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Sample records for behavioral patterns correlate

  1. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  2. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  3. Learning from correlated patterns by simple perceptrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance.

  4. Learning from correlated patterns by simple perceptrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinzato, Takashi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Learning behavior of simple perceptrons is analyzed for a teacher-student scenario in which output labels are provided by a teacher network for a set of possibly correlated input patterns, and such that the teacher and student networks are of the same type. Our main concern is the effect of statistical correlations among the input patterns on learning performance. For this purpose, we extend to the teacher-student scenario a methodology for analyzing randomly labeled patterns recently developed in Shinzato and Kabashima 2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 324013. This methodology is used for analyzing situations in which orthogonality of the input patterns is enhanced in order to optimize the learning performance

  5. Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ryan, Jennifer L; Ellison, James A; Isong, Umo; Miller, Arthur J; Walsh, Margaret M

    2007-10-11

    To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9-2.8), a more positive attitude score (4 points) from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5-1.8), and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors. Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.

  6. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  7. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis. (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA ...

  8. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B K; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  9. Type A Behavior Pattern and Mood in a Stressful Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Behavior Pattern Adjective Check List .22 .26 - (4) Behavior Pattern Activity Scale .09 -.02 .53* ( 5 ) JAS AB .10 .33* .55" .22 - (6) JAS Speed and... 5 - hydroxyindole in men exhibiting a particular behavior pattern (A) associated with high incidence of clinical coronary artery disease. Journal of...variability, and the intraindividual correlation of mood with work load. TABP, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey and two other instruments, was

  10. Statistically enhanced promiscuity of structurally correlated patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatsky, D. B.; Shakhnovich, E. I.

    2008-02-01

    We predict that patterns with correlated surface density of atoms have statistically higher promiscuity (ability to bind stronger to an arbitrary pattern) as compared with noncorrelated patterns with the same average surface density. We suggest that this constitutes a generic design principle for highly connected proteins (hubs) in protein interaction networks. We develop an analytical theory for this effect. We show that our key predictions are generic and independent, qualitatively, on the specific form of the interatomic interaction potential, provided it has a finite range.

  11. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  12. Semantic verbal fluency pattern, dementia rating scores and adaptive behavior correlate with plasma Aβ42 concentrations in Down syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDel Hoyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is an intellectual disability disorder in which language and, specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong Alzheimer’s disease predictor being the Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (SVFT a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP and the biological amyloidosis markers in Down syndrome. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with Down syndrome to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II, and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42, as a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In Down syndrome, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II. The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with Down syndrome.

  13. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS.

  14. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... which indicates the presence of the pattern on the test se- quence starting from the base position i=223. It is worthy to be mentioned that the peak height decreases with the in- crease of window size. Basically, window size of unity makes one-to-one nucleotide comparison for learning the correlated function.

  15. Factors for and against establishing and working in private practice correlated with work-related behavior and experience patterns of Ferman physicians in Schleswig-Holstein: A 2-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Voltmer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify factors in favor of or against establishing and working in private practice, to determine the quality of life and work-related behavior and experience patterns of German physicians working in private practice, and to analyze the correlation of those factors. Material and Methods: A representative sample of physicians in private practice in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was surveyed according to a 2-year longitudinal design (T1 – 2008, N = 549 and T2 – 2010, N = 414. The study included 22 items regarding the attractiveness of establishing and working in private practice, and the questionnaires: the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12, and Work-related Behavior and Experience Pattern (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster – AVEM. Results: Job satisfaction among those private practitioners decreased over time but their willingness to choose the profession once again remained unchanged. Patient care and the continuity of physician-patient relationship encouraged establishing and working in private practice; state regulation, financial risk, and administrative effort weighed against it. At both T1 and T2, physicians scored significantly lower for mental health than general population. About 20% of physicians showed a healthy behavior and experience pattern but 40% of them showed the pattern of reduced working motivation. About 20% of participants were at elevated risk for overexertion and for burnout. Physical and mental health as well as the total distribution of patterns did not change significantly during the 2-year observation period. Physicians at higher burnout risk rated tasks related to patient care considerably less positively than those with healthy pattern. Conclusions: In order to improve job satisfaction and quality of life, and to make private practice more attractive, those German physicians require a improved legislation, b educational programs that promote the attractiveness of private practice

  16. Dual template optical correlator for pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Freddie Y. H.; Somekh, Michael G.; Valera, M. S.; Crowe, John A.

