WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral research home

  1. Action research in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    2016-01-01

    quality in a joint effort between care workers, residents at the nursing home, and researchers. It concludes that the project led to empowerment of the residents and staff and played an important role in the development of democratic knowledge building about better quality and ethics in elder care....

  2. Research on the model of home networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  3. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. © 2010 The Author. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Research Toward Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hammon

    2010-12-31

    This final report was compiled from the detailed annual reports that were submitted for efforts in 2008 and 2009, and from individual task reports from 2010. Reports, case studies, and presentations derived from this work are available through the Building America website. The BIRA team is led by ConSol, a leading provider of energy solutions for builders since 1983. In partnership with over fifty builders, developers, architects, manufactures, researchers, utilities, and agencies, research work was performed in California, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Oregon, and Hawaii and five (5) climate regions (Hot-Dry, Marine, Hot-Humid, Cold, and Hot/Mixed Dry). In addition to research work, the team provided technical assistance to our partners whose interests span the entire building process. During the three year budget period, the BIRA team performed analyses of several emerging technologies, prototype homes, and high performance communities through detailed computer simulations and extensive field monitoring to meet the required climate joule milestone targets.

  5. AN INSIGHT INTO CHINESE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN HOME FURNISHINGS INDUSTRY : A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON HOW “MIANZI” FACTOR INFLUENCE CHINESE CONSUMERS BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    JIA, MO; GAO, Yuan Xin

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous exploration of Chinese market’s potential, this promising and enormous market is becoming more and more crowded no matter in which industry. For example, in home furnishing industry, although the world leader - IKEA strived to implement its differentiation and cost leadership strategies that had brought tremendous success in the other markets worldwide, the company’s performance in this distinctive developing country had not progressed much, unlike other parts of the world...

  6. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  7. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  8. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  9. Parenting practices toward food and children's behavior: Eating away from home versus at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Michelle; Mann, Georgianna; Serrano, Elena L; Farris, Alisha R

    2017-07-01

    Parenting style influences a child's overall diet quality and establishes food preferences. Parenting style and "food rules" for children differ by eating at home or away from home. Eating meals away from home is increasing despite associations with consumption of unhealthy foods and higher weight status. The objective of the current study was to compare parenting practices and decision-making at restaurants versus at home. A mixed methods approach was utilized: facilitated, individual interviews to explore decision-making and parenting practices; written questionnaires for socio-demographic information; and body mass index. Summaries and emergent themes were generated based on examination of tapes and transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire data. Twenty-five mothers of children of five to eight years who ate at restaurants at least two times per week participated. Mothers reported more permissive food rules at restaurants yet maintained higher behavioral expectations. Mothers were also more likely to make decisions about whether they eat out, where to eat, and children's meal selections than their children. The findings suggest that parenting practices toward overall behavior and food choices may differ at restaurants than at home, highlighting the importance of healthy menu options, further research, and educational strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  11. Maternal worries, home safety behaviors, and perceived difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the worries, safety behaviors, and perceived difficulties in keeping children safe at home in a purposive sample of low-income, predominantly non-English speaking mothers as a foundation for later nursing interventions. This study was a qualitative, descriptive design with content analysis to identify maternal concerns, behaviors, and perceptions of home safety as part of a larger study. Eighty-two mothers, 64% of whom were monolingual Spanish-speakers, responded in writing to three semistructured interview questions. When mothers were unable to read and write the researcher wrote the responses, then read the content aloud for verification. A standardized probe for each question was posed to obtain richer responses. Data management included use of the software program NUD*IST and coding analyses following the Miles and Huberman guidelines (1994). Interpretations were translated into English for this report. The major worries were falling, health, kidnapping, and being hit by a car. The leading maternal behaviors were coded as being physically, verbally, and environmentally preventive. Mothers said that it was their role to provide safety, and that this role could be wearisome, such that constant supervision was difficult. Low-income mothers described their worries for their 1 to 4 year-old children, explored their behaviors for preventing injury, and discussed what made keeping children from harm difficult. Understanding how mothers keep children safe, the barriers to home safety, and effective safety behaviors are important to the health of children. The clinical relevance of this study includes building trust as clinicians plan assessment, intervention and evaluation of home safety to encourage dialog about concerns, safety behaviors, and barriers to keeping children from injury.

  12. HIV behavioral research online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.

  13. Representing in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Zhang Junyi; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior in a household might be correlated with each other, probably due to the existence of household budget constraints. Ownership and usage of energy-saving technologies for in-home appliances (or vehicles) might lead to the increase in out-of-home (or in-home) energy consumption. It is therefore necessary to jointly represent in-home and out-of-home energy consumption in the same modeling framework. With this consideration, we first build a new type of energy consumption model based on the Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value (MDCEV) modeling framework. Next, we conducted a questionnaire survey in Beijing in 2009 and successfully collected the information about households' energy consumption, ownership/usage of in-home appliances and vehicles, and households' and their members' attributes from 1014 households. Throughout an empirical analysis, it is confirmed that the MDCEV model is effective to simultaneously describe the in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior. In addition, it is revealed that a set of household and personal attributes affect the ownership and usage of in-home appliances and vehicles. Furthermore, it is shown that the unobserved factors play a much more important role in explaining energy consumption behavior than the observed attributes of households and their members. - Highlights: → Representing in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior jointly. → MDCEV model is built to describe household energy consumption behavior. → Log-linear competitive relationships are found among expenditures of end-uses. → Model results provide some insights about the influence of varied observed factors. → Unobserved factors are more important in explaining energy consumption behavior.

  14. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  15. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the…

  16. Home Environmental and Behavioral Risk Indices for Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Ennis, Chelsea R; Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading. Results showed that Home and/or Behavior accounted for 4-7% of the variance in reading fluency and spelling and 20-35% of the variance in parent-rated problems in math, social anxiety, and other dimensions. These metrics show promise as environmental and temperament/behavior risk scores that could be used to predict and potentially screen for further assessment of reading related problems.

  17. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  18. Identification of inactivity behavior in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujaud, J; Noury, N; Lundy, J-E

    2008-01-01

    To help elderly people live independently at home, the TIMC-IMAG laboratory developed Health Smart Homes called 'HIS'. These smart Homes are composed of several sensors to monitor the activities of daily living of the patients. Volunteers have accepted to be monitored during 2 years in their own flats. During one year, we carried out our survey on one elderly patient. Thanks to this experimentation, we will access to relevant information like physiological, environmental and activity. This paper focuses on daily living activity. We will introduce an original data splitting method based on the relationship between the frame of time and the location in the flat. Moreover we will present two different methods to determine a threshold of critical inactivity and eventually we will discuss their possible utilities.

  19. Automated Clinical Assessment from Smart home-based Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behaviour in the home and predicting standard clinical assessment scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a Clinical Assessment using Activity Behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident’s daily behavior and predict the corresponding standard clinical assessment scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident’s daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical assessment scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years using prediction and classification-based experiments. In the prediction-based experiments, we obtain a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive assessment scores and a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. Similarly, for the classification-based experiments, we find CAAB has a classification accuracy of 72% while classifying cognitive assessment scores and 76% while classifying mobility scores. These prediction and classification results suggest that it is feasible to predict standard clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis. PMID:26292348

  20. Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click here to go to the Mann Library Home Page Click here to return to the HEARTH Home Page Click , Tradition and History HEARTH is a core electronic collection of books and journals in Home Economics and Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University

  1. A Study of the Correlation between Home Literacy Behaviors for Children Birth to Age 5 and Subsequent Kindergarten Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated the at-home literacy behaviors and experiences of young children before and during their kindergarten year. Research has shown that the frequency and quality of at-home literacy experiences can either hinder or hamper children as their formal schooling begins (Fletcher, Cross, Tanney, Schneider, & Finch, 2008;…

  2. Collaborative Research and Behavioral Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schapiro, Steve; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Hopkins, William D

    2017-01-01

    The behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) can be significantly enhanced through synergistic relationships with noninvasive research projects. Many behavioral and cognitive research procedures are challenging and enriching (physically, cognitively, and/or socially......) for the animals (Hopper et al. 2016; Hopkins and Latzman 2017) without involving any invasive (surgical, biopsy, etc.) procedures. Noninvasive behavioral research programs present the primates with opportunities to choose to voluntarily participate (or not), providing them with greater control over...

  3. Effect of the home environment on motor and cognitive behavior of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelote, Audrei F; Santos, Denise C C; Caçola, Priscila M; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de L; Gabbard, Carl

    2012-06-01

    Although information is sparse, research suggests that affordances in the home provide essential resources that promote motor and cognitive skills in young children. The present study assessed over time, the association between motor affordances in the home and infant motor and cognitive behavior. Thirty-two (32) infants were assessed for characteristics of their home using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development--Infant Scale and motor and cognitive behavior with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--III. Infant's home and motor behavior were assessed at age 9 months and 6 months later with the inclusion of cognitive ability. Results for motor ability indicated that there was an overall improvement in performance from the 1st to the 2nd assessment. We found significant positive correlations between the dimensions of the home (daily activities and play materials) and global motor performance (1st assessment) and fine-motor performance on the 2nd assessment. In regard to cognitive performance (2nd assessment), results indicated a positive association with fine-motor performance. Our results suggest that motor affordances can have a positive impact on future motor ability and speculatively, later cognitive behavior in infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  5. Forecasting behavior in smart homes based on sleep and wake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A; Cook, Diane J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to use smart home technology to assist people who are recovering from injuries or coping with disabilities to live independently. We introduce an algorithm to model and forecast wake and sleep behaviors that are exhibited by the participant. Furthermore, we propose that sleep behavior is impacted by and can be modeled from wake behavior, and vice versa. This paper describes the Behavior Forecasting (BF) algorithm. BF consists of 1) defining numeric values that reflect sleep and wake behavior, 2) forecasting wake and sleep values from past behavior, 3) analyzing the effect of wake behavior on sleep and vice versa, and 4) improving prediction performance by using both wake and sleep scores. The BF method was evaluated with data collected from 20 smart homes. We found that regardless of the forecasting method utilized, wake behavior and sleep behavior can be modeled with a minimum accuracy of 84%. Additionally, normalizing the wake and sleep scores drastically improves the accuracy to 99%. The results show that we can effectively model wake and sleep behaviors in a smart environment. Furthermore, wake behaviors can be predicted from sleep behaviors and vice versa.

  6. Forecasting Behavior in Smart Homes Based on Sleep and Wake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Cook, Diane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of this research is to use smart home technology to assist people who are recovering from injuries or coping with disabilities to live independently. Objective We introduce an algorithm to model and forecast wake and sleep behaviors that are exhibited by the participant. Furthermore, we propose that sleep behavior is impacted by and can be modeled from wake behavior, and vice versa. Methods This paper describes the Behavior Forecasting (BF) algorithm. BF consists of 1) defining numeric values that reflect sleep and wake behavior, 2) forecasting wake and sleep values from past behavior, 3) analyzing the effect of wake behavior on sleep and vice versa, and 4) improving prediction performance by using both wake and sleep scores. Results The BF method was evaluated with data collected from 20 smart homes. We found that regardless of the forecasting method utilized, wake behavior and sleep behavior can be modeled with a minimum accuracy of 84%. Additionally, normalizing the wake and sleep scores drastically improves the accuracy to 99%. Conclusions The results show that we can effectively model wake and sleep behaviors in a smart environment. Furthermore, wake behaviors can be predicted from sleep behaviors and vice versa. PMID:27689555

  7. The medical home and integrated behavioral health: advancing the policy agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, Jeremy; Stille, Christopher J; Keller, David; Miller, Benjamin F; Barr, Michael S; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    There has been a considerable expansion of the patient-centered medical home model of primary care delivery, in an effort to reduce health care costs and to improve patient experience and population health. To attain these goals, it is essential to integrate behavioral health services into the patient-centered medical home, because behavioral health problems often first present in the primary care setting, and they significantly affect physical health. At the 2013 Patient-Centered Medical Home Research Conference, an expert workgroup convened to determine policy recommendations to promote the integration of primary care and behavioral health. In this article we present these recommendations: Build demonstration projects to test existing approaches of integration, develop interdisciplinary training programs to support members of the integrated care team, implement population-based strategies to improve behavioral health, eliminate behavioral health carve-outs and test innovative payment models, and develop population-based measures to evaluate integration. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  9. Behavioral and emotional problems in a Kuala Lumpur children's home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Mohd Daud, Tuti Iryani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina

    2013-08-01

    There is a dearth of studies on behavioral and emotional problems in residential care children in Malaysia. This study describes the behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of children in a government residential care home and compares them with their classmates living with their birth parents. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out where carers from both groups were asked to fill in the translated Bahasa Melayu version of the Child Behavior Check List. Forms for 53 residential care children and 61 classmates were completed. The residential care children had significantly higher scores on the rule-breaking (P breaking (P = 0.008), DSM conduct problems (P = 0.018) and externalizing scores (P = 0.017). Abuse and neglect cases had higher anxiety and depression scores (P = 0.024). Number of reasons in care positively correlated with several subscales, including total behavioral problem score (P = 0.005). Logistic regression revealed the greater number of reasons for placement a child had was significantly associated with having externalizing scores in the clinical range (P = 0.016). However, after Bonferroni correction, only the initial findings regarding rule-breaking and DSM conduct problem scores remained significant. Challenges exist in managing residential care children in Malaysia, especially regarding externalizing behavior. More studies are required to describe the Malaysian scene. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: results of an 8-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A; Raynor, Hollie A; Niemeier, Heather M; Wing, Rena R

    2007-11-14

    Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 +/- 9.5 years) were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT) or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home). SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01) and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002). While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08). Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  11. Home grocery delivery improves the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants: Results of an 8-week pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemeier Heather M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food availability is consistently linked to dietary intake; yet behavioral weight control treatment includes only minimal instruction on how to change the home environment to support dietary goals. This pilot study examined whether it is feasible to change the household food environments of behavioral weight loss participants through the use of a commercially available grocery home delivery service. Methods Overweight participants (N = 28; BMI = 31.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2; 89.3% women, 47.9 ± 9.5 years were randomly assigned to 8-weeks of standard behavioral weight loss (SBT or to SBT plus home food delivery (SBT+Home. SBT+Home participants were instructed to do their household grocery shopping via an online service affiliated with a regional supermarket chain and were reimbursed for delivery charges. Results Compared to SBT, SBT+Home produced significantly greater reductions in the total number of foods in the home (p = .01 and number of foods that were high in fat (p = .002. While the groups did not differ in 8-week weight losses, within SBT+Home there was a trend for the number of home deliveries to be associated with weight loss (p = .08. Participants reported that the home delivery service was easy to use and that it helped decrease impulse purchases and lead to healthier choices; however, few planned to continue using the service after the study. Conclusion Encouraging weight loss participants to use a commercially available online grocery ordering and home delivery service reduces the overall number of food items in the home and decreases access to high-fat food choices. More research is needed to determine whether this is a viable strategy to strengthen stimulus control and improve weight loss outcomes.

  12. Home Media and Children’s Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6–12 year olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching television at home in 1997 and 2003 and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computers more than boys and Black children’s achievement benefited more from greater computer use than did that of White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls and Black boys, but not White boys. Greater computer play was also associated with a lower risk of becoming socially isolated among girls. Computer use does not crowd out positive learning-related activities, whereas video game playing does. Consequently, increased video game play had both positive and negative associations with the achievement of girls but not boys. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. PMID:20840243

  13. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  14. Thin Slices of Athletes' Nonverbal Behavior Give Away Game Location: Testing the Territoriality Hypothesis of the Home Game Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The present research investigated whether perceivers could detect who is playing at home or away in soccer matches based on thin slices of professional (Experiment 1) and amateur (Experiment 3) athletes' nonverbal behavior prior to the match and whether perceivers rated athletes playing at home relatively higher on behavioral dimensions (Experiments 2 and 3) linked to territoriality. In Experiment 1 ( N = 80), participants watched short videos depicting soccer players prior to a UEFA Champions League match and rated whether athletes were more likely to be playing at home or away. In Experiment 2 (two groups N = 102 and N = 101), perceivers rated these videos in terms of assertiveness, dominance, and aggression. In Experiment 3, we replicated the procedure of Experiments 1 and 2 with different stimulus material from amateur soccer ( N = 112). Participants could significantly differentiate between home playing and away playing athletes (Experiment 1: d = 0.44 and Experiment 3: d = 1.07). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that perceivers rated professional and amateur soccer players higher on assertiveness ( d = 0.34-0.63), dominance ( d = 0.20-0.55), and aggression ( d = 0.16-0.49) when playing at home compared to playing away. Findings are supportive of evolutionary accounts of nonverbal behavior, ecological approaches to person perception, and the thin slices of behavior hypothesis by demonstrating that humans change their nonverbal behavior depending on game location. We discuss the relevance of the present findings for the home advantage in sports.

  15. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  16. Modifiable factors related to abusive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volicer, L.; Kampen, van J.T.; Frijters, D.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine modifiable factors related to abusive behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. DESIGN: Analysis of Minimum Data Set (MDS) of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) information. SETTING: We used MDS-RAI data from 8 Dutch nursing homes and 10 residential homes that

  17. Smart home-based health platform for behavioral monitoring and alteration of diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Abdelsalam; Cook, Diane J; Schmalz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and medical practitioners have long sought the ability to continuously and automatically monitor patients beyond the confines of a doctor's office. We describe a smart home monitoring and analysis platform that facilitates the automatic gathering of rich databases of behavioral information in a manner that is transparent to the patient. Collected information will be automatically or manually analyzed and reported to the caregivers and may be interpreted for behavioral modification in the patient. Our health platform consists of five technology layers. The architecture is designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, to support plug-and-play operation of new devices and components, and to provide remote monitoring and programming opportunities. The smart home-based health platform technologies have been tested in two physical smart environments. Data that are collected in these implemented physical layers are processed and analyzed by our activity recognition and chewing classification algorithms. All of these components have yielded accurate analyses for subjects in the smart environment test beds. This work represents an important first step in the field of smart environment-based health monitoring and assistance. The architecture can be used to monitor the activity, diet, and exercise compliance of diabetes patients and evaluate the effects of alternative medicine and behavior regimens. We believe these technologies are essential for providing accessible, low-cost health assistance in an individual's own home and for providing the best possible quality of life for individuals with diabetes. © Diabetes Technology Society

  18. Predictors of Treatment Response in Depressed Mothers Receiving In-Home Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Concurrent Home Visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Peugh, James L.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2012-01-01

    Home visiting is a child abuse prevention strategy that seeks to optimize child development by providing mothers with support, training, and parenting information. Research has consistently found high rates of depression in mothers participating in home visiting programs and low levels of obtaining mental health treatment in the community.…

  19. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...

  20. Associations between childhood overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesogenic behaviors and practices in Australian homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children

  1. Ideas of home in palliative care research: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryselius, Kristina; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2018-04-23

    To explore the concept of home and its' expressed spatialities in current palliative care research. Home is a central environment for living, caring, and dying. However, pure investigations of the sets of ideas linked to the concept seemed missing. Although identified as an important location, spatial perspectives expressed through the concept of home appeared unexplored. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. Scientific articles published between January 2009 and September 2015. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. Resulting attributes were explored from two geographically informed spatial perspectives. As main results, six attributes were identified and explored: Home as actor-capable of acting; emotional environment-something people have feelings for; place-a part of personal identity and a location; space-complex and relational spatial connections and a site for care; setting-passive background and absolute space; becoming-a fluid spatiality constantly folded. Examples of attributes and suggestions for further concept development were identified. The concept reflects various sets of ideas as well as expressing both relational and absolute perspectives of space. The most challenging for nursing research and practice seems to be investigation, operationalization, and testing the implementation of sets of ideas reflecting a relational thinking of space. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Wildcat wellness coaching feasibility trial: protocol for home-based health behavior mentoring in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Brooke J; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Dzewaltowski, David A; Teeman, Colby S; Knutson, Cassandra K; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem, with one third of America's children classified as either overweight or obese. Obesity prevention and health promotion programs using components such as wellness coaching and home-based interventions have shown promise, but there is a lack of published research evaluating the impact of a combined home-based and wellness coaching intervention for obesity prevention and health promotion in young girls. The main objective of this study is to test the feasibility of such an intervention on metrics related to recruitment, intervention delivery, and health-related outcome assessments. The secondary outcome is to evaluate the possibility of change in health-related psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical outcomes in our sample of participants. Forty girls who are overweight or obese (aged 8-13 years) will be recruited from a Midwestern college town. Participants will be recruited through posted flyers, newspaper advertisements, email, and social media. The volunteer convenience sample of girls will be randomized to one of two home-based wellness coaching interventions: a general health education condition or a healthy eating physical activity skills condition. Trained female wellness coaches will conduct weekly hour-long home visits for 12 consecutive weeks. Assessments will occur at baseline, post-intervention (3 months after baseline), and follow-up (6 months after baseline) and will include height, weight, waist circumference, body composition, pulmonary function, blood pressure, systemic inflammation, physical activity (Actical accelerometer), and self-reported survey measures (relevant to fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and quality of life). This study will evaluate the feasibility of home-based wellness coaching interventions for overweight and obese girls and secondarily assess the preliminary impact on health-related psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical outcomes. Results will provide

  3. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  5. Preliminary Results From a Newly Established Behavioral Health Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Maragakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI have higher rates of preventable diseases such as diabetes in comparison to the general population. While multifaceted, these high rates of preventable diseases in the population with SMI may be partially attributed to limited access to primary care. A new program, the Behavioral Health Home (BHH, which allows for the delivery of somatic care coordination and population-based care, may provide this population with the much needed somatic coordination and education it requires. Methods: The impact of the population-based health management program of the BHH identification and severity rating of glucose metabolism disorders was assessed during the initial 10 months of the BHH. Results: Multiple patients were identified who either were not having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels drawn per recommended guidelines for individuals prescribed antipsychotic medications or were within diabetic range but did not have a diagnosis of diabetes. Mixed results occurred in regard to patients’ HbA1c levels while engaging in the BHH. Conclusion: This case study provides some initial evidence for the utility of the BHH in regard to identifying patients who need preventive care.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN BAMBOO UTILIZATION AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT HOME CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WITH COMMUNITY BEHAVIOR IN MAINTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineu Indrianeu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 Jayapura Village was hit by an earthquake with a strength of 7.3 on the Richter Scale. Many homes were damaged by the quake. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the utilization of bamboo as a home building material with environmental preservation behavior of Jayapura Village residents. The study population was 1,367 heads of households with a sample of 137 families. The method used in this research is using sequential mixed methods. The result of the research shows that there is a correlation between the two things which is indicated by the correlation value of 0,501 (medium correlation.

  7. Information Technology in the Home Barriers, Opportunities, and Research Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Rosalind

    2000-01-01

    ...; but what are the implications of increased Information Technology (IT) in the home? Can increased in-home IT create opportunities that will change the way we live and function within our homes and communities and facilitate greater societal benefits...

  8. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  9. The influence of home and community attachment on firewise behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard T. Kyle; Gene L. Theodori; James D. Absher; Jinhee. Jun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of residents’ attachment to their homes and community on their willingness to adopt Firewise recommendations. Our sample was drawn from a population residing in the wildland–urban interface where the threat of wildfire is acute. The Firewise recommendations concerned 13 activities affecting home design,...

  10. Behavior Drift Detection Based on Anomalies Identification in Home Living Quantitative Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Veronese; Andrea Masciadri; Sara Comai; Matteo Matteucci; Fabio Salice

    2018-01-01

    Home Automation and Smart Homes diffusion are providing an interesting opportunity to implement elderly monitoring. This is a new valid technological support to allow in-place aging of seniors by means of a detection system to notify potential anomalies. Monitoring has been implemented by means of Complex Event Processing on live streams of home automation data: this allows the analysis of the behavior of the house inhabitant through quantitative indicators. Different kinds of quantitative in...

  11. Home

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    Military Commission Seal VWAP Login Home Go ABOUT US Organization Overview Organizational Chart Families VWAP Login CCTV Sites Travel Media MC News CCTV Sites Travel Today at OMC Home Today at OMC Daily

  12. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  13. Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

  14. Telecommuting (Work-At-Home) at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinidhi, Saragur M.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a study in evaluating the viability of providing a work-at-home (telecommuting) program for Lewis Research Center's corporate employees using Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Case studies have been presented for a range of applications from casual data access to interactive access. The network performance of telemedia applications were studied against future requirements for such level of remote connectivity. Many of the popular ISDN devices were characterized for network and service functionality. A set of recommendations to develop a telecommuting policy have been proposed.

  15. Digital media in the home: technical and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Corbera, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    This article attempts to identify some of the technology and research challenges facing the digital media industry in the future. We first discuss several trends in the industry, such as the rapid growth of broadband Internet networks and the emergence of networking and media-capable devices in the home. Next, we present technical challenges that result from these trends, such as effective media interoperability in devices, and provide a brief overview of Windows Media, which is one of the technologies in the market attempting to address these challenges. Finally, given these trends and the state of the art, we argue that further research on data compression, encoder optimization, and multi-format transcoding can potentially make a significant technical and business impact in digital media. We also explore the reasons that research on related techniques such as wavelets or scalable video coding is having a relatively minor impact in today"s practical digital media systems.

  16. Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

  17. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin

    2012-01-01

    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  18. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  19. Children and computer use in the home: workstations, behaviors and parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerly, Lisa; Odell, Dan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the home computer use of 26 children (aged 6-18) in ten upper middle class families using direct observation, typing tests, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The goals of the study were to gather information on how children use computers in the home and to understand how both parents and children perceive this computer use. Large variations were seen in computing skills, behaviors, and opinions, as well as equipment and workstation setups. Typing speed averaged over 40 words per minute for children over 13 years old, and less than 10 words per minute for children younger than 10. The results show that for this sample, Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) concerns ranked very low among parents, whereas security and privacy concerns ranked much higher. Meanwhile, children's behaviors and workstations were observed to place children in awkward working postures. Photos showing common postures are presented. The greatest opportunity to improve children's work postures appears to be in providing properly-sized work surfaces and chairs, as well as education. Possible explanations for the difference between parental perception of computing risks and the physical reality of children's observed ergonomics are discussed and ideas for further research are proposed.

  20. Research Dilemmas with Behavioral Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Galit

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral big data (BBD) refers to very large and rich multidimensional data sets on human and social behaviors, actions, and interactions, which have become available to companies, governments, and researchers. A growing number of researchers in social science and management fields acquire and analyze BBD for the purpose of extracting knowledge and scientific discoveries. However, the relationships between the researcher, data, subjects, and research questions differ in the BBD context compared to traditional behavioral data. Behavioral researchers using BBD face not only methodological and technical challenges but also ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we discuss several dilemmas, challenges, and trade-offs related to acquiring and analyzing BBD for causal behavioral research.

  1. Behavior, Experience and Expression: Some Research Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyshyn, Robert D.

    Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…

  2. Payment reform in the patient-centered medical home: Enabling and sustaining integrated behavioral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ross, Kaile M; Davis, Melinda M; Melek, Stephen P; Kathol, Roger; Gordon, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is a promising framework for the redesign of primary care and more recently specialty care. As defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the PCMH framework has 5 attributes: comprehensive care, patient-centered care, coordinated care, accessible services, and quality and safety. Evidence increasingly demonstrates that for the PCMH to best achieve the Triple Aim (improved outcomes, decreased cost, and enhanced patient experience), treatment for behavioral health (including mental health, substance use, and life stressors) must be integrated as a central tenet. However, challenges to implementing the PCMH framework are compounded for real-world practitioners because payment reform rarely happens concurrently. Nowhere is this more evident than in attempts to integrate behavioral health clinicians into primary care. As behavioral health clinicians find opportunities to work in integrated settings, a comprehensive understanding of payment models is integral to the dialogue. This article describes alternatives to the traditional fee for service (FFS) model, including modified FFS, pay for performance, bundled payments, and global payments (i.e., capitation). We suggest that global payment structures provide the best fit to enable and sustain integrated behavioral health clinicians in ways that align with the Triple Aim. Finally, we present recommendations that offer specific, actionable steps to achieve payment reform, complement PCMH, and support integration efforts through policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Novel strategies for sedentary behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Young, Deborah Rohm; Prohaska, Thomas R; Owen, Neville; Buchner, David M

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on the "Novel Strategies for Sedentary Behavior Research" session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop. The purpose of this session of the workshop were to propose strategies for accomplishing a research agenda in dealing with sedentary behavior and to consider research priorities for people at high risk for excess sedentary behavior. The four major recommendations from this workshop were as follows: 1) To add repeated objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior to existing cohort studies and standardize approaches to measurement and analysis. Epidemiologic studies will be the most efficient design for addressing some research questions. 2) To increase research efficiency, consider the advantages of a network of connected research studies and health systems. Advantages include access to existing data in electronic health records. 3) To carefully select a variety of high-risk study populations and preplan collaboration among studies in intervention research. This strategy can efficiently address the breadth of issues in sedentary behavior research. 4) To include comparative effectiveness designs and pure environmental interventions in intervention research. This strategy facilitates and enhances translation of interventions into practice.

  4. Exploring new operational research opportunities within the Home Care context: the chemotherapy at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Salma; Marcon, Eric; Sahin, Evren; Feillet, Dominique; Dallery, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Home Care (HC) services provide complex and coordinated medical and paramedical care to patients at their homes. As health care services move into the home setting, the need for developing innovative approaches that improve the efficiency of home care organizations increases. We first conduct a literature review of investigations dealing with operation planning within the area of home care management. We then address a particular issue dealing with the planning of operations related to chemotherapy at home as it is an emergent problem in the French context. Our interest is focused on issues specific to the anti-cancer drug supply chain. We identify various models that can be developed and analyze one of them.

  5. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment From Smart Home-Based Behavior Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla Nath; Cook, Diane Joyce; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Smart home technologies offer potential benefits for assisting clinicians by automating health monitoring and well-being assessment. In this paper, we examine the actual benefits of smart home-based analysis by monitoring daily behavior in the home and predicting clinical scores of the residents. To accomplish this goal, we propose a clinical assessment using activity behavior (CAAB) approach to model a smart home resident's daily behavior and predict the corresponding clinical scores. CAAB uses statistical features that describe characteristics of a resident's daily activity performance to train machine learning algorithms that predict the clinical scores. We evaluate the performance of CAAB utilizing smart home sensor data collected from 18 smart homes over two years. We obtain a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.72) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided cognitive scores and a statistically significant correlation ( r=0.45) between CAAB-predicted and clinician-provided mobility scores. These prediction results suggest that it is feasible to predict clinical scores using smart home sensor data and learning-based data analysis.

  6. Nursing home research: the first International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Resnick, Barbara; Katz, Paul R; Little, Milta O; Ouslander, Joseph G; Bonner, Alice; Geary, Carol R; Schumacher, Karen L; Thompson, Sarah; Martin, Finbarr C; Wilbers, Joachim; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, D; Schwendimann, R; Schüssler, S; Dassen, Theo; Lohrmann, Christa; Levy, Cari; Whitfield, Emily; de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Dilles, Tinne; Azermai, Majda; Bourgeois, Jolyce; Orrell, Martin; Grossberg, George T; Kergoat, Hélène; Thomas, David R; Visschedijk, Jan; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Handajani, Yvonne S; Widjaja, Nelly T; Turana, Yuda; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Morley, John E

    2014-05-01

    The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics held its first conference on nursing home research in St Louis, MO, in November 2013. This article provides a summary of the presentations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smart homes, private homes? An empirical study of technology researchers' perceptions of ethical issues in developing smart-home health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchley, Giles; Huxtable, Richard; Murtagh, Madeleine; Ter Meulen, Ruud; Flach, Peter; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-04-04

    Smart-home technologies, comprising environmental sensors, wearables and video are attracting interest in home healthcare delivery. Development of such technology is usually justified on the basis of the technology's potential to increase the autonomy of people living with long-term conditions. Studies of the ethics of smart-homes raise concerns about privacy, consent, social isolation and equity of access. Few studies have investigated the ethical perspectives of smart-home engineers themselves. By exploring the views of engineering researchers in a large smart-home project, we sought to contribute to dialogue between ethics and the engineering community. Either face-to-face or using Skype, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 early- and mid-career smart-home researchers from a multi-centre smart-home project, who were asked to describe their own experience and to reflect more broadly about ethical considerations that relate to smart-home design. With participants' consent, interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. Two overarching themes emerged: in 'Privacy', researchers indicated that they paid close attention to negative consequences of potential unauthorised information sharing in their current work. However, when discussing broader issues in smart-home design beyond the confines of their immediate project, researchers considered physical privacy to a lesser extent, even though physical privacy may manifest in emotive concerns about being watched or monitored. In 'Choice', researchers indicated they often saw provision of choice to end-users as a solution to ethical dilemmas. While researchers indicated that choices of end-users may need to be restricted for technological reasons, ethical standpoints that restrict choice were usually assumed and embedded in design. The tractability of informational privacy may explain the greater attention that is paid to it. However, concerns about physical privacy may

  8. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  9. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder’s daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense or if something is wrong relative to the user’s health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%.

  10. Future directions of multiple behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly; Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R

    2017-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases (i.e., chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and obesity) result in 36 million deaths each year. Individuals' habitual participation in a single health-risk behaviors substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality (e.g., tobacco use, daily fast food intake, etc.); however, more concerning is the impact of typically co-occurring or clustering of multiple health-risk behaviors. This burden can be minimized through successful cessation of health-risk behaviors and adoption of healthy behaviors; namely healthy lifestyle adoption or multiple health behavior change (MHBC). MHBC is a developing field and future research recommendations are provided to advance MHBC research. A valid measure of MHBC (i.e., lifestyle) is warranted to provide the needed basis for MHBC investigations and evaluations. MHBC is thought to occur through shared co-variation of underlying motivating mechanisms, but how these relationships influence behavior remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between behaviors and the related motivating mechanisms (and potential cross-relationship of influences) is needed. Future research should also aim to improve lifestyles through understanding how to change multiple health behaviors. Finally, MHBC research should target the development of sustainable interventions which result in lasting effects (e.g., capacity, systems, policy and environmental changes), with dissemination considered during development. Focusing MHBC research in these areas will increase our understanding and maximize the impact on the health of populations.

  11. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...

  12. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Slater, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability of the modified Feline-ality™ assessment when done one day after the cat entered the shelter. Our modified version was predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Abstract It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success. PMID:26479138

  13. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Aloise-Young, P. A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Suryanarayanan, S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Zimmerle, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roche, R. [Univ. of Technology, Belfort-Montebeliard (France); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bauleo, P. [Fort Collins Utilities, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  14. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, Adam; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin; Earle, Lieko; Christensen, Dane; Bauleo, Pablo; Zimmerle, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  15. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  16. Team-level flexibility, work-home spillover, and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE--results only work environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.S. corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees' health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Team-level flexibility, work–home spillover, and health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE – Results Only Work Environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large US corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees’ health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. PMID:23517706

  18. Children who run away from home: risks for suicidal behavior and substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Bebbington, Paul; Vostanis, Panos

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of this study is to examine the extent to which running away from home as a child is associated with behavioral problems and victimization during childhood and with suicidal behavior and substance abuse during early adulthood. A random probability sample comprising 7,461 respondents was interviewed for the 2007 survey of psychiatric morbidity of adults in England. A subsample of 16- to 34-year-old individuals was selected for secondary analysis (N = 2,247). All survey respondents were asked whether they had run away from home and asked specific questions on being physically, emotionally and sexually abused as children. They were also asked about suicidal behavior and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Approximately 7% of 16- to 34-year-old individuals reported running away from home before the age of 16 years, with higher rates in women than in men (9.8% compared with 5.3%). Overall, 45.3% reported being bullied, 25.3% experienced violence at home, and 8.8% reported unwanted sexual intercourse. Runaways were far more likely than other children to have suffered victimization and family difficulties and to exhibit behavioral problems. Adults who reported running away from home were three times more likely than other adults to have thought about or attempted suicide, but the relationship with substance abuse was far less pronounced. Sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, along with family difficulties, can all impact children who run away from home. Running away from home was strongly associated with suicidal behavior in adulthood, regardless of other childhood adversities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Paid sick days and stay-at-home behavior for influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Piper

    Full Text Available Access to paid sick days (PSD differs by workplace size, race/ethnicity, gender, and income in the United States. It is not known to what extent decisions to stay home from work when sick with infectious illnesses such as influenza depend on PSD access, and whether access impacts certain demographic groups more than others. We examined demographic and workplace characteristics (including access to PSD associated with employees' decisions to stay home from work for their own or a child's illness. Linking the 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS consolidated data file to the medical conditions file, we used multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to identify factors associated with missed work for an employee's own or a child's illness/injury, influenza-like-illness (ILI, and influenza. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income, access to PSD was associated with a higher probability of staying home for an employee's own illness/injury, ILI, or influenza, and for a child's illness/injury. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a lower prevalence of staying home for the employee's own or a child's illness compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Access to PSD was associated with a significantly greater increase in the probability of staying home among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites. Women had a significantly higher probability of staying home for their child's illness compared to men, suggesting that women remain the primary caregivers for ill children. Our results indicate that PSD access is important to encourage employees to stay home from work when sick with ILI or influenza. Also, PSD access may be important to enable stay-at-home behavior among Hispanics. We conclude that access to PSD is likely to reduce the spread of disease in workplaces by increasing the rate at which sick employees stay home from work, and reduce the economic burden of staying home on minorities, women, and

  20. Smells Like Home: The Role of Olfactory Cues in the Homing Behavior of Blacktip Sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Jayne M; Whitney, Nicholas M; Hueter, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    Animal navigation in the marine environment is believed to be guided by different sensory cues over different spatial scales. Geomagnetic cues are thought to guide long-range navigation, while visual or olfactory cues allow animals to pinpoint precise locations, but the complete behavioral sequence is not yet understood. Terra Ceia Bay is a primary nursery area for blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, on southwestern Florida's Gulf of Mexico coast. Young-of-the-year animals show strong fidelity to a specific home range in the northeastern end of the bay and rapidly return when displaced. Older juveniles demonstrate annual philopatry for the first few years, migrating as far south as the Florida Keys each fall, then returning to Terra Ceia Bay each spring. To examine the sensory cues used in homing, we captured neonate (sharks from within their home range, fitted them with acoustic tags, and translocated them to sites 8 km away in adjacent Tampa Bay and released them. Intact animals returned to their home range, within 34 h on average, and remained there. With olfaction blocked, fewer animals returned to their home range and they took longer to do so, 130 h on average. However, they did not remain there but instead moved throughout Terra Ceia Bay and in and out of Tampa Bay. Since sharks from both treatments returned at night in tannic and turbid water, vision is likely not playing a major role in navigation by these animals. The animals in this study also returned on incoming or slack tides, suggesting that sharks, like many other fish, may use selective tidal stream transport to conserve energy and aid navigation during migration. Collectively, these results suggest that while other cues, possibly geomagnetic and/or tidal information, might guide sharks over long distances, olfactory cues are required for recognizing their specific home range. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  1. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N. Bazzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  2. Family Home Food Environment and Nutrition-Related Parent and Child Personal and Behavioral Outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Horning, Melissa; Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Kubik, Martha Y

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children's dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and

  3. Human Behavior Drift Detection in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Andrea; Trofimova, Anna A; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The proposed system aims at elderly people independent living by providing an early indicator of habits changes which might be relevant for a diagnosis of diseases. It relies on Hidden Markov Model to describe the behavior observing sensors data, while Likelihood Ratio Test gives the variation within different time periods.

  4. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Slater, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability ...

  5. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  6. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    AF Branding & Trademark Licensing Join the Air Force Home About Us The Air Force Symbol Display Resources Document Library TM Connect Search AF Branding and Trademark Licensing Program: important links Legal Documents 10 U.S.C. § 2260 15 U.S.C. § 167;167; 1114-1125 DODI 5535.12, DoD Branding and

  7. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    intersect as Attack Wing leaders change roles The 112th COS postured as cyber shield for Pa. infrastructure 111th Attack Wing 111th Attack Wing 21st Century Guard Airmen Home News Photos Art Video Resources - The Balance Search 111th Attack Wing: COMMUNITY/ENVIRO May 16, 2018; Pa. Department of Health update

  8. The effectiveness of asking behaviors among 9-11 year-old children in increasing home availability and children's intake of fruit and vegetables: results from the Squire's Quest II self-regulation game intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Liu, Yan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2017-04-21

    Home environment has an important influence on children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, but children may in turn also impact their home FV environment, e.g. by asking for FV. The Squire's Quest II serious game intervention aimed to increase asking behaviors to improve home FV availability and children's FV intake. This study's aims were to assess: 1) did asking behaviors at baseline predict home FV availability at baseline (T0) (RQ1); 2) were asking behaviors and home FV availability influenced by the intervention (RQ2); 3) did increases in asking behaviors predict increased home FV availability (RQ3); and 4) did increases in asking behaviors and increases in home FV availability mediate increases in FV intake among children (RQ4)? This is a secondary analysis of a study using a randomized controlled trial, with 4 groups (each n = 100 child-parent dyads). All groups were analyzed together for this paper since groups did not vary on components relevant to our analysis. All children and parents (n = 400 dyads) received a self-regulation serious game intervention and parent material. The intervention ran for three months. Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Asking behavior and home FV availability were measured using questionnaires; child FV intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. ANCOVA methods (research question 1), linear mixed-effect models (research question 2), and Structural Equation Modeling (research questions 3 and 4) were used. Baseline child asking behaviors predicted baseline home FV availability. The intervention increased child asking behaviors and home FV availability. Increases in child asking behaviors, however, did not predict increased home FV availability. Increased child asking behaviors and home FV availability also did not mediate the increases in child FV intake. Children influence their home FV environment through their asking behaviors, which can be enhanced

  9. The Home Smoking Environment: Influence on Behaviors and Attitudes in a Racially Diverse Adolescent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Jessica Legge; Latham, Teaniese; Annang, Lucy; Johnson, William D.; Burdell, Alexandra C.; West, Sabra J.; Clayton, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies indicate that public policy can influence the decrease in smoking behaviors, these policies have not necessarily transferred to home environments at the same rate. The authors surveyed 4,296 students in a southern urban area. African American students were 76.3% of the respondents and Caucasians accounted for 23.7%. African…

  10. Educational Outcomes of a Collaborative School-Home Behavioral Intervention for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school-home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was…

  11. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  12. Recurrent Vascular Headache: Home-Based Behavioral Treatment versus Abortive Pharmacological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of a home-based behavioral intervention (relaxation and thermal biofeedback training) with an abortive pharmacological intervention (with compliance training) for treating recurrent migraine and migraine/tension headaches. Both interventions yielded reductions in headache activity, psychosomatic symptoms, and daily life…

  13. Factors associated with home hazards: Findings from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad H; Tan, Maw P; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Clemson, Lindy

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months. Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards. This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  15. The Influence of Social Parameters on the Homing Behavior of Pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mehlhorn

    Full Text Available Homing pigeons develop preferred routes when released alone several times from the same site, but they sometimes diverge from their preferred route when subsequently released with another pigeon. Additionally, group flights show a better homing performance than solo flights. But this knowledge is based on studies involving both sexes and lacks analyses of social parameters such as mating or breeding status, even though it is known that such parameters have an influence on behavior and on motivation for specific behavioral patterns. GPS trackers were used to track 24 homing pigeons (9 breeding pairs and 6 unmated females as they performed a familiar 10km route in various pair and group combinations. Comparisons of efficiency indices (quotient between straight-line distance and pigeon's track reveal that unmated females show the best efficiency in single flights. Generally, group flights show the best efficiency followed by pair flights with a social partner of the opposite sex. Pair flights with the mated partner exhibit the poorest performance. Additionally, just before squabs hatching, females show a higher efficiency index when released at 8 am, compared to releases at 2 pm. Our results indicate that homing flight efficiency can provide insight into individual motivation and that social parameters have an influence on homing performance on a familiar route.

  16. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  17. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success.

  18. Behavioral health service utilization and preferences of older adults receiving home-based aging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Amber M; Iser, Lindsay; Petkus, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    To examine use of behavioral health services, treatment preferences, and facilitators and barriers to service use in older adults receiving home-based services within the aging network. Cross-sectional survey. Interviews were conducted in participants' homes. One hundred forty-two clients receiving home-based aging services. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; Brief Symptom Inventory-18; Discrimination-Devaluation Scale; utilization of behavioral health services; and preferences, facilitators, and barriers for behavioral health services. Use of psychotropic medication was high (54.2%), primarily received in primary care settings (58.8%), with a few visits a year (54.0%). Participants were more likely to be taking psychotropic medication if they were younger and white. Approximately one-third of participants on antidepressant or antianxiety medication still met criteria for an Axis I disorder. Twenty-one participants (14.8%) reported receiving counseling within the past year, with a few visits or less a year for most (57.1%). Almost all were willing to see at least one professional (97.2%) and try prescribed medications or counseling (90.1%). The most common barriers to service use were practical: affordability (71.8%), difficulty traveling (62.7%), and lack of transportation (45.8%). Aging network clients receiving home-based services have ready access to psychotropic medications but receive very few specialty behavioral health services and medication monitoring visits. They are willing to use a variety of behavioral health services and perceive mainly practical barriers to using services. The aging network has significant potential to enhance access to service utilization; strategies for integrating behavioral health services in the aging network are discussed.

  19. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  20. Research supporting the congruence between rehabilitation principles and home health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, L J

    1999-01-01

    A grounded-theory study of 30 home health nurses conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area used unstructured audiotaped interviews to elicit data as to how home health nurses define their practice. The purpose of the study was to develop a beginning substantive research-based theory of home health nursing practice. The model that emerged consists of three stages by which nurses attain autonomy in their practice. Adaptation was found to be the core category, in that nurses cannot function effectively or successfully in the home health arena unless they are or learn to be adaptable. Data also revealed that home health nurses either knowingly or unknowingly use rehabilitation nursing principles in their practice, thereby lending credence to the supposition that home health nursing practice is congruent with rehabilitation nursing principles.

  1. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  2. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  3. STORY AND HISTORY IN FETAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Karen

    2015-09-01

    In their monograph, DiPietro, Costigan, and Voegtline present an important and thoughtful portrait of low-risk fetal development during the last trimester of gestation, and they also pay tribute to the Fels Longitudinal Study investigators' early work in this area. In this commentary, the history and legacy of the Fels Institute is further explored within the broader context of fetal research, and DiPietro et al.'s findings are placed in alignment with contemporary dynamic systems' theoretical approaches that emphasize longitudinal analysis of emergent behavior and process during early development. The commentary puts forth the assertion that the work reported by DiPietro and her colleagues tells a story that sets the stage for a new generation of technology-enhanced and culturally expanded investigations of fetal behavior. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Behavior Drift Detection Based on Anomalies Identification in Home Living Quantitative Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Veronese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Home Automation and Smart Homes diffusion are providing an interesting opportunity to implement elderly monitoring. This is a new valid technological support to allow in-place aging of seniors by means of a detection system to notify potential anomalies. Monitoring has been implemented by means of Complex Event Processing on live streams of home automation data: this allows the analysis of the behavior of the house inhabitant through quantitative indicators. Different kinds of quantitative indicators for monitoring and behavior drift detection have been identified and implemented using the Esper complex event processing engine. The chosen solution permits us not only to exploit the queries when run “online”, but enables also “offline” (re-execution for testing and a posteriori analysis. Indicators were developed on both real world data and on realistic simulations. Tests were made on a dataset of 180 days: the obtained results prove that it is possible to evidence behavior changes for an evaluation of a person’s condition.

  5. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  6. Effects of Home-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Depression on Anxiety Symptoms among Rural, Ethnically Diverse Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Pierpaoli, Christina M; Shah, Avani; Yang, Xin; Scogin, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of home-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression on anxiety symptoms in an ethnically diverse, low resource, and medically frail sample of rural, older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized clincial trial with 134 rural-dwelling adults 65 years and older with decreased quality of life and elevated psychological symptomatology. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the anxiety and phobic anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Compared to a minimal support control condition, CBT for depression resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety and phobic anxiety from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Home-delivered CBT for depression can be an effective treatment for anxiety in a hard-to-reach older populations. Additional research should explore integrated anxiety and depression protocols and other treatment modalities, including bibliotherapy or telehealth models of CBT, to reduce costs associated with its in home delivery. Flexibility in administration and adaptations to the CBT protocol may be necessary for use with vulnerable, rural older adults.

  7. The psychology of home environments: a call for research on residential space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D; Travis, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Homes are important: People devote much of their thought, time, and resources to selecting, modifying, and decorating their living spaces, and they may be devastated when their homes must be sold or are destroyed. Yet the empirical psychological literature says virtually nothing about the roles that homes might play in people's lives. We argue that homes provide an informative context for a wide variety of studies examining how social, developmental, cognitive, and other psychological processes play out in a consequential real-world setting. The topic of homes is also well suited to collaborations with a diverse array of disciplines ranging from architecture and engineering to sociology and law. We illustrate the potential insights to be gained from studying homes with an exploratory study that maps the psychological ambiances (e.g., romance, comfort, togetherness) that people desire in their homes; we identify six broad ambiance dimensions (restoration, kinship, storage, stimulation, intimacy, productivity) that show mean differences across rooms. We connect these findings to existing work on situation selection in emotion regulation. These ideas provide only an initial foray into the domain of residential space, but they hint at the productive roles that homes and other spaces could play in psychological theorizing and research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist: Observation of Persons With Dementia in the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Pamela A; Ruth, Julia; Latella, Lauren; Talisman, Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    Communication contributes to increased stress, mortality, and decreased quality of life (QOL) for persons with dementia (PWD) and caregivers. PWD use communicative coping behaviors (CCBs) to manage the demands of the disease. However, most assessments neither look for nor give credit to communication behaviors. This is the first study to examine CCBs in the home environment as measured by the Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist (CCBC). This cross-sectional quantitative study included 26 dementia and 18 cognitively normal control dyads. Raters observed their partners' CCBs at home, over several weeks and completed the CCBC. We analyzed the endorsement rates (how often behaviors were observed by a rater) of emotion and activity-focused CCBs in dementia and control dyads. The primary outcome was rate of CCB endorsement. Secondary outcomes included dementia diagnosis, cognitive status, depressive mood, life satisfaction (SWL) and QOL. Dementia dyads endorsed 11 of 23 CCBs significantly more than control dyads. Action-focused CCBs (p endorsement rates of action-focused than emotion-focused CCBs were seen in dementia dyads. We conclude that attention to CCBs during treatment and care will improve QOL and SWL of PWD and caregivers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficient Active Sensing with Categorized Further Explorations for a Home Behavior-Monitoring Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robotics is a potential solution to home behavior monitoring for the elderly. For a mobile robot in the real world, there are several types of uncertainties for its perceptions, such as the ambiguity between a target object and the surrounding objects and occlusions by furniture. The problem could be more serious for a home behavior-monitoring system, which aims to accurately recognize the activity of a target person, in spite of these uncertainties. It detects irregularities and categorizes situations requiring further explorations, which strategically maximize the information needed for activity recognition while minimizing the costs. Two schemes of active sensing, based on two irregularity detections, namely, heuristic-based and template-matching-based irregularity detections, were implemented and examined for body contour-based activity recognition. Their time cost and accuracy in activity recognition were evaluated through experiments in both a controlled scenario and a home living scenario. Experiment results showed that the categorized further explorations guided the robot system to sense the target person actively. As a result, with the proposed approach, the robot system has achieved higher accuracy of activity recognition.

  12. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  13. Visual communication, reproductive behavior, and home range of Hylodes dactylocinus (Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Narvaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the signaling, reproductive and courtship behaviors of the diurnal stream-dwelling frog Hylodes dactylocinus. The repertoire of visual signals of H. dactylocinus includes foot-flagging, leg-stretching, body movements, and toe-wiggling. The visual signals are performed only by males and are used to defend territories against intruders and to attract females. Home rangesize varied from 0.12 to 13.12 m2 for males (N = 44, and from 0.45 to 7.98 m2 for females (N = 24; residency time varied from one to 12 months for males, and from two to 10 months for females. During the courtship of H. dactylocinus the male gives an encounter call towards an approaching female, touches her snout, and guides her to a previously dug nest. After oviposition, the female leaves the nest and returns to her own home range; the male remains calling after concealing the nest entrance.

  14. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  15. Conjoint behavioral consultation: implementing a tiered home-school partnership model to promote school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brandy L; Sheridan, Susan M; Woods, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    An ecological perspective to school readiness focuses on child and family readiness by enhancing the developmental contexts and relationships within which children reside (e.g., home environment, parent-child relationship, home-school relationships). The Getting Ready intervention is an ecological, relationally based, tiered intervention providing both universal and intensive services to children and families to promote child and family school readiness. Intensive level consultation services were provided via Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 1992 , 2008 ). The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation and effects of CBC within the Getting Ready intervention to promote child and family school readiness. Keys to successful implementation of the CBC intervention and issues needing further investigation are discussed.

  16. Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.; Roberts, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior

  17. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  18. Effects of atomoxetine with and without behavior therapy on the school and home functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxmonsky, James G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E; Draganac-Cardona, Lillian; Rotella, Bryan; Ryan, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of atomoxetine alone and in combination with behavior therapy on the school functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most atomoxetine studies have not assessed school functioning other than by measuring the change in ADHD symptoms. Combining behavior therapy with atomoxetine may be particularly beneficial for the academic domain as medication has not been found to produce sustained benefits in this realm. However, there is little research examining the effects of combining atomoxetine and behavior therapy. In an 8-week open-label trial, 56 children aged 6-12 years with ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR were randomly assigned to receive atomoxetine and behavior therapy or atomoxetine alone. Behavior therapy consisted of an 8-week parenting course, a child social skills course, and a teacher-implemented daily report card of classroom behavior. The primary outcome was direct observation of the subject's classroom behavior. Secondary outcomes included change in ADHD symptoms and functioning at home and school. All data were collected between March 2007 and May 2008. Classroom observations showed that atomoxetine decreased rule violations (P parent-rated symptoms of inattention (P parents, teachers, and direct observation. The addition of behavior therapy led to further improvements at home but not at school. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00918567. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Safety in home care: A research protocol for studying medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easty Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is an ongoing global priority, with medication safety considered a prevalent, high-risk area of concern. Yet, we have little understanding of the supports and barriers to safe medication management in the Canadian home care environment. There is a clear need to engage the providers and recipients of care in studying and improving medication safety with collaborative approaches to exploring the nature and safety of medication management in home care. Methods A socio-ecological perspective on health and health systems drives our iterative qualitative study on medication safety with elderly home care clients, family members and other informal caregivers, and home care providers. As we purposively sample across four Canadian provinces: Alberta (AB, Ontario (ON, Quebec (QC and Nova Scotia (NS, we will collect textual and visual data through home-based interviews, participant-led photo walkabouts of the home, and photo elicitation sessions at clients' kitchen tables. Using successive rounds of interpretive description and human factors engineering analyses, we will generate robust descriptions of managing medication at home within each provincial sample and across the four-province group. We will validate our initial interpretations through photo elicitation focus groups with home care providers in each province to develop a refined description of the phenomenon that can inform future decision-making, quality improvement efforts, and research. Discussion The application of interpretive and human factors lenses to the visual and textual data is expected to yield findings that advance our understanding of the issues, challenges, and risk-mitigating strategies related to medication safety in home care. The images are powerful knowledge translation tools for sharing what we learn with participants, decision makers, other healthcare audiences, and the public. In addition, participants engage in knowledge exchange

  20. Investigating the Association between Home-School Dissonance and Disruptive Classroom Behaviors for Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.

    2018-01-01

    Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…

  1. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. M...

  2. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  3. Tailored mental health care after nursing home admission: improving transfers of people with dementia with behavioral problems. An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mierlo, L D; Bootsma-Van der Wiel, A; Meiland, F J M; Van Hout, H P J; Stek, M L; Dröes, R M

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, many community-dwelling people with dementia and behavioral disturbances and their family caregivers receive mental health care from a community psychiatric nurse (CPN). To promote continuity of care for these persons after moving to a nursing home, a transfer intervention was developed. The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate this intervention and its implementation. A qualitative explorative study design was used. CPNs visited professional nursing home carers, people with dementia and family caregivers six weeks after moving, advised on how to manage behavioral problems of their former clients and provided support to family caregivers. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with participants exposed to the intervention (5 CPNs, 5 family and 12 nursing home carers) and with 11 stakeholders (i.e., nursing home and mental health care managers, professional caregivers) to identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation. Data were collected in 2012 and 2013. The follow-up visit at six weeks met the need for background information of new admitted patients and helped family caregivers close off the period prior to the move. It did not meet the original purpose of providing nursing home staff with advice about problem behaviors on time: six weeks after the move was experienced as too late. The transfer intervention increased the awareness of nursing home staff about personal and behavioral characteristics of residents with dementia and supported caregivers in coping with the new situation. The timing of the intervention could be improved by scheduling it immediately after the move.

  4. Ethics and gender issues in palliative care in nursing homes: an Austrian participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, Elisabeth; Heimerl, Katharina

    2014-06-01

    The development of palliative care in nursing homes in German-speaking countries has gained in importance within the past 15-20 years. Ethical and gender issues are core aspects of a palliative care culture and should therefore be better understood. The aim of this study was to highlight insights regarding ethical and gender issues, based on the experiences of professionals in nursing homes. A 2-year participatory action research study was performed in collaboration with three nursing homes in Austria. The article focusses on 10 group discussions with interdisciplinary professional teams that were conducted to generate ethical narratives. Thematic and narrative analysis was undertaken both individually and within the interdisciplinary research team. Findings and interpretations were validated with practitioners and researchers. A total of 36 narratives were collected and summarised within eight themes concerning the theoretical journey of a nursing home resident with relatives from entry into the house until death. The most burdensome ethical dilemmas are not the ones around death and dying but rather those relating to small-scale everyday work/life issues. Sharing experiences and feelings in ethical discussions provides relief. Emotions are important facilitators of insight into ethical dilemmas. Gender issues can be observed in care situations as well as in the organisational structure of nursing homes. Opportunities to share experiences and perspectives around ethical questions in interdisciplinary group discussions help professionals to better understand difficult issues and find appropriate ways of managing them. There is a need for communication structures such as facilitated ethical discussions that enable nursing home staff to reflect their everyday decisions. Expression of emotions should be encouraged in ethical decision-making processes in nursing homes. Gender-sensitive reflection supports the development of palliative care as organisational culture.

  5. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  6. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research: results of the HOME II meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-09-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes research. In June 2011, the HOME initiative conducted a consensus study involving 43 individuals from 10 countries, representing different stakeholders (patients, clinicians, methodologists, pharmaceutical industry) to determine core outcome domains for atopic eczema trials, to define quality criteria for atopic eczema outcome measures and to prioritize topics for atopic eczema outcomes research. Delegates were given evidence-based information, followed by structured group discussion and anonymous consensus voting. Consensus was achieved to include clinical signs, symptoms, long-term control of flares and quality of life into the core set of outcome domains for atopic eczema trials. The HOME initiative strongly recommends including and reporting these core outcome domains as primary or secondary endpoints in all future atopic eczema trials. Measures of these core outcome domains need to be valid, sensitive to change and feasible. Prioritized topics of the HOME initiative are the identification/development of the most appropriate instruments for the four core outcome domains. HOME is open to anyone with an interest in atopic eczema outcomes research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Home Medication Cabinets and Medication Taking Behavior of the Staffs in a University in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chengbin; Ye, Juan; Dong, Yuzhen; Xu, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    Background: A growing sum of medicines is stored in home medication cabinets in China, with the behavior of self-medication increasing. Although responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat ailments that do not need professional consultation, it bears the risk of misuse of medicines issued on prescription due to inadequate prescription medicine administration. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the condition and safety of medication storage and intended self-medication in a University in China. Method: The study was conducted over 10 month period (May 2015-March 2016) and involved a random sample of households. The questionnaire survey and personal insight into household medicine supplies was performed by a team of trained pharmacy staffs. Interviewees (N = 398, aged 16-88 y) were visited door to door and the home medication cabinets were catalogued after the participants were interviewed. Results: The majority (89.71%) households have home medicine cabinets. The total number of medicine items in the 398 households was 5600, with a median of 14 per household. The most frequently encountered categories of registered medicines were cough and cold medcines (47.8%), antibacterials for systemic use (30.0%), topical products for joint and muscular pain(26.1%), vitamins (23.2%), medication for functional gastrointestinal disorders (23.2%), oral and external forms have not kept separately(55.1%). The most treatment related problems recorded were curative effect not ideal (57.9%). 68% of the sample population would choose doctors as medication consultation object about medicines purchased. Conclusion: Large sum of medicines were found per household, with a high prevalence of cough and cold medcines. Public services in China, mainly government and health organizations, need put more effort on educating people on how to store medicines, as well as finding a way to raise awareness of the public in promoting behavioral change about medication

  8. Fall risk assessment and early-warning for toddler behaviors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen

    2013-12-10

    Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  9. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau-Tsuen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  10. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second. PMID:24335727

  11. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Van Eenoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy, meso-level (care organisations and micro-level (clients are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe.

  12. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy), meso-level (care organisations) and micro-level (clients) are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe. PMID:28435423

  13. Smart homes, private homes? An empirical study of technology researchers? perceptions of ethical issues in developing smart-home health technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Birchley, Giles; Huxtable, Richard; Murtagh, Madeleine; ter Meulen, Ruud; Flach, Peter; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Background Smart-home technologies, comprising environmental sensors, wearables and video are attracting interest in home healthcare delivery. Development of such technology is usually justified on the basis of the technology?s potential to increase the autonomy of people living with long-term conditions. Studies of the ethics of smart-homes raise concerns about privacy, consent, social isolation and equity of access. Few studies have investigated the ethical perspectives of smart-home engine...

  14. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  15. Establishing Design Strategies and an Assessment Tool of Home Appliances to Promote Sustainable Behavior for the New Poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental benefits related to home appliance life cycles depend on how these products are used. Designing home appliances that promote sustainable behavior is an effective way to reduce environmental impacts. This study aimed to increase relevant opportunities for promoting sustainable behavior practices on the new poor through home appliances, which is rarely discussed in the fields of design for sustainable behavior (DfSB and product design. In particular, relevant assessment tools or indicators are lacking in DfSB, and people’s use of home appliances is generally unsustainable. Therefore, repertory grid technology was used to understand the perceptions of the new poor, develop an assessment tool, and construct design strategies for home appliances that promote sustainable behavior. Data were collected from the new poor and from designers. Through cluster and principal component analyses, three strategy types were proposed that corresponded to different product features, suggestions, and guidance. In addition, the effectiveness and potential of an assessment tool were demonstrated using the Wilcoxon rank test. The findings could be used by designers, retailers, and green marketers to propose effective product design programs that promote sustainable behavior of the new poor during product use.

  16. Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hyun-Woo; Yuan, Jingxue Jessica; Huffman, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate recipients' perception of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program in the US. Out of 398 questionnaires, 265 (66.6%) were collected, and 209 questionnaires (52.5%) were used for the statistical analysis. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with a maximum likelihood was first conducted to estimate the measurement model by verifying the underlying structure of constructs. The level of internal consistency in each construct was acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha estimates ranging from 0.7 to 0.94. All of the composite reliabilities of the constructs were over the cutoff value of 0.50, ensuring adequate internal consistency of multiple items for each construct. As a second step, a Meals-On-Wheels (MOW) recipient perception model was estimated. The model's fit as indicated by these indexes was satisfactory and path coefficients were analyzed. Two paths between (1) volunteer issues and behavioral intention and (2) responsiveness and behavioral intention were not significant. The path for predicting a positive relationship between food quality and satisfaction was supported. The results show that having high food quality may create recipient satisfaction. The findings suggest that food quality and responsiveness are significant predictors of positive satisfaction. Moreover, satisfied recipients have positive behavioral intention toward MOW programs. PMID:21556231

  17. Service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hak-Seon; Yuan, Jingxue Jessica; Huffman, Lynn

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate recipients' perception of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intention in home delivered meals program in the US. Out of 398 questionnaires, 265 (66.6%) were collected, and 209 questionnaires (52.5%) were used for the statistical analysis. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with a maximum likelihood was first conducted to estimate the measurement model by verifying the underlying structure of constructs. The level of internal consistency in each construct was acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha estimates ranging from 0.7 to 0.94. All of the composite reliabilities of the constructs were over the cutoff value of 0.50, ensuring adequate internal consistency of multiple items for each construct. As a second step, a Meals-On-Wheels (MOW) recipient perception model was estimated. The model's fit as indicated by these indexes was satisfactory and path coefficients were analyzed. Two paths between (1) volunteer issues and behavioral intention and (2) responsiveness and behavioral intention were not significant. The path for predicting a positive relationship between food quality and satisfaction was supported. The results show that having high food quality may create recipient satisfaction. The findings suggest that food quality and responsiveness are significant predictors of positive satisfaction. Moreover, satisfied recipients have positive behavioral intention toward MOW programs.

  18. Adaptation of a nursing home culture change research instrument for frontline staff quality improvement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Palmer, Jennifer A; Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Allen, Rebecca S; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Dillon, Kristen R; Snow, A Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced interpersonal relationships and meaningful resident engagement in daily life are central to nursing home cultural transformation, yet these critical components of person-centered care may be difficult for frontline staff to measure using traditional research instruments. To address the need for easy-to-use instruments to help nursing home staff members evaluate and improve person-centered care, the psychometric method of cognitive-based interviewing was used to adapt a structured observation instrument originally developed for researchers and nursing home surveyors. Twenty-eight staff members from 2 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes participated in 1 of 3 rounds of cognitive-based interviews, using the instrument in real-life situations. Modifications to the original instrument were guided by a cognitive processing model of instrument refinement. Following 2 rounds of cognitive interviews, pretesting of the revised instrument, and another round of cognitive interviews, the resulting set of 3 short instruments mirrored the concepts of the original longer instrument but were significantly easier for frontline staff to understand and use. Final results indicated frontline staff found the revised instruments feasible to use and clinically relevant in measuring and improving the lived experience of a changing culture. This article provides a framework for developing or adapting other measurement tools for frontline culture change efforts in nursing homes, in addition to reporting on a practical set of instruments to measure aspects of person-centered care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginson Irene J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the views on maintaining dignity of 18 people aged 75 years and over, living in two private nursing homes in South East London. Detailed field notes on experiences of recruiting and interviewing participants were kept. Results Challenges included taking informed consent (completing reply slips and having a 'reasonable' understanding of their participation; finding opportunities to conduct interviews; involvement of care home staff and residents' families and trying to maintain privacy during the interviews. Most residents were positive about their participation in the study, however, five had concerns either before or during their interviews. Although 15 residents seemed to feel free to air their views, three seemed reluctant to express their opinions on their care in the home. Conclusion Although we experienced many challenges to conducting this study, they were not insurmountable, and once overcome, allowed this often unheard vulnerable group to express their views, with potential long-term benefits for future delivery of care.

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Criminal and Aggressive Behaviors among a National Sample of Adults in Mutual-Help Recovery Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Darrin M.; Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Majer, John M.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Davis, Margaret I.; Virtue, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Criminal and aggressive behaviors are frequently observed among those recovering from substance abuse problems. In the present one-year longitudinal study, a national sample of residents from self-governed, communal living recovery homes for substance abuse completed baseline and follow-up measures of criminal and aggressive behavior. Results indicated that a length of stay of six months or longer was associated with lower levels of self-reported criminal and aggressive behaviors at the one-y...

  1. The care unit in nursing home research: evidence in support of a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Morgan, Debra G; Squires, Janet E; Boström, Anne-Marie; Slaughter, Susan E; Cummings, Greta G; Norton, Peter G

    2011-04-14

    Defining what constitutes a resident care unit in nursing home research is both a conceptual and practical challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence in support of a definition of care unit in nursing homes by demonstrating: (1) its feasibility for use in data collection, (2) the acceptability of aggregating individual responses to the unit level, and (3) the benefit of including unit level data in explanatory models. An observational study design was used. Research (project) managers, healthcare aides, care managers, nursing home administrators and directors of care from thirty-six nursing homes in the Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba provided data for the study. A definition of care unit was developed and applied in data collection and analyses. A debriefing session was held with research managers to investigate their experiences with using the care unit definition. In addition, survey responses from 1258 healthcare aides in 25 of the 36 nursing homes in the study, that had more than one care unit, were analyzed using a multi-level modeling approach. Trained field workers administered the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), a 58-item self-report survey reflecting 10 organizational context concepts, to healthcare aides using computer assisted personal interviews. To assess the appropriateness of obtaining unit level scores, we assessed aggregation statistics (ICC(1), ICC(2), η², and ω²), and to assess the value of using the definition of unit in explanatory models, we performed multi-level modeling. In 10 of the 36 nursing homes, the care unit definition developed was used to align the survey data (for analytic purposes) to specific care units as designated by our definition, from that reported by the facility administrator. The aggregation statistics supported aggregating the healthcare aide responses on the ACT to the realigned unit level. Findings from the multi-level modeling further supported unit level aggregation. A

  2. Automated home cage assessment shows behavioral changes in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Esteban; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. A novel SCA17 mouse model having a 71 polyglutamine repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) has shown age related motor deficit using a classic motor test, yet concomitant weight increase might be a confounding factor for this measurement. In this study we used an automated home cage system to test several motor readouts for this same model to confirm pathological behavior results and evaluate benefits of automated home cage in behavior phenotyping. Our results confirm motor deficits in the Tbp/Q71 mice and present previously unrecognized behavioral characteristics obtained from the automated home cage, indicating its use for high-throughput screening and testing, e.g. of therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. Methods and analysis The aim of the ‘Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care—Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare’ (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers’ and staffs’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. PMID:29599394

  4. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-03-28

    Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. The aim of the 'Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care-Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare' (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers' and staffs' knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Virtual rehabilitation: what are the practical barriers for home-based research?

    OpenAIRE

    Threapleton, Kate; Drummond, Avril E.R.; Standen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality technologies are becoming increasingly accessible and affordable to deliver, and consequently the interest in applying virtual reality within rehabilitation is growing. This has resulted in the emergence of research exploring the utility of virtual reality and interactive video gaming interventions for home use by patients. The aim of this paper is to highlight the practical factors and difficulties that may be encountered in research in this area, and to make recommendations ...

  6. Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) is an innovative, improved, and evolving approach to providing primary care that has gained broad acceptance in the United States. The Joint Principles of the PCMH, formulated and endorsed in February 2007, are sound and describe the ideal toward which we aspire. However, there is an element running implicitly through these joint principles that is difficult to achieve yet indispensable to the success of the entire PCMH concept. The incorporation of behavioral health care has not always been included as practices transform to accommodate to the PCMH ideals. This is an alarming development because the PCMH will be incomplete and ineffective without the full incorporation of this element, and retrofitting will be much more difficult than prospectively integrating into the original design of the PCMH. Therefore we offer a complementary set of joint principles that recognizes the centrality of behavioral health care as part of the PCMH. This document follows the order and language of the original joint principles while emphasizing what needs to be addressed to insure incorporation of the essential behavioral elements. It is intended to supplement and not replace the original Joint Principles document, which still stands.

  7. Contributions of Socialization Theory to Consumer Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott

    1978-01-01

    Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…

  8. Analyzing Activity Behavior and Movement in a Naturalistic Environment Using Smart Home Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Dawadi, Prafulla

    2015-11-01

    One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the ability to analyze the impact of different medical conditions on daily behavior. In this study, we use smart home and wearable sensors to collect data, while ( n = 84) older adults perform complex activities of daily living. We analyze the data using machine learning techniques and reveal that differences between healthy older adults and adults with Parkinson disease not only exist in their activity patterns, but that these differences can be automatically recognized. Our machine learning classifiers reach an accuracy of 0.97 with an area under the ROC curve value of 0.97 in distinguishing these groups. Our permutation-based testing confirms that the sensor-based differences between these groups are statistically significant.

  9. Detection of early behavioral markers of Huntington's disease in R6/2 mice employing an automated social home cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudenko, Olga; Tkach, Vadim; Berezin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    developed behavior screening system, the IntelliCage, allows automated testing of mouse behavior in the home cage employing individual recognition of animals living in social groups. The present study validates the ability of the IntelliCage system to detect behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, for which no known cure or effective treatment exists. To facilitate the search for new potential treatments of HD, an automated system for analyzing the behavior of transgenic HD mice is urgently needed. A recently...

  10. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  11. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  12. Translational Research: It's Not 1960s Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Edwards, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors find Critchfield's article ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) scholarly, clear, and insightful. In it, Critchfield provides an excellent overview of translational research in behavior analysis and suggests several general strategies for increasing the…

  13. Development of project wings home visits, a mental health intervention for Latino families using community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Hermann, Denise; Bartels, Anna; Matamoros, Pablo; Dick-Olson, Linda; Guerra de Patino, Janeth

    2012-11-01

    As the Latino population in the United States experiences rapid growth, the well-being of Latino adolescents is a growing concern because of their high rates of mental health problems. Latino adolescents have higher rates of mental health problems than their peers, including depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, and violence. Sophisticated, realistic health promotion efforts are needed to reduce these risk behaviors and enhance protective factors. Parents and schools can be key protective factors, or assets, in adolescents' lives. This article details the steps undertaken to develop Project Wings Home Visits, a collaborative school-based, community-linked mental health promotion intervention for Latino adolescents and their families. Core to the intervention is the use of a community health worker model to provide home-based outreach and education to parents of Latino adolescents. The intervention was developed using a community-based participatory research approach that involved the cooperation of a community health care system, a public high school, and a university. Our process demonstrates the benefits, strengths, and challenges of using community-based participatory research in creating and implementing health promotion interventions.

  14. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  15. Some guidelines for conducting research in applied behavioral pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Frans; Weeden, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) has published a number of articles on the behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Some additional JABA publications have included investigations of the behavioral effects of other drugs. However, a review of these articles revealed many methodological differences among studies, which makes it difficult to evaluate the relative contribution of each research effort to the overall database. In this context, we offer some guidelines to solidify the methodological rigor of behavior pharmacological research published in JABA. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer Poultry Handling Behavior in the Grocery Store and In-Home Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Amy K; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria L; Cates, Sheryl C

    2016-04-01

    Considerable work on consumers' food safety habits has highlighted issues associated with home food preparation. However, consumer handling of foods, such as poultry, during shopping and storage has not been noted. The objective of this study was to determine consumer behaviors during purchasing and initial storage of raw poultry to determine potential cross-contamination issues. A shop-along observational study was conducted to determine actual shopping, transportation, and storage behavior of consumers who purchase raw poultry products. Neither hand sanitizer nor wipes were observed in 71% of grocery store meat sections of stores visited. Plastic bags could be found in the meat section 85% of the time, but only 25% of shoppers used the bag for their raw poultry purchases. During checkout, the poultry was bagged separately from other products 71% of the time. A majority of shoppers stored raw poultry in the original package without an additional container or overwrap. Overall, there needs to be an increase in food safety education on the handling of poultry during purchasing, transportation, and storage.

  18. Tailored mental health care after nursing home admission: improving transfers of people with dementia with behavioral problems. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, L.D.; van der Wiel, A.; Meiland, F.J.M.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Stek, M.L.; Dröes, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In the Netherlands, many community-dwelling people with dementia and behavioral disturbances and their family caregivers receive mental health care from a community psychiatric nurse (CPN). To promote continuity of care for these persons after moving to a nursing home, a transfer

  19. Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2012-01-01

    This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

  20. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  1. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  2. Organizational Behavior Research in Transition Time of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Kan

    2004-01-01

    The article is to introduce author's research results in recent years in the field of leadership behavior. The main researches conducted in this field include competency model of senior executives in communication industry and family firms; transformational leadership and its relationship with leadership effectiveness, the impact of supervisor's feedback on employees' behavior and the cross-culture study of supervisor's feedback. Theoretical and practical contributions of these researches are explained. Directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Researches on relationship between consumers? attachments and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Yu-fan

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims for studying the relationship between consumers? attachment styles and consumers? behaviors, especially ethical consumption and conformity consumption. Based on combing the previous researches, studies conclude that: “secure attachment” people and their ethical behaviors are most positively related, and “ambivalent attachment” people and their moral behaviors take second. Meanwhile, “avoidant attachment” people and their moral behaviors are most negatively related, and “fearful...

  4. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare-Recent Advances and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sumit; Aghayi, Emad; Noferesti, Moein; Memarzadeh-Tehran, Hamidreza; Mondal, Tapas; Pang, Zhibo; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-10-31

    Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies.

  5. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare—Recent Advances and Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayi, Emad; Noferesti, Moein; Memarzadeh-Tehran, Hamidreza; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M. Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies. PMID:29088123

  6. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare—Recent Advances and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Majumder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies.

  7. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  8. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  9. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  10. Energy-efficient privacy protection for smart home environments using behavioral semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Homin; Basaran, Can; Park, Taejoon; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2014-09-02

    Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  11. Energy-Efficient Privacy Protection for Smart Home Environments Using Behavioral Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homin Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on smart environments saturated with ubiquitous computing devices is rapidly advancing while raising serious privacy issues. According to recent studies, privacy concerns significantly hinder widespread adoption of smart home technologies. Previous work has shown that it is possible to infer the activities of daily living within environments equipped with wireless sensors by monitoring radio fingerprints and traffic patterns. Since data encryption cannot prevent privacy invasions exploiting transmission pattern analysis and statistical inference, various methods based on fake data generation for concealing traffic patterns have been studied. In this paper, we describe an energy-efficient, light-weight, low-latency algorithm for creating dummy activities that are semantically similar to the observed phenomena. By using these cloaking activities, the amount of  fake data transmissions can be flexibly controlled to support a trade-off between energy efficiency and privacy protection. According to the experiments using real data collected from a smart home environment, our proposed method can extend the lifetime of the network by more than 2× compared to the previous methods in the literature. Furthermore, the activity cloaking method supports low latency transmission of real data while also significantly reducing the accuracy of the wireless snooping attacks.

  12. Escalation research: Providing new frontiers for applying behavior analysis to organizational behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Sonia M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to “throw good money after bad,” can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis. PMID:22478347

  13. Let's Play at My House: Effects of the Home Environment on the Social Behavior of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Victoria W.; Lore, Richard K.

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that preschool children at home initiated both more positive and aggressive social interactions and were more effective in attracting a visiting child into play than were children away from home. This was the case even when the child at home had been shyer during the first meeting of the children. (JMB)

  14. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n=6474 and 2014–15 (n=6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR=0.46, 99% CI=0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes. Keywords: Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, Single mother, Single father, Healthy home environment

  16. Research progress of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua GU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006

  17. A Research Agenda on Assessing and Remediating Home Dampness and Mold to Reduce Dampness-Related Health Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center

    2015-05-28

    This report briefly summarizes, based on recent review articles and selected more recent research reports, current scientific knowledge on two topics: assessing unhealthy levels of indoor D/M in homes and remediating home dampness-related problems to protect health. Based on a comparison of current scientific knowledge to that required to support effective, evidence-based, health-protective policies on home D/M, gaps in knowledge are highlighted, prior questions and research questions specified, and necessary research activities and approaches recommended.

  18. A Research Agenda on Assessing and Remediating Home Dampness and Mold to Reduce Dampness-Related Health Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report briefly summarizes, based on recent review articles and selected more recent research reports, current scientific knowledge on two topics: assessing unhealthy levels of indoor D/M in homes and remediating home dampness-related problems to protect health. Based on a comparison of current scientific knowledge to that required to support effective, evidence-based, health-protective policies on home D/M, gaps in knowledge are highlighted, prior questions and research questions specified, and necessary research activities and approaches recommended.

  19. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Len Thomas & Catriona Harris Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM) University of St Andrews St Andrews , UK...Specifically Dr. Hans Slabbekoorn (University of Leiden), Professor Vincent Janik (University of St Andrews ) and Professor Douglas Wartzok (Florida

  20. Factors across home, work, and school domains influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Bishop, Hillary L; Greaney, Mary L; Whiteley, Jessica A

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional college students (older, part-time, and/or working) have less healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors compared to traditional students, yet few health promotion efforts focus on nontraditional students. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to explore factors affecting nutrition and physical activity behaviors of nontraditional students. Fourteen semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with nontraditional undergraduate students attending a large university. The sample had a median age of 25 (range, 21-64), 57% were men, 43% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 57% were employed (mean 22 hours/week). Data were coded using a systematic team-based approach. Consistent themes (mentioned by 4+ students) were identified and categorized into three domains: home, work, and school. Home (themes: neighborhood characteristics, family, partners), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: cafeteria, vending machines) factors consistently influenced positive nutrition behaviors. Similarly, home (themes: neighborhood including safety, friends from home, partner,), work (theme: work environment), and school (themes: not having a car, campus structure, campus gym, friends at school) factors consistently influenced positive physical activity. Financial resources and perceptions of autonomy had influence across domains. Results indicate consistent influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors across home, work, and school domains for nontraditional college students. Study findings suggest possible, and sometimes unconventional, intervention strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity. For example, when cafeteria meal plans are not offered and financial constraints limit eating at the cafeteria, encouraging healthful choices from vending machines could be preferable to not eating at all. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral Responses of Nursing Home Residents to Visits From a Person with a Dog,a Robot Seal or a Toy Cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Karen; Sørensen, Lisbeth U; Videbech, Poul B

    2016-01-01

    , and gender were collected. We found that the immediate responses to, and interaction with, the visiting animal depended on the type of animal that was brought along. The dog and the interactive robot seal triggered the most interaction, in the form of physical contact (F(2,103) = 7.50, p eye......Previous studies suggest that contact with dogs can positively affect the wellbeing of elderly people in nursing homes, but there is a lack of research investigating the causal pathways of these effects. One such path- way may relate to the behavioral responses of the elderly when interacting...... contact (F(4,151) = 6.26, p

  2. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  3. Beyond expected utility: rethinking behavioral decision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, D; Clemen, R T

    1994-07-01

    Much research in psychology has evaluated the quality of people's decisions by comparisons with subjective expected utility (SEU) theory. This article suggests that typical arguments made for the status of utility theory as normative do not justify its use by psychologists as a standard by which to evaluate decision quality. It is argued that to evaluate decision quality, researchers need to identify those decision processes that tend to lead to desirable outcomes. It is contended that a good decision-making process must be concerned with how (and whether) decision makers evaluate potential consequences of decisions, the extent to which they accurately identify all relevant consequences, and the way in which they make final choices. Research that bears on these issues is reviewed.

  4. ANOVA for the behavioral sciences researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2013-01-01

    This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the

  5. Cooperative behavior, competition and operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical tool to study cooperation and competition. Since the beginnings of operations research and game theory both fields have been closely related. This thesis further investigates this relationship. Costs or rewards sharing problems arising from scheduling problems,

  6. An extension of consumer environmental behavior research among expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuian, Shahid N.; Amyx, Douglas A.; Shamma, Hamad M.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research has explored different configurations of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, and values, and their influence on consumer environmental behavior. It is essential that a more comprehensive understanding of what lies at the root of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors be developed. This study aims to address some of the limitations in the current literature by theorizing and examining a consumer environmental behavior model that includes th...

  7. Overview of research work activities in German language in the Home Automation area; Ueberblick deutschsprachiger Forschungsaktivitaeten im Bereich Home Automation. Forschungsinstitute, Themen, Ergebnisse - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at research work carried out in Germany and Austria on 'smart homes'. The aim of the project was to determine which work has already been carried out in Germany and Austria so that work in Switzerland can be concentrated on questions that have not been looked at in Germany and Austria. The appropriate research institutions are listed. Concrete projects are briefly described and their relevance for Swiss efforts is examined. Various Home Automation project categories are listed, as are the most important research institutes involved. The particular research projects in Germany and Austria and their relevance to Swiss efforts are listed.

  8. Electrooculography: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Behavior in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipulina, Olga V.; Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, Arda O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the potential roles and importance of electrooculography (EOG) for mathematics educational neuroscience research. EOG enables accurate measurements of eye-related behavior (i.e., blinks & movements) by recording changes in voltage potentials generated by eye-related behavior. We identify and discuss three main uses of EOG.…

  9. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  10. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yujiao; Leonardo, Selena; Soulakova, Julia N

    2018-03-01

    We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18) based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010-11 ( n  = 6474) and 2014-15 ( n  = 6114). The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010-11 and 86% in 2014-15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH) Asian (94%) and Hispanic (92%) parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010-11 and 82% in 2014-15) in both survey periods. However, 2014-15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66). The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010-11 and 2014-15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010-11 decreased by 2014-15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014-15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.

  11. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-08-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.

  12. Medical homes for at-risk children: parental reports of clinician-parent relationships, anticipatory guidance, and behavior changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine S; Higman, Susan M; Sia, Calvin; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K

    2005-01-01

    Family-centeredness, compassion, and trust are 3 attributes of the clinician-parent relationship in the medical home. Among adults, these attributes are associated with patients' adherence to clinicians' advice. The objectives were (1) to measure medical home attributes related to the clinician-parent relationship, (2) to measure provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention, (3) to relate anticipatory guidance to parental behavior changes, and (4) to relate medical home attributes to anticipatory guidance and parental behavior changes. A cross-sectional study of data collected among at-risk families when children were 1 year of age, in a randomized, controlled trial of a home-visiting program to prevent child abuse and neglect, was performed. Modified subscales of the Primary Care Assessment Survey were used to measure parental ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust. Parental reports of provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention topics (smoke alarms, infant walkers, car seats, hot water temperature, stair guards, sunscreen, firearm safety, and bottle propping) and behavior changes were recorded. Of the 564 mothers interviewed when their children were 1 year of age, 402 (71%) had a primary care provider and had complete data for anticipatory guidance items. By definition, poverty, partner violence, poor maternal mental health, and maternal substance abuse were common in the study sample. Maternal ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust were fairly high but ranged widely and varied among population subgroups. Families reported anticipatory guidance for a mean of 4.6 +/- 2.2 topics relevant for discussion. Each medical home attribute was positively associated with parental reports of completeness of anticipatory guidance, ie, family-centeredness (beta = .026, SE = .004), compassion (beta = .019, SE = .005), and trust (beta = .016, SE = .005). Parents

  13. Funding a Health Disparities Research Agenda: The Case of Medicare Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Joan K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare home health care provides critical skilled nursing and therapy services to patients in their homes, generally after a period in an inpatient facility or nursing home. Disparities in access to, or outcomes of, home health care can result in patient deterioration and increased cost to the Medicare program if patient care needs intensify.…

  14. [Research of controlling of smart home system based on P300 brain-computer interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjia; Yang, Chengjie

    2014-08-01

    Using electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to control external devices has always been the research focus in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI). This is especially significant for those disabilities who have lost capacity of movements. In this paper, the P300-based BCI and the microcontroller-based wireless radio frequency (RF) technology are utilized to design a smart home control system, which can be used to control household appliances, lighting system, and security devices directly. Experiment results showed that the system was simple, reliable and easy to be populirised.

  15. In-Home Display – a Review of Experiences from Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Billewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies on smart metering. The aim of smart metering is not only automated billing and two-way communication with a smart meter. The measure of success of the implementation of smart metering is the level of customer engagement and their cooperation with energy companies, as well as the consequences of such involvement changing electricity-using habits. This article focuses on one device for smart metering – in-home display (IHD. The paper characterizes an IHD’s functions and describes international experiences of research and conclusions of studies.

  16. Examining the Security Awareness, Information Privacy, and the Security Behaviors of Home Computer Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Attacks on computer systems continue to be a problem. The majority of the attacks target home computer users. To help mitigate the attacks some companies provide security awareness training to their employees. However, not all people work for a company that provides security awareness training and typically, home computer users do not have the…

  17. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  18. Campbell Creek Research Homes: FY2013 Annual Performance Report OCT.1, 2012 SEP. 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL; Odukomaiya, Wale O [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    1.INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT OVERVIEW The Campbell Creek project is funded and managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Technology Innovation, Energy Efficiency, Power Delivery and Utilization Office. Technical support is provided under contract by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The project was designed to determine the relative energy efficiency of typical new home construction, of retrofitting of existing homes, and of high-performance new homes built from the ground up for energy efficiency. This project was designed to compare three houses that represent current construction practices: a base case (Builder House CC1); a modified house that could represent a major energy-efficient retrofit (Retrofit House CC2); and a house constructed from the ground up to be a high-performance home (High Performance House CC3). To enable a valid comparison, it was necessary to simulate occupancy in all three houses and extensively monitor the structural components and the energy usage by component. In October 2013, the base case was also modified by replacing the builder-grade heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system with a high-efficiency variable-speed unit. All three houses are two-story, slab-on-grade, framed construction. CC1 and CC2 are approximately 2,400 ft2. CC3 has a pantry option, used primarily as a mechanical equipment room, that adds approximately 100 ft2. All three houses are all-electric (with the exception of a gas log fireplace that is not used during the testing) and use air-source heat pumps for heating and cooling. The three homes are located in Knoxville in the Campbell Creek Subdivision. CC1 and CC2 are next door to each other with a south-facing orientation; CC3 has a north-facing orientation and is located across the street and a couple of houses down. The energy data collected will be used to determine the benefits of retrofit packages and high-performance new home

  19. Under pressure, out of control, or home alone? Reviewing research and policy debates on the occupational health and safety effects of outsourcing and home-based work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Bohle, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The practice of outsourcing or subcontracting of work has grown rapidly in most countries over the past two decades. Outsourcing, de-institutionalization, and a range of other practices have also resulted in a growth of home-based work. Home-based workers, even when not part of a subcontracting process, operate in an isolated situation remote from their employer and other workers. Do such work arrangements expose workers to greater risk of injury, illness, or assault? The authors reviewed international studies of the occupational health and safety (OHS) effects of subcontracting and home-based work undertaken over the past 20 years. Of the 25 studies analyzed, 92 percent found poorer OHS outcomes. The studies were examined for clues about the reasons for these negative outcomes. The authors also identified similarities and differences between subcontracting and home-based work. Despite the evidence of poor OHS outcomes, research into outsourcing has stalled in recent years. With notable exceptions, governments have taken little account of findings on these work arrangements in their laws and policies, in part because neoliberal ideas dominate national and global policy agendas. The authors examine policy challenges and regulatory responses and make suggestions for future research and policy interventions.

  20. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.

  1. Outcomes of a Randomized Trial of a Cognitive Behavioral Enhancement to Address Maternal Distress in Home Visited Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Elizabeth; Burrell, Lori; Duggan, Anne; Tandon, Darius

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a 6-week, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group-based enhancement to home visiting to address stress and prevent depression as compared with home visiting as usual in low income mothers of young children. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 95 low-income mothers of young children to assess the effectiveness of a 6-week, cognitive behavioral group-based enhancement to Healthy Families America and Parents as Teachers home visiting (HV/CBT = 49) to address stress and prevent depression as compared with home visiting as usual (HV = 46). Booster sessions for the HV/CBT group were offered at 3 and 6 months. Participants completed measures of coping, stress and depression at three points: baseline prior to randomization, post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Parent child interaction was also measured at 6 months. Results Intent-to-treat analyses found improved coping and reduced stress and depression post-intervention. While impacts on these outcomes were attenuated at 6 months, positive impacts were observed for selected aspects of mothers' interactions with their children. Maternal characteristics at baseline were associated with participation in the intervention and with post-intervention and 6-month outcomes. Mothers with lower levels of stress and those with fewer children were more likely to attend intervention sessions. Mothers with lower levels of stress had more favorable post intervention outcomes. Conclusions CBT group-based enhancement to home visiting improved maternal coping, reduced stress and depression immediately post intervention but not at 6 months, suggesting more work is needed to sustain positive gains in low-income mothers of young children.

  2. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  3. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  4. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  5. SpaceScience@Home: Authentic Research Projects that Use Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, B. J. H.

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, several space science research projects have enlisted the help of large numbers of non-professional volunteers, ``citizen scientists'', to aid in performing tasks that are critical to a project, but require more person-time (or computing time) than a small professional research team can practically perform themselves. Examples of such projects include SETI@home, which uses time from volunteers computers to process radio-telescope observation looking for signals originating from extra-terrestrial intelligences; Clickworkers, which asks volunteers to review images of the surface of Mars to identify craters; Spacewatch, which used volunteers to review astronomical telescopic images of the sky to identify streaks made by possible Near Earth Asteroids; and Stardust@home, which asks volunteers to review ``focus movies'' taken of the Stardust interstellar dust aerogel collector to search for possible impacts from interstellar dust particles. We shall describe these and other similar projects and discuss lessons learned from carrying out such projects, including the educational opportunities they create.

  6. What Price Ethics: New Research Directions in Counselor Ethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Louis V.

    1978-01-01

    This paper briefly examines research on the ethical behavior of counselors, demonstrating that new directions in this area are needed, and that new research questions must be asked if significant information relating to counseling and ethics is to advance. Areas of inquiry and methods for investigation are suggested. (Author)

  7. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  8. Review of Researches on Agricultural Industry Chain at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge; SONG; Taiyan; YANG; Jianhui; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Management of agricultural industry chain is the main form of modern agricultural industrialization. Integration and optimization of agricultural chain have great significance in deepening the reform in the countryside,quickening the development of agricultural modernization and establishing new system of agricultural management. Based on the theory sources and contents of agricultural chain as well as the current researches at home and abroad,this paper hackles and concludes information technology,logistics management and food safety and quality in foreign agricultural chain as well as the organization model,operation mechanism,integration and optimization,promotion and extension,financing and risk prevention,influencing factors as well as performance evaluation in domestic agricultural chain and offers relevant review in order to provide further reference for future researches.

  9. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  10. The Ethical Behavior of Counselors: New Directions in Ethical Behavior Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Louis V.

    The ethical behavior of counselors is an issue of current importance to those in the profession. This paper briefly examines the literature in this area. While considerable descriptive research on ethical behavior exists, the conspicuous absence of any experimental methodologies and theoretically-based investigations were noted. The need for new…

  11. Paid sick days and stay-at-home behavior for influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Kaitlin; Youk, Ada; James, A. Everette; Kumar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    Access to paid sick days (PSD) differs by workplace size, race/ethnicity, gender, and income in the United States. It is not known to what extent decisions to stay home from work when sick with infectious illnesses such as influenza depend on PSD access, and whether access impacts certain demographic groups more than others. We examined demographic and workplace characteristics (including access to PSD) associated with employees' decisions to stay home from work for their own or a child's ill...

  12. [Suicidal behavior and the broken home. Critical evaluation of a "causal hypothesis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, S; Schmidtke, A

    1988-06-01

    It has often been hypothesized that a broken home results in a "predisposition" towards suicidal behaviour. Previous findings concerning the incidence of broken homes among suicides have revealed rates that are considerably higher than might have been expected from the base rate of the incidence of broken homes among the population as a whole. However, when considering these results, it is necessary to take into account a number of general methodological problems as well as specific problems inherent in the study of the causes of suicidal behaviour. Therefore, due to methodological objections, it can be assumed that the covariation between the variable, broken home, and suicidal behaviour, as compared with other psychiatric disturbances, has been overestimated. It seems more likely that a broken home, in combination with the simultaneous and subsequent emergence of adverse circumstances, increases the probability of the appearance of deviant behaviour in general. Therefore, it would appear that the most useful approach for understanding suicidal behaviour is to analyse the learning history and background of patients who have exhibited such behaviour, while the variable, broken home, should be regarded as being only one of several factors conditioning the failure to develop or apply adequate coping strategies.

  13. Unimaginable homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Klausen, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The chapter draw from critical mediatization theory, critical intimacy theory, and cultural gerontology and asks: How do elderly people practice their mediatized homes? Which roles do media play in constituting and disturbing the flows of bodies into the home? Moreover: how do dominant...... in the making of the mediatized home space. We conclude by returning to the research questions and making explicit how researching flows of bodies that in many ways inhabit homes of the in-between contributes to both gerontological and geomediatization research agendas....

  14. Federal Aviation Administration's behavioral research program for defense against hijackings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, J T; Pickrel, E W

    1975-04-01

    Behavioral research has been significant contributions to the government's successful program for defense against hijackers. Today's boarding gate defenses have a leading role in that program, but they were rejected until creation of the behavioral profile made selective search feasible. Metal detectors now make search of all travelers practical but with increasing involvement of boarding gate employees, so a behavioral program is used to monitor their performance. Experience shows that some persons have penetrated boarding gate defenses, so another requirement was in-flight defenses. Flightpersonnel had defeated some past hijackers, so a behavioral analysis of past hijackings was used to identify tactics for in-flight defense. These were incorporated into training programs and distributed to all U.S. airlines, many government organizations, and foreign carriers. Research continues for updating these and developing new courses for special needs, such as defense against gangs.

  15. The Effect of Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Mothers’ Behaviors about Prevention of Home Accidents in Children under 5 Year Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose: Accidents are the first cause of death in children under 5 years, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to determination the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year in Joibar city based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 year were participated (95 in case group and 95 incontrol group.The data collection toolwas researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of protection motivation theory.After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in case group. Then two months after the educational intervention,evaluation was done and data into SPSS 20software and by using statistical testsT-test، Paired T test ، chi _square، Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis was analyzed. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMTin the case and control groups after the educational intervention, so that in all cases in the case group was better than control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that PMT can be used as a framework in designing educational programs in order to promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5 year.

  16. Impact of in-home behavioral management versus telephone support to reduce depressive symptoms and perceived stress in Chinese caregivers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Gray, Heather L; Tang, Paulette C Y; Pu, Chun Yu; Leung, Laurie Y L; Wang, Peng-Chih; Tse, Collins; Hsu, Shannon; Kwo, Elizabeth; Tong, Hui-Qi; Long, James; Thompson, Larry W

    2007-05-01

    Recent work has shown that Chinese Americans caring for a family member with dementia experience considerable psychological distress. However, few studies evaluate treatments for them. This study evaluated the efficacy of in-home intervention, based on cognitive behavior therapy principles, to relieve stress and depression in female Chinese American caregivers (CGs). Fifty-five CGs who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a telephone support condition (TSC) or to an in-home behavioral management program (IHBMP) for 4 months. In the TSC, biweekly calls were made and relevant material was mailed. In the IHBMP, specific psychological skills were taught to deal with caregiving stress. CGs were assessed before and after treatment. Outcome measures evaluated overall perceived stress, caregiving-specific stress, and depressive symptoms. CGs in IHBMP were less bothered by caregiving-specific stressors and had lower depression levels than CGs in TSC. There was no difference in overall stress. CGs with low baseline level of self-efficacy for obtaining respite benefited from IHBMP, but showed little improvement in the TSC. CGs with higher self-efficacy benefited from both treatments. This intervention is promising and warrants replication in future studies. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term effects and to identify individual differences associated with improvement.

  17. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Strategies for Helping Parents of Young Children Address Challenging Behaviors in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhen; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial interactions with peers and adults. It is generally accepted in young children that challenging behaviors serve some sort of communicative purpose--to…

  19. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  20. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have......The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  1. Perilaku Agresif Siswa dari Keluarga Broken Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Pratama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based because of the aggressive behavior shown by the students, especially students who come from a broken home. The purpose of this study is to describe the aggressive behavior that is owned by a student who comes from a broken home in terms of attacking people physically, verbally, and damaging and destroying property and wealth of others. The results of this research shows that in general student’s aggressivebehavior are on average level. Implications of research in guidance and counseling is as the basis for programs to prevent and cope with aggressive behavior that is owned by the students, especially students who come from a broken home. Cooperation with the homeroom teacher mentors, teachers and other school personnel will also help identify students who have an aggressive behavior, especially students who come from a broken home to immediately provided services.

  2. Internet research: an opportunity to revisit classic ethical problems in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, David J

    2003-01-01

    The Internet offers many new opportunities for behavioral researchers to conduct quantitative and qualitative research. Although the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association generalize, in part, to research conducted through the Internet, several matters related to Internet research require further analysis. This article reviews several fundamental ethical issues related to Internet research, namely the preservation of privacy, the issuance of informed consent, the use of deception and false feedback, and research methods. In essence, the Internet offers unique challenges to behavioral researchers. Among these are the need to better define the distinction between private and public behavior performed through the Internet, ensure mechanisms for obtaining valid informed consent from participants and performing debriefing exercises, and verify the validity of data collected through the Internet.

  3. Report on a comprehensive research study (home welfare apparatus system - interface); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system - interface) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the light of the increasing role of welfare at home with the advance of the aging society, the paper conducted an investigational study on the R and D of the home welfare apparatus system - interface. In the study, making the most of the leading home care apparatus systems (welfare technohouses) installed at seven places in the country, the paper carried out a stay experiment on how the life is in the welfare house into which home welfare apparatus is integrated, and an experiment to assess biological data on aged people. Especially as to the support apparatus used for smooth life motions in houses such as movement, excretion and bathing, examined were the linkage with house bodies, care apparatus used, mutual interface with welfare apparatus, etc. By the experiments to assess these home welfare apparatus, an analytical study was conducted on the points to be improved in welfare apparatus and housing equipment, and at the same time on the course of the research/development. Concerning a system for the research study, a research promotion committee was established in Technology Research Association of Medical and Welfare Apparatus, the members of which are learned persons from the industrial circle, the government and universities. 111 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  5. Associations of American Indian children's screen-time behavior with parental television behavior, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.

  6. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  7. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  8. Behavioral Public Administration: Connecting Psychology with European Public Administration Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Well-known public administration scholars have stressed the importance of psychological research for the study of public administration. Neighboring disciplines such as economics and political science, have witnessed the emergence of the psychology-informed subfields of behavioral economics and

  9. The comeback of the interview in organizational behavior research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Ben

    Organizational behavior, as a theory-developing field of research, is highly questionnaire-based and highly dependent on quantitative methods. In its dominant methodology tradition, variables are measured in a sample of respondents or other units of observation and the calculated relationships

  10. Translating research into practice in nursing homes: can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N; Applebaum, Robert A; Schnelle, John F; Simmons, Sandra F

    2012-10-01

    A gap between research and practice in many nursing home (NH) care areas persists despite efforts by researchers, policy makers, advocacy groups, and NHs themselves to close it. The reasons are many, but two factors that have received scant attention are the dissemination process itself and the work of the disseminators or change agents. This review article examines these two elements through the conceptual lens of Roger's innovation dissemination model. The application of general principles of innovation dissemination suggests that NHs are characteristically slow to innovate and thus may need more time as well as more contact with outside change agents to adopt improved practices. A review of the translation strategies used by NH change agents to promote adoption of evidence-based practice in NHs suggests that their strategies inconsistently reflect lessons learned from the broader dissemination literature. NH-related research, policy, and practice recommendations for improving dissemination strategies are presented. If we can make better use of the resources currently devoted to disseminating best practices to NHs, we may be able to speed NHs' adoption of these practices.

  11. Case Study of Smart Meter and In-home Display for Residential Behavior Change in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Shen, Jingchun; Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Qian, Yingchu

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters and in-home displays (IHD) have been recently adopted to help give residential consumers more control over energy consumption, and to help meet environmental and security of supply objectives. The paper aims to identify the effectiveness of smart meters and real-time IHDs in reducing Shanghai household energy consumption through a pilot investigation. The research results demonstrate the improved awareness, understanding, and attitudes towards the energy saving by smart meters an...

  12. Research on the cultivation path of smart home-based care service mode in Internet+ vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qingchao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Home-based care for the aged is an effective method to solve the problem of caring the aged in China. This thesis analyzes some problems existing in the development of current home-based care service for the aged in our country and the positive effects brought by Internet+ in home-based care service. It proposes a new service mode of care for the aged--Internet+ home-based care service, and explains the establishment of this system and the responsibilities of the participants. Also, it explores the path to realize the establishment of Internet+ home-based care service mode so as to promote the healthy development of home-based care service in China.

  13. Behavioral Economic Laboratory Research in Tobacco Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T

    2016-10-01

    Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.

  14. Complex Genetics of Behavior: BXDs in the Automated Home-Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Maarten; Verhage, Matthijs; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August B

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a use case for the genetic dissection and automated analysis of complex behavioral traits using the genetically diverse panel of BXD mouse recombinant inbred strains. Strains of the BXD resource differ widely in terms of gene and protein expression in the brain, as well as in their behavioral repertoire. A large mouse resource opens the possibility for gene finding studies underlying distinct behavioral phenotypes, however, such a resource poses a challenge in behavioral phenotyping. To address the specifics of large-scale screening we describe how to investigate: (1) how to assess mouse behavior systematically in addressing a large genetic cohort, (2) how to dissect automation-derived longitudinal mouse behavior into quantitative parameters, and (3) how to map these quantitative traits to the genome, deriving loci underlying aspects of behavior.

  15. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  16. Research on the cultivation path of smart home-based care service mode in Internet+ vision

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Qingchao

    2016-01-01

    Home-based care for the aged is an effective method to solve the problem of caring the aged in China. This thesis analyzes some problems existing in the development of current home-based care service for the aged in our country and the positive effects brought by Internet+ in home-based care service. It proposes a new service mode of care for the aged--Internet+ home-based care service, and explains the establishment of this system and the responsibilities of the participants. Also, it explor...

  17. Research of home energy management system based on technology of PLC and ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Shen, Jiaojiao

    2015-12-01

    In view of the problem of saving effectively energy and energy management in home, this paper designs a home energy intelligent control system based on power line carrier communication and wireless ZigBee sensor networks. The system is based on ARM controller, power line carrier communication and wireless ZigBee sensor network as the terminal communication mode, and realizes the centralized and intelligent control of home appliances. Through the combination of these two technologies, the advantages of the two technologies complement each other, and provide a feasible plan for the construction of energy-efficient, intelligent home energy management system.

  18. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  19. Statement of the American Psychological Association in response to the "joint principles: integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-06-01

    Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice"

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-Behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    therapy for depressed low-income homebound older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 263–271. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.037 Cohen, S...frequently co-occurs with other conditions, such as PTSD and physical injuries among military personnel and Veterans and can slow recovery and return...the relative clinical efficacy of HBTBH. Key Words Behavioral Activation (BA) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Depression Military Post

  1. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  2. Assessment the Effect of Educational Intervention on Preventive Behaviors of Home Accidents in Mothers with Children Less than 5- Year Based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Ebadi Fardazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accidents are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Educational intervention on promotion of prevention behaviors of home accidents in mothers with children less than 5- year based on protection motivation theory (PMT in 2015. Materials and Methods: In this controlled interventional study 190 mothers with children less than 5 years were participated (95 in intervention group and 95 in control group.The data collection tool was researcher made questionnaire based on the structures of PMT. After done pre-test and the results obtained from it, appropriate educational intervention designed and was conducted only in intervention group. Then two months after the educational intervention, evaluation was done and data analysis was using SPSS-20. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between mean scores of all structures of PMT in intervention and control groups after the educational intervention (P

  3. [Premorbid personality and aggressive behavior in residents of psychogeriatic nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, C; Allewijn, M; Diesfeldt, H F A

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, the correlation was examined between pre-morbid personality traits and the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in residents of a psychogeriatric nursing home. The participants in the study were the close relatives of 39 residents of a psychogeriatric nursing home. These residents were selected on the basis of two subscales of the BOP assessment scale for elderly patients: Aggressive and annoying behaviour, and mental disability. Residents were divided into two groups: one group did not display aggressive behaviour, the other group displayed a great deal of such behaviour. The groups were comparable with regard to the degree of mental disability. To ascertain pre-morbid personality traits, use was made of the hetero-anamnestic personality questionnaire (HAP) and the Quick Big Five (QBF). We found no significant differences in any of the premorbid personality traits between the two groups. We could not confirm the conclusion of other authors that emotional lability (neuroticism) is a personality trait which makes people susceptible to developing aggressive behaviour. In conclusion, our study did not confirm the hypothesis that pre-morbid personality traits are useful to explain the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in residents of a psychogeriatric nursing home.

  4. Battling on the Home Front: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Conflict Behavior among Military Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M.; Caska-Wallace, Catherine; Smith, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated interpersonal behavior differences among male military service members with and without PTSD and their female partners. Couples (N = 64) completed a 17-minute videotaped conflict discussion, and their interaction behavior was coded using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979; 1987; 2000). Within couples, the behavior of partners was very similar. Compared to military couples without PTSD, couples with PTSD displayed more interpersonal hostility and control. Couples with PTSD also exhibited more sulking, blaming, and controlling behavior, and less affirming and connecting behavior, than couples without PTSD. Results advance our understanding of the relational impacts of PTSD on military service members and their partners, and underscore the value of couple-based interventions for PTSD in the context of relationship distress. PMID:28270334

  5. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.

  6. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral Perspectives on Home Energy Audits: The Role of Auditors, Labels, Reports, and Audit Tools on Homeowner Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzhenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Hathaway, Zac [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Susan [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Clock, Joe Van [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Peters, Jane [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Smith, Rebecca [Earth Advantage Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Heslam, David [Earth Advantage Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Diamond, Richard C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Our study focused on the perspective of homeowner decision-­making in response to home energy audits, combined with attention to the quality of the recommendations that homeowners receive, as well as the perspectives of some key industry actors on auditing and home energy labels. Unlike a program evaluation, the research was not designed to answer detailed questions about program effectiveness in terms of costs, savings, or process, nor was it designed to provide direct answers to questions of how to get people to do more audits or more retrofits. Rather it “steps back” toward a better understanding of more basic questions about what audits provide and what homeowners seem to want, for the case of one particular program that we expect has parallels to many others.

  8. A Research Review: The Importance of Families and the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Parents are a child's first educator. A child's family and home environment has a strong impact on his/her language and literacy development and educational achievement. This impact is stronger during the child's early years but continues throughout their school years. Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment…

  9. Research and implementation of geographic information service mode in digital home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B.; Liu, K.; Gan, Y.; Zhong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Accompanying infrastructure improvements and networking technology innovation, the development of digital home service industry has gotten more and more attention. However, the digital home service levels have not sufficiently met rising demand from users. Therefore, it is urgent to propose and develop new service modes for the digital home. Geographic information services can provide various spatial information services such as map search, spatial information query. It has become an inevitable trend to implement geographic information services in the digital home. This paper proposes three new geographic information services modes for the digital home after sufficient requirement analysis: pushed information service mode, interactive information service mode, personalized information service mode. The key technologies to implement geographic information services on digital televisions are studied, involving digital television middleware technology, network transmission technology and visualization technology. According to the service modes' characteristics mentioned above, a service system in the digital home is established to implement geographic information services on the basis of digital television. The implementation of geographic information services in the digital home not only enriches the digital home services content, but also promotes geographic information from specialization to public popularity.

  10. Home or hospital birth: a prospective study of midwifery care in the Netherlands: research in progress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1965 two-thirds of all births in the Netherlands occurred at home. In the next 25 years, that situation became reversed with more than two-thirds of births occurring in hospital and less than one-third at home. Until the 1970's a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy was expected to give birth

  11. Edwin Grant Dexter: an early researcher in human behavioral biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alan E.

    2015-06-01

    Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.

  12. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid hinders integration of behavioral health into the medical home model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dylan H; Jones, Erynne E

    2016-02-01

    The potential expansion of insurance coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 can facilitate the reduction of access barriers and improved quality for behavioral health care. More than 5 million of the newly insured are expected to have mental health and substance use disorders. In addition, state and federal efforts to integrate behavioral and medical health needs through patient-centered medical home models and innovations in payment strategies provide an unprecedented opportunity to use federal financial support to improve not only access to care, but also improve quality through active care coordination, use of interdisciplinary teams, colocating services, and engaging in warm hand-offs between providers in the same setting. These potential advances are hindered in 24 different states because of Medicaid payment policy, with 7 explicitly limiting the ability to reimburse for physical health and behavioral health services on the same day for all providers. Without the ability for providers to be reimbursed for different services on the same day to improve behavioral and medical health care coordination, these states could be limited in their ability to improve care via patient-centered approaches and interdisciplinary team-based care that would involve physicians, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid programs could impact up to 36.7 million people in 24 states, which is approximately 52.6% of all Medicaid enrollees. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-Behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Std. Z39.18 2 Table of Contents ...not entirely disregarded in BA for PTSD; rumination and worry, as well as feelings of anxiety and panic, are common obstacles to the completion of...scheduled activities, and are therefore addressed on an ongoing, as needed basis. In this protocol, rumination and worry are treated as behavior and

  15. Behavior of Serbian Tourists During Economic Crisis: Two Empirical Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Najdić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourist’s behavior research is focused on understanding and explaining the factors that affect tourist’s preferences and holiday destination choice. In this paper is analyzed the impact of the global economic crisis on the preferences toward leisure travels of the residents from Serbia. The paper is based on researches conducted in 2006-2009, through travel agencies and in 2011 on the general population major of age with support of TNS Medium Gallupa. Better understanding of the perception process and how tourists react to certain factor can give more accurate information on the dynamics of tourism demand and its dependence on tourist’s perception.

  16. Diagnosis by behavioral observationHome-Videosomnography – A Rigorous Ethnographic Approach to Sleep of Children with Neurodevelopmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sevket Ipsiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Advanced video technology is available for sleep-laboratories. However, low-cost equipment for screening in the home setting has not been identified and tested, nor has a methodology for analysis of video recordings been suggested.MethodsWe investigated different combinations of hardware /software for home-videosomnography (HVS and established a process for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HVS-recordings. A case vignette (HVS analysis for a 5.5-year-old girl with major insomnia and several co-morbidities demonstrates how methodological considerations were addressed and how HVS added value to clinical assessment.ResultsWe suggest an ‘ideal set of hardware/software’ that is reliable, affordable (~$500 and portable (= 2.8kg to conduct non-invasive HVS, which allows time-lapse analyses. The equipment consists of a net-book, a camera with infra-red optics, and a video capture device. (1 We present an HVS-analysis protocol consisting of 3 steps of analysis at varying replay speeds: (a basic overview and classification at 16x normal speed; (b 2nd viewing and detailed descriptions at 4-8x normal speed, and (c viewing, listening, and in-depth descriptions at real-time speed. (2 We also present a custom software program that facilitates video analysis and note-taking (Annotator©, and Optical Flow software that automatically quantifies movement for internal quality control of the HVS-recording.The case vignette demonstrates how the HVS-recordings revealed the dimension of insomnia caused by Restless Legs Syndrome, and illustrated the cascade of symptoms, challenging behaviors and resulting medications.ConclusionThe strategy of using HVS, although requiring validation and reliability testing, opens the floor for a new ‘observational sleep medicine’, which has been useful in describing discomfort-related behavioral movement patterns in patients with communication difficulties presenting with challenging/disruptive sleep

  17. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  18. Report on the comprehensive investigational research (at-home welfare apparatus system); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on the research and development of an at-home welfare apparatus system. In this study, a stay experiment was carried out on whether aged or handicapped people can easily live in welfare houses into which at-home welfare apparatus was integrated, using high-tech at-home nursing apparatus systems (welfare techno house: WTH) which were installed at seven places in Japan based on `the development of a system supporting independent excretion.` In addition, the following were conducted: experiments on at-home welfare apparatus in terms of the evaluation of performance/operability/safety, physical physiology reactions, nursing burden/estimate of independence, two-way communication, examination of housing environments, etc. In WTH Chofu, a test on evaluating welfare apparatus was conducted by people with limbs paralysis and healthy case workers. In WTH Sapporo, by a working group studying biological information, examinations were made on the situation of standing up of healthy adults, old people and people with paralysis of one side of the body from various types of chairs, beds, wheel chairs, portable toilets and sitting down on them. An examination was also made on harmony with psychological function and physically adaptable function by a working group studying at-home nursing apparatus. 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. The construct-behavior gap in behavioral decision research: A challenge beyond replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Robinson, Maria M

    2017-10-01

    Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory. Although simple, these theoretical links are heuristics. They are subject to well-known reasoning fallacies, most notably the fallacy of sweeping generalization and the fallacy of composition. No amount of replication can alleviate these fallacies. On the contrary, reiterating logically inconsistent theoretical reasoning over and again across studies obfuscates science. As a case in point, we consider pairwise choices among simple lotteries and the hypotheses of overweighting or underweighting of small probabilities, as well as the description-experience gap. We discuss ways to avoid reasoning fallacies in bridging the conceptual gap between hypothetical constructs, such as, for example, "overweighting" to observable pairwise choice data. Although replication is invaluable, successful replication of hard-to-interpret results is not. Behavioral decision research stands to gain much theoretical and empirical clarity by spelling out precise and formally explicit theories of how hypothetical constructs translate into observable behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Brougham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.

  1. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  2. Exploring associations between perceived home and work neighborhood environments, diet behaviors, and obesity: Results from a survey of employed adults in Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tabak, PhD, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015 assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight. Logistic regression models explored associations between perceived neighborhood built environment variables, diet, and obesity. The only variable associated with any of the outcomes explored in the fully adjusted models was the home neighborhood composite scale. None of the work environment variables were significantly associated with any of the health/behavior outcomes after adjustment. Few associations were found after adjustment for personal and job-related characteristics, and none were identified with the workplace neighborhood environment. While few home environment associations were found after adjustment, and none were identified with the perceived workplace neighborhood environment, the current study adds to the limited literature looking at associations between the perceived neighborhood around the workplace neighborhood and the perceived neighborhood around the home and dietary behaviors and obesity in adults. Future studies are needed to determine whether relationships between these environments and behavior exist, and if so, if they are causal and warrant intervention attempts.

  3. Home Environment, Self-Concept and Urban Student Achievement: A Bibliography and Review of Research. NJ Urban Education Research Reports No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carol; Bloom, Joel S.

    This review analyzes recent research on student personality, social and home environment, and the influence of these factors on academic achievement, particularly among minority and disadvantaged students. Several factors which purportedly affect student achievement and which are examined in the review include: (1) socioeconomic status and its…

  4. Cross-Sectional Associations between Home Environmental Factors and Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviors in Adults: The Moderating Role of Socio-Demographic Variables and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschaert, Cedric; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults’ sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller (p moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles. PMID:29088089

  5. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  6. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total b...

  7. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  8. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Helena; Gore, Rebecca J; Boyer, Jon; Nobrega, Suzanne; Punnett, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  9. Radioecological research on the behavior of actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the research program on ''Investigation of the physical and chemical environmental behavior of radionuclides characterized by a particular biological effectivenes - Pu, Am, Cm'' are presented. Analytical procedures for Pu, Am, and Cm were developed. The behavior of Pu in the environment has been studied. Releases, dispersion, deposition, transport in soil, transfer to animals, dilution in a river and sedimentation were measured using Pu from nuclear weapon fallout and Pu release of Karlsruhe Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The distribution coefficients and the availability of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil were determined. A greenhouse strated its operation during the last months. The transfer factors for Pu, Am, and Cm will be determined for 15 to 20 food plants, and different types of soil. (orig./DG)

  10. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D.; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. PMID:26062611

  11. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Work Engagement: A Double-Edged Sword? A Study of the Relationship between Work Engagement and the Work-Home Interaction Using the ARK Research Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Listau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate how being engaged at work affects academics’ work-home interaction. Using the Conservation of Resources theory as a theoretical framework, the study contributes to existing research by examining the relationship between the work engagement subscales (i.e. vigour, dedication, and absorption and both work-home facilitation and work-home conflict. In order to test the hypotheses, a Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling analysis was conducted using a large sample of academics from the Norwegian university sector (N = 4378. The results indicated that vigour and dedication had a positive relationship with work-home facilitation and a negative relationship with work-home conflict. In contrast, absorption was not significantly related to work-home facilitation, but was positively associated with work-home conflict. Thus, we conclude that work engagement seems to have the potential to create both positive and negative outcomes.

  13. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yoshimasa; Nishiyama, Kaoru; Nishihara, Aki; Hata, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk. We conducted three surveys ( N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions. The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several recommendations concerning this sample are presented.

  15. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  16. Early home literacy and adolescents' online reading behavior in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Becker, B.

    2017-01-01

    Online reading behavior can be regarded as a 'new' form of cultural capital in today's digital world. However, it is unclear whether 'traditional' mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction are also found in this domain, and whether they manifest uniformly across countries at different stages of

  17. Using persuasive technology to promote sustainable behavior in smart home environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midden, C.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable living is to a large extent the outcome of how consumers use the technology surrounding them. Seen from this perspective the rather strict separation of technological and behavioral solution is not only artificial but also detrimental to finding real sustainable solutions. Persuasive

  18. Systematic behavior research for understanding consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2009-05-01

    This study incorporates means-end chain (MEC) theory and dynamic programming for understanding the implications of consumer decision making. The conceptual framework of this study can help programmers design information systems for analyzing consumption behaviors. Such analyses will provide marketers with meaningful information for formulating marketing strategies. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) to enable researchers to obtain information for consumer cognitive hierarchies utilizing an information system, (2) to enhance the functions of traditional MEC methodology and provide an integrated method for analyzing consumption information, and (3) to construct an information system for analyzing consumer decision-making processes.

  19. The Research Comment on Organic Food Consumer Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; WANG; Pengcheng; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of organic food,to a great extent,depends on the needs of consumers,the studies on the consumer behavior of organic food would have far-reaching significance to the development of the whole organic food industry. The recent studies in this field mainly include the following four aspects: the consumers’ recognition of organic food; the consumers’ attitude towards organic food; the consumers’ purchase of organic food; the consumers’ willingness to pay. The paper would review the recent domestic and foreign studies on the four aspects mentioned above,aiming to provide references to the researches in this field.

  20. Research regarding the managers’ behavior towards employees within sports organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. DRAGOȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the definitions found in the literature, according to which the management is strictly related to the manner in which managers behave and act in their relationship with the employees and to the manner in which their behavior can influence the subordinates’ motivation, the conducted research wishes to establish the presence of these elements in the daily activities and their role increasing performance within sports organizations. Therefore, based on the analysis of the data gathered through the survey, a series of action plans can be outlined for the improvement of the work relationships at the level of managers and employees.

  1. Sociocultural Behavior Influence Modelling & Assessment: Current Work and Research Frontiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A common problem associated with the effort to better assess potential behaviors of various individuals within different countries is the shear difficulty in comprehending the dynamic nature of populations, particularly over time and considering feedback effects. This paper discusses a theory-based analytical capability designed to enable analysts to better assess the influence of events on individuals interacting within a country or region. These events can include changes in policy, man-made or natural disasters, migration, war, or other changes in environmental/economic conditions. In addition, this paper describes potential extensions of this type of research to enable more timely and accurate assessments.

  2. Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; van Stralen, Maartje M; Singh, Amika S; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; te Velde, Saskia J

    2014-06-17

    To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested -and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.

  3. Fundamental elements in examining a child’s right to education: A study of home education research and regulation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda JACKSON

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Home education provides valuable educational and developmental opportunities for children. An examination of Australia’s research indicates many best educational practices, including more informed mediation, contextualised learning, and opportunities to exercise autonomy. Key features include learning embedded in communities and program modification in response to students’ needs. Current state and territory legal requirements are examined within the context of this research and Australia’s obligations to international human rights treaties. All jurisdictions accept home education as one way to meet compulsory education requirements. The extent to which respective laws then reflect understanding of home education research and practice varies. Most jurisdictions allow for a varietyof educational approaches. Some oversight regulation could however be modified to reflect a better understanding of home education. Consultation with home educators and reference to research would assist the development of more uniform legislation and policy across Australia, and enable better regulatory practice.

  4. Taking Congress Home: Effects of NC 4-H Congress on Youth Behaviors and Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Silliman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This evaluation report describes the outcomes and quality of the 2006 North Carolina 4-H Congress, an annual five-day teen conference focused on citizenship, leadership, and service. A majority of returning youth cited Congress experiences as significant in their continued learning and practice in citizenship, leadership, and service learning. Likewise, most youth participants in the 2006 conference indicated that they planned to participate in more citizenship, community leadership, and service activities in their home communities. A Youth Program Climate survey revealed that youth viewed NC 4-H Congress as a setting where service was important, where they learned to accept differences, teamwork was emphasized, and where they were able to make a difference in the lives of others. Three implications of the evaluation report are discussed: 1 value of a youth leadership conference for educating and inspiring youth in citizenship, leadership, and service; 2 evaluation methodology, including engaging youth leaders in design and use of conference data; and 3 marketing and accountability opportunities resulting from program evaluations.

  5. Cessation and reduction in smoking behavior: impact of creating a smoke-free home on smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, R; Kreuter, M; Berg, C J; Escoffery, C; Bundy, L T; Hovell, M; Mullen, P D; Williams, R; Kegler, M C

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a creating a smoke-free home (SFH) on cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking on low-income smokers. This secondary data analysis uses data from study participants who were originally recruited through 2-1-1 information and referral call centers in Atlanta (Georgia, 2013), North Carolina (2014) and the Texas Gulf Coast (2015) across three randomized controlled trials testing an intervention aimed at creating SFHs, pooling data from 941 smokers. Participants who reported adopting a SFH were more likely to report quitting smoking than those who did not adopt a SFH. This was true at 3-month follow-up and even more pronounced at 6-month follow-up and persisted when considering only those who consistently reported no smoking at 3 and 6 months. Among those who did not stop smoking, the number of cigarettes per day declined significantly more and quit attempts were more frequent for those who created a SFH compared with those who did not. Findings suggest that creating a SFH facilitates cessation, reduces cigarette consumption and increases quit attempts. Future studies should assess the long-term impact of SFHs on sustaining cessation.

  6. Scientific familial lessons in ingestive behavior research: 2016 Alan N. Epstein research award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    While energy balance is under the control of the central nervous system (CNS), a major source of neural regulation for the behavioral, physiological and endocrine processes governing energy balance originates in the periphery. Indeed, the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, supporting organs of the peritoneal cavity and adipose tissue are the source of numerous neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine signals released from non-neuronal peripheral tissue that signal in a paracrine and endocrine fashion to regulate the physiological and behavioral processes that affect energy balance. Given the ever increasing appreciation that chronic hyperphagia of highly-palatable/rewarding food is a major contributing factor to the obesity epidemic, it is not surprising that the field has increased research efforts focusing on understanding what role peripherally-derived neuroendocrine signals play in modulating food reward and motivated behaviors. Research throughout my career has focused on understanding gut-to-brain communication of relevance to energy balance control. Through very fortuitous opportunities and amazing collaborations, my research program has also expanded widely to include analyses of multiple GI-, pancreatic- and adipose tissue-derived anorectic signals involved in food intake and energy balance control, as well as analyses of higher-order determinants of food reward, nausea, aversion and maladaptive motivated behaviors. I am honored to be the recipient of the 2016 Alan N. Epstein Research Award from the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and express much appreciation for the amazing collaborations I have had with my mentors, colleagues and trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research: results of the HOME II meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F.; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-01-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes

  8. Coming Out and Leaving Home: A Policy and Research Agenda for LGBT Homeless Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Ward, James Dean

    2017-01-01

    Each year, it is estimated between 320,000 and 400,000 LGBT youth encounter homelessness. They are at increased risk of victimization and abuse and face stigmatization for being both homeless and a sexual or gender minority. These youth are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to become homeless after being forced out of their homes.…

  9. The Investigation of Research-Based Home Parental Involvement Practices, Parental Style, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Myron Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…

  10. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research : Results of the HOME II meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes

  11. Individualism and Collectivism in Business School Pedagogy: A Research Agenda for Internationalising the Home Management Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waistell, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that today's workplaces and universities both require and promote individual and collective responsibility for work and that students need to be adequately prepared for this. UK national culture has been characterised as highly individualist. Therefore, internationalisation of home management students in the…

  12. Assessing and Comparing Physical Environments for Nursing Home Residents: Using New Tools for Greater Research Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Lois J.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Degenholtz, Howard B.; Miller, Michael J.; Grant, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and tested theoretically derived procedures to observe physical environments experienced by nursing home residents at three nested levels: their rooms, the nursing unit, and the overall facility. Illustrating with selected descriptive results, in this article we discuss the development of the approach. Design and Methods: On…

  13. Institutionalized elderly people and malnutrition: research on the patients of a nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rondoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common finding in hospitalized or institutionalized elderly people. In the literature, PEM is not mentioned as being related to individual ability of the patient to feed him or herself correctly. This study analyzed the 56 patients of a nursing home divided into two groups: self-sufficient and non self-sufficient regarding feeding. Levels of serum albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and hemoglobin (Hb were examined and compared to body mass index (BMI calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients were self-sufficient, while 47% were not self-sufficient for feeding of which 83.3% were women and 16.7% men. Levels below the average range were 49.1% for lymphocyte count, 52.9% for serum albumin, 13.7% for serum transferrin and 52.9% for serum prealbumin. No significant differences were found in terms of patient age, while the mean values of the parameters examined in the two groups, self-sufficient and not, were lower in the patients who were not self-sufficient, even if statistical significance was not reached. Serum albumin was in inverse proportion to age (P<0.05 and 46.1% of individuals with low levels of transferrin also showed low levels of Hb. Anemia was in direct proportion (P<0.05 to age. Measurement of BMI showed values below 22.5 (cut off for risk for malnutrition in 33.4% of the subjects examined. Of the three hematochemical parameters, analysis of a possible relationship with BMI showed only a significant and directly proportional correlation with prealbumin (P<0.05%. These data should be considered in the context of an epidemiological research study carried out in a conditioned and limited environment, where PEM, detected using hematochemical parameters, amounted to 50% of the patients, whereas BMI identified only approximately one-third of patients at risk of malnutrition. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women. Mean values of the

  14. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  15. Videoconferencing for Health Care Provision for Older Adults in Care Homes: A Review of the Research Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark S; Ariss, Steven

    2017-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction ( n = 9) and resident satisfaction ( n = 8). Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.

  16. Videoconferencing for Health Care Provision for Older Adults in Care Homes: A Review of the Research Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Newbould

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction (n=9 and resident satisfaction (n=8. Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.

  17. Comportamiento del riesgo de caídas en el hogar en adultos mayores Behavior of falls risk at home of the elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Salas Mainegra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, en la población de adultos mayores atendidos por el Consultorio del Médico de Familia # 4, perteneciente al policlínico "Ramón González Coro", del municipio Marianao, durante 2008. Objetivo: se realizó el análisis del comportamiento del riesgo de caídas de los adultos mayores en el hogar. Métodos: estudio de investigación descriptiva, en cuyo desarrollo se utilizó un modelo cualicuantitativo, y en su ejecución se emplearon métodos teóricos, empíricos y procedimientos estadísticos. Resultados: hubo un predomino del sexo femenino, el mayor por ciento de los adultos mayores presentó algún grado de dependencia, y tuvieron un mediano riesgo de sufrir una caída en su hogar.Introduction: a descriptive study was conducted in the elderly person population seen in the # 4 Family Physician Consulting Room of the "Ramón González Coro" polyclinic from the Marianao municipality during 2008. Objective: an analysis of the falls risk behavior of elderly persons at home was made. Methods: a descriptive research study was conducted using the qualitative and quantitative model and in its implementation theoretical, empirical methods as well as statistic procedures were used. Results: there was predominance of female sex, the higher percentage of elderly persons had some degree of dependence and also had a middle risk of suffering a fall at home.

  18. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wy; Hung, Maria Sy; Woo, Kevin

    2016-11-25

    A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning), changing (action), and refreezing (results) were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff's practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the revised risk assessment method, the timely and appropriate

  19. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid WY Kwong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. Methods A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning, changing (action, and refreezing (results were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff’s practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. Results The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the

  20. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  1. Research on software behavior trust based on hierarchy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ke; Xu, Haishui

    2017-08-01

    In view of the correlation software behavior, we evaluate software behavior credibility from two levels of control flow and data flow. In control flow level, method of the software behavior of trace based on support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. In data flow level, behavioral evidence evaluation based on fuzzy decision analysis method is put forward.

  2. Community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage at home births: results from operations research in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, S; Carnahan, L; Akosah, E; Asare, G; Agyemang, R; Dickson, R; Kapungu, C; Owusu-Ansah, L; Robinson, N; Mensah-Homiah, J

    2014-02-01

    To report on a rigorous distribution and monitoring plan to track misoprostol for community-based distribution to reduce postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in rural Ghana. Operations research. Rural Ghana. Women in third trimester of pregnancy presenting to primary health centres (PHCs) for antenatal care (ANC). Ghana Health Service (GHS), Millennium Village Projects, and the University of Illinois at Chicago conducted an operations research study designed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent PPH at home deliveries in rural Ghana. One thousand doses (3000 tablets, 200 μg each) were obtained from the Family Health Division of GHS. Three 200-μg tablets of misoprostol (600 μg) in foil packets were packaged together in secured transparent plastic packets labelled with pictorial messages and distributed to midwives at seven PHCs for distribution to pregnant women. Correct use of misoprostol in home deliveries and retrieval of unused misoprostol doses, PPH rates and maternal mortality. Of the 999 doses distributed to midwives, 982 (98.3%) were successfully tracked, with a 1.7% lost to follow-up rate. Midwives distributed 654 doses to women at third-trimester ANC visits. Of women who had misoprostol to use at home, 81% had an institutional delivery and were able to return the misoprostol safely to the midwife. Of the women that used misoprostol, 99% used the misoprostol correctly. This study clearly demonstrates that misoprostol distributed antenatally to pregnant women can be used accurately and reliably by rural Ghanaian women, and should be considered for policy implementation across Ghana and other countries with high home birth rates and maternal mortality ratios. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Comparative research on decommissioning disposal effect of two uranium mines at home and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuke; Peng Daofeng; Liu Qingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Taking two typical decommissioned uranium mines at home and abroad for an example, disposal means and effects of two uranium mines were compared and analyzed in three aspects of waste dump disposal, mine sealing treatment, and wastewater disposal. The results showed that two uranium mines were basically identical in the disposal standards and disposal means, but the works in the source survey, wastewater disposal and long-term supervision done by oversea uranium mine were more detailed than domestic uranium mine. (authors)

  5. Social jetlag in health and behavioral research: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauvalet JC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Castilhos Beauvalet,1,2 Caroline Luísa Quiles,1,2 Melissa Alves Braga de Oliveira,1,2 Carlos Augusto Vieira Ilgenfritz,1 Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo,1–3 André Comiran Tonon1 1Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Even though light is considered the main cue that entrains inner biological rhythms according to circadian environmental rhythms, social organizations have the capacity to take the body “out of sync”. An emergent field of research on the topic refers to what has been described as social jetlag, the biological misalignment that arises from alternated work and free days. However, to the present moment, there is still controversial evidence on the effects of such a phenomenon to human health.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify current peer-reviewed evidence of the health and behavioral risks associated with social jetlag.Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, Embase and LILACS electronic databases using the terms “social AND (jet lag OR jetlag”. The search was finalized on August 22, 2016, resulting in 26 research articles included in the review.Results and discussion: Our results point to a variety of health and behavioral outcomes that seem to be associated with the mismatch existent between work or study days and free days. They are epilepsy, minor psychiatric symptoms, aggression and conduct problems, mood disorders, cognitive impairment (eg, work and academic performance, substance use, cardiometabolic risk and adverse endocrine profiles

  6. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  7. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total ban to protect children from secondhand smoke and protect family members if they got sick. Few described difficulties in enforcement with over half of smokers accepting the rules. Situations that made it hard to enforce restrictions were if there was a visitor who smoked, a smoker who had cravings, and bad weather outside when the smoker desired to smoke. Smokers explained that family members could assist them in quitting by talking to them, not purchasing cigarettes for them, not smoking around them, and supporting them. Ideas for promoting smoke-free homes were having a no smoking sign, saying no to visitors who want to smoke, removing ashtrays, and creating a place outside for smokers. These findings can inform interventions designed to create and maintain smoke-free households.

  8. A Comparison of emotional and behavioral problems in children with ADHD at home and school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Eimani oshnari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from the perspectives ofparents and teachers. Methods: In the present study, 55 children, who were 7-12 years of age, were diagnosed asADHD by qualified psychiatrists, and were receiving medication, were selected using convenient sampling method. Their fathers, mothers, and teachers filled out Conner’s TeacherRating Scale (39 items and Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (48 items. To analyze data,Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and analysis of variance with repeated measures were used. Results: The results indicated that conduct disorder symptoms are underestimated by parentsand symptoms of anxiety disorder are overestimated by teachers (α ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is concluded that using different sources for recognizingADHD and co-occurring disorders is necessary and prevents the labeling of children, overlooking the disorder, and enhances the accuracy of diagnosis.

  9. Study on Seismic Behavior of Recycled Concrete Energy-efficient Homes Structure Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point is to study the seismic behavior of the lattice type recycled concrete energy saving wall under low-cyclic loading,to provide the basis for the seismic performance of application of recycled concrete lattice wall in energy-saving residential structure. Design two walls with the same structure measures, include Lattice type recycled concrete wall and natural concrete wall, they are tested under low-cycle repetitive loading, compared failure mode and seismic performance in different reinforcement conditions of side column. The bearing capacity and ductility of recycled aggregate concrete are better than natural aggregate concrete, The stiffness degradation curves and the skeleton curves of the walls are basically the same, both of them have better seismic energy dissipation capacity. Lattice type concrete wall is good at seismic performance, recycled aggregate concrete is good at plastic deformation ability, it is advantageous to seismic energy dissipation of wall, it can be applied in energy efficient residential structure wall.

  10. Cross-Sectional Associations between Home Environmental Factors and Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviors in Adults: The Moderating Role of Socio-Demographic Variables and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; Busschaert, Cedric; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Cocker, Katrien

    2017-10-31

    Despite the negative health effects of too much sitting, the majority of adults are too sedentary. To develop effective interventions, insight is needed into home environmental correlates of adults' sedentary behaviors, and into the susceptibility of population subgroups to these home environmental cues. In total, 559 Flemish adults reported socio-demographics, weight and height, home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors. Generalized linear modeling was conducted to examine main associations between home environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviors, and to test the moderating role of socio-demographics and BMI on these associations. In case of significant interactions, stratified analyses were performed. Results showed that, among those who did use a computer/laptop during the last week, a one-unit increase in the number of computers or laptops was associated with 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.34) and 24% (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) more minutes computer time per day, respectively. The proximity of the remote controller ( p vehicles (95% CI = 0.001, 0.12) was positively associated with the odds of participation in transport-related sitting time. The latter two associations were moderated by BMI, with significant positive associations limited to those not overweight. To conclude, home environmental factors were associated with domain-specific sedentary behaviors, especially in healthy weight adults. If confirmed by longitudinal studies, public health professionals should encourage adults to limit the number of indoor entertainment devices and motorized vehicles.

  11. Listening to the community: Using formative research to strengthen maternity waiting homes in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nancy A; Vian, Taryn; Kaiser, Jeanette L; Ngoma, Thandiwe; Mataka, Kaluba; Henry, Elizabeth G; Biemba, Godfrey; Nambao, Mary; Hamer, Davidson H

    2018-01-01

    The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable. We used a concurrent triangulation study design and mixed methods. We used free listing to gather input from a total of 167 randomly sampled women who were pregnant or had a child under the age of two (n = 59), men with a child under the age of two (n = 53), and community elders (n = 55) living in the catchment areas of four rural health facilities in Zambia. We conducted 17 focus group discussions (n = 135) among a purposive sample of pregnant women (n = 33), mothers-in-law (n = 32), traditional birth attendants or community maternal health promoters (n = 38), and men with a child under two (n = 32). We administered 38 semi-structured interviews with key informants who were identified by free list respondents as having a stake in the condition and use of MWHs. Lastly, we projected fixed and variable recurrent costs for operating a MWH. Respondents most frequently mentioned distance, roads, transport, and the quality of MWHs and health facilities as the major problems facing pregnant women in their communities. They also cited inadequate advanced planning for delivery and the lack of access to delivery supplies and baby clothes as other problems. Respondents identified the main problems of MWHs specifically as over-crowding, poor

  12. Constructing counterproductive behavior for supporting evironmental management system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarapuspa; Indyastuti, D. L.; Sari, W. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the definition of counterproductive behavior based on supervisors’ and sub ordinaries’ perceptions. Recently, environmental management system is a strategic tool to gain a competitive advantage. Human resource is the vital factor for successful environmental management system. Counterproductive behavior will destroy environmental management system. Unfortunately, the construct of counterproductive behavior is still debatable. Different culture show different dimensions and indicators of counterproductive behavior. The unclear construct results ambiguous empirical evidence. This study results that many items are included of counterproductive behavior, such as come late, impolite communication, playing gadget in working time, and the other negative behaviors.

  13. Development of the consumption behavior that promotes sustainable society: Focusing on recycling of small waste home appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Takae

    2015-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) became the first UNESCO Associated School in Japan in 1953, and since then it has practiced ESD in various educational activities in all ranges of education. As a teacher of home economics, I have focused on consumer affairs and encouraged my students to consider what each of them can do as an individual consumer in order to create a sustainable society. In Japan, several acts related to consumer affairs have been enforced in recent years. "Act on Promotion of Consumer Education" was enforced in December 2012, and construction of the "Consumer Citizen Society" was proposed. It places emphasis not only on environmental concerns but also on the initiative of consumers and its influence on social and economic trends. In addition, "Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" was enforced in April, 2013. It aims at protecting living environment and healthy development of the national economy by appropriate treatment of waste materials and effective use of resources. For my lessons on "food, clothing and shelter in relation to consumption behavior and environmental problems", I took up "the recycling of small waste home appliances" as the teaching materials to raise awareness on resources recycling. The purpose of the lessons is three-fold: (1) to make students aware of environmental load; (2) to deepen the understanding of the influence which excessive consumption has on developing countries; (3) to encourage the students to think positively toward the solution of the problems. I am currently practicing the lessons, and I have shown below the summary of the instruction. Lesson 1: Give a quiz based on the database on environmental label from Ministry of the Environment website. Then show a film on whereabouts of the hi-tech industrial waste (e-waste). After the film, show some everyday products for which mineral resources are used in order to impress the idea of "urban mine". Lesson 2: Show a

  14. Don't touch the gadget because it's hot! Mothers' and children's behavior in the presence of a contrived hazard at home: implications for supervising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; McArthur, Brae Anne; Goodman, Samantha; Bell, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This study compared boys' with girls' hazard-directed behaviors at home when the mother was present and absent from the room. Videos were coded for how children reacted to a contrived burn hazard ('Gadget'), maternal verbalizations to children about the hazard, and children's compliance with directives to avoid the hazard. Children's behavioral attributes (risk-taking tendency, inhibitory control) and maternal permissive parenting style were also measured. Boys engaged in more hazard-directed behaviors when the mother was present than absent, whereas girls' risk behaviors did not vary with caregiver presence and was comparable with how boys behaved when the parent was absent. Mothers emphasized reactive communications, and boys received significantly more of these than girls. Permissiveness was associated with fewer statements explaining about safety. Children high in inhibitory control showed fewer hazard-directed behaviors and greater compliance with parent communications, whereas those high in risk-taking propensity showed more hazard-directed behaviors and less compliance. The hazard-directed behaviors of boys and girls vary with caregiver context, with boys reacting to parent presence with increased risk taking. Depending on child attributes, different supervision patterns are needed to keep young children safe in the presence of home hazards. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  16. Implications of Attitude and Behavior Research for Environmental Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, the attitude-behavior discrepancy problem, how environmental attitudes are formed and changed, and the effects of individual differences on appropriateness of educational techniques. (CW)

  17. Online Behavioral Advertising: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about

  18. When can employees have a family life? The effects of daily workload and affect on work-family conflict and social behaviors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, Remus; Schwind, Kelly M; Wagner, David T; Johnson, Michael D; DeRue, D Scott; Ilgen, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a longitudinal examination of antecedents and outcomes of work-to-family conflict. A total of 106 employees participating in an experience-sampling study were asked to respond to daily surveys both at work and at home, and their spouses were interviewed daily via telephone for a period of 2 weeks. Intraindividual analyses revealed that employees' perceptions of workload predicted work-to-family conflict over time, even when controlling for the number of hours spent at work. Workload also influenced affect at work, which in turn influenced affect at home. Finally, perhaps the most interesting finding in this study was that employees' behaviors in the family domain (reported by spouses) were predicted by the employees' perceptions of work-to-family conflict and their positive affect at home. (c) 2007 APA.

  19. Customer engagement behavior : Theoretical foundations and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, J.; Lemon, K.N.; Mittal, V.; Nass, S.; Pick, D.; Pirner, P.; Verhoef, P.C.

    This article develops and discusses the concept of customer engagement behaviors (CEB), which we define as the customers' behavioral manifestation toward a brand or firm, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers. CEBs include a vast array of behaviors including word-of-mouth (WOM)

  20. Behavior-Analytic Research on Dementia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…

  1. People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Rebecca; Jünger, Saskia; Reuther, Sven; Schwab, Christian G G; Dichter, Martin N; Holle, Bernhard; Halek, Margareta

    2016-04-05

    There are various definitions and diagnostic criteria for dementia, leading to discrepancies in case ascertainment in both clinical practice and research. We reviewed the different definitions, approaches and measurements used to operationalize dementia in health care studies in German nursing homes with the aim of discussing the implications of different approaches. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to identify pre-2016 studies conducted in German nursing homes that focused on residents with dementia or cognitive impairment. In- or exclusion of studies were consented by all authors; data extraction was independently carried out by 2 authors (RP, SJ). The studies' sampling methods were compared with respect to their inclusion criteria, assessment tools and methods used to identify the study population. We summarized case ascertainment methods from 64 studies. Study participants were identified based on a diagnosis that was evaluated during the study, or a recorded medical dementia diagnosis, or a recorded medical diagnosis either with additional cognitive screenings or using screening tests exclusively. The descriptions of the diagnostics that were applied to assess a diagnosis of dementia were not fully transparent in most of the studies with respect to either a clear reference definition of dementia or applied diagnostic criteria. If reported, various neuropsychological tests were used, mostly without a clear rationale for their selection. Pragmatic considerations often determine the sampling strategy; they also may explain the variances we detected in the different studies. Variations in sampling methods impede the comparability of study results. There is a need to consent case ascertainment strategies in dementia studies in health service research in nursing homes. These strategies should consider resource constraints and ethical issues that are related to the vulnerable population of nursing home residents. Additionally

  2. Brain Research to Ameliorate Impaired Neurodevelopment - Home-based Intervention Trial (BRAIN-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantshetti Niranjana S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an early developmental intervention program on the development of young children in low- and low-middle-income countries who are at risk for neurodevelopmental disability because of birth asphyxia. A group of children without perinatal complications are evaluated in the same protocol to compare the effects of early developmental intervention in healthy infants in the same communities. Birth asphyxia is the leading specific cause of neonatal mortality in low- and low-middle-income countries and is also the main cause of neonatal and long-term morbidity including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Mortality and morbidity from birth asphyxia disproportionately affect more infants in low- and low-middle-income countries, particularly those from the lowest socioeconomic groups. There is evidence that relatively inexpensive programs of early developmental intervention, delivered during home visit by parent trainers, are capable of improving neurodevelopment in infants following brain insult due to birth asphyxia. Methods/Design This trial is a block-randomized controlled trial that has enrolled 174 children with birth asphyxia and 257 without perinatal complications, comparing early developmental intervention plus health and safety counseling to the control intervention receiving health and safety counseling only, in sites in India, Pakistan, and Zambia. The interventions are delivered in home visits every two weeks by parent trainers from 2 weeks after birth until age 36 months. The primary outcome of the trial is cognitive development, and secondary outcomes include social-emotional and motor development. Child, parent, and family characteristics and number of home visits completed are evaluated as moderating factors. Discussion The trial is supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring

  3. Brain research to ameliorate impaired neurodevelopment--home-based intervention trial (BRAIN-HIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Jan L; McClure, Elizabeth; Biasini, Fred; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; Shearer, Darlene; Wright, Linda; Thorsten, Vanessa; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Dhaded, Sangappa M; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Bellad, Roopa M; Abbasi, Zahid; Carlo, Waldemar

    2010-04-30

    This randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an early developmental intervention program on the development of young children in low- and low-middle-income countries who are at risk for neurodevelopmental disability because of birth asphyxia. A group of children without perinatal complications are evaluated in the same protocol to compare the effects of early developmental intervention in healthy infants in the same communities. Birth asphyxia is the leading specific cause of neonatal mortality in low- and low-middle-income countries and is also the main cause of neonatal and long-term morbidity including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Mortality and morbidity from birth asphyxia disproportionately affect more infants in low- and low-middle-income countries, particularly those from the lowest socioeconomic groups. There is evidence that relatively inexpensive programs of early developmental intervention, delivered during home visit by parent trainers, are capable of improving neurodevelopment in infants following brain insult due to birth asphyxia. This trial is a block-randomized controlled trial that has enrolled 174 children with birth asphyxia and 257 without perinatal complications, comparing early developmental intervention plus health and safety counseling to the control intervention receiving health and safety counseling only, in sites in India, Pakistan, and Zambia. The interventions are delivered in home visits every two weeks by parent trainers from 2 weeks after birth until age 36 months. The primary outcome of the trial is cognitive development, and secondary outcomes include social-emotional and motor development. Child, parent, and family characteristics and number of home visits completed are evaluated as moderating factors. The trial is supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee monitors the trial. Findings from this trial have the potential

  4. Internet protocol television for personalized home-based health information: design-based research on a diabetes education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen Mary; Clarke, Ken; Alzougool, Basil; Hines, Carolyn; Tidhar, Gil; Frukhtman, Feodor

    2014-03-10

    The use of Internet protocol television (IPTV) as a channel for consumer health information is a relatively under-explored area of medical Internet research. IPTV may afford new opportunities for health care service providers to provide health information and for consumers, patients, and caretakers to access health information. The technologies of Web 2.0 add a new and even less explored dimension to IPTV's potential. Our research explored an application of Web 2.0 integrated with IPTV for personalized home-based health information in diabetes education, particularly for people with diabetes who are not strong computer and Internet users, and thus may miss out on Web-based resources. We wanted to establish whether this system could enable diabetes educators to deliver personalized health information directly to people with diabetes in their homes; and whether this system could encourage people with diabetes who make little use of Web-based health information to build their health literacy via the interface of a home television screen and remote control. This project was undertaken as design-based research in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a feasibility study into the technical work required to integrate an existing Web 2.0 platform with an existing IPTV system, populated with content and implemented for user trials in a laboratory setting. Stage 2 comprised an evaluation of the system by consumers and providers of diabetes information. The project succeeded in developing a Web 2.0 IPTV system for people with diabetes and low literacies and their diabetes educators. The performance of the system in the laboratory setting gave them the confidence to engage seriously in thinking about the actual and potential features and benefits of a more widely-implemented system. In their feedback they pointed out a range of critical usability and usefulness issues related to Web 2.0 affordances and learning fundamentals. They also described their experiences with the system in

  5. HEROs: Design of a Mixed-Methods Formative Research Phase for an Ecocultural Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating and Activity Behaviors in Rural Families With Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura L; McCloskey, Morgan; Clark, Lauren; Thompson, Darcy A; Bekelman, Traci A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Johnson, Susan L

    2018-04-10

    To describe the mixed-methods formative research phase in the development of the Healthy Environments Study (HEROs), a technology-based, interactive family intervention to promote healthy eating and activity behaviors for young children in the home environment. A mixed-method iterative approach, using ecocultural theory as a framework, will guide the development of both quantitative and qualitative formative research assessments. Rural eastern Colorado. Low-income families (n = 200) with preschool-aged children enrolled at 6 Head Start/preschool centers. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies will garner insights into 4 key topic areas: (1) food behaviors and environments (Remote Food Photography Method, parent focus group, and survey), (2) physical activity behaviors and environments (parent interview and survey), (3) mobile device use (parent survey and interview), and (4) daily life (ecocultural family interview and teacher/staff group discussions). Results will be interpreted in combination to allow for a holistic understanding of participant behaviors, beliefs, attitudes and values related to each of the 4 topic areas. Collectively, outcomes will provide a comprehensive picture of preschoolers' daily life and inform intervention design and strategies to enhance preschoolers' eating and activity behaviors in the home environment. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Promoting smoke-free homes: a novel behavioral intervention using real-time audio-visual feedback on airborne particle levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m(3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R(2 = 0.98 was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m(3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.

  7. MEASUREMENT ISSUES IN HOME-VISITING RESEARCH WITHIN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Bolan, Marc; Chomos, Julianna C; Heath, Debra; Miles, Jon; Salvador, Melina; Whitmore, Corrie; Barlow, Allison

    2018-05-04

    In this article, Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grantees share strategies they have developed and adopted to address the most common barriers to effective measurement (and thus to effective evaluation) encountered in the course of implementation and evaluation of their home-visiting programs. We identify key challenges in measuring outcomes in Tribal MIECHV Programs and provide practical examples of various strategies used to address these challenges within diverse American Indian and Alaska Native cultural and contextual settings. Notably, high-quality community engagement is a consistent thread throughout these strategies and fundamental to successful measurement in these communities. These strategies and practices reflect the experiences and innovative solutions of practitioners working on the ground to deliver and evaluate intervention programs to tribal communities. They may serve as models for getting high-quality data to inform intervention while working within the constraints and requirements of program funding. The utility of these practical solutions extends beyond the Tribal MIECHV grantees and offers the potential to inform a broad array of intervention evaluation efforts in tribal and other community contexts. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  9. Long-term changes in parenting and child behavior after the Home-Start family support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, J.M.A.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Hoffenaar, P.J.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intervention Home-Start is a wide spread program in a number of countries, among which the Netherlands. In Home-Start, trained volunteers visit families with young children in need of support once or twice a week to help them to deal with problems in family life and parenting. Little

  10. Digital Education to Limit Salt in the Home (DELISH) Program Improves Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Behaviors Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen Jane; Nowson, Caryl Anne

    2018-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of a Web-based salt reduction program on children's salt-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs), self-efficacy, and intake of dietary salt. Pretest and posttest. An online survey determined KABs and self-efficacy and a 24-hour urine collection revealed salt intake. Victoria, Australia. Child-parent dyads (n = 102) recruited from 5 government schools. A 5-week behavior-based education program delivered via weekly online interactive education sessions. Change in KABs, self-efficacy, and daily salt intake. Changes in outcomes were assessed using McNemar test, paired t test, and Cohen's δ (CD). A total of 83 children participated (mean age, 9.2 years [SD, 0.8 years]; 59% girls); 35% to 76% of children viewed weekly education session. Children with complete survey data (n = 75) had improved scores for salt-related knowledge (+3.6 ± 0.4 points; P < .001; CD: 1.16), behaviors (+1.3 ± 0.1 points; P < .001; CD: 1.08), and self-efficacy (+0.9 ± 0.2 points; P < .001; CD: 0.64), but not attitude. Children with valid urine collections (n = 51) showed no change in salt intake. Participation resulted in improvement of salt related knowledge, self-efficacy and behavior. Further research is required to confirm these results using a more robust study design which includes a control group. In addition, the long term impact on children's salt intakes of comparable education programs needs to be assessed. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal experimental research of the endothelialization of home-made atrial septal defect occluder device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingwu; Zhou Aiqing; Li Feng; Gao Wei; Yu Zhiqing; Tang Ning; Zhang Lan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the endothelialization of Chinese nitinol atrial septal defect occluder device. Methods: Atrial septal defect with controllable size was created by the Brockenborough needle and Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy, the occluder devices were implanted in six piglets (mean weight 7.5 kg). Two pigs were killed each time after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the device implantation and then the explanted devices were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The devices were found covering with collagen fibrosis together with diffuse endothelial cells spreading over the primer 1 month after implantation. The implants were covered mostly by neointima 3 months after implantation and completely covered by confluent endothelial cells 6 months after the implantation. Endothelial cells were not found on the smooth marker band at 3 months, however, did exist by 6 months. Conclusions: Home-made atrial septal defect occluder devices were mostly endothelialised 3 months after the implantation and did completely at 6 months

  12. Testing the effectiveness of in-home behavioral economics strategies to increase vegetable intake, liking, and variety among children residing in households that receive food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Rendahl, Aaron; Reicks, Marla

    2015-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of behavioral economics strategies for increasing vegetable intake, variety, and liking among children residing in homes receiving food assistance. A randomized controlled trial with data collected at baseline, once weekly for 6 weeks, and at study conclusion. Family homes. Families with a child (9-12 years) will be recruited through community organizations and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 36) or control (n = 10) group. The intervention group will incorporate a new behavioral economics strategy during home dinner meal occasions each week for 6 weeks. Strategies are simple and low-cost. The primary dependent variable will be child's dinner meal vegetable consumption based on weekly reports by caregivers. Fixed independent variables will include the strategy and week of strategy implementation. Secondary dependent variables will include vegetable liking and variety of vegetables consumed based on data collected at baseline and study conclusion. Mean vegetable intake for each strategy across families will be compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance with a random effect for child. In additionally, overall mean changes in vegetable consumption, variety, and liking will be compared between intervention and control groups. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  14. Behavioral phenotyping of mice in pharmacological and toxicological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Tim; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation of behavioral effects is an important component for the in vivo screening of drugs or potentially toxic compounds in mice. Ideally, such screening should be composed of monitoring general health, sensory functions, and motor abilities, right before specific behavioral domains are tested. A rational strategy in the design and procedure of testing as well as an effective composition of different well-established and reproducible behavioral tests can minimize the risk of false positive and false negative results in drug screening. In the present review we describe such basic considerations in planning experiments, selecting strains of mice, and propose groups of behavioral tasks suitable for a reliable detection of differences in specific behavioral domains in mice. Screening of general health and neurophysiologic functions (reflexes, sensory abilities) and motor function (pole test, wire hang test, beam walking, rotarod, accelerod, and footprint) as well as specific hypothesis-guided testing in the behavioral domains of learning and memory (water maze, radial maze, conditioned fear, and avoidance tasks), emotionality (open field, hole board, elevated plus maze, and object exploration), nociception (tail flick, hot plate), psychiatric-like conditions (porsolt swim test, acoustic startle response, and prepulse inhibition), and aggression (isolation-induced aggression, spontaneous aggression, and territorial aggression) are described in further detail. This review is designed to describe a general approach, which increases reliability of behavioral screening. Furthermore, it provides an overview on a selection of specific procedures suitable for but not limited to behavioral screening in pharmacology and toxicology.

  15. Flying the Nest: How the Home Department Shapes Researchers' Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of the socialization environment--nest--for the career destinations of early career researchers. In a sample of research groups in the fields of science and engineering at universities in Germany, we identify research orientation, output, funding as well as openness to industry and commercialization as relevant…

  16. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-06-01

    There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  17. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine A. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  18. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Excessive behaviors are not necessarily addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The commentary aims to provide clarity to the article "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research." We provide another viewpoint for the important issues of behavior addiction. The course of behavior addiction should be further studied. The criteria of withdrawal and tolerance of behavior addiction are ill-defined and need to be further evaluated. The etiology, course, presentation, and functional impairment of behavior addiction should be validated by evidence-based data before being defined as a disorder.

  19. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  20. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  1. User preferences and usability of iVitality: optimizing an innovative online research platform for home-based health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mara van Osch,1 AJM Rövekamp,2 Stephanie N Bergman-Agteres,1 Liselotte W Wijsman,3,4 Sharon J Ooms,5 Simon P Mooijaart,3,4,6 Joan Vermeulen71Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 2Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, 3Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Leiden, 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud Alzheimer Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 6Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age, Leiden, 7Research School, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the NetherlandsBackground: The iVitality online research platform has been developed to gain insight into the relationship between early risk factors (ie, poorly controlled hypertension, physical or mental inactivity and onset and possibly prevention of dementia. iVitality consists of a website, a smartphone application, and sensors that can monitor these indicators at home. Before iVitality can be implemented, it should fit the needs and preferences of users, ie, offspring of patients with dementia. This study aimed to explore users’ motivation to participate in home-based health monitoring research, to formulate requirements based on users’ preferences to optimize iVitality, and to test usability of the smartphone application of iVitality.Methods: We recruited 13 participants (aged 42–64 years, 85% female, who were offspring of patients with dementia. A user-centered methodology consisting of four iterative phases was used. Three semistructured interviews provided insight into motivation and acceptance of using iVitality (phase 1. A focus group with six participants elaborated on expectations and preferences regarding iVitality (phase 2. Findings from phase 1 and 2 were triangulated by two semistructured interviews (phase 3. Four participants assessed the usability of the smartphone application (phase 4 using a think aloud

  2. Science Curiosity in Learning Environments: Developing an Attitudinal Scale for Research in Schools, Homes, Museums, and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Zimmerman, Heather Toomey

    2016-01-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science…

  3. The effectiveness of home-based HIV counseling and testing on reducing stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Lockwood, Craig; Munn, Zachary

    2015-07-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing is a critical and essential gateway to Human immunodeficiency virus prevention, treatment, care and support services. Though some primary studies indicate that home-based counselling and testing is more effective than facility based counselling and testing to reduce stigma and risky sexual behavior, to the best of the author's knowledge, no systematic review has tried to establish consistency in the findings across populations. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing in reducing Human immunodeficiency virus-related stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents. All adults and adolescents aged 13 years or above. TYPE OF INTERVENTION: This review considered any studies that evaluated home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing as an intervention. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered quantitative (experimental and observational) studies. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures: stigma, violence, sexual behavior and clinical outcomes. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies reported in English Language from 2001 to 2014 in MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus and CINAHL. The search for unpublished studies included: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, Mednar, Google Scholar, AIDSinfo and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Quantitative data were pooled using the meta

  4. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  5. Cell phone data and travel behavior research: symposium summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes the key themes from a symposium held on February 12, 2014, to discuss opportunities and challenges using cellular location data for national travel behavior analysis. Participants discussed the availability of cellular data and...

  6. Sleep, biological stress, and health among toddlers living in socioeconomically disadvantaged homes: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica R; Sadler, Lois S; Canapari, Craig A; Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-12-01

    Healthy sleep is important to behavioral, neurobiological, and physiologic health. In older children and adults, stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and C-reactive protein, increase when they do not practice healthy sleep habits. However, little is known about the relationships among sleep health, stress, and health outcomes among very young children living with socioeconomic adversity, a group that is particularly at risk for poor future health. The NIH-funded study described in this protocol addresses this scientific gap to improve understanding of these relationships during a critical developmental period in children's lives-toddlerhood. We will use a longitudinal design with repeated measures to prospectively examine the relationships among sleep health, stress, and toddlers' health from age 12 to 24 months, to address the following aims: i) examine changes in subjective and objective sleep health measures; ii) examine changes in stress biomarkers; iii) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures and stress response; and iv) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures, stress biomarkers, and toddlers' behavioral health. The sample will include 113 toddlers and their caregivers. We are collecting subjective and objective data on sleep health, multi-systemic biomarkers of stress, and toddlers' behavioral health. Generalized linear models will be used in the data analyses. Results from this study will be used to support development and testing of interventions, such as those that may improve sleep, among young children at risk for toxic stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Behavioral finance: new research trends, socionomics and investor emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian MITROI; Alexandru OPROIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a critique of standard investment analysis, fundamental and technical, and develops an alternative more comprehensive approach that should include some of the tenets of behavioral finance. In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relies on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly. People view a sample random...

  8. Online Behavioral Advertising: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about privacy. Therefore, OBA has received much attention from advertisers, consumers, policymakers, and scholars. Despite this attention, there is neither a strong definition of OBA nor a clear accumula...

  9. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66 collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05. A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005. The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05. Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  10. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-28

    We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students ( n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not ( p for trend trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods ( p for trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  11. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  12. The Selective Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Empirical Research: A Reply to Schlinger (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno

    2010-01-01

    In a recent article, Schlinger (2008) marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) by considering its impact on the field of behaviorism and research on verbal behavior. In the present article, we comment on Schlinger's conclusions regarding the impact of the book and highlight the extensions and…

  13. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  14. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  15. Applications of pilot scanning behavior to integrated display research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    The oculometer is an electrooptical device designed to measure pilot scanning behavior during instrument approaches and landing operations. An overview of some results from a simulation study is presented to illustrate how information from the oculometer installed in a visual motion simulator, combined with measures of performance and control input data, can provide insight into the behavior and tactics of individual pilots during instrument approaches. Differences in measured behavior of the pilot subjects are pointed out; these differences become apparent in the way the pilots distribute their visual attention, in the amount of control activity, and in selected performance measures. Some of these measured differences have diagnostic implications, suggesting the use of the oculometer along with performance measures as a pilot training tool.

  16. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  17. Psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing Alzheimer's disease biomarkers to research participants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and

  18. Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: a correlational approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenthal, Robert; Rosnow, Ralph L; Rubin, Donald B

    2000-01-01

    .... Researchers, teachers of research methods, and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis but will also be introduced to a series of newly developed...

  19. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  20. Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume 2 for fire behavior specialists, researchers, and meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Martin E. Alexander; Craig B. Clements; Miguel G. Cruz; Mark A. Finney; Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick; Chad Hoffman; W. Matt Jolly; Sara S. McAllister; Roger D. Ottmar; Russell A. Parsons

    2016-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group’s definition of extreme fire behavior indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/ spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...

  1. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  2. Searching and Archiving : Exploring Online Search Behaviors of Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; de Groot, S.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Dainoff, Marvin J.

    2007-01-01

    Searching for relevant peer-reviewed material is an integral part of corporate and academic researchers. Researchers collect huge amount of information over the years and sometimes struggle organizing it. Based on a study with 30 academic researchers, we explore, in combination, different searching

  3. Self-Handicapping Behavior: A Critical Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsrud, Robert Steven

    Since the identification of self-handicapping strategies in 1978, considerable attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Self-handicapping is a strategy for discounting ability attributions for probable failure while augmenting ability attributions for possible success. Behavioral self-handicaps are conceptually distinct from self-reported…

  4. Teachers' Reported Knowledge and Implementation of Research-Based Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.; Chow, Jason C.; Gordon, Jason R.; Mahany, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' reported knowledge about and implementation of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies were examined. A total of 160 elementary teachers from two districts in different regions of the same state completed the researcher-developed "Survey of Classroom and Behavior Management." On average, teachers reported to…

  5. Bridging design and behavioral research with variance-based structural equation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Advertising research is a scientific discipline that studies artifacts (e.g., various forms of marketing communication) as well as natural phenomena (e.g., consumer behavior). Empirical advertising research therefore requires methods that can model design constructs as well as behavioral constructs,

  6. Implementation strategies of Systems Medicine in clinical research and home care for cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Fiuza, Manuela; Pinto, Fausto J; Martelli, Antonietta; Palombo, Domenico; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mach, François; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-11-01

    Insights from the "-omics" science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Home Away from Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The House of Tiny Tearaways (HTT) first appeared on British television in May 2005. Over a six-day period, three families are invited to reside in a specially designed house together with a resident clinical psychologist. The house is to be “a home away from home” for the resident families...... in order to analyze excerpts from the program and to explore how the affordances and constraints of the specially designed house—its architecture and spatial configuration, as well as the surveillance technology embedded within its walls—are assembled within particular familial activities, and how...... the relationships between family members are reshaped as a result. The analysis focuses on several key phenomena: 1) practices of video observation in relation to the domestic sphere; 2) use of inscription devices, such as video displays, to capture and visualize behavior and action in the “home;” 3) practicing...

  8. Consent, including advanced consent, of older adults to research in care homes: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona; Prout, Hayley; Bayer, Antony; Duncan, Donna; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2013-08-09

    Care home residents, especially those lacking capacity to provide consent for themselves, are frequently excluded from research, thus limiting generalisability of study findings. We set out to explore stakeholders' views about the ethical and practical challenges associated with recruiting care home residents into research studies. Qualitative individual interviews with care home residents (n = 14), their relatives (n = 14), and general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), and focus groups (n = 2) with care home staff. Interviews focused on the issues of older adults consenting to research in care homes, including advanced consent, in general and through reference to a particular study on the use of probiotics to prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea. Data were analysed using a thematic approach incorporating themes that had been identified in advance, and themes derived from the data. Researchers discussed evidence for themes, and reached consensus on the final themes. Respondents were generally accepting of low risk observational studies and slightly less accepting of low risk randomised trials of medicinal products. Although respondents identified some practical barriers to informed consent, consenting arrangements were considered workable. Residents and relatives varied in the amount of detail they wanted included in information sheets and consent discussions, but were generally satisfied that an advanced consent model was acceptable and appropriate. Opinions differed about what should happen should residents lose capacity during a research study. Research staff should be mindful of research guidance and ensure that they have obtained an appropriate level of informed consent without overwhelming the participant with unnecessary detail. For research involving medicinal products, research staff should also be more explicit when recruiting that consent is still valid should an older person lose capacity during a trial provided the individual did not previously state a

  9. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-01-01

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model

  10. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-07-14

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model.

  11. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  12. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  13. Total Quality Management: A Unique Challenge For Behavioral Science Researchers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Management (TQM) programs in industry and government. The essence of TQM involves respect for personal choice and the participation of every level of workers in decisions which impact the organization. Typically, structured questionnaires developed by behavioral scientists are designed to be easy to summarize and generally lack any mechanism for personal comments, ideas, and suggestions. New open-ended, interactive, and iterative survey methodologies are needed to enhance creativity, encourage feedback, and foster a sense of participation. Total Quality

  14. Long-term bedrock behavior research for soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Noda, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    When a formation disposal system is thought about, it is important to evaluate long-term dynamics behavior of boundary condition and near field bedrock of an artificial barrier adequately. In this study, three matters were executed for improvement of a dependability of the evaluation as follows. (1) Creep test was executed as purpose by dependability improvement of evaluation technique of creep problem by Okubo model. Okubo model constant was calculated than the unconfined compression test which let strain rate change with true rock, and the creep test which the constant was used, and estimated breaking time was done. As a result, the estimation of breaking time by Okubo model almost suffered according to the estimation although a variation of test-piece influenced it. (2) A tunnel model apparatus was produced in the purpose which grasped near field bedrock behavior, and it was tested. Simulation rock test body of 1 m * 1 m * 0.5 m was used for a test, and 15 cm tunnel excavation was carried out in an initial stress bottom. Quantities of inner space displacement were measured in a test, and a hardness-test was done after dismantlement, and looseness area was grasped quantitatively. As a result, the looseness area was able to be estimated with about 17.5 cm than tunnel center position. (3) A test approach in deep underground laboratory was examined, and examination/the in situ test which took advantage of rock core analysis/borehole as purpose and done examination item by grip of long-term bedrock behavior (a bord is taken advantage of, and bord itself is used) was shown. In addition, layout of the deep underground laboratory which carried out various tests about long-term behavior in 3 depth was shown. (author)

  15. Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, Tamar; Schwartz, Daniel; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Lave, Lester; Wang, Jack

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, U.S. President Obama made a public commitment to a new approach to energy production and transmission in the United States. It features installing smart meters and related technologies in residential homes, as part of transforming the current electrical grid into a “smart grid.” Realizing this transformation requires consumers to accept these new technologies and take advantage of the opportunities that they create. We use methods from behavioral decision research to understand consumer beliefs about smart meters, including in-depth mental models interviews and a follow-up survey with a sample of potential smart meter customers of a major U.S. mid-Atlantic electricity utility. In both the surveys and the interviews, most respondents reported wanting smart meters. However, these preferences were often based on erroneous beliefs regarding their purpose and function. Respondents confused smart meters with in-home displays and other enabling technologies, while expecting to realize immediate savings. They also perceived risks, including less control over their electricity usage, violations of their privacy, and increased costs. We discuss the policy implications of our results. - Highlights: ► We outline normative risks and benefits of smart meters from scientific literature. ► We examine consumer perceptions of smart meters via interviews and surveys. ► Smart meter desire stems from consumer misconceptions about purpose and function. ► Appropriate communications may prevent consumer protests against the smart grid.

  16. Research on Teachers Pedagogical Thoughts, Judgments, Decisions and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Stern, Paula

    1981-01-01

    Based on research done in the past decade, the authors formulated a "schema" of teachers' judgments, planning and interactive decisions. Recommendations for future research included development of a taxonomy of critical teaching decisions, intervention, and alteration of teachers' plans and decisions to improve teaching, and implementation of…

  17. 20 year IRIS: impact on seismological research at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    : The positive impact of IRIS, through its programs (GSN, PASSCAL, DMS, EO) and its workshops, on seismological research and community building can hardly be overestimated. The Data Management System has been very successful in bringing data to users for research and education anywhere in the world; it enables routine, and in many cases real time, analysis of massive amounts of waveform data for a spectacularly diverse range of studies. (I will give examples of surface wave tomography and inverse scattering studies of the core mantle boundary.) The support that PASSCAL provides for the planning and execution of field campaigns allows seismologists to shift attention from operational issues to exciting science, and the required data dissemination through DMS does not only result in tremendously valuable data sets but also contributes to community building through (international) collaboration. Europe, Australia, and Asia also have rich histories of network and portable array seismometry, and in many areas the cumulative station density exceeds that of North America (even, perhaps, with USArray). Moreover, in some cases, such as the use of temporary, roving arrays of broad band seismometers, activities overseas may have preceded and inspired developments in the US. However, the absence of effective central systems for management and dissemination of quality-controlled data has left many unique historical and regional data sets underutilized. This situation is changing, however. As an example I will mention the NERIES initiative to build a better infrastructure for seismological research and education in Europe. Apart from providing an example, through international collaboration IRIS can continue to play an important role in the improvement of the global seismological infrastructure.

  18. Bringing home sustainability and climate change research and developments via on-line virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granshaw, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key challenges of sustainability and climate education is one of accessibility. For example many of the sites where significant climate research is taking place in National Parks are largely inaccessible to the average park visitor. Likewise, taking students to visit exemplary efforts in environmentally sustainable design or habitat restoration projects may be logistically difficult or impossible for the average class. Yet despite these difficulties, finding ways to give students, park visitors, and the general public a chance to explore these areas is critical to their developing sustainability and climate literacy. To address this issue, the author has been working with National Park staff and community groups to develop desktop virtual reality environments that showcase glacier-climate research sites, developments designed with environmental sustainability in mind, and urban watersheds being rehabilitated by volunteer groups and public agencies. These environments provide the user with a chance to take a virtual walk through a site of interest, access data collected at the site, and even listen to researchers and site stewards talk about key activities taking place there. Though they are used as proxies for actual visits via independent on-line exploration, media for public talks, or the framework for student lab exercises, they these virtual environments have also been used to encourage and guide actual sites visits. A focus of this talk will be a recently launched project involving the construction of a library showcasing environmental sustainability projects in the Portland Metropolitan area. In addition to being a resource for local sustainability educators, the library will be a contribution to international sustainability education efforts as it is being developed under the umbrella of a UN affiliate (Greater Portland Sustainability Education Network).

  19. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Problems with atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches in the study of behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    This commentary is written in response to a paper by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Hereen (2015) published in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions. It supports and extends the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015): that the study of behavioral addictions too often rests on atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches. This tends to lead to theories that lack specificity and a neglect of the underlying processes that might explain why repetitive problem behaviors occur. In this commentary I extend the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015) and argue that such research approaches might take us further away from conceptualizing psychiatric diagnoses that can be properly validated, which is already a problem in the field. Furthermore, I discuss whether the empirical support for conceptualizing repetitive problem behaviors as addictions might rest on research practices that have been methodologically biased to produce a result congruent with the proposal that substance addictions and behavioral addictions share similar traits. I conclude by presenting a number of ways of going forward, chief of which is the proposal that we might wish to go beyond a priori assumptions of addiction in favor of identifying the essential problem manifestations for each new potential behavioral addiction.

  20. Age and impulsive behavior in drug addiction: A review of past research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  2. Twenty Years of Research on Cytokine-Induced Sickness Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the

  3. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne Sonne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....

  4. Investigation of Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Research on Health Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Öge; Pınar Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be researched that whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated ...

  5. Organizational Behavior in the Knowledge Based Society, a Practical Research in the Romanian Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains the results of a special research developed by the author on the organizational behavior in some multinational companies with branches in Romania. This research is confirming the fact that the organizational behavior is very much influenced by the core organizational values and is answering to the questions about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations and why. The research demonstrated how the core values of an organization are influencing the organization...

  6. Research on the fracture behavior of PBX under static tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fracture behavior of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX seriously affects the safety and reliability of weapon system. The effects of interface debonding and initial meso-damage on the fracture behavior of PBX under quasi-static tension are studied using numerical method. A two-dimensional representative volume element (RVE is established based on Voronoi model in which the component contents could be regulated and the particles are randomly distributed. A nonlinear damage model of polymer matrix relative to matrix depth between particles is constructed. The results show that the simulated strain-stress relation is coincident with experiment data. It is found that interface debonding leads to the nucleation and propagation of meso-cracks, and a main crack approximately perpendicular to the loading direction is generated finally. The interface debonding tends to occur in the interface perpendicular to the loading direction. There seems to be a phenomenon that strain softening and hardening alternatively appear around peak stress of stress and strain curve. It is shown that the initial damages of intragranular and interfacial cracks both decrease the modulus and failure stress, and the main crack tends to propagate toward the initial meso-cracks.

  7. Considerations and recommendations for conducting qualitative research interviews with palliative and end-of-life care patients in the home setting: a consensus paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, Stephanie; Prout, Hayley; Hopewell-Kelly, Noreen; Baillie, Jessica; Byrne, Anthony; Edwards, Michelle; Harrop, Emily; Noble, Simon; Sampson, Catherine; Nelson, Annmarie

    2015-12-08

    To present and discuss the views of researchers at an academic palliative care research centre on research encounters with terminally ill patients in the home setting and to generate a list of recommendations for qualitative researchers working in palliative and end-of-life care. Eight researchers took part in a consensus meeting to discuss their experiences of undertaking qualitative interviews. The researchers were of varying backgrounds and all reported having experience in interviewing terminally ill patients, and all but one had experience of interviewing patients in their home environment. The main areas discussed by researchers included: whether participation in end-of-life research unintentionally becomes a therapeutic experience or an ethical concern; power relationships between terminally ill patients and researchers; researcher reflexivity and reciprocity; researchers' training needs. Qualitative methods can complement the home environment; however, it can raise ethical and practical challenges, which can be more acute in the case of research undertaken with palliative and patients at the end-of-life. The ethical and practical challenges researchers face in this context has the potential to place both participant and researcher at risk for their physical and psychological well-being. We present a set of recommendations for researchers to consider prior to embarking on qualitative research in this context and advocate researchers in this field carefully consider the issues presented on a study-by-study basis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The Effect of Home-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Functional Capacity, Behavior, and Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjing Ding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of home-based cardiac rehabilitation on functional capacity, health behavior, and risk factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome in China. Methods: Eighty patients with acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled study. Patients in the cardiac rehabilitation group (n=52 received home-based cardiac rehabilitation with a heart manual and a home exercise video for 3 months and patients in the control group (n=28 received only routine secondary prevention. The 6-min walk distance, laboratory test results, healthy behavior (questionnaire, quality of life (12-item Short Form Health Survey, anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, and depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire were evaluated at the beginning and after treatment for 3 months. Results: Compared with baseline data, 52 patients who participated in cardiac rehabilitation had longer 6-min walk distance (515.26±113.74 m vs 0.445.30±97.92 m, P<0.0002, higher proportions of “always exercise” (78.26% vs. 28%, P<0.05, “always limit food with sugar” (65.22% vs 12%, P<0.05, “always eat fruits 200–400 g every day” (82.61% vs. 4%, P<0.05. and “always eat vegetables 300–500 g every day” (21.74% vs. 12%, P<0.06 after treatment for 3 months. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control rate (52.17% vs. 28%, P<0.05 and the systolic blood pressure control rate (100% vs. 68%, P<0.05 were also significantly increased after treatment for 3 months in the cardiac rehabilitation group. No significant increase was found in the control group after treatment for 3 months. No cardiac-event related to home exercise was reported in both groups. Conclusion: Home-based cardiac rehabilitation is a feasible and available cardiac rehabilitation mode in China.

  9. Neighborhood archetypes for population health research: is there no place like home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weden, Margaret M; Bird, Chloe E; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new, latent archetype approach for studying place in population health. Latent class analysis is used to show how the number, defining attributes, and change/stability of neighborhood archetypes can be characterized and tested for statistical significance. The approach is demonstrated using data on contextual determinants of health for US neighborhoods defined by census tracts in 1990 and 2000. Six archetypes (prevalence 13-20%) characterize the statistically significant combinations of contextual determinants of health from the social environment, built environment, commuting and migration patterns, and demographics and household composition of US neighborhoods. Longitudinal analyses based on the findings demonstrate notable stability (76.4% of neighborhoods categorized as the same archetype ten years later), with exceptions reflecting trends in (ex)urbanization, gentrification/downgrading, and racial/ethnic reconfiguration. The findings and approach is applicable to both research and practice (e.g. surveillance) and can be scaled up or down to study health and place in other geographical contexts or historical periods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  11. The Efficacy of a Home-School Intervention for Preschoolers with Challenging Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool First Step to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Edward G.; Frey, Andy; Walker, Hill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Golly, Annemieke; Forness, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The field of early intervention is currently faced with the challenge of reducing the prevalence of antisocial behavior in children. Longitudinal outcomes research indicates that increased antisocial behavior and impairments in social competence skills during the preschool years often serve as harbingers of future adjustment problems in a number…

  12. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  13. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. Final report of the LINKKI research program; Kuluttajien kaeyttaeytyminen ja energiansaeaestoe. LINKKI- tutkimusohjelman loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvola, A.; Kasanen, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1996-10-01

    The goal of LINKKI - the research program on consumer behavior and energy conservation - was to promote energy conservation by seeking potential and means for energy conservation in the short term in areas that are linked with consumers` activities and choices. Research has been conducted in the following sectors: home, buildings, traffic, and indirect energy consumption. This report discusses the results obtained through the program against a more general background of people`s ways of life and the various factors explaining energy consumption. The report assesses the differences discovered between households, for instance, with respect to demographic factors, life situations, motivation towards conservation, information needs, and attitudes to information. These factors were evaluated in their role as barriers to energy conservation. The research projects have surveyed various ways of disseminating information (e.g. advice, feedback on consumption, computer programs, energy labels), as well as information needs and decision-making processes existing among households. Research conducted in the sector of indirect energy consumption has produced data on conservation potential with respect to the selection of foods and the organization of leisure activities. In the sector of energy consumption in traffic, assessments have been made concerning the conservation potential that can be achieved by reorganizing activities and data transmission (e.g. distance work, flexible working time). The prerequisites for the actualization of this potential have also been studied. Similarly, the opportunities of reducing energy consumption in traffic by means of prices, taxation systems and regional ticket systems have been analyzed

  14. Open source home care technology : technical design and development, user research, cost-benefit analysis, and business modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marike Hettinga; Ander de Keijzer; Guido van Alphen; Jan M. Nauta; Elles Gyaltsen-Lohuis; Niels Donninger; Rens Balkenende

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress for the Hightech@home project. The aim of this project is to develop technology and knowledge concerning open source home care technology, utilizing open standards. Currently, there is limited availability of high tech sensor and communication technology

  15. Defenders against Threats or Enablers of Opportunities: The Screening Role Played by Gatekeepers in Researching Older People in Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourfield, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper emerges from a case study of the system of statutory reviews in older people's care homes in the UK. Informed by a review of selected literature on gaining access, this paper provides a critical account of the process of negotiating access with gatekeepers (chiefly, care home managers). The negotiations were time-consuming and largely…

  16. Information technology and behavioral medicine: impact on autism treatment & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Ron; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2004-01-01

    Families, clinicians and researchers involved with varying neurological disorders face amazing challenges to understand, treat, and assist the people they are serving. Autism brings unique challenges and serves as an important model for the application of important concepts in information technology and telemedicine. The rising incidence of autism with limited professional resources has led to more consideration for using information technology and related specialties to link families and professionals, and to implement strategies which implement information technology to improve the outcomes for individuals with autism and their families. These are reviewed in context of the unique health, education, and the research issues facing those dealing with autism.

  17. Research on Web Search Behavior: How Online Query Data Inform Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaisheng; Lee, Yan Xin; Chen, Hao; Yu, Rongjun

    2017-10-01

    The widespread use of web searches in daily life has allowed researchers to study people's online social and psychological behavior. Using web search data has advantages in terms of data objectivity, ecological validity, temporal resolution, and unique application value. This review integrates existing studies on web search data that have explored topics including sexual behavior, suicidal behavior, mental health, social prejudice, social inequality, public responses to policies, and other psychosocial issues. These studies are categorized as descriptive, correlational, inferential, predictive, and policy evaluation research. The integration of theory-based hypothesis testing in future web search research will result in even stronger contributions to social psychology.

  18. The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Research on School Principals' Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Spiritual Leadership and the dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) of school principals from the perspectives of primary school teachers. A quantitative survey was performed on a sample of teachers (N = 383) from primary schools to study the influence of spiritual leadership…

  19. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  20. Connecting Consumer Behavior with Marketing Research through Garbology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron-Martinez, Datha; Jackson, Katherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing demand by faculty for realistic, experiential-learning exercises easily incorporated into the marketing curriculum, this article offers a new exercise that is based on Parlin's early work in marketing research with Campbell's soup: garbology. Garbology is an entertaining, experiential learning activity that serves as…

  1. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P

    2011-10-13

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2017-09-01

    Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. The objective of this study was to determine the short- and medium term effects of an intervention to support workers in providing preventive activities for older adults. To do this, the number of activities undertaken by workers and the health-related behavior of their clients were assessed. A quasi-experimental study was performed with a pre-post design and inclusion of one control group. The study took place in a deprived, semi-rural area in The Netherlands (2011-2013). Data in three districts served by one home health care organization were gathered. The participants were home health care workers (registered nurses and nurse aides) and home health care clients aged 55 and over (community-dwelling, dependent older adults receiving home health care). 205 home health care workers participated in the study, 97 of them in the first effect measurement; and 83 of them in the second effect measurement. A total of 304 home health care clients participated, 214 of them in the first effect measurement; and 186 of them in the second effect measurement. Differences in change were determined in health-related behavior between groups of older adults as a result of training home health care workers in preventive activities RESULTS: In the control group of home health care professionals a significant increase was found regarding the provision of preventive activities for the domain 'weight' (partial eta squared: 0.05 and 0.08 at first and second effect measurements, respectively). We found preventive activities performed by home health care professionals to have no significant effects on older adult-reported health-related behavior, but observed in the intervention group a non-significant trend in improvement of physical activity of, respectively, 85 and 207min for

  3. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  4. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Nursing Homes Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... Reason For Living in A Nursing Home Some type of disability with activities of daily living (ADLs) ...

  5. Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are part of home healthcare agencies. You may benefit from home care if you are dealing with ... it will trigger an emergency response or checkup phone call. Newer technologies ... or mobile testing technology (home diagnostics), including x-rays and ...

  6. Research and development strategy on the behavior of containments during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, C.

    1990-06-01

    In case of an hypothetical severe accident leading to core melting, the last barrier preventing radionucleide release in the environnment is the containment of the main reactor building. The French research and development programmes aimed at understanding the containment behavior during severe accidents relate to several domains; some of them are: - assessment of hydrogen behavior - corium behavior and coolability - ultimate resistance of the containments and leaktightness - caracterization of filtered venting procedure. All these aspects are covered by code calculations and experimental developments

  7. Home | SREL Herpetology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Herpetology Program Herp Home Research Publications Herps of SC /GA P.A.R.C. Outreach SREL Home powered by Google Search Herpetology at SREL The University of SREL herpetology research programs have always included faculty of the University of Georgia, post

  8. Status of USNRC research on fuel behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    The program of the Fuel Behaviour Research is directed at providing a detailed understanding of the response of nuclear fuel assemblies to off-normal or accident conditions. This understanding is expressed in physical and analytical correlations which are incorporated into computer codes. The results of these experiments and the resulting codes are available to the licensing authorities for use in evaluating utility submissions. (orig.) [de

  9. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  11. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. van der Horst-Nachtegaal (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); J. Brug (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors) and the personal

  12. Recent Research on Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the acquisition of verbal behavior in children with developmental disabilities has focused on teaching four primary verbal operants: (1) "mand"; (2) "tact"; (3) "echoic"; and (4) "intraverbal". In Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior, he stated that each verbal operant is maintained by unique antecedent and consequence…

  13. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research

  14. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  15. The social control of behavior control: behavior modification, Individual Rights, and research ethics in America, 1971-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    In 1971, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights began a three-year study to investigate the federal funding of all research involving behavior modification. During this period, operant programs of behavior change, particularly those implemented in closed institutions, were subjected to specific scrutiny. In this article, I outline a number of scientific and social factors that led to this investigation and discuss the study itself. I show how behavioral scientists, both individually and through their professional organizations, responded to this public scrutiny by (1) self-consciously altering their terminology and techniques; (2) considering the need to more effectively police their professional turf; and (3) confronting issues of ethics and values in their work. Finally, I link this episode to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, whose recommendations resulted in changes to the ethical regulation of federally funded human subjects research that persist to the present day. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cross-Cultural Psychology as a Scholarly Discipline: On the Flowering of Culture in Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marshall H.; Lonner, Walter J.; Berry, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines interrelationship of culture and behavior. Perspectives include absolutism and relativism, each with methodological consequences for such research concerns as values gender differences, cognition, aggression, intergroup relations, and psychological acculturation. Describes societal concerns relating to these topics. Contains 88…

  17. An Affective Events Model of Charismatic Leadership Behavior : A Review, Theoretical Integration, and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Bruch, Heike

    2009-01-01

    Although research has long focused on the consequences of leaders' charismatic behavior, the antecedents of such leadership are increasingly gaining scholarly attention. Nevertheless, the antecedent-oriented literature on charismatic leadership has been fragmented to date and lacks theoretical

  18. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  19. LHC@home gets new home

    CERN Multimedia

    Oates, John

    2007-01-01

    "The distributed computing project LHC@home is moving to London from Cern in Switzerland. Researchers at Qeen Mary University have been trialling the system since June, but are now ready for the offical launch" (1 page)

  20. Development and Construct Validation of an Inventory for Assessing the Home Environment for Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Saraiva, Linda; Gabbard, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A contemporary view of early childhood motor development considers environmental influences as critical factors in optimal growth and behavior, with the home being the primary agent. However, there has been minimal research examining the relationship between motor development and the home. The present study addresses this gap with the goal of…

  1. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  2. A STUDY ON THE SHAREHOLDERS’ BEHAVIOR OF LISTED COMPANIES BASED ON SYMBIOSIS THEORY: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Songling; LIU Tingli; CHEN Fang

    2014-01-01

    Research on shareholder’s behavior is a hot topic in recent years. Most researches are based on the theory of agency, which proposal that equity decentralization is the major way to solve the conflict problem between large shareholders and minority stockholders. Actually, major shareholder will never be eliminated. This paper introduces the symbiosis theory-ecology theory-to explain the motives and consequences of the behavior of different type shareholders in China’s from a new perspective. ...

  3. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: Design and methods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y.; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Background Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. Methods/Design The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children’s sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. Conclusions The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8–12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. PMID:24480729

  4. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-05-01

    Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children's sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8-12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  6. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR BY OPTICAL RED WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana STOIAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study exhaustive wine area is a frequently researched topic since the beginning of 2000 when it comes to legislative bases for wine and wine products. Among the considerations that led to its choice of study include: Romania considerable resources in terms of agricultural area, and especially the wine (mention here the existence of eight wine regions, vineyards and a hundred thirty seven support and attention given to the legislative branch of Romanian wine (by law 244/2002-Legea vineyard and wine, and the European and not least history as a wine producing country with Spain, Italy and France. The paper aims to determine whether or not a situation determinant of marketing in red wine consumption by analyzing questionnaire responses developed.

  7. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  8. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709

  9. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  10. Is it better at home with my family? The effects of people and place on children's eating behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Suggs, L.S.; Della Bella, S.; Rangelov, N.; Marques-Vidal, P.

    2018-01-01

    The people and places children eat with can influence food consumption. This study investigates the people and places Swiss school-aged children ate with over a 7-day period and analyses the effects of eating at home with family on food consumption. Children completed a 7-day food diary documenting the foods they consumed, the people with whom they ate, and the place where they ate. Analyses were conducted for all meals and included 9911 meal occasions. Most meals (80.5%) were consumed at hom...

  11. ENU mutagenesis screening for dominant behavioral mutations based on normal control data obtained in home-cage activity, open-field, and passive avoidance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.

  12. Parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects: integrating functional and mechanistic research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Melissa A; Singer, Michael S

    2017-08-15

    Research on parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects is contributing to an emerging literature that considers possible adaptive consequences of altered feeding behavior for the host or the parasite. Several recent ecoimmunological studies show that insects can adaptively alter their foraging behavior in response to parasitism. Another body of recent work shows that infection by parasites can change the behavior of insect hosts to benefit the parasite; manipulations of host feeding behavior may be part of this phenomenon. Here, we address both the functional and the underlying physiological frontiers of parasite-altered feeding behavior in order to spur research that better integrates the two. Functional categories of parasite-altered behavior that are adaptive for the host include prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, while host manipulation is adaptive for the parasite. To better understand and distinguish prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, further study of physiological feedbacks affecting host sensory systems is especially needed. For host manipulation in particular, research on mechanisms by which parasites control host feedbacks will be important to integrate with functional approaches. We see this integration as critical to advancing the field of parasite-altered feeding behavior, which may be common in insects and consequential for human and environmental health. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Research on hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, N E

    2000-04-01

    There is a growing body of research evaluating the use of hypnosis with cognitive-behavioral techniques in the treatment of psychological disorders. The central question for research is whether the addition of hypnosis enhances the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments. Overall, studies demonstrate a substantial benefit from the addition of hypnosis; however, the number of published studies is relatively small, and many of them have methodological limitations. For cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapies to be recognized as empirically supported treatments, a number of well-designed, randomized clinical trials are necessary. Currently, the efficacy of hypnosis as an adjunctive treatment remains unresolved.

  14. RESEARCH OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF MANAGERS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES USING STATISTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydoğan Durmuş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study conducted to research the relationship between leadership behaviors of managers between organizational commitment of employees, a survey has been applied to 155 employees who work in 3 companies in Istanbul province. To measure organizational commitment of employees: "Organizational Commitment Scale" developed by Meyer, Allen ve Smith ; to measure leadership behaviors:" Leadership Behaviors Inventory" of Kent and "Multidimensional Leadership Problems" titled survey forms have been examined and leadership behavior scale which is often used in researches and has been created developing leadership behavior questions based on "Behavioral Repertoire of Leaders" of  Goleman. The data collected by the survey were evaluated by entering into SPSS 22 software. As a result of the application; it has been found that, as autocratic, visionary,  participating and leadership behaviors of managers strengthen, attendance to corporation and normative commitment of employees increase, as educational and relationship oriented behaviors of managers strengthen, attendance to corporation and normative commitment of employees strengthens. As overall satisfaction level of employees with leadership behavior of managers increases, their attendance and normative commitment to organization increased as well.

  15. Interaction of mathematical modeling and social and behavioral HIV/AIDS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassels, Susan; Goodreau, Steven M

    2011-03-01

    HIV is transmitted within complex biobehavioral systems. Mathematical modeling can provide insight to complex population-level outcomes of various behaviors measured at an individual level. HIV models in the social and behavioral sciences can be categorized in a number of ways; here, we consider two classes of applications common in the field generally, and in the past year in particular: those models that explore significant behavioral determinants of HIV disparities within and between populations; and those models that seek to evaluate the potential impact of specific social and behavioral interventions. We discuss two overarching issues we see in the field: the need to further systematize effectiveness models of behavioral interventions, and the need for increasing investigation of the use of behavioral data in epidemic models. We believe that a recent initiative by the National Institutes of Health will qualitatively change the relationships between epidemic modeling and sociobehavioral prevention research in the coming years.

  16. Homing oneself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2009-01-01

    What is home? A building, a physical and mental phenomenon, or a concept?  There are many homes and ways `to home oneself´. Many of us quite often dwell in other places than at home (as professional commuters between two places, as travellers staying in hotels, as children of divorced parents...

  17. Challenge in Sharing Tacit Knowledge: Academicians’ Behavior towards Developing A Web Portal for Sharing Research Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Adenan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Academicians’ collective memories soft information, such as research ideas, expertise, experiences, academic skills, know-what, know-how and know-why which inevitability it is considered should made accessible. The Higher Education Institution needs to identify, collect, classify, verbalize and diffuse the academicians’ soft information specifically research ideas present in the university for knowledge enrichment. This can be implemented by the academicians actively sharing their research ideas with others. Actively sharing research ideas by academicians will have great impact on the enrichment of their intellectual capability as most of the valuable knowledge resides in one’s brain. However, as there is no specific medium to bring their research ideas into the surface and be visible to others, the precious research ideas still remain in the academicians’ brains. Therefore, the objective of the study is to explore academicians’ behavior toward the development of a sharing research ideas web portal at private university colleges in Malaysia. This study used the qualitative method that is a multiple cases study. The study refers to four private university colleges in Malaysia. In-depth interview, focus group discussion and document analysis were formed the data collection for this study. The theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (1991 was used to determine academicians’ behavior. This study showed that the academicians’ attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards developing a web portal for sharing research ideas all affect their intention to share their research ideas with others.

  18. Comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres pertenecientes al consultorio "Altos de Milagro" Behavior of the home violence in women from "Altos de Milagro" consulting room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la violencia doméstica, específicamente contra la mujer latinoamericana, se ha convertido en los últimos años en un serio problema médico, social y cultural, que exige una urgente atención integral de salud, lo que motivó a las autoras a desarrollar la investigación. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres mayores de 15 años atendidas en el consultorio Altos de Milagro, en Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre 2009. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para caracterizar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en el consultorio popular antes mencionado utilizando una encuesta elaborada por las autoras. Resultados: fueron atendidas 51 pacientes víctimas de violencia doméstica, con predominio de las edades entre 35 y 44 años (39,21 %. Resultaron ser acompañadas el 58,82 % y la totalidad de las pacientes sufrió violencia psicológica (100 %. La escolaridad primaria representó el 39,21 %, y 30 de las pacientes estudiadas pertenecen a familias grandes y extensas, con gran consumo de alcohol, para un 58,82 %. Se encontró, además, que más del 50 % de las estudiadas sufrió violencia doméstica, perteneciendo a la tercera-cuarta década de la vida, con bajo nivel intelectual. Conclusiones: predominó la violencia psicológica, las familias extensas y grandes, y en la mayor parte de estas el factor de riesgo más frecuente fue la ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas.Introduction: home violence specifically against the Latin American woman became in past years in a serious medical, social and cultural problem requiring an urgent integral health care, encouraging authors to develop present research. Objective: to determine the behavior of home violence in women aged over 15 seen in the "Altos de Milagro" consulting room in Maracaibo, Zulia State from December, 2008 to December, 2009. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study

  19. Cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for low-income depressed mothers participating in early childhood prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Mallow, Peter J; Rizzo, John A; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2017-01-15

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) for low-income mothers enrolled in a home visiting program. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using results from a clinical trial of IH-CBT and standard of care for depression derived from the literature. A probabilistic, patient-level Markov model was developed to determine Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Costs were determined using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A three-year time horizon and payer perspective were used. Sensitivity analyses were employed to determine robustness of the model. IH-CBT was cost-effective relative to standard of care. IH-CBT was expected to be cost-effective at a three-year time horizon 99.5%, 99.7%, and 99.9% of the time for willingness-to-pay thresholds of US$25,000, US$50,000, and US$100,000, respectively. Patterns were upheld at one-year and five-year time horizons. Over the three-year time horizon, mothers receiving IH-CBT were expected to have 345.6 fewer days of depression relative to those receiving standard home visiting and treatment in the community. IH-CBT is a more cost-effective treatment for low-income, depressed mothers than current standards of practice. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of CBT for depression, and expand it to cover new mothers. From a payer perspective, IH-CBT is a sound option for treatment of depressed, low-income mothers. Limitations include a restricted time horizon and estimating of standard of care costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistant to the Recession: Low-Income Adults’ Maintenance of Cooking and Away-From-Home Eating Behaviors During Times of Economic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. Methods. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents’ AFH consumption patterns. Results. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents’ cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Conclusions. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients. PMID:24625145

  1. Resistant to the recession: low-income adults' maintenance of cooking and away-from-home eating behaviors during times of economic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-05-01

    We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents' AFH consumption patterns. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents' cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients.

  2. A pilot test of a self-guided, home-based intervention to improve condom-related sexual experiences, attitudes, and behaviors among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L; Milhausen, Robin R; Beavers, Karly A; Ryan, Rebecca; Sullivan, Margaret J; Vanterpool, Karen B; Sanders, Stephanie A; Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    To conduct a pilot test of a brief, self-guided, home-based program designed to improve male condom use attitudes and behaviors among young women. Women aged 18-24 years from a large Midwestern University reporting having had penile-vaginal sex with two or more partners in the past 3 months. Sixty-seven enrolled; 91.0% completed the study. A repeated measures design was used, with assessments occurring at baseline, immediately  post intervention (T2), and 30 days subsequent (T3). Condom use errors and problems decreased, condom-related attitudes and self-efficacy improved, and experiences of condom-protected sex were rated more positively when comparing baseline with T2 and T3 scores. Further, the proportion of condom-protected episodes more than doubled between T1 and T3 for those in the lowest quartile for condom use at baseline. This low-resource, home-based program improved condom-related attitudes and promoted the correct and consistent use of condoms.

  3. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  4. The Behavioral Science of Eating : Encouraging Boundary Research That Has Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary research can be risky, but it can also move academic disciplines into wider areas of influence. Fittingly, this new journal’s mission is to expand the boundaries of consumer behavior and to deepen its impact. Each issue focuses on having an impact both in consumer research and beyond. In

  5. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  6. Research Base for Improved Classroom Learning: Brain or Behavior? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit in recent Evidence Speaks postings is the need to develop evidence-based interventions for improving student achievement. Comparative analysis of the education research literature versus the educational neuroscience literature suggests that education research, grounded in the behavioral and cognitive sciences, is currently the better…

  7. Efficacy and effectiveness of online cognitive behavioral treatment : a decade of interapy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Schrieken, Bart; Emmelkamp, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Since 1996, researchers of the Interapy research group of the University of Amsterdam have been examining the effects of online cognitive behavioral treatment (online CBT). Over the years, the group conducted nine controlled trials of online CBT for a variety of mental health disorders, among a

  8. Counseling and the Bystander-Equity Model of Supervisory Helping Behavior: Directions for EAP Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Bayer, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses contribution of Bystander-Equity Model of Supervisory Helping Behavior to pursuit of employee assistance program (EAP) research based on traditions of field of counseling. Offers structure for pursuing empirical and applied activities in EAP settings. Encourages counseling researchers and practitioners to respond to challenge of working…

  9. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  10. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  11. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  12. African Americans, democracy, and biomedical and behavioral research: contradictions or consensus in community-based participatory research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, C

    Individualism, in both its political and attitudinal senses, reinforces societal and institutional racism in the United States. Because of individualism's dominant focus on self-interest and self-reliance, any application of "participatory democracy" in community-based biomedical and behavioral research is fraught with dilemmas similar to those that Gunnar Myrdal observed between American racism and democracy. The research establishment is overwhelmed by well-meaning non-minorities who recognize racism and its consequences in health, but only greater representation of people-of-color in the health establishment can ameliorate the inherent contradictions of "participatory democracy" which is so fundamental to the process of community-based participatory research.

  13. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  14. Lost and misplaced items and assistive devices in nursing homes: Identifying problems and technological opportunities through participatory design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, C E; Sweegers, L; Relou, L; van der Zijpp, T J; van Hoof, J

    2018-02-06

    Modern healthcare, including nursing home care, goes together with the use of technologies to support treatment, the provision of care and daily activities. The challenges concerning the implementation of such technologies are numerous. One of these emerging technologies are location technologies (RTLS or Real-Time Location Systems). that can be utilized in the nursing home for monitoring the use and location of assets. This paper describes a participatory design study of RTLS based on context mapping, conducted in two nursing home organizations. Rather than investigating the technological possibilities, this study investigates the needs and wishes from the perspective of the care professional. The study identified semantic themes that relate to the practicalities of lost and misplaced items in the nursing home, as well as latent themes that cover the wishes regarding technology in the nursing homes. The organizational culture and building typology may play a role in losing items. The participants in this study indicated that RTLS can provide a solution to some of the challenges that they encounter in the workplace. However, the implementation of new technologies should be done with care and should be integrated into existing ICT systems in order to minimize additional training and posing a burden on the workload.

  15. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almack, Kathryn; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors). Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff. PMID:29642460

  16. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Paul; Almack, Kathryn; Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-04-07

    Background : Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors) . Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion-itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people's care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  17. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Willis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors. Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  18. Creating a new home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Housing research is increasingly focusing on how different groups of residents use their dwelling and transform it into a home. In this article, we look at the homes of immigrants in Danish social housing. The article is based on qualitative interviews with Somali, Iraqi and Turkish immigrants, a...

  19. Longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and physical activity behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about intergenerational differences in associations of urbanization-related lifestyle behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and their parents in rapidly urbanizing China. Objective: We tested the intergenerational differences in longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and leisure-time sports with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) among Chinese children and their parents. Design: We studied children enrolled in the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991-2009, 7 surveys) aged 7-17 y in ≥2 surveys (average follow-up: 2.3 surveys out of a possible 4 surveys with the age restriction; n = 3875, including 1175 siblings) and their parents (2947 mothers, 2632 fathers) living in the same household. We used 3 consecutive interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recalls to derive a 3-d average for away-from-home eating (nonconsumer, >0 and 1 and ≤2, or >2 h/d) and leisure-time sports (any or none). Random-effects logistic regression was used to examine the associations of lagged (average: 3 y) behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors (WHtR, BP, HbA1c, and CRP). Results: We detected intergenerational differences in associations between lagged behaviors and risk factors ( P- interaction parents' high WHtR (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.88) but positively associated with children's high WHtR (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.12). Lagged fruit and vegetable snack consumption was negatively related to parents' (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.97) and children's (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.00) high WHtR. Lagged screen time (>2 compared with ≤1 h/d) was positively associated with parents' (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.28) and children's high WHtR (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83). Conclusion: Parent-offspring differences in associations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiometabolic risk factors

  20. Conflicting research on the demography, ecology, and social behavior of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, John L.; Cully, Jack F.; Rayor, Linda S.; Fitzgerald, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) are rare, diurnal, colonial, burrowing, ground-dwelling squirrels. Studies of marked individuals living under natural conditions in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s showed that males are heavier than females throughout the year; that adult females living in the same territory are consistently close kin; and that females usually mate with the sexually mature male(s) living in the home territory. Research from 2007 through 2010 challenges all 3 of these findings. Here we discuss how different methods might have led to the discrepancies.

  1. Barriers to, and facilitators of, the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark

    2011-04-01

    This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extracted, and a conceptual framework was developed to assess factors affecting the success of interventions. Nine peer-reviewed journal articles were included. Barriers and facilitators were highlighted at organisational, environmental and personal levels. Effective provision of safety equipment involves ongoing support with installation and maintenance. Take up and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents' cultural expectations. A particular barrier was parents' inability to modify rented or shared accommodation. The review highlights ways in which health inequalities affect the take up and success of home safety interventions, and how health workers can use this knowledge to facilitate future interventions.

  2. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  3. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  4. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

    OpenAIRE

    De Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper is a commentary to the article entitled: "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research", by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015). Methods and Aims: In this manuscript, we commented on two aspects developed by the authors. Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent development of propositions of behavioral addiction is driven by an unwise application of an addiction model to excessive behavi...

  5. Science curiosity in learning environments: developing an attitudinal scale for research in schools, homes, museums, and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.

  6. Feeding behaviors during home-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition using corn-soy blends or lipid-based nutrient supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Ouedraogo, Albertine; Ritz, Christian; Draebel, Tania Aase; Ashorn, Per; Filteau, Suzanne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2017-10-01

    Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months. The study included a mixed methods approach using questionnaires, focus group discussions and home visits and interviews with a subsample of 20 caretakers of trial participants. We found that LNS, compared to CSB, were more likely to be mixed into other foods (OR [95% CI] 1.7 [1.3-2.2], p = <.001), served with a meal (OR [95% CI] 1.6 [1.1-2.3], p = <.018)or between meals (OR [95% CI] 1.5 [1.1-1.9], p = <.005), and fed using an encouraging feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 23% [6%:40%], p = .01). CSB were more likely to be fed using a forced feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 18% [3%:33%], p = .02) and were often observed to be served unprepared. The main differences in feeding behaviors between the two diet groups were linked to how and when supplements were served. Educational instructions should therefore be adapted according to the supplement provided; when providing CSB, efforts should be made to promote an encouraging feeding style, and emphasis should be made to ensure preparations are made according to recommendations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims This commentary is written in response to a paper by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Hereen (2015) published in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions. Methods It supports and extends the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015): that the study of behavioral addictions too often rests on atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches. This tends to lead to theories that lack specificity and a neglect of the underlying processes that might explain why repetitive problem behaviors occur. Results In this commentary I extend the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015) and argue that such research approaches might take us further away from conceptualizing psychiatric diagnoses that can be properly validated, which is already a problem in the field. Furthermore, I discuss whether the empirical support for conceptualizing repetitive problem behaviors as addictions might rest on research practices that have been methodologically biased to produce a result congruent with the proposal that substance addictions and behavioral addictions share similar traits. Conclusions I conclude by presenting a number of ways of going forward, chief of which is the proposal that we might wish to go beyond a priori assumptions of addiction in favor of identifying the essential problem manifestations for each new potential behavioral addiction. PMID:26551896

  9. Individual, social, and physical environment factors associated with electronic media use among children: sedentary behavior at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Rosenberg, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew W; Timperio, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Individual, home social and physical environment correlates of electronic media (EM) use among children were examined and pattern of differences on school and weekend days. Youth (n = 298) aged 11 to 12 years self-reported time spent using EM (TV, video/DVD, computer use, and electronic games) on a typical school and a weekend day, each dichotomized at the median to indicate heavy and light EM users. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Logistic regression examined correlates of EM use. In total, 87% of participants exceeded electronic media use recommendations of ≤ 2 hrs/day. Watching TV during breakfast (OR = 3.17) and after school (OR = 2.07), watching TV with mother (OR = 1.96), no rule(s) limiting time for computer game usage (OR = 2.30), having multiple (OR = 2.99) EM devices in the bedroom and BMI (OR = 1.15) were associated with higher odds of being heavy EM user on a school day. Boys (OR = 2.35) and participants who usually watched TV at midday (OR = 2.91) and late at night (OR = 2.04) had higher odds of being a heavy EM user on the weekend. Efforts to modify children's EM use should focus on a mix of intervention strategies that address patterns and reinforcement of TV viewing, household rules limiting screen time, and the presence of EM devices in the child's bedroom.

  10. Work-home interface in a cross-cultural context: a framework for future research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putnik, K.; Houkes, I.; Jansen, N.; Nijhuis, F.; Kant, IJ.

    2018-01-01

    With dual-income families on the increase, combining work and family obligations is a daily reality for many individuals. Unsatisfactory combinations of work and home duties can result in various unfavourable individual and organisational outcomes. Therefore, its proper understanding is essential in

  11. Looking for information a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...

  12. Fundamental study on dynamic behaviors of fuel debris bed. Research report in 2007 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tohru; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2009-05-01

    It is important to make a reasonable evaluation of coolability of debris bed with decay heat source in assessing post accident heat removal of a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. In general, the coolability of fuel debris depends on coolant convection, boiling and debris bed movement. In the present study, to understand fundamental characteristics of debris movement, self-leveling behavior caused by the coolant boiling was investigated experimentally using simulant materials. The present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina. A rough estimation model of self-leveling occurrence was proposed and compared with the experimental results. Its extrapolation to reactor accident conditions was also discussed. In addition, solid-liquid flow experiments, which are relevant to debris bed movement behaviors, were analyzed to verify the validity of multiphase flow models employed in a safety analysis code. In the present verification study, basic validity of the code was demonstrated by analyzing experiments of water-column sloshing with solid particles. (author)

  13. Broadening measures of success: results of a behavioral health translational research training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Williamson, Heather J; Eaves, Emery R; Levin, Bruce L; Burton, Donna L; Massey, Oliver T

    2017-07-24

    While some research training programs have considered the importance of mentoring in inspiring professionals to engage in translational research, most evaluations emphasize outcomes specific to academic productivity as primary measures of training program success. The impact of such training or mentoring programs on stakeholders and local community organizations engaged in translational research efforts has received little attention. The purpose of this evaluation is to explore outcomes other than traditional academic productivity in a translational research graduate certificate program designed to pair graduate students and behavioral health professionals in collaborative service-learning projects. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with scholars, community mentors, and academic mentors were conducted regarding a translational research program to identify programmatic impacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded by the research team to identify salient themes related to programmatic outcomes. Results are framed using the Translational Research Impact Scale which is organized into three overarching domains of potential impact: (1) research-related impacts, (2) translational impacts, and (3) societal impacts. This evaluation demonstrates the program's impact in all three domains of the TRIS evaluation framework. Graduate certificate participants (scholars) reported that gaining experience in applied behavioral health settings added useful skills and expertise to their present careers and increased their interest in pursuing translational research. Scholars also described benefits resulting from networks gained through participation in the program, including valuable ties between the university and community behavioral health organizations. This evaluation of the outcomes of a graduate certificate program providing training in translational research highlights the need for more community-oriented and practice-based measures of success. Encouraging practitioner

  14. The down syndrome behavioral phenotype: implications for practice and research in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability. The genetic causes of DS are associated with characteristic outcomes, such as relative strengths in visual-spatial skills and relative challenges in motor planning. This profile of outcomes, called the DS behavioral phenotype, may be a critical tool for intervention planning and research in this population. In this article, aspects of the DS behavioral phenotype potentially relevant to occupational therapy practice are reviewed. Implications and challenges for etiology-informed research and practice are discussed.

  15. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Philip M; MacKenzie, Scott B; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Podsakoff, Nathan P

    2003-10-01

    Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

  16. Food-Related Attitudes and Behaviors at Home, School, and Restaurants: Perspectives from Racially Diverse, Urban, Low-Income 9- to 13-Year-Old Children in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study explored low-income children's food-related attitudes and behaviors, and current weight status. Design: Two researchers conducted 14 audiotaped, 60-minute focus groups. Height and weight were measured. Setting: Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Participants: Ninety-two low-income children aged…

  17. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  18. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients : A quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    BACKGROUND: Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the short- and

  19. Home hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G

    2015-01-01

    We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use.......We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  1. Are researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, effective in improving researcher behavior? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmanian, Paul E; Coe, Antoinette B; Evans, Jessica A; Longo, Daniel R; Wright, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Academic institutions funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health were challenged recently by the Institute of Medicine to expand traditional mentoring of graduate and postdoctoral scholars to include training and continuing education for faculty, professional staff, and community partners. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, are effective in improving researcher behavior. PubMed, CINAHL, and Education Research Complete databases and select journals were searched for relevant articles published from January 2000 through October 2012. A total of 3,459 papers were identified, and 114 papers were retrieved for in-depth analysis. None included randomization. Twenty-two papers reported subjects with professional degrees, interventions, and outcomes. Interventions were meetings, outreach visits, colleague mediation, audit and feedback, and multifaceted interventions. Most studies reported multifaceted interventions (68.2%), often involving mentored learning experiences, and meetings. All studies reported a change in performance, including numbers of publications or grant applications. Nine studies reported changes in competence, including writing, presentation, or analytic skills, and performance in research practice (40.9%). Even as, the quality of evidence was weak to establish causal linkages between researcher development and improved researcher behavior, nearly all the projects (81.8%) received funding from governmental agencies, professional societies, or other organizations. Those who design researcher development activities and those who evaluate the programs are challenged to develop tools and conduct studies that measure the effectiveness, costs, and sustainability of researcher development in the CTSA Program.

  2. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  3. A Targeted Review of the Neurobiology and Genetics of Behavioral Addictions: An Emerging Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286

  4. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  5. ThinkHome Energy Efficiency in Future Smart Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinisch; Mario J. Kofler; Félix Iglesias; Wolfgang Kastner

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Smart homes have been viewed with increasing interest by both home owners and the research community in the past few years. One reason for this development is that the use of modern automation technology in the home or building promises considerable savings of energy, therefore, simultaneously reducing the operational costs of the building over its whole lifecycle. However, the full potential of smart homes still lies fallow, due to the complexity and diversity of the systems, badly ...

  6. Nursing Home Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data that is used by the Nursing Home Compare tool can be downloaded for public use. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...

  7. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the ...

  8. The next step in health behavior research: the need for ecological moderation analyses - an application to diet and physical activity at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave Hh; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2014-04-17

    The ecological perspective holds that human behavior depends on the interaction of different environmental factors and personal characteristics, but it lacks validation and operationalization. In the current paper, an ecological view was adopted to examine the interactive impact of several ecological systems on children's dietary intake and physical activity at childcare or similar facilities. The ecological view was operationalized into three types of interaction: 1) interaction between types of childcare environment (physical, social, political, economic); 2) interaction between micro-systems (the childcare and home environment) in meso-systems; and 3) interaction between childcare environment and child characteristics. The predictive value of each of these interactions was tested based on a systematic review of the literature. Several studies support the hypothesis that the influence of the childcare environment on children's physical activity and diet is moderated by child characteristics (age, gender), but interaction between environmental types as well as between micro-systems is hardly examined in the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. Qualitative studies and general child development research provide some valuable insights, but we advocate quantitative research adopting an ecological perspective on environmental influences. Empirical studies operationalizing a true ecological view on diet and physical activity are scarce. Theorizing and assessment of interaction is advocated to become common practice rather than an exception in behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, in order to move the field forward.

  9. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  10. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  11. Translational research in behavior analysis: historical traditions and imperative for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-05-01

    "Pure basic" science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. "Pure applied" work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both.

  12. Structured evaluation of rodent behavioral tests used in drug discovery research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eHånell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of rodent behavioral tests are currently being used to evaluate traits such as sensory-motor function, social interactions, anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, substance dependence and various forms of cognitive function. Most behavioral tests have an inherent complexity, and their use requires consideration of several aspects such as the source of motivation in the test, the interaction between experimenter and animal, sources of variability, the sensory modality required by the animal to solve the task as well as costs and required work effort. Of particular importance is a test’s validity because of its influence on the chance of successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings. High validity may, however, have to be balanced against practical constraints and there are no behavioral tests with optimal characteristics. The design and development of new behavioral tests is therefore an ongoing effort and there are now well over one hundred tests described in the contemporary literature. Some of them are well established following extensive use, while others are novel and still unproven. The task of choosing a behavioral test for a particular project may therefore be daunting and the aim of the present review is to provide a structured way to evaluate rodent behavioral tests aimed at drug discovery research.

  13. Lacking quality in research: Is behavioral neuroscience affected more than other areas of biomedical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Anton; Steckler, Thomas

    2018-04-15

    There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields. Within neuroscience, behavioral studies are the most blamed for being poorly designed, underpowered and mis-reported and there are indeed several factors that may be rather unique for behavioral research, such as a multitude of environmental conditions that are difficult to control and that are often not reported, ethical concerns about in vivo research and the pressure to reduce animal numbers, contributing to under-powered studies, and the complexity of study design and analysis, creating too much room for post hoc data massaging and selective reporting. Also, the blood-brain barrier as a frequently neglected complicating factor has to be considered in CNS research. The importance of these factors is increasingly recognized and urgent efforts are needed to demonstrate that behavioral methods of preclinical neuroscience research deliver results that can be as robust as with the non-behavioral methods Until this goal is achieved, behavioral neuroscience and neuroscience in general may be losing young talent, CNS drug discovery may lack the needed investment and this field may indeed be amongst the most affected by the current preclinical data quality crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  15. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises.

  16. New Developments in Developmental Research on Social Information Processing and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2010-01-01

    The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…

  17. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  18. Physical Activity Research in Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review Using the Behavioral Epidemiological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, E. Andrew; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; Hauck, Janet L.

    2018-01-01

    Through a scoping review, the current state of physical activity research in people with intellectual disability was examined. A search of publications between 2000 and 2014 retrieved 362 articles that met inclusion criteria. Eligible studies were coded according to the Behavioral Epidemiological Framework. Of the articles identified, 48% examined…

  19. Nanotechnology and Ethics: The Role of Regulation Versus Self-Commitment in Shaping Researchers' Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Harms, Rainer; Hatak, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus

  20. Teens Will Be Teens: The Latest Brain Research Has a Lot to Say about Adolescent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jami

    2005-01-01

    Most adults are challenged when it comes to understanding teens' motives. "What were they thinking of?" is an all-too-common response. Without a doubt, no developmental period in life is more confounding and baffling than adolescence. Until recently, erratic teen behavior was blamed on raging hormones, but scientific research in the last decade…