeatedly attract animals to a Remote Frequency Identification (RFID- based antenna with camera-trap and load cell (scale for collecting weights. We captured and micro-chipped 13 rats within 50, 30 and 10 m from our antenna and followed their movements. Seven of the 8 animals released within 10 m of the antenna, visited the RFID antenna lure 398 times over 41 standardized days. Males (2.7 visits day-1 visited the antenna at the same frequency as females (2.7 visits day-1; P>0.5, and both sexes spent similar time dwelling at the pheromones (M, 2.9±0.9 sec; F, 2.4.±0.4 sec; P>0.05. The passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag worked free on the lone individual that did not participate. Within our population, female activity peaked between 6am and 7pm, while males visited throughout the day. Our results demonstrate the potential to safely overcome the primary barriers that have impeded urban rat ecological studies. We used pheromone-based lures to attract

  1. 基于计划行为理论的大学生网络行为调查%Research on College Students' Internet Behavior Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚俊杰; 李宏利; 董安美


    大学生是互联网的重要用户,网络使用能力是大学生发展的一个基本素质。计划行为理论认为,影响行为的可能性因素,如个人认知、态度反应以及社会规范等,需要经由行为意向才会影响行为表现。行为意向是个体执行特定行为的倾向性,是行为的前因变量。针对北京高校1110名大学生的调查显示,网络自我效能感、网络使用主观规范可以通过网络使用意向影响网络功能使用,而网络使用态度则不能;且男生可能比女生有更高的网络使用意向,有异性朋友个体比没有异性朋友个体具有更低的网络使用意向。这表明增加大学生的网络使用意向,可以通过增加他们的网络效能感与网络功用性来实现。同时,教育者在引导大学生网络使用意向改变过程中,应该看到网络自我效能感的重要作用以及性别、人际关系的影响。%College students make up an important part of Internet users, and the ability of using internet is becoming a basic required quality for college students' development. The theory of planned behavior suggests the effect of individual cognition, attitude and social norms on behavior was mediated by behavior intention. Behavior intention as the antecedent variable of behavior refers to an indication of an individual's readiness to perform a given behavior. The present research sampled 1110 students in two colleges of Beijing area by a questionnaire survey. Path analysis showed that: (1) both Internet self-efficacy and Internet use subjective norms affect the function used of Internet through the Internet use intention;(2) Internet use attitude cannot affect network function through the network use intention;(3) male students has higher level of Internet use intention than female students;(4) students with a friend of opposite sex has lower level of Internet use intention than students without. These results indicated that we can

  2. Research on Growth Behavior of Embryos for Bovine and Murine on Primary Murine Embryos Fibroblast Cell Feeder Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai; YANG Qi; LEI An-min; YANG Chun-rong; GAO Zhi-min


    The difference in growth behavior between bovine embryos and murine embryos was studied on PMEF(primary murine embryos fibroblast)feeder layer. The results showed as follows: With embryos having attached, bovine embryonic trophoblast formed a transparent membranous structure covering on inner cell mass (ICM), however, murine embryonic trophoblast formed disc structure. Bovine embryos formed four kinds of ICM colonies with different morphology including the mass-like, the net-like, the stream-like and the mixture-like colonies. Compared with Murine ICM, the bovine ICM grew more fast. So, the bovine ICM was passaged at first after a culture of approximately 5 - 6 days in vitro, but murine ICM was passaged at first after an attachment of 3 - 4 days on PMEF feeder layer. The mixture colonies of bovine ICM differentiated very early, while the others differentiated very late. Most ICM-like mass of Bovine grew in a defined spot, but bovine ICMs like stream and ICMs like net proliferated fast and dispersed quickly. We found that the single blastomeres derived from late bovine morula and late murine morula formed sub-blastophere; moreover, the bovine ICM cell would differentiate rapidly if the trophoblast was removed.

  3. Research on Electrochemical Behavior of Ti-Ir-Ru Anode Coating in Electrolytic Antifouling of Flowing Brine (United States)

    Liang, Chenghao; Huang, Naibao


    By electrochemical techniques, the electrochemical behavior of Ti-Ir-Ru anode coating was studied in electrolytic antifouling of flowing brine. The effect of the brine’s flow rate and the anode/cathode interval on electrolysis was also considered. The results indicated that the brine’s flow rate had remarkable effect on the characteristic of the Ti-Ir-Ru anode. The electrolytic voltage and the evolved active chlorine concentration of Ti-Ir-Ru anode increased with increasing flow rate. Its energy consumption displayed the same variable rule as the electrolytic voltage. But the current density reduced with increasing flow rate. Increasing flow rate favored attenuation of the thickness of mass-transfer control layer and expediting the oxygen’s mass transfer, which accelerated the cathode polarization and the oxygen absorption reaction. The maximal current efficiency for Ti-Ir-Ru anode was obtained at the anode/cathode interval of 5 cm with the current density of 60 mA/cm2. At this point, Ti-Ir-Ru anode also had relatively low electrolytic voltage. The above operating procedure was ideal for electrolyzing flowing brine using Ti-Ir-Ru anode coating.

  4. Experimental research on behavior of 460 MPa high strength steel I-section columns under cyclic loading (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Shi, Gang; Shi, Yongjiu


    To investigate the seismic behavior of I-section columns made of 460 MPa high strength steel (HSS), six specimens were tested under constant axial load and cyclic horizontal load. The specimens were designed with different width-to-thickness ratios and loaded under different axial load ratios. For each specimen, the failure mode was observed and hysteretic curve was measured. Comparison of different specimens on hysteretic characteristic, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity were further investigated. Test results showed that the degradation of bearing capacity was due to local buckling of flange and web. Under the same axial load ratio, as width-to-thickness ratio increased, the deformation area of local buckling became smaller. And also, displacement level at both peak load and failure load became smaller. In addition, the full extent of hysteretic curve, energy dissipation capacity, ultimate story drift angle decreased, and capacity degradation occurred more rapidly with the increase of width-to-thickness ratio or axial load ratio. Based on the capacity of story drift angle, limiting values which shall not be exceeded are suggested respectively for flange and web plate of 460 MPa HSS I-section columns when used in SMFs and in IMFs in the case of axial load ratio no more than 0.2. Such values should be smaller when the axial load ratio increases.

  5. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.


    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  6. Research on Visual Information Processing with Special Reference to Oculomotor Behavior in the Areas of Exploration, Recognition and Search. (United States)


    7 0-Ai86 598 RESEARCH ON VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING WdITH SPECIAL t/IREFERENCE TO OCULO (U) GULF AND WESTER APPLIED SCIENCE LABS WALTHAM MA L F...indicate a strong effect, (i.e. distance from foveal center), p=.O00 for axis and the data blot in affects recognition Performance (see figure Q would...the four axes ar- trend is present. The question remains given in table 7 below. These data are as to wnv tnere should be a difference also blotted in

  7. 对学术不端行为严格把关以促进学风建设%Limiting the Improper Behaviors in Technological Researching Strictly and Promoting the Researching Atmosphere Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Scientific journals act very important roles in the development of technological researches,and they are good platforms for researchers communicating and learning. However,there are some people do some improper behaviors in technological researching for their own benefit,and do harm to the whole scientific career. So,it is very important to enhance the level of scientific journals’limiting effect,and promote the researching atmosphere building by strict checking work. Only taking measures to do these good can promote our scientific career developing steadily.%科技期刊在科学技术研究发展的道路上起到了非常重要的作用,是一个供科研人员进行学术交流与互相学习的良好平台。但是往往有人在利益的驱使下,做出学术不端的行为,使我国的科研事业遭到阻碍。因此,应当增强科技期刊的把关作用,通过严谨的审稿等工作搞好学风建设,只有这样,才能促进我国的科研事业得到长足的发展。

  8. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft


    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  9. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk


    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS, indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR, was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect, as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  10. 中学生暴力行为调查研究%Research on Violent Behavior in Middle School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 刘丽; 赵冰洁


    Using self-designed investigation questionnaires about life experience of middle school students to investigate campus violence, especially physical violence and psychological violence among students, this article aimed at investigating the general condition and characters of middle school students' violent behavior. This article concluded that there was obvious difference among their psychological violence performance on whether they were class managers or not ; among their general violence performance on whether class managers or not and their fathers' professions; among violence performance of victims on gender, whether class managers or not and their mothers' degree of education; among violence performance of witnesses on gender, whether class managers or not, fathers' professions and degree of education as well as mothers' degree of education.%采用自编的中学生生活经历调查研究问卷,对校园暴力特别是生生之间的躯体暴力和心理暴力进行调查研究,以调查中学生暴力行为一般状况和特点。研究发现,心理暴力得分在是否班干部上有显著差异;总暴力得分在是否班干部和在父亲职业上有显著差异。暴力实施者的得分在是否班干部上有显著差异;暴力受害者的得分在性别、是否班干部、母亲文化程度上有显著差异;暴力目击者的得分在性别、是否班干部、父亲职业、父亲文化程度、母亲职业上有显著性差异。

  11. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V.; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P.


    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers. PMID:25826052

  12. Research on acute toxicity and the behavioral effects of methanolic extract from psilocybin mushrooms and psilocin in mice. (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P


    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  13. Status Quo of Information Behavior Research in Cognitive Perspective. Based on the Bibliometrics Research%国外认知视角的信息行为研究现状分析:基于文献计量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文杰; 于斌斌


    综合运用词频统计及社会网络分析的方法,以国外2001~2010年发表于图书馆学情报学(LIS)领域主要学术刊物从认知视角展开的关于信息行为研究的733篇论文为样本,对其摘要进行了文献计量分析。通过聚类分析,析出了本领域研究的4个主要子领域和3个相关问题,从整体上勾画了认知视角信息行为研究的全貌i通过对共词网络中心性的分析,检出了十年来认知视角信息行为研究的热点问题。%This research integratsd word-frequency statistics and social network analysis as a bibliometrics research meth- od, based on the analysis of abstracts of 733 academic articles published on the key journals of LIS during 2001 '--2010. The researchers find that there are 4 sub-areas and 3 related research items existed in the information behavior research area in cognitive perspective. On the strength of a co-word-cluster analysis, present study confirmsd information retrieval, informa- tion seeking and information search as the hot research issues in this area.

  14. 组织中上下级值得信任的行为研究%Research on Trustworthy Behavior in Chinese Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严进; 付琛; 郑玫


    组织中的信任关系已经成为研究的热点问题.在文献基础上,本研究采用半结构化访谈的研究方法,对42名管理人员进行访谈.通过编码和统计分析,结果发现,上下级值得信任的行为可以分为能力任务、支持相容、道德诚信、尽责敬业四个方面,但是行为内容和强调重点均有所区别.能力因素是组织中的信任强调的首要方面;对上级的信任更强调支持关怀和诚信道德,对下属的信任更强调尽责投入和坦诚忠实.%In recent years, trust research has attracted enormous interest in the social science. It has been stated that the interpersonal trust between supervisors and subordinates is a personal specific construct affected by the organization context. In this study, an analysis frame is developed to explore the unique trustworthy behaviors of managers in Chinese organizations. 42 top and middle managers participated in the semi-structured interview. The results show that trustworthy behaviors of managers can be interpreted by four dimensions: competency for task, interpersonal skills, integrity and loyalty, and dedication to work. However, the importance and content of these dimensions are different from supervisors' and subordinates' perspective. Competency for task is crucial for both supervisors and subordinates. The difference is that the supervisors consider more about dedication to work when assessing subordinates' behaviors while subordinates emphasize on supervisors' interpersonal skills.

  15. Qualitative research of effective teaching behaviors in clinical nursing teachers%临床护理教师有效教学行为的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰刚; 陈士芳; 李转珍


    The researchers collected feedback of 364 nursing interns. Based on the written material of internship description, qualitative inductive analysis was applied to the collected data with reference to Grounded Theory Method. The results revealed that the effective teaching behavior in clinical nursing teachers was composed of three categories and thirteen conceptions, which were establishment of trust relationship (four conceptions), impartment of knowledge and skills (four conceptions) and presentation of nursing behavior (five conceptions). We believed effective teaching behaviors of clinical nursing teachers could render nursing interns a high quality internship environment, and lay solid foundation for nursing interns' knowledge learning, nursing skills acquirement and occupational enthusiasm cultivation.%收集364名实习护生的实习感想,以其实习感想中的描述为文字资料,参考扎根理论方法对收集的资料进行质性归纳式分析.荻取临床护理教师有效教学行为有信赖关系的建立(4个种概念)、知识技能的传授(4个种概念)、护理行为的展示(5个种概念)3个类概念和13个种概念.提出临床护理教师的有效教学行为可为护生提供一个高品质的实习环境,为护生学习护理知识、掌握护理技能、培养职业情感奠定基础.

  16. Translating a health behavior change intervention for delivery to 2-year college students: the importance of formative research. (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Sevcik, Sarah M; Petrich, Christine A; Gardner, Jolynn K; Laska, Melissa N; Lozano, Paula; Lytle, Leslie A


    Young adults are at risk for weight gain in the transition to independent adulthood; 2-year college students are at greater risk and understudied relative to 4-year students. This project conducted formative research for a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial among 2-year college students, to ensure appropriateness of content and delivery of a curriculum originally developed for 4-year college students. Data were collected from community college students, faculty, and staff from October 2009 to August 2011. Work included focus groups and key informant interviews, curriculum pilot testing, and social network and support website beta testing. Based on focus groups and interviews, program content, course delivery modes, and communication channels were adjusted to meet population interests and preferences. The course was delivered successfully in pilot testing, and the website was received well by beta testers. Formative work successfully guided program adaptations to address population needs.

  17. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data. (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Lance, Charles E


    Fruit and vegetable consumption affects the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus a more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed.

  18. Moderated mediation regarding the sun-safe behaviors of U.S. Latinos: advancing the theory and evidence for acculturation-focused research and interventions. (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Yaroch, Amy L; Unger, Jennifer B; Cockburn, Myles G; Rueda, Robert; Reynolds, Kim D


    Recent studies revealed a negative association between acculturation and sun-safe behaviors, possibly mediated by education level, health status, and social networks. We sought to elucidate this relationship by exploring the moderating effects of gender and health insurance on each mediated path. We used data from 496 Latino respondents to the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. Acculturation, assessed by a four-item index, was the primary predictor; use of sunscreen and protective clothing were the primary outcomes, assessed by frequency scales. Moderated mediation was tested with an established causal moderation method. The mediated association between acculturation, education level and sunscreen use might be stronger among women than men (P < 0.08). We found no evidence of moderated mediation for use of protective clothing. The findings suggest ways of refining the theoretical and empirical rationale for sun safety research and interventions with Latinos. Studies should replicate these models with longitudinal data.

  19. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: Recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.


    Fruit and vegetable consumption impacts the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed. PMID:18935880

  20. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  1. Advanced separation and transmutation, long dated behavior of vitrified wastes: 15 years of scientific researches; Separation poussee et transmutation, comportement a long terme des dechets vitrifies: 15 ans d'avancees scientifiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results after 15 years of researches at the Cea, concerning the separation and transmutation of radioactive wastes and the conditioning and the long time storage of wastes at the surface. These researches were asked in the framework of the Bataille law. The first part devoted to the transmutation and separation of ling life radioactive elements presents the challenges, the advanced separation, the transmutation and the evaluation of the researches. The second part devoted to the long dated storage discusses the high activity wastes vitrification, the behavior of the vitrified wastes packages after thousand years, the international researches and the evaluation of the researches. (A.L.B.)

  2. 城市居民购物消费行为研究进展与展望%Progress and Prospects of the Research on Shopping Behavior of Urban Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩会然; 焦华富; 王荣荣; 戴柳燕


    Shopping behavior of urban residents is the main content of the research about urban commercial ac-tivities,and researches on its characteristics and decision-making process can provide a basis for urban commer-cial network planning.Shopping behavior is one of the most important research fields of urban geography and behavioral geography,and it is necessary to review its developing history,appraise its research progress and dis-cuss its future developing trends.Geographical researches on residents’consumption behavior particularly em-phasize on consumers’spatial selection activities and spatial-temporal characteristic of obtaining goods or ser-vices.The shopping behavior is the basic consumption behavior as a dynamic link within the urban activities sys-tem,so most researches on consumption behavior take residents’shopping behavior as a case.Shopping behav-ior study of Chinese urban residents refers to corresponding detailed study on type of goods,trip distance,travel time,travel frequency,travel mode and trip purpose of urban residents according to the different ages,different occupations and different income.Based on explaining the foreign theory and method study of shopping behav-ior,the paper reviews the domestic study progress of related shopping behavior.The review indicates that the studies on shopping behavior were shifted from the macroscopic supply level to the demand level at home and abroad;the foreign studies mainly concentrated on basic theories,characteristics and influence factors,forecast-ing and model simulation and so on;the domestic studies mainly focused on the macroscopic level studies of commercial spatial structures based on shopping behavior,the spatial-temporal characteristics,decision-making and influencing factors of shopping behavior.Through comparing the research situation of domestic and foreign residents’shopping behaviors,it has been found that there was a large gap between our country and the western counties in the field

  3. 宁波江东区老年人休闲体育行为研究%Research On Leisure Sports Behaviors Of Elders In Jiangdong District In Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周英; 周新华


    运用问卷调查法、访谈法等方法研究了宁波江东区的老年人休闲体育行为,结果显示,老年人对休闲体育硬件设施等方面的满意度较高。今后,应该在加强政府对老年群体的人本关怀、购买NGO提供的老年休闲体育服务、从培养老年社会体育指导员等方面促进该领域的可持续发展,特别是非政府组织的深度参与。%This paper made a research on leisure sports behaviors of elders in Jiangdong district in Ningbo by questionnaires and interviews.The results showed that the elders were satisfied with facilities.The humanism of government,service of non-government organization and instructor of elders are the connotations of the sustainable development of leisure sports,in particular,non-government organization.The major contribution of this research lies in developing a formal evaluation framework for leisure sports of elders in developed region.

  4. Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)


    textabstractThis research project explores cultural determinants that facilitate positive employee behavior. In the literature, this behavior is identified as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The dissertation also focuses on factors related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB). CWB is

  5. Research of the Static Recrystallization Behavior of the Stamping Steel SPHE%冷轧基板SPHE静态再结晶行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾松盛; 彭伟; 刘旭辉; 成小军


    利用Gleeble-3500热力模拟试验机研究了冷轧基板SPHE钢的静态再结晶行为,通过对奥氏体再结晶行为的研究,得到试验钢发生静态再结晶时变形温度越高,发生静态再结晶越容易。试验钢在900、950和1 000℃变形过程中停留不同时间,再结晶分数出现了个别点下降,是试验检测误差所致;随着停留时间的增加,由于溶质原子和碳化物等第二相质点的析出,引起了再结晶速率降低。试验钢SPHE发生静态再结晶的激活能为239.87kJ/mol。%The static recrystallization behavior of the steel SPHE during the hot deformation was investigated by using a thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble-3500.It is known that the static recrystallization is easily taken place when the hot deformation temperature is higher by researching the static recrystallization behavior.The static recrystallization percent have innormal alternation with the different holding time periods at 900,950 and 1 000 ℃ because of the experimental error.With the holding time prolonging,the solute atoms and the second phases was separated out,such as Fe3C,the velocity of the static recrystallization will reduce.The static recrystallization activation energy of the steel SPHE was equal to 239.87 kJ/mol.

  6. Creativity and the Behavioral Sciences. (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    Ways in which behavioral scientists can use both vertical (logical) and lateral (creative-intuitive) thinking to improve their research are discussed. Creativity in the selection of research questions would require that behavioral scientists ask questions whose answers could make a difference to societal and world well-being. Behavioral scientists…

  7. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal


    Full Text Available Background: The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer’s disease (AD also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods: Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds, at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM, afternoon (2:00-5:00PM and night (7:00-10pm. The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results: Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion: Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look

  8. 新型钢柱脚抗震性能分析%Researches on seismic behaviors of a new kind of steel column base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡郢; 雷劲松; 罗文霞


    为研究在普通露出型钢柱脚上安装楔块装置的新型钢柱脚的抗震性能,采用通用有限元软件ANSYS建立了该柱脚两种常用形式下的三维实体模型,在低周反复加载作用下对其进行了抗震性能分析.根据有限元分析所得该柱脚的M-θ滞回曲线,及M-θ骨架曲线,对新型柱脚耗能能力和延性性质做了相关研究.同时,对比分析了不同轴压和不同形式柱脚的力学性能.结果表明:新型钢柱脚的恢复力特性为非滑移型,其M-θ滞回曲线饱满,并有较好耗能和延性性能,显示出良好的抗震性能.研究结果对新型柱脚的设计和应用提供了相关参考.%To research the seismic behaviors of a new kind of steel column based with wedge devices, the finite element software ANSYS is used to build three dimensional models for two commonly used types of the column bases and the analysis of seismic behavior of the column base under the low cyclic loading is conducted.The M - θ hysteretic curves and M - θ skeleton curves of the column base are obtained from the finite element analysis.The energy dissipation capacity and ductility are also researched from the curves.Comparisons between different types of the column base and different axial compressions are conducted.The results show that the restoring characteristics of the new kind columns are non-slip-type.The M - θ hysteretic curves of bases are plumpy and have good energy dissipation capacity and ductility.These indicate good seismic abilities of the column base.The results provide references for the design and application of the new kind column base.

  9. Development of a Student Health Assessment System: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Middle-School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-10-04 (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.


    Newly developed assessments of nutrition and exercise knowledge, attitudes, and behavior were administered to 383 eighth-graders. Evidence for the validity of assessment scores was evaluated with five findings. First, parent- and self-reported behaviors were similar and congruent for healthy eating and exercising but not for sedentary behaviors or…

  10. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Why are we conscious? How can it be that information processed in the brains of living creatures is accompanied by subjective experience? While such questions have been topics of philosophical debates for centuries, the past decades have seen a surge of scientific interest with the result that th...

  11. A Review on the Research Status and Development Trends of Domestic and International Information Behavior Based on Co-occurrence Network%基于共现网络的国内外信息行为研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵慧丽; 张帆; 张军亮; 王丽娜; 任茹月


    Understand the rules of user information behavior will help improving the quality of information service and innovative service models. This article analyzes the theory and practice of domestic and international information behavior research based on the co-occurrence network, from the semantic network for ontology to the user's behavior, focuses on comparative analysis and commentary domestic and foreign research topics, which including information behavior patterns, theoretical models, actors, con-text and factors. It summarizes and looks forward the research trends iof collaborative information behavior, discipline integration, technology-driven, mobility and ubiquitous environment.%基于共现网络梳理和分析国内外信息行为研究的理论与实践。从基于本体的语义网络构建到用户的行为方式,重点分析对比和评述国内外信息行为研究主题,包括信息行为模式、理论模型、行为主体、发生的情境及影响因素。并总结出今后信息行为研究主要趋向于协同信息行为、学科融合、技术驱动以及移动化、泛在化环境下信息行为的研究。

  12. Aggressive Behavior in Improving the Power Quality Research Progress%攻击性行为对提高力量素质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树玖; 胡柏平


    Mainly through the method of literature review, the article reviews and summaries on the domestic and foreign literatures, focusing on aggressive neural mechanism and its combination of strength training for improving the power quality research. Conclusion: Strength training under the stress of aggressive behavior affects corre- sponding changes in hormone levels, it plays a very significant role for improving the quality of muscle strength and athletic ability of the body. Proposal: Attack as a kind of stress can increase strength quality has been validated in animals and for the use of the attack improve the quality of the people will be the hotspot our future research.%本文主要通过文献综述法对国内外大量文献的查阅并总结,重点讲述了攻击性的神经机制以及它结合力量训练对于提高机体力量素质的研究情况。结论:攻击行为应激下的力量训练影响了相应的激素水平的变化,对于提高肌肉的力量素质和机体的运动能力起到了很明显的作用。建议:攻击作为一种应激能够提高力量素质已经在动物身上得到了验证,而对于利用攻击性提高人的力量素质将会成为以后研究的重点。

  13. 圈养东北虎幼仔行为的研究%Research of the Behavior of Amur Tiger Cub in Captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪伟; 刘丹; 周绍春; 田家龙; 马国庆


    The captive siberian tiger cub stage section behavior was mainly sleep. With the cubs , its behavior change, sleep behavior and feeding behavior gradually reduced, play behavior increased rapidly behavior in each , and become the important behavior in addition to sleep. In addition, the cub's time period on the distribution also appeared regularly.%圈养东北虎幼仔阶段的行为构成以睡眠为主,随着幼仔的成长发育,其行为发生变化,睡眠行为和取食行为逐渐减少,玩耍行为迅速增加,并成为除睡眠外的重要行为。此外,幼仔行为在各时间段上分布也呈现规律性。

  14. Experimental and Numerical Research on Deformation Behavior of Thin-Walled and Large Expansion Ratio Guide Vane Liner in Hydroforming Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengzhi Cheng; Lihui Lang; Yulong Ge; Shangwen Ruan; Xinmin Duan; Tianwei Shao


    Some tube hydroforming process tests and further research work were conducted to manufacture hollow guide vane liners (made of super alloy GH3030).The relative thickness (t0/OD) of the tubular blank is approximately 0�01,and the maximum expansion ratio ( Dmax/OD) of the needed part is more than 40%, and the length to diameter ratio of the expansion regionis more than 3�0. It is very hard to manufacture this kind of ultra⁃thin⁃wall, curved axis and large expansion ratio tubular part without fracture and wrinkles. The success of the process is highly dependent on useful wrinkles with appropriate internal pressure and axial feeding. A simplified finite element model and a theoretical model are used for detecting the deformation behavior and forming laws. Further study results demonstrate that the useful wrinkles do not appear at the same time and middle⁃wrinkles need bigger axial force than tube⁃end⁃wrinkles and feeding⁃wrinkles. The wrinkles can transfer bigger axial force after its wave peak has come into contact with the die inner surface. The thickness thinning rate of the element at the peak is bigger than that at the trough. With the increase of the axial and hoop stress ratio, the critical buckling stress also increases. Microstructure examination results show that the grain size in the maximum thinning zone has been stretched and refined after the large deformation and annealing treatment. The process is feasible and the finished part is qualified.

  15. Using virtual reality to improve the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of late-life anxiety: preliminary recommendations for future research. (United States)

    Grenier, Sébastien; Forget, Hélène; Bouchard, Stéphane; Isere, Sébastien; Belleville, Sylvie; Potvin, Olivier; Rioux, Marie-Ève; Talbot, Mélissa


    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) using traditional exposure techniques (i.e. imaginal and in vivo) seems less effective to treat anxiety in older adults than in younger ones. This is particularly true when imaginal exposure is used to confront the older patient to inaccessible (e.g. fear of flying) or less tangible/controllable anxiety triggers (e.g. fear of illness). Indeed, imaginal exposure may become less effective as the person gets older since normal aging is characterized by the decline in cognitive functions involved in the creation of vivid/detailed mental images. One way to circumvent this difficulty is to expose the older patient to a virtual environment that does not require the ability to imagine the frightening situation. In virtuo exposure has proven to be efficient to treat anxiety in working-age people. In virtuo exposure could be employed to improve the efficacy of CBT with exposure sessions in the treatment of late-life anxiety? The current paper explores this question and suggests new research avenues.

  16. Growth and characterization of binary and pseudo-binary 3-5 compounds exhibiting non-linear optical behavior. Undergraduate research opportunities in microgravity science and technology (United States)

    Witt, August F.


    In line with the specified objectives, a Bridgman-type growth configuration in which unavoidable end effects - conventionally leading to growth interface relocation - are compensated by commensurate input-power changes is developed; the growth rate on a microscale is predictable and unaffected by changes in heat transfer conditions. To permit quantitative characterization of the growth furnace cavity (hot-zone), a 3-D thermal field mapping technique, based on the thermal image, is being tested for temperatures up to 1100 C. Computational NIR absorption analysis was modified to now permit characterization of semi-insulating single crystals. Work on growth and characterization of bismuth-silicate was initiated. Growth of BSO (B12SiO20) for seed material by the Czochralski technique is currently in progress. Undergraduate research currently in progress includes: ground based measurements of the wetting behavior (contact angles) of semiconductor melts on substrates consisting of potential confinement materials for solidification experiments in a reduced gravity environment. Hardware modifications required for execution of the wetting experiments in a KC-135 facility are developed.

  17. [Addictive behavior disorders]. (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji


    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  18. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  19. Research Malpractice. (United States)

    Chubin, Daryl E.


    Discusses the issue of academic fraud in the form of science research malpractice. Topic areas considered include: malpractice studies; causes of misconduct; normal and deviant research behavior; and distinguished research characteristics in production, reporting, dissemination, and evaluation. Consequences of malpractice and…

  20. 基于拓展计划行为理论的休闲农业旅游行为意向研究%Research on Leisure Agricultural Tourism Behavioral Intention Based on Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱长宁; 鲁庆尧; 王树进


    将顾客价值理论引入计划行为理论,构建休闲农业旅游行为意向形成机制分析框架,利用江苏省4市584份消费者调查数据,采用结构方程模型对其进行实证检验。结果表明:顾客价值和主观规范对行为态度和行为意向均存在显著正向影响;行为态度不仅直接影响行为意向,且在顾客价值和主观规范对休闲农业旅游行为意向影响过程中起中介桥梁作用;顾客价值和主观规范对行为意向的影响主要通过行为态度进行传递,而知觉行为控制则直接对行为意向产生影响。从休闲农业经营者和政府两个层面提出了促进消费者形成休闲农业旅游行为意向的对策建议。%With introducing the Customer Value Theory into the Theory of Planned Behavior,and constructing formation mechanism model of leisure agricultural tourism behavioral intention,this article uses structural equation model to make an empirical test of the data of 584 consumers from the survey of four cities in Jiangsu.The results show that the customer value and subjective norms have significant positive influence on the behavioral attitude and behavioral intention;behavioral attitude only directly affects the behavioral intention,but also plays a role of inter-mediary bridge in the process of customer value and subjective norms influencing behavioral intention;customer val-ue and subjective norms influence behavioral intention mainly through the behavioral attitude,while the perceived behavior control directly influences behavioral intention.Finally,it makes suggestions of promoting the formation of consumers’leisure agricultural tourism behavioral intention from the aspects of leisure agriculture operators and government.

  1. 大学生健康行为知识、健康行为动机与体育锻炼行为的研究%Research on college students’ health behavior knowledge, health behavior motivation and physical exercise behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英杰; 王红雨


    Based on the health belief model theory, this research investigated college students’ health behavior knowledge, health behavior motivation, and physical exercise behaviors, and analyzed the relationship between them, and then tested the effec-tiveness of the health belief model. The questionnaires and statistical methods were used to collect and analyze the data. The results showed that the average score of college students’ knowledge of health behavior is 5. 83, and there are differences in gender and re-gion, with boys being better than girls ( P = 0. 007 < 0. 01) and urban students being better than rural students ( P = 0. 016 <0. 05); health motivation has an average score of 87. 19, and the rural students have stronger health motivation than the urban ones ( P = 0. 012 < 0. 05); there is low coefficient between health behavior knowledge and motivation ( r = 0. 284), and health moti-vation is associated with a low exercise intensity ( r = 0. 124). Health behavior knowledge is a necessary condition to stimulate healthy motive, but the knowledge of health behavior and motives are not necessarily able to predict or interfere with exercise behav-ior, which indicates that there still exist some defects in the health belief model.%依据健康信念模型理论对大学生健康行为知识知晓率、健康动机和体育锻炼行为进行调查,分析它们之间的关系并检验健康信念模型的有效性。采用问卷调查法、统计学方法进行数据的收集和分析。结果表明大学生健康行为知识均得分为5.83分,且存在性别差异、地域差异,男生高于女生(P =0.007<0.01),城镇学生高于乡村(P =0.016<0.05);健康动机均得分为87.19分,乡村学生强于城镇(P =0.012<0.05);健康行为知识与动机具有低相关(r =0.284),健康动机与运动强度具有低相关(r =0.124)。健康行为知识是激发健康动机的必要条件,但健康行为知识与动机并不一定能够预测或干

  2. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola


    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  3. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Numerical simulation of fundamental process of vapor explosion using particle method. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-5. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Liu, Jie; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A vapor explosion may happen when the hot liquid of the molten core contacts with the cold fluid of the coolant in severe accidents. Water jet impingement on a molten tin drop, which appears at collapse of a vapor film surrounding the hot drop, is analyzed in three dimensions using a particle method to investigate the fundamental processes is vapor explosions. As the result, the melt is extruded from the drop like filaments, which is the same behavior observed in the X-ray photographs obtained by Ciccarelli and Frost. Rapid boiling caused by spontaneous nucleation is necessary for strong fragmentation as shown in the X-ray photographs. In the case of the molten core, the interface temperature falls below the solidification temperature after direct contact with the water jets. Therefore, the rapid fragmentation is unlikely and a strong vapor explosion is unlikely as well. A one-dimensional code for propagation of pressure waves is developed. A spontaneous nucleation model is employed for thermal fragmentation. A one-dimensional test calculation of propagation of a pressure wave is carried out. The present result agrees with the past calculations in references. (author)

  4. Analysis of Autopilot Behavior (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Feay, Mike; Palmer, Everett; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    Aviation and cognitive science researchers have identified situations in which the pilot's expectations for behavior of autopilot avionics are not matched by the actual behavior of the avionics. These "automation surprises" have been attributed to differences between the pilot's model of the behavior of the avionics and the actual behavior encoded in the avionics software. A formal technique is described for the analysis and measurement of the behavior of the cruise pitch modes of a modern Autopilot. The analysis characterizes the behavior of the Autopilot as situation-action rules. The behavior of the cruise pitch mode logic for a contemporary modern Autopilot was found to include 177 rules, including Level Change (23), Vertical Speed (16), Altitude Capture (50), and Altitude Hold (88). These rules are determined based on the values of 62 inputs. Analysis of the rule-based model also shed light on the factors cited in the literature as contributors to "automation surprises."

  5. 社交网络群体行为与群体情感理论研究年度报告%Research Progress in 2013 of Research on Group Behaviors and Group Emotions in Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘理; 吴斌; 刘业政


    该研究围绕社交网络的“群体行为形成与互动规律”这一科学问题,重点研究社交网络群体行为与群体情感理论。在2013年度中,主要进行了如下4个方面研究:在社交网络群体聚集机理及建模方法方面,针对群体聚集的诱因分析,从微博话题聚类、广告用户检测、不良节点挖掘等方面进行了研究。针对群体聚集模型和凝聚力算法,从复杂社团分聚类算法、微博僵尸群检测等方面进行了研究。针对群体行为属性和共性需求机理,研究了群体隐私保护的共性需求和防护机制、策略描述及合成等问题;在社交网络群体演化动力学行为方面,对群体行为演化模型及干预研究了微博信息传播预警问题。在多维属性的群体情感建模方法方面,从社交网络用户的个体人格结构、心理因素和经历背景等要素与其行为特征、情感立场的关系,研究了个体的多属性、多维度统计特性。在基于群体情感形成机理研究情感演化计算方法,开展了群体情感立场的量化、群体情感发现、基于异质网络分析的个体行为信息的多属性挖掘等方面的研究。基于以上研究要点,已发表研究论文28篇,其中SCI论文7篇,EI论文15篇。出版专著1部。申请发明专利4项,授权1项。%In this project, focusing on the scientific problem of group behavior formation and interactive principles, we study the group behavior and group emotion theory in the online social networks. In the year 2013, the project team developed the research mainly on four aspects. On the group aggregation principles and modeling methods aspect, aiming at incentive factors of group aggregation, we studied the topic aggregation in Weibo, detection of advertising users, and malicious user mining in SN. Aiming at group behavior attributes and common security requirements, we studied the group privacy protection policies and

  6. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior


    Shimp, Charles P.


    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  7. Network-behavior dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Dijkstra, Jan; Steglich, Christian; Van Zalk, Maarten H. W.


    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network-behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudina

  8. 居民电子废物回收行为影响因素的实证研究%An empirical research on recycling behavior of waste electrical and electronic equipment and its influence factor.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余福茂; 段显明; 梁慧娟


    Based on the results of questionnaire investigation to 350 urban residents, an empirical research was done on the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), aiming to the recycling behavior, the behavior intention and the influence factors. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the structure equal model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) could be used to interpret the related hypotheses effectively, and some situational factors, such as environmental knowledge, public preach and trash separation of home wastes, played regulating roles on the recycling behavior. Perceived behavioral control played a vital role on promoting the conversion of behavior intention into behavior. While the convenience situation of recycling behavior was an important factor impacting perceived behavioral control.%基于对350名城市居民的问卷调查结果,运用验证性因子分析方法对居民的电子废物回收行为、行为意向及其影响因素进行了实证研究.结果表明,基于计划行为理论所建立的结构方程模型可以较为有效地诠释有关研究假设,环境知识、舆论宣传和垃圾分类等情境因素对电子废物回收行为具有调节作用.知觉行为控制对于行为意向转化为行为具有非常重要地促进作用,而便利状况则是影响知觉行为控制的重要因素.

  9. 基于计划行为理论的矿工故意违章行为意向研究%Research on Miners'Deliberate Violation Behavior Intentions Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃文; 马跃; 牛莉霞


    In order to further explain and predict deliberate violation behavior intention of miners and to develop feasible intervention strategies, using TPB as the basic theoretical framework, a hypothesis model of deliberate violation behavior intention was constructed including past behaviors and descriptive norm. Stratified sampling and random sampling were adopted together, 412 miners completed eligible questionnaires. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling technique. Study shows that the attitude of violation, perceived behavioral control and descriptive norm have a significant and positive effect on deliberate violation behavior intentions; subject norm has no direct bearing on deliberate violation behavior intention; subject norm and past behavior both have an indirect and positive influence on deliberate violation behavior intention by affecting attitude. The violation attitude and descriptive norm highly impact deliberate violation behavior intentions, the overall impact factors are relatively high. The important way of reducing deliberate violation behavior intentions is to change violation attitude and play the role of group members'descriptive norm in compliance behavior.%为进一步解释和预测矿工故意违章行为意向,寻求可能的干预对策,以计划行为理论(TPB)为基本的理论构架,加入过去行为和示范性规范2个变量,构建了矿工故意违章行为意向假设模型.采取分层随机抽样方法,对412名矿工进行问卷调查,并借助结构方程建模技术对提出的假设模型进行了验证.研究表明:违章态度、知觉行为控制、示范性规范均对故意违章行为意向有显著的正向影响;主观规范对违章行为意向没有显著的直接影响;主观规范和过去行为通过违章态度间接正向影响违章行为意向.违章态度和示范性规范对故意违章行为意向的整体影响系数比较高,转变违章态度以及发挥群体其他成

  10. Research Progress and Evaluation of Domestic Information Behavior under the Social Media Environment%社会化媒体环境下国内信息行为研究进展与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤锋; 陈雨


    社会化媒体环境下人们的信息行为特点受到图书情报领域关注。首先,分析国内本领域信息行为研究论文的发文量和变化趋势以揭示其研究脉络。其次,通过关键词词频统计分析揭示目前研究的总体趋势。最后,以前文的分析为基础,采用内容分析法,结合微博和微信信息行为对比分析、图书馆应用社会化媒体与用户信息行为的相互影响、大学生信息行为研究现状和局限、新型信息行为等方面揭示信息行为研究进展,并在评价的基础上提出新的研究方向。%〔Abstract〕 The characteristics of people’s information behavior under the social media environment was widely concerned by the ifeld of library and information science. First of all, this paper analyzes the quantity and changing trends of research papers on information behavior in the ifeld of library and information science, so as to reveal its research context. Then, through keywords frequency statistical analysis it reveals the research status and make evaluation. Finally, based on the analysis of the previous text and using content analysis method, combined with the comparative analysis of Micro-blog and WeChat information behaviors, library application of social media and user information behavior interaction, research status and limitations of college students’ information behavior and new information behavior it reveals information behavior research progress and puts forward new research directions on the basis of evaluation.

  11. Research on Information Behavior of Medical Personnel Based on The Analytic Hierarchy Process%基于层次分析法对医院医护人员信息行为的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕雪华; 孟祥娟; 王蕾


    Correct and effective information behavior is the medical staff and the scientific research important guarantee,through correct and effective information behavior,health care professionals can understand this dynamic area of research and the trend of development,experience and inspiration.The application of analysis hierarchy process on the medical staff's information behavior analysis and model building,was designed to investigate the medical staff's information behavior and its influencing factors,so as to put forward to ensure the validity of information behavior measures,to promote and improve the information ability of medical staff.%正确有效的信息行为是医护人员工作和科研的重要保障,通过正确有效的信息行为,医护人员可以了解本领域的研究动态和发展趋势,借鉴经验并启发思维。提出运用层次分析法对医护人员的信息行为进行分析和建立模型,旨在探讨医护人员的信息行为及其影响因素,从而提出保障信息行为有效性的措施,达到促进与提高医护人员信息能力的目的。

  12. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents: laboratory behavioral assessments. (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Penfold, Robert B; Patak, Michele


    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that defines a range of maladaptive behavioral styles. The present research aimed to identify different dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescents from a battery of laboratory behavioral assessments. In one analysis, correlations were examined between two self report and seven laboratory behavioral measures of impulsivity. The correlation between the two self report measures was high compared to correlations between the self report and laboratory behavioral measures. In a second analysis, a principal components analysis was performed with just the laboratory behavioral measures. Three behavioral dimensions were identified -- "impulsive decision-making", "impulsive inattention", and "impulsive disinhibition". These dimensions were further evaluated using the same sample with a confirmatory factor analysis, which did support the hypothesis that these are significant and independent dimensions of impulsivity. This research indicates there are at least three separate subtypes of impulsive behavior when using laboratory behavioral assessments with adolescent participants.

  13. 蜂窝轻钢门式刚架受力性能研究%Research on the mechanical behavior of light-weight castellated portal steel frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏益声; 凌湘; 伍依禄; 陈祥花


    提出了蜂窝构件组成的轻钢门式刚架,并利用有限元软件ANSYS建模进行数值模拟分析,研究了蜂窝门式刚架的受力破坏过程、应力分布规律,并与扩张前的原实腹门式刚架的屈服荷载、极限荷载、梁跨中挠度等进行了对比分析.研究表明:扩张后的蜂窝轻钢门式刚架与原实腹门式刚架的破坏形式不同,前者的承载力及刚度比后者有大幅度提高.%A light-weight castellated portal steel frame was introduced, and its mechanical behavior was studied using ANSYS. The failure process, failure patterns and stress distribution of the frame were obtained by the finite-element method. The comparison about yield load, bearing capacity and mid-span deflection between the light-weight castellated portal steel frame and the pr-expansion solid portal frame was carried out, as well. Research results show that the failure patterns of the two kinds of portal frames are different; the bearing capacity and stiffness of the light-weight castellated portal steel frame are significantly improved compared to the pr-expansion solid portal frame.

  14. Research on Low Carbon Consumer Behavior of Nanjing Urban Residents%城市居民低碳消费行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The 21st century is full of challenges.Many countries in the world need to solve the problem of basic survival, as well as to face the environmental problems brought by giving priorities to economic interests , such as the greenhouse effect, the re-sources crisis.For the sustainable development of human kind, these problems must be solved as soon as possible.This study conducted a survey on low carbon consumption, a topic brought by greenhouse effect.The conclusions from this research will help the functional departments of Nanjing government to take corresponding policies and measures , and thus, to guide the urban resi-dents of Nanjing to set up low carbon consumption concept and establish low carbon consumer behaviors .%21世纪充满着挑战,当世界上还有许多国家需要解决基本的生存问题之时,又要面对过去因单一的经济利益驱动而过度开发带来的环境问题、温室效应问题、资源危机问题等,人类要继续发展下去,就必须面对并尽可能解决这些问题。就解决温室效应问题而引出的低碳消费话题进行了一次调查问卷。调研获得的相关数据的结论,有助于南京市政府职能部门采取相应政策和措施,这样就可以引导南京市居民树立低碳消费理念,使南京市居民实施低碳消费行为。

  15. A Research on the Cognitive Features of Middle School Students' Aggressive Behavior%中学生攻击行为认知特征调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灵; 严亮华


    本文采用问卷调查法对中学生攻击行为的认知特征进行调查,结果表明:①攻击型学生具有高攻击认知,他们在意图不明时倾向敌意性归因,在事件的不良后果上倾向让对方承担责任,行为策略偏向争斗性,对受害者的痛苦会忽略,一般会关注攻击所带来的正效应而忽视负效应;外部攻击型学生比关系攻击更倾向攻击性认知,尤其对敌意性线索有偏向注意。②男性攻击认知要显著高于女性,普通中学学生攻击认知要显著高于重点中学,初中和高中生在攻击认知水平没有显著差异。%This paper utilizes questionnaire method to research into the cognitive features of middle school students' aggressive behavior,and finally comes to the following conclusion: ①Aggressive students have high aggressive cognition and they tend to force ability to the other, and to ignore others' sufferings. ②Boy students' aggressive cognition is higher than girl students,common middle school students obviously higher than key middle school,while junior high school and senior high school students' have no obvious differences.

  16. O behaviorismo radical e a interdisciplinaridade: possibilidade de uma nova síntese? Radical behaviorism and interdisciplinary research: would a new synthesis be possible in psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenice Santos Chaves


    Full Text Available A ciência psicológica é historicamente atravessada por conflitos inter teóricos, decorrentes de enfoques diferenciados com relação a conhecimentos produzidos pelos fundamentos epistemológicos, teóricos e metodológicos, pelas hegemonias e pelo próprio recorte sobre o objeto em estudo, realizado por pesquisadores. Contemporaneamente, a epistemologia da complexidade chama atenção para a incompletude de cada tipo de conhecimento científico produzido, o que tem gerado ressonâncias nos fazeres de pesquisadores e propiciado novos diálogos entre perspectivas diversificadas em cada enfoque, ou entre enfoques. O presente artigo propõe diálogos entre aspectos do behaviorismo radical e do construtivismo crítico formal, ressaltando relações de complementaridade, a partir da unidade de contrários, que podem implicar numa nova síntese: uma teoria geral do significado. Nessa direção enfocar-se-á a proposição de nova síntese, a qual configura uma compreensão teórica sobre o desenvolvimento do significado e reinterpreta o papel do reforçamento na construção e ampliação dos significados.Psychology as science is historically engaged in theoretical disputes resulting from divergent viewpoints concerning the nature of knowledge generated by different epistemological, theoretical and methodological approaches, and by the particular divisions in the subject matter made by the researchers themselves. At the present time, epistemology of the complexity calls attention to the incompleteness, characteristic of scientific knowledge, that in turn affects the conduct of researchers, creating conditions for new dialogues between differing perspectives within and between disciplines. This article proposes a renewal of the dialogue between radical behaviorism and formal critical constructivism that, by emphasizing complementary relationships and opposing polarized thinking which has permeated these disciplines, may result in a new synthesis or

  17. Empirically Research on Herding Behavior and Positive Feedback Behavior of China's Securities Investment Fund%我国证券投资基金羊群行为和正反馈行为的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    首先对羊群行为和正反馈行为基本理论进行了综述,对我国证券投资基金的羊群行为和正反馈行为进行了实证分析,统计检验结果表明:从整体上讲,我国证券投资基金存在显著的羊群行为,且卖出羊群行为明显大于买入羊群行为;在整个样本期间,前期市场中存在着正反馈行为,后期市场中存在着负反馈行为。最后,根据实证结果,分析了证券投资基金交易行为存在的原因,并给出了清除羊群行为和正反馈行为的政策建议。%The article reviews theoretically the herding behavior and positive feedback transaction behav-ior, then analyzes empirically them with respect to China's securities funds. The statistical test results show that there is a herding behavior of China's securities investment funds, and the behavior plays a more im-portant role in selling than in buying. In the whole period, the positive feedback transaction behavior is found in the prior period, while the negative one is found in later period. According to the empirical inves-tigation result, the reasons why the securities investment funds come to pass in China's stock market is ana-lyzed, and some policy suggestions are given to get rid of herding behavior and positive feedback transac-tion behavior.

  18. 基于有限理性的企业家战略决策风险行为研究%Research on Risk Behavior for the Strategic Decision-making of Entrepreneur Based on Bounded Rationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静; 刘升福


    企业家认知的有限性决定了企业家在有限理性的状态下进行战略决策。基于行为经济学和决策行为理论,研究有限理性下企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素。通过建立模型和实证研究来探讨企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素对战略决策风险行为的影响,从而为企业家战略决策风险行为管理提供依据。%The limitation of Entrepreneurs′cognition decides that entrepreneurs make strategic decisions under the limited rational state.The paper,based on the theory of behavioral economics and the decision-making behavior,studies the entrepreneur strategic decision deviation behavior based on bounded rationality and its influencing factors.Through the questionnaire,interviews and the empirical research,the paper explores the various influencing factors of entrepreneur strategic decision-making risk behavior influence on strategic decision-making risk behaviors,so as to provide the basis for entrepreneurs strategic decision-making risk behavior management.

  19. 科研收益预期对高校教师非伦理行为的作用机制%The Influence of Scientific Research Prospective Earning on College Teachers' Unethical Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂平; 廖建桥; 刘文兴


    The unethical behavior is defined as unqualified justice behavior or violating ethical norm behavior. University teachers' unethical behaviors include teaching unethical behaviors and research corruption behaviors. This paper explored the internal mechani%非伦理行为是指不符合公平正义或违反伦理规范的行为。高校教师的非伦理行为包括教学非伦理行为和科研腐败行为。调查显示,教师过于注重科研会导致教学非伦理行为,科研收益预期过高也会带来科研腐败行为。基于教师科研能力的差异,高校教师的科研腐败行为决策博弈可以分为能力“双低”模式、能力“双高”模式和能力“低一高”模式三种模式。在这三种能力模式中,科研预期收益对高校教师的科研腐败行为具有不同的作用机制和外在形式。

  20. Mobilizing Communities to Implement Tested and Effective Programs to Help Youth Avoid Risky Behaviors: The Communities That Care Approach. Research Brief. Publication #2011-25 (United States)

    Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kuklinski, Margaret R.


    Communities across the country have a vested interest in making sure that young people develop into healthy productive citizens and avoid behaviors that can jeopardize their own health and well-being and threaten the well-being of their families and neighborhoods as well. Substance abuse and delinquency are prime examples of behaviors that get in…

  1. 消费者跨渠道购买行为研究评述与展望%Research Review and Prospect on Consumer Cross-Channel Buying Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 周梅华


    消费者跨渠道购买行为是指多渠道零售环境下,消费者在购买决策过程的不同阶段运用不同渠道的行为。文章基于文献研究法,从定义、影响因素和企业管理策略三个方面对消费者跨渠道购买行为的国内外相关研究进行了梳理和评述,阐述了消费者跨渠道购买行为的定义,总结了消费者跨渠道购买行为的影响因素,归纳了企业对消费者跨渠道购买行为的管理策略并进行了评述,分析了未来研究方向,得出消费者跨渠道购买行为可以细分为消费者跨渠道搭便车行为和消费者跨渠道保留行为,研究结果为多渠道零售企业进行渠道设计和多渠道顾客管理提供了决策参考。%Consumer cross-channel buying behavior is the behavior that consumer uses different channels to buy during different buying decision period in multi-channel environment. Based on the method of literature review , the paper reviews the related research of consumer cross-channel buying behavior at home and abroad. The definition of consumer cross-channel buying behavior is illustrated. The influencing factors are summarized. The management strategies are concluded and commented. Future research directions are analyzed. The paper has got the conclusions that consumer cross-channel buying behavior can be divided into consumer cross-channel free-riding behavior and consumer cross-channel retention behavior, each type has two buying behavior paths, consumer cross-channel buying behavior is mainly influenced by consumers, products, channels or retailers, the key of enterprises' multi-channel customer management is how to design channels, so as to broaden the research prospective of scholars and provide decision references for multi-channel retail enterprises' channel design and multi-channel customer management.

  2. 基于计划行为理论的研究生创新行为产生机理研究%The Research of Origin Mechanism of Postgraduate Students Innovation Behavior Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余韵; 曹伟; 张文元; 黄玲


    基于计划行为理论,构建了研究生创新行为研究的理论分析框架,设计了行为态度、主观规范、知觉控制、组织支持、创新意愿和创新行为的6个量表,通过调查问卷的设计,收集了302位研究生的调查数据,利用通径分析法验证了理论框架的合理性。结果表明:第一,研究生创新意愿对创新行为具有显著的直接影响,而行为态度、主观规范和知觉控制会通过影响创新意愿对研究生创新行为产生间接影响;第二,考虑组织支持的调节作用后,研究生创新意愿对创新行为的影响强度更大,表明组织支持对研究生实现从创新意愿到创新行为的促进与激励作用明显。%Based on the theory of planned behavior, this article constructed the theoretical framework of postgraduate students innova-tion behavior, designed 6 scales of behavior attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, organizational support, willingness to innovate and innovation behavior , then finished the data collection by questionnaire. Based on the survey data collected from 302 postgraduate stu-dents, verified the rationality of the theoretical framework by using the path analysis method, and the results shown that:first, innovation of postgraduate students had a direct effect on innovative behavior, the behavior attitude, subject norm and perceived control had indirect in-fluence on postgraduate students innovation behavior by influence innovation willingness. Second, considered the moderating role of orga-nizational support , willingness to innovate did much more influence on postgraduate students innovation behavior, it shown that organiza-tional support had a significant role in promoting postgraduate students from the innovation intention to innovation behavior.

  3. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios


    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  4. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Zhong


    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  5. Research of Social Behavior of Junior High School Students with Learning Disabilities%学习困难初中生社会行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳; 马林


    选取学困生73名,采用班级戏剧量表对学生的攻击行为、亲社会行为、敏感退缩行为进行测量。结果表明:(1)学困生与非学困生的社会行为存在显著差异,学困生的亲社会行为减少,攻击行为增多;(2)学困生中,男生的攻击行为显著高于女生;(3)随着年级的增加,学困生的亲社会行为与攻击行为有下降趋势,退缩行为略有增多,但差异均未达到显著水平。%elected 73 junior school students with learning disabilities.CPS-R was used to measure student's Pro-social behavior,aggressive behavior,sensitively-back behavior.The study reveals that:(1)students with learning disabilities showed fewer Pro-social behavior and more aggressive behavior;920among students with learning disabilities,aggressive behavior of boys was significant higher than girls.(3) As the grade increased,students with learning difficulties pro-social behavior and aggressive behavior on a downward trend,a slight increase in withdrawn behavior,but the difference did not reach significant levels.

  6. 代际划分视角下矿工不安全行为研究%Research on Miners'Unsafe Behaviors from the Perspective of Intergeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程恋军; 仲维清


    Based on the theory of planned behavior ( TPB) and the health action process approach ( HAPA) , this study constructs an integrated model of miners'unsafe behaviors to explore the new-generation miners'unsafe behavior from the per-spective of intergeneration.Findings from the survey of 468 miners's unsafe behaviors are as follows:first, there are significant differences between the new-generation miners'unsafe behaviors and those of other groups of miners;second, the unsafe behav-ior attitudes have a less significant effect on new-generation miners'behavioral intention, and the mediated effect of response plan is lower too;thirs, the risk perception of unsafe behaviors and subjective norms can directly affect the new-generation minors'unsafe behavior intention.%本文在计划行为理论(TPB)和健康行动过程取向理论(HAPA)的基础上构建矿工不安全行为整合理论模型, 从代际的视角探讨新生代矿工不安全行为产生的特点. 通过对468名矿工不安全行为的问卷调查发现, 与其他矿工群体相比, 新生代矿工在不安全行为产生路径上存在显著差异; 新生代矿工不安全行为态度对行为意向的影响较低, 应对计划的中介效应较低; 不安全行为的风险知觉和主观规范能直接影响新生代矿工不安全行为意向.

  7. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.


    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  8. Research on Arbitrage in the Framework of Behavioral Finance%行为金融学框架下套利行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims to explore arbitrage under the framework of behavioral finance.Started from the different viewpoints in traditional finance and behavioral finance,the risks,costs and the role of arbitrage are analyzed in the framework of behavioral finance.%文章旨在探讨行为金融学框架下的套利行为,从传统金融学与行为金融学关于套利的不同观点出发,分析在行为金融学框架下套利行为的风险、成本和作用。

  9. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  10. 图书馆读者失范行为分析及对策研究%The Library Reader Anomie Behavior Analysis and Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    University library reader’s anomie behavior has existed for a long time and becomes a difficult problem in the university library. Based on the survey, this paper sums up the performances of reader’s anomie behavior, analyzes the causes of reader’s anomie behavior, and puts forward some solutions to solve reader’s anomie behavior.%高校图书馆的读者失范行为已经长期存在并成为困扰各高校图书馆的一个难题。在调查的基础上,概括了读者失范行为的表现,分析了读者失范行为的形成原因,并针对这些问题提出了一些应对措施。

  11. Predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients Referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Centre Based on Extended Health Belief Model


    MH Baghianimoghadam; N Rouhani Tonekaboni; MA Morowati -Sharifabad


    Introduction: Diabetes is the most common disease related to metabolism disorders with long term complications. It needs lifelong specific self-care, as it causes a promotion in quality of life and decreases disease costs. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The model has been used for studying diabetes self care behaviors. The aim of this study was d...

  12. Researches on Feeding Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance



    The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feeding behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following feeding behavior aspects were determined: number of feeding periods, the length of feeding periods and the total length of feeding periods. Results showed that calves spent feeding, on average, 292 minutes in the morning, 198 minutes in the afternoon and only 71 minutes during the night when ...

  13. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior. (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  14. Behavioral approach to leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Piccolo; C. Buengeler


    After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

  15. 项目团队科研人员信息查询行为与创新行为的互动机理%Interactive mechanism of information retrieval behaviors and innovative behaviors in members of scientific project team engaged in scientific research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董欲超; 胡德华


    目的:探讨信息查询行为与创新行为的互动机理。方法:采用自行研制的科研人员信息查询行为和创新行为量表,对长治医学院36个科研团队共218名科研人员的信息查询行为和创新行为进行调查,应用描述性分析、t 检验、F 检验等统计学方法分析其互动机理。结果:项目团队科研人员信息查询行为各维度与创新行为、创新意识、创新特质、创新环境相互作用和影响,信息评价对创新行为影响最大,创新行为维度与信息查询行为存在显著相关性,创新特质对信息查询行为影响最大。结论:科研人员的信息查询行为总体与创新行为总体之间具有强相关性,应逐渐提高科研人员信息查询能力、增强其信息素养、创新特质、创新意识和创新能力。%Objective To study the interactive mechanism of information retrieval behaviors and innovative behaviors in members of scientific project team engaged in scientific research.Methods The information retrieval behaviors and innovative behaviors in 218 members of 36 scientific project teams were investigated using self-designed information retrieval behavior and innovative behavior scale.The interactive mechanism of information retrieval behaviors and in-novative behaviors was analyzed by descriptive analysis, t test, and F test, respectively.Results The information retrieval behavior dimensions in members of scientific project team engaged in scientific research interacted with their innovative behaviors, innovative awareness, innovative nature, and innovative environment.The effect of in-formation assessment on innovative behaviors was most significant.Innovative behaviors were closely related with information retrieval behaviors.The effect of innovative nature on information retrieval behaviors was also most sig-nificant.Conclusion The information retrieval ability, information literacy, innovative nature, innovative aware

  16. Research progress on the environmental behavior of artificial sweeteners%人工甜味剂环境行为研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯碧婷; 干志伟; 胡宏伟; 孙红文


    Artificial sweeteners are used worldwide as a class of synthetic or half-synthetic sugar substitutes in food and beverages. Most of them can hardly be metabolized in vivo, thus are excreted via urines and feces before entering the environmet. Some typical artificial sweeteners have been proved to occur ubiquitously in the aquatic environment with the highest concentration up to 190 μg·L-1 . Furthermore, some artificial sweeteners are also recalcitrant against the removal process in water treatment plants. Therefore, they have been recently recognized as emerging organic contaminants. In this paper, the behavior of artificial sweeteners in water treatment processes and their source and occurrence in the environment are reviewed, and the contamination characteristics of the artificial sweeteners are summarized. Some future research directions in this field are proposed accordingly.%人工甜味剂是一类人工合成或半合成的蔗糖取代物,由于人们对饮食健康的关注而被越来越广泛地应用于食品和饮料中。但是大多数人工甜味剂在人体内几乎不被代谢就随尿液和粪便直接排到生活污水中。近年,几种典型的甜味剂在水体中广泛被检出且浓度较高,同时研究发现部分甜味剂难以降解,因此人工甜味剂已被视为新型有机污染物而得到关注。本文就人工甜味剂在水处理设施中的行为及其在环境来源和分布的相关研究进行了综述,总结了水处理设施和水环境中甜味剂的污染特征规律,并对今后的研究进行了展望。

  17. Research on the Influence Mechanism of College Students’ Entrepreneurial Behavior%大学生创业行为影响机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娥; 方卓


    Innovative and knowledge driven entrepreneurship is becoming the mainstream of today’s en⁃trepreneurial development. College students’entrepreneurship can effectively promote the innovation of sci⁃ence and technology as well as the national economy growth, stimulate economic endogenous power, increase employment and improve people’s livelihood. Improving college students’entrepreneurial cognitive and enthu⁃siasm is an effective way to carry out entrepreneurial activities. Due to the limitation of resource acquisition, en⁃trepreneurial opportunity identification and the external environment, it is better to have a research on the influ⁃ence mechanism of college students’entrepreneurial behavior by analyzing the relationship among the entrepre⁃neurial cognition, intention and decision-making from the perspective of improving the students’entrepreneur⁃ial cognition. Making countermeasures to stimulate the college students’entrepreneurship from the perspective of government, society and universities and implementing the leading role of entrepreneurial activity in the de⁃velopment of the economy.%以创新和知识驱动的创业成为当今创业经济发展的主流趋势。大学生创业可以有效推动科技创新,激发经济内生动力,促进国民经济增长,增进就业和改善民生。而提升大学生创业认知,增强创业热情是鼓励开展创业活动的有效途径。由于大学生创业在资源获取、创业机会识别及外部环境等方面存在制约,因此从提升创业者创业认知角度出发,通过分析创业认知、创业意愿与创业决策三者之间的关系,探究提升大学生行为的影响机制。从政府、社会、高校和大学生自身制定激励大学生开展创业活动的对策措施,实现创业活动对经济发展的带动作用。

  18. 犬情感行为取向之心理探析%Research on the Psychology of Canine Affective Behavior Tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 曹五七


    对犬的情感行为和心理取向的研究,有助于人们对犬、对生命、对大自然甚至对社会伦理的更加深入地思考和认识.论文对犬服从行为、友善行为、勇敢忠诚行为、依恋行为和冷淡行为等情感行为进行了描述以及对犬相关行为心理特征进行了分析,探讨了犬各种情感行为取向和心理选择形成的原因、机制和影响因素,阐述了犬与人类共同生活的环境、犬与人类的情感和社会行为之间的相互关系.%The study of canine affective behavior and psychological orientation can help us gain deeper understanding of dogs, lives, the nature and social ethics. This paper discussed into canine affective behavior such as obedience behavior, friendliness, bravery, loyalty bravery, attachment and indifferent behavior. It also analysed the psychological characteristics and explored the principles and factors which affect the orientation of these behaviors. This paper further studied the environment which dogs and human beings live together and the interrelationship between dog's emotional attachment and social behavior.

  19. Research on Behavior Analysis and Regulation Strategies of Research Shopper Based on Product Categories%研究型购物者的行为分析与调控策略--基于产品类别视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 周梅华; 吕雪晴


    随着网络技术和电子商务的不断发展,为更好地服务目标顾客,越来越多的企业在通过传统零售渠道分销产品的同时,增加了网络渠道。双渠道环境下,越来越多的消费者穿梭于网络渠道和传统渠道之间,成为了双渠道使用者。与单一渠道环境相比,双渠道环境下消费者的购买行为发生了很大的变化,产生了研究型购物者。对于搜索产品,研究型购物者倾向于通过网络渠道搜索产品信息,通过离线渠道完成购买;对于体验产品,研究型购物者倾向于通过离线渠道体验产品质量,通过在线渠道完成购买。因此,为更好地调控研究型购物者购买行为,一方面可以顾客为中心进行渠道建设,以不同渠道的营销策略推动顾客采纳和使用特定渠道,根据产品类型将顾客引向更喜欢的渠道。另一方面,可以根据产品类型对渠道进行整合,如对搜索产品利用网络渠道进行宣传和推广,并借助一些促销手段吸引在线消费者到实体渠道购买;对体验产品充分发挥实体店铺展示体验功能,加强网络渠道的付款便利性、安全性与送货速度,吸引消费者到网络渠道完成购买,还可通过记录顾客地址与身份证号码为顾客提供精准促销来加强渠道锁定机制。%With the development of network technology and E-business, to provide target customers with better service, more and more enterprises begin to develop their online channel while selling products through traditional channels. In dual-channel environment, more and more consumers become the uses of both the channels. Comparing to the single-channel environment, consumers in dual-channel environment change their purchasing behavior a lot;and the research shoppers appear. For search products, research shoppers prefer searching for related information online but buying through offline channel; for experiential products

  20. 非人灵长类动物异常行为与5-HTTLPR关系研究进展%Advances research on relationship between abnormal behavior and 5-HTTLPR in non--human primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璋琼; 孙晓梅; 叶尤松; 江勤芳; 代解杰


    非人灵长类动物饲养环境被改变或受到控制时将会干扰动物作出正常反应,常表现出许多异常行为(abnormal behavior),与人类相似,这些异常行为多是心理疾患的具体表现,人和非人灵长类动物的异常行为是遗传因素和环境因素相互作用的结果,其中遗传因素是指5-HTTLPR.现将近年来有关非人灵长类动物异常行为与5-HTTLPR多态性的关系进展作一概述.%When breeding environment changed or under constraint, the rhesus macaque reaction could be interfered,might result in some abnormal behaviors. Similar to human - beings, these behaviors are manifestation of psychological diseases , abnormal behaviors of human - beings and non - human primates were interaction results of genetic factors and environment factors. Genetic facror was 5 - HTTLPR. Now we summarize the advances research of relationship between ahnormal behaviors of non - human primates and 5 - HTTLPR polymorphism