    1992-08-01

    A new coherent optical correlator system has been developed for intended application to breast cancer screening. Such a system must have an inherent capability to deal with patterns that have high degrees of similarity between the desired and rejected classes, due to the overall similarity between benign and malignant cells. Consequently, effort has been directed toward achieving this goal. This paper presents an optical configuration that contains two coherent optical processors (COPs) working in parallel and utilizes phase-stepping detection at the output to multiply the two correlation signals. It is shown how this scheme offers an excellent compromise between good discrimination and immunity from noise added in the input plane

  17. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  18. Modeling Architectural Patterns' Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Morrison, R; Balasubramaniam, D; Falkner, K

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns' behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  19. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Palazzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  20. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  1. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  2. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  3. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study. ... This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method: Data on substance use and other ...

  6. Electronic behavior of highly correlated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, A.

    1988-10-01

    This thesis addresses the question of the strongly interacting many-body problem: that is, systems where the interparticle correlations are so strong as to defy perturbative approaches. These subtle correlations occur in narrow band materials, such as the lanthanides and actinides, wherein the f-electrons are so localized that a variety of new phenomena, including intermediate-valence and heavy-fermionic behavior, may occur. As well, one has the alloying problem, where local interactions are paramount in determining the overall behavior. The technique employed in dealing with these systems is the Small Cluster method, wherein the full many-body Hamiltonian for a small grouping of atoms, coupled with periodic boundary conditions, is solved exactly. This is tantamount to solving a bulk crystal at the high points of symmetry in the Brillouin Zone. The mathematical overhead is further reduced by employing the full space group and spin symmetries. By its very nature, the Small Cluster method is well able to handle short-range interactions, as well as the combinatorial complexity of the many-body problem, on an equal footing. The nature of long-range order and phase transition behavior cannot be incorporated, but sometimes clues as to their origin can be discerned. The calculations presented include: a two-band Anderson model for an intermediate-valence system, wherein photoemission and fluctuation behavior is examined; a single-band Hubbard model for a ternary alloy system, such as copper-silver-gold; and a Hubbard model for a heavy- fermion system, wherein Fermi surface, transport, magnetic and superconducting properties are discussed. 148 refs., 31 figs., 24 tabs

  7. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  8. Patterns of behavior in an online community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros; Rybski, Diego; Liljeros, Fredrik; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernan

    2009-03-01

    Human behavior can be seen as the expression of inherent motives. Despite the diverse range of these motives, social theorists have long identified a small number of distinct underlying mechanisms, where, consciously or unconsciously, every individual tries to exploit a different aspect of social interactions and/or optimize the efficiency of certain procedures for the benefit of the society or for personal gain. Here we show that users in an online community follow certain behavioral patterns and the choice of their favorite members is far from a random process. More importantly, these patterns are systematically modified with time as a member becomes more involved in such a community. We are able to identify a crossover in the average behavior of the members when their favorites list exceeds roughly 10 favorites. Additionally, this process allows us to identify individuals with a markedly different behavior than the average person. This study can help us understand the process of establishing friendships and the motives behind this process.

  9. Photonic correlator pattern recognition: Application to autonomous docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolander, Gary W.

    1991-01-01

    Optical correlators for real-time automatic pattern recognition applications have recently become feasible due to advances in high speed devices and filter formulation concepts. The devices are discussed in the context of their use in autonomous docking.

  10. Cognitive, Emotional, Temperament, and Personality Trait Correlates of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.

  11. The crazy-paving pattern: a radiological-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Walter; Meersschaert, Joke; Coolen, Johan; Verbeken, Eric; Verschakelen, Johny A

    2011-04-01

    The crazy-paving pattern is a linear pattern superimposed on a background of ground-glass opacity, resembling irregularly shaped paving stones. The crazy-paving pattern is initially described as the pathognomonic sign of alveolar proteinosis. Nowadays this pattern is a common finding on high-resolution CT imaging, and can be seen in a number of acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate different diseases that cause this crazy-paving pattern and to correlate the radiological findings from computed tomography with the histopathological findings.

  12. A Comparison of Alcohol Use and Correlates of Drinking Patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol use is an important part of the health profile of older adults, and little is known about the prevalence and correlates of drinking among this population in Ghana and South Africa. This study aimed to describe and compare the prevalence and correlates of drinking patterns among adults aged 50 and above in Ghana ...

  13. Achromatic optical correlator for white light pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chen, Ming; Cai, Luzhong

    1987-01-01

    An achromatic optical correlator using spatially multiplexed achromatic matched spatial filters (MSFs) for white light optical pattern recognition is presented. The MSF array is synthesizd using a monochromatic laser and its achromaticity is achieved by adjusting the scale and spatial carrier frequency of each MSF to accommodate the wavelength variations in white light correlation detections. Systems analysis and several experimental results showing the correlation peak intensity using white-light illumination are presented.

  14. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  15. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  16. Obesity in preschoolers: behavioral correlates and directions for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Clifford, Lisa M; Stark, Lori J

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 14% of American preschoolers (ages 2-5) are obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and gender), yet this group has received little attention in the obesity intervention literature. This review examines what is known about behavioral correlates of obesity in preschoolers and the developmental context for lifestyle modification in this age group. Information was used to critically evaluate existing weight management prevention and intervention programs for preschoolers and formulate suggestions for future intervention research development. A systematic search of the medical and psychological/behavioral literatures was conducted with no date restrictions, using PubMed, PsycInfo, and MEDLINE electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant manuscripts. Evidence suggests several modifiable behaviors, such as sugar sweetened beverage intake, television use, and inadequate sleep, may differentiate obese and healthy weight preschoolers. Developmental barriers, such as food neophobia, food preferences, and tantrums challenge caregiver efforts to modify preschoolers' diet and activity and parental feeding approaches, and family routines appear related to the negative eating and activity patterns observed in obese preschoolers. Prevention programs yield modest success in slowing weight gain, but their effect on already obese preschoolers is unclear. Multi-component, family-based, behavioral interventions show initial promise in positive weight management for already obese preschoolers. Given that obesity intervention research for preschoolers is in its infancy, and the multitude of modifiable behavioral correlates for obesity in this age group, we discuss the use of an innovative and efficient research paradigm (Multiphase Optimization Strategy; MOST) to develop an optimized intervention that includes only treatment components that are found to empirically reduce obesity in preschoolers.

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN FAMILY COMMUNICATION PATTERNS AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Thoyibah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents who are in transition period have high risk behavior of juvenile delinquency. Communication between parents and adolescents effectively and openly could help adolescents to avoid delinquency behavior. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between family communication patterns and juvenile delinquency in Junior High School. Methods: This research employed a cross-sectional design with correlation description approach. There were 243 students selected using simple random sampling from the 7th and 8th grade students of Junior High School. A questionnaire of juvenile delinquency and family communication pattern were used in this study. Data were analyzed using Chi Square test. Result: The research showed that the majority juvenile delinquency category was low (65% and the majority of communication pattern was in functional category (73.3%. There was a significant relationship between family communication pattern and juvenile delinquency (p<0.05. Conclusion: Communication pattern within family have significant association with juvenile delinquency.

  18. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  19. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  20. A method to transfer speckle patterns for digital image correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenning; He, Xiaoyuan; Quan, Chenggen; Zhu, Feipeng

    2015-01-01

    A simple and repeatable speckle creation method based on water transfer printing (WTP) is proposed to reduce artificial measurement error for digital image correlation (DIC). This technique requires water, brush, and a piece of transfer paper that is made of prefabricated decal paper, a protected sheet, and printed speckle patterns. The speckle patterns are generated and optimized via computer simulations, and then printed on the decal paper. During the experiments, operators can moisten the basement with water and the brush, so that digital patterns can be simply transferred to the carriers’ surfaces. Tensile experiments with an extended three-dimensional (3D) DIC system are performed to test and verify the validity of WTP patterns. It is shown that by comparing with a strain gage, the strain error is less than 50με in a uniform tensile test. From five carbon steel tensile experiments, Lüders bands in both WTP patterns and spray paint patterns are demonstrated to propagate symmetrically. In the necking part where the strain is up to 66%, WTP patterns are proved to adhere to the specimens well. Hence, WTP patterns are capable of maintaining coherence and adherence to the specimen surface. The transfer paper, working as the role of strain gage in the electrometric method, will contribute to speckle creation. (paper)

  1. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  2. Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with nonlinear correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, Saúl; Kober, Vitaly

    2008-08-01

    Classical correlation-based methods for pattern recognition are very sensitive to geometrical distortions of objects to be recognized. Besides, most captured images are corrupted by noise. In this work we use novel nonlinear composite filters for distortion-invariant pattern recognition. The filters are designed with an iterative algorithm to reject a background noise and to achieve a desired discrimination capability. The recognition performance of the proposed filters is compared with that of linear composite filters in terms of noise robustness and discrimination capability. Computer simulation results are provided and discussed.

  3. Physician Behaviors that Correlate with Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Loretto M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of 15 internal medicine residents was observed through a one-way mirror and ratings by the patients of satisfaction with their physicians were obtained. The teaching of caring skills and which physician caring skills affect the patients' satisfaction are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Programmatic correlates of maternal healthcare seeking behaviors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    be biased due to variations in some other factors between the exposure groups that influence maternal health seeking behaviors (for example, education, access to services, urbanization, among others). Accordingly, logistics regression models were implemented afterwards to get the unbiased (adjusted) program effects.

  5. FPGA design of correlation-based pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Maher; Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-05-01

    Optical/Digital pattern recognition and tracking based on optical/digital correlation are a well-known techniques to detect, identify and localize a target object in a scene. Despite the limited number of treatments required by the correlation scheme, computational time and resources are relatively high. The most computational intensive treatment required by the correlation is the transformation from spatial to spectral domain and then from spectral to spatial domain. Furthermore, these transformations are used on optical/digital encryption schemes like the double random phase encryption (DRPE). In this paper, we present a VLSI architecture for the correlation scheme based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT). One interesting feature of the proposed scheme is its ability to stream image processing in order to perform correlation for video sequences. A trade-off between the hardware consumption and the robustness of the correlation can be made in order to understand the limitations of the correlation implementation in reconfigurable and portable platforms. Experimental results obtained from HDL simulations and FPGA prototype have demonstrated the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  6. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John; Prosser, Diann; Xiong, Yan; Newman, Scott; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Spragens, Kyle; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Yan, Baoping

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  7. Vector neural net identifying many strongly distorted and correlated patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovsky, Boris V.; Mikaelian, Andrei L.; Fonarev, Anatoly B.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest an effective and simple algorithm providing a polynomial storage capacity of a network of the form M ~ N2s+1, where N is the dimension of the stored binary patterns. In this problem the value of the free parameter s is restricted by the inequalities N >> slnN >= 1. The algorithm allows us to identify a large number of highly distorted similar patterns. The negative influence of correlations of the patterns is suppressed by choosing a sufficiently large value of the parameter s. We show the efficiency of the algorithm by the example of a perceptron identifier, but it also can be used to increase the storage capacity of full connected systems of associative memory.

  8. Behavioral and EEG Correlates of Reduced Executive Functioning in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Espano, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to orphanage care or other deprived conditions represent a contributing risk factor in the development of ADHD behaviors. Upon leaving these contexts, the resting EEG patterns found in post-institutionalized (PI) children resemble the EEG profile of children with behavior problems, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Specifically, this atypical pattern consists of increased theta power relative to other power spectra and decreased alpha power. This study examined if ...

  9. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  10. Temporal patterns analysis of rat behavior in hole-board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Magnusson, Magnus; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2010-03-17

    The aim of present research was to analyze the temporal structure of rodent's anxiety-related behavior in hole-board apparatus (HB). Fifteen male Wistar rats were tested for 10 min. Video files, collected for each subject, were coded by means of a software coder and event log files generated for each subject. To assess temporal relationships among behavioral events, log files were processed by means of a t-pattern analysis. 14 two-element t-patterns, four t-patterns encompassing 3 events and 2 t-patterns encompassing 4 and 5 events respectively were revealed. It was demonstrated that rat behavior in HB was mainly structured on the basis of the temporal patterning among exploratory events; these ones were the most structured t-patterns detected and appeared mainly during the first 5 min of exploration, while grooming t-patterns were present prevalently after the fifth minute. Specific t-pattern parameters, such as overall occurrences and mean duration of each given t-pattern in each subject, were also studied. Present research: (a) reports for the first time that some behavioral events occur sequentially and with significant constraints on the interval lengths separating them; (b) presents the temporal flows of some behavioral elements through multimodal behavioral vectors; (c) could also be used to improve HB test reliability and its ability to detect even small induced behavioral changes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  12. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil

    1999-01-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings

  13. Spatio-temporal correlation of vegetation and temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, R.; D'Emilio, M.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2010-05-01

    Temperature is one of the variables largely influencing vegetation species distributions (biogeographical regions) and plant development (phenological cycle). Anomalies in temperature regional patterns and in microclimate conditions induce modifications in vegetation cover phenology; in particular in European regions, the responsiveness of vegetation to temperature increase is greater in warmer Mediterranean countries. In order to assess the spatial arrangement and the temporal variability of vegetation and temperature patterns in a typical Mediterranean environment, we investigated monthly NDVI-AVHRR and temperature time series over Southern Italy, core of Mediterranean Basin. Temperature data, obtained from 35 meteoclimatic stations, were rasterized by adopting a combined deterministic-stochastic procedure we suitably implemented for the investigated region in order to obtain spatial data comparable with NDVI maps. For the period 1996-1998, monthly MVC data were clusterized on annual basis by means of a classification procedure to aggregate areas with similar phenological cycles. The same procedure was adopted to jointly evaluate temperature and vegetation profiles and identify areas having similar phenological and temperature patterns. The comparison of the identified clusters showed that the classification obtained with and without temperature profiles are very similar enhancing the strong role of this variable in vegetation development. Some exceptions in the cluster arrangement are due to local anomalies in vegetation distribution, such as forest fires. In order to spatially analyze such a dependence, we also elaborated a time correlation map for each year and we found that the correlation patterns are persistent on the year basis and generally follow the land cover distributions. The correlation values are very high and positive for the forested mountainous areas (R>0.8), whereas they are negative for plan coastal areas (Rspring and summer time (greening

  14. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES. The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education, physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.

  15. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education), physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends) on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients' ethnocultural backgrounds.

  16. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n?=?234) women and non-pregnant (n?=?1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ??4?days of accelerometer wear of ??10?h/day. A count threshold of

  17. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  18. Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

  19. Sleep Patterns and Mental Health Correlates in US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Paksarian, Diana; Lamers, Femke; Hickie, Ian B; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2017-03-01

    To investigate systematically the associations of sleep patterns with a range of mental disorders and other outcomes among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Using the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 10 123 US adolescents 13-18 years of age, we assessed associations between adolescent-reported sleep patterns (tertiles of weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, weekend bedtime delay, and weekend oversleep) and past-year mental disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, smoking, injury, suicidality, and perceived mental and physical health, assessed via direct diagnostic interview. The average weeknight bedtime was at 22:37 and sleep duration was 7.72 hours. Average weekend bedtime delay was 1.81 hours and average weekend oversleep was 1.17 hours. Later weeknight bedtime, shorter weeknight sleep duration, greater weekend bedtime delay, and both short and long periods of weekend oversleep were associated with increased odds of mood, anxiety, substance use, and behavioral disorders, as well as suicidality, tobacco smoking, and poor perceived mental and physical health. ORs ranged from 1.27 to 2.15. The only outcomes not associated with any sleep patterns were past-year injury and eating disorder. Suboptimal sleep patterns were associated with an array of mental disorders and other health-related outcomes among adolescents. Abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers of prodromal or untreated mental disorders among adolescents, and may provide opportunities for prevention and intervention in mental disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest. PMID:25566002

  1. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek eJaber-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0. However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1. The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder lose(s this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially towards the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (unethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  2. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  3. Symmetry pattern transition in cellular automata with complex behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Juan R.; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    A transition from asymmetric to symmetric patterns in time-dependent extended systems is described. It is shown that one dimensional cellular automata, started from fully random initial conditions, can be forced to evolve into complex symmetrical patterns by stochastically coupling a proportion p of pairs of sites located at equal distance from the center of the lattice. A nontrivial critical value of p must be surpassed in order to obtain symmetrical patterns during the evolution. This strategy is able to classify the cellular automata rules - with complex behavior - between those that support time-dependent symmetric patterns and those which do not support such kind of patterns

  4. A Signal Detection Theory Analysis of Behavioral Pattern Separation Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiotile, Rita E.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral pattern separation (BPS) paradigms ask participants to discriminate previously encoded (old) stimuli from highly similar (lure) and categorically distinct (novel) stimuli. The lure-old discrimination, thought to uniquely reflect pattern separation in the hippocampal formation, is typically pitted against the traditional novel-old…

  5. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  6. Neural correlates of pre-attentive processing of pattern deviance in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Herdener, Marcus; Esposito, Fabrizio; Hilti, Caroline C; Klarhöfer, Markus; di Salle, Francesco; Wetzel, Stephan; Scheffler, Klaus; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2009-11-01

    Pre-attentive registration of aberrations in predictable sound patterns is attributed to the temporal cortex. However, electrophysiology suggests that frontal areas become more important when deviance complexity increases. To play an instrument in an ensemble, professional musicians have to rely on the ability to detect even slight deviances from expected musical patterns and therefore have highly trained aural skills. Here, we aimed to identify the neural correlates of experience-driven plasticity related to the processing of complex sound features. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with an event-related oddball paradigm and compared brain activity in professional musicians and non-musicians during pre-attentive processing of melodic contour variations. The melodic pattern consisted of a sequence of five tones each lasting 50 ms interrupted by silent interstimulus intervals of 50 ms. Compared to non-musicians, the professional musicians showed enhanced activity in the left middle and superior temporal gyri, the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to pattern deviation. This differential brain activity pattern was correlated with behaviorally tested musical aptitude. Our results thus support an experience-related role of the left temporal cortex in fast melodic contour processing and suggest involvement of the prefrontal cortex.

  7. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  8. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake of university students. Factor analysis of food items and groups, cluster analysis of dietary patterns, and multivariate regressions were carried out. Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely a vegetarian/low calorie dietary pattern (characterized mainly by consumption of plant-based food while avoiding "western" food, composite dishes, and bread); a mixed dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of plant-based food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food); and finally, a westernized dietary pattern (characterized by high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes). We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa = 1.69; p diet (ORa = 1.51; p vegetarian/low calorie diets (p vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed to address the dietary intakes and lifestyle behaviors of young adults in Lebanon to help prevent obesity and other associated comorbidities.

  9. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  10. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  11. Revisiting Kurt Lewin: how to gain insight into environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; van Lenthe, Frank J; Kremers, Stef P J

    2006-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are important determinants of population health. Prevention of weight gain is dependent on the successful balancing of eating and physical activity behaviors. Planned promotion of healthful behavior requires insights into important and changeable determinants and correlates of behavior change. The modest effects of health education have induced a shift in focus from personal to environmental correlates of eating and physical activity behaviors. Six systematic reviews were conducted in 2005 of observational studies of environmental correlates and environmental interventions for weight-related eating behaviors and physical activity for children, adolescents, and adults. The reviews of 297 observational studies showed that few investigations of environmental associations have been replicated, and that most studies used weak research designs and nonvalidated self-report measures, were restricted to micro-environmental factors, and failed to apply multilevel analyses. There is, therefore, very little evidence for an association between environmental factors and weight-related behaviors. However, the reviews of 112 intervention studies indicated much stronger evidence for positive effects of micro-physical and sociocultural environmental changes on eating and physical activity behaviors. Inspired by quotes from Kurt Lewin, we argue that before large-scale environmental change interventions are launched, better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of environmental factors, including macrolevel factors, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed. Such research should (1) develop better measures of environmental exposure, (2) attempt to integrate personal and environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors, (3) take a solution-oriented, rather then a problem-oriented approach, and (4) identify access points for inducing behavior change instead of finding explanations for existing behavioral patterns.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  13. Behavior patterns and communication in feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, J D; McCullough, D R

    1976-08-01

    The social behavior of feral horses was studied in the western United States. Stable harem groups with a dominant stallion and bachelor hermaphrodite hermaphrodite groups occupied overlapping home ranges. Groups spacing, but not territoriality, was expressed. Harem group, stability resulted from strong dominance by dominant stallions, and fidelity of group members. Eliminations of group members were usually marked by urine of the dominant stallion. Hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite aggression involved spacing between harems and dominance in bachelor groups. Marking with feces was important in hermaphrodite-hermaphrodite interactions. Foaling occurred in May and early June, following the post-partum estrous. All breeding was done by harem stallions. Young were commonly nursed through yearling age. These horses showed social organizations similar to other feral horses and plains zebras.

  14. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Horton, Nicholas J; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Crosby, Ross D; Micali, Nadia; Eddy, Kamryn T; Field, Alison E

    2016-08-01

    Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999 to 2007 (spanning ages 13-26 years) provided repeated measures data on muscularity and leanness concerns, eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products), and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms). Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13 to 15, 16 to 18, 19 to 22, and 23 to 26 years identified 1 large Asymptomatic class and 4 symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%-6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%-2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%-5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%-1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes. Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Behavior Pattern and Related Factors in Women with Breast Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Sanaz; Dashti, Forouzandeh

    2015-12-18

    Despite the most of treatment team efforts focused on the maintaining patient's life, attention to sexual issues don't be considered. This stud is designed to determine the sexual behavior pattern and related factors in women with breast cancer. This descriptive- correlation study was performed on 90 women that diagnosed with breast Cancer that was admitted to sayed-al- shohada hospital of Isfahan in 2010. Sampling method was available (non- random sampling) and Sexual Behavior Pattern determined with 3 domains: sexual identity, sexual role and sexual function. Data collection tools, was a questionnaire that made by the researcher and was used after determining the validity and reliability. For data analysis, was used of Descriptive- analytic statistics, frequency and ANOVA and Pearson correlation analytical tests in the SPSS statistical software (version 16). Cases had 60% of Desirable sexual identity, 50% of Desirable sexual role, 40% Desirable sexual function and were be able to play 47.61% Desirable sexual behavior. Participants that their husbands had Elementary education had more desirable sexual behavior (pSexual behavior than of were working and retired (psexual behavior (psexual behavior pattern that is one of the important aspects of health, Provide valuable information to nurses and medical team and will be enhance the quality of provided services. Adopt appropriate strategies and interventions to promote sexual health, breast cancer is recommended.

  16. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  17. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2010-07-12

    Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446) filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk) were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to) an accident. Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  18. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  19. Tourist Behavior Pattern Mining Model Based on Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized travel experience and service of tourist has been a hot topic research in the tourism service supply chain. In this paper, we take the context into consideration and propose an analyzed method to the tourist based on the context: firstly, we analyze the context which influences the tourist behavior patterns, select the main context factors, and construct the tourist behavior pattern model based on it; then, we calculate the interest degree of the tourist behavior pattern and mine out the rules with high interest degree with the association rule algorithm; we can make some recommendations to the tourist with better personalized travelling experience and services. At last, we make an experiment to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method.

  20. Neuronal long-range temporal correlations and avalanche dynamics are correlated with behavioral scaling laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palva, M.J.; Zhigalov, A.; Hirvonen, J.; Korhonen, O.; Palva, S.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form longrange temporal correlations (LRTCs). In

  1. All in the family: correlations between parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Crichlow, Renee; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether and how parents' and adolescent siblings' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated. Results will inform which family members may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Parents (n = 58; 91% females; mean age = 41.7 years) and adolescent siblings (sibling #1 n = 58, 50% girls, mean age = 14.3 years; sibling #2 n = 58, 64% girls, mean age = 14.8 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Some weight-related behaviors between adolescent siblings were significantly positively correlated (i.e., fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, sedentary patterns, p obesity prevention interventions or in recommendations healthcare providers give to adolescents regarding their weight and weight-related behaviors. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Sexual behavior and its correlates after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Schöttle, Daniel; Krueger, Richard; Briken, Peer

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of permanent disability in young adults and is frequently accompanied by changes in sexual behaviors. Satisfying sexuality is an important factor for overall quality of life in people with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to review the studies evaluating the assessment, correlates and management of sexuality following TBI. The Brain Injury Questionnaire of Sexuality is the first validated questionnaire specifically developed for adults with TBI. A considerable amount of individuals with TBI show inappropriate sexual behaviors and sexual dysfunctions. Whereas inappropriate sexual behaviors are related to younger age, less social participation and more severe injuries, sexual dysfunctions show an association with higher fatigue, higher depression scores, less self-esteem and female sex. Healthcare professionals have suggested that because of discomfort at the individual or institutional level, sexual problems are often not sufficiently addressed and have suggested that a specialist should treat sexual problems. Although some important correlates of sexual problems could be identified, methodological differences across studies limit their comparability. Furthermore, there is an absence of evidence-based treatment strategies for addressing sexual problems. Therapeutic efforts should take into account the identified correlates of sexual problems following TBI.

  3. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  4. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  5. Learning Driving Behavior by Timed Syntactic Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values

  6. Distinctive Pattern of Behavioral Functioning in Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jane A.; Feldman, Maurice A.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 27 participants with Angelman syndrome to clinical and community participants (n=948) with developmental disabilities of mixed etiology to determine whether Angelman syndrome is associated with a distinctive patterns of behavioral functioning. Those with Angelman syndrome had significantly lower scores on measures of irritability…

  7. The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Michelle; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; van der Meulen, Mara; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-04-01

    Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Apathy in Frontotemporal Dementia: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Eslinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of goal-directed motivational change in the form of apathy in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, particularly those with behavioral variant social and executive deficits (bvFTD. Standardized behavioral inventory was employed to survey and compare apathy ratings from patients and caregivers. In cases of bvFTD, apathy ratings were further related to measures of social cognition, executive function, and atrophy on brain MRI. Results indicated that caregivers rated bvFTD patients as having significantly elevated apathy scores though patient self-ratings were normal. Caregiver and self-ratings of FTD samples with progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia did not differ from healthy controls and their informants. In the bvFTD sample, caregiver apathy scores were not correlated with general cognitive screening or depression scores, but were significantly correlated with social cognition and executive function measures. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that apathy ratings in bvFTD were related to prominent atrophy in the right caudate (including the ventral striatum, the right temporo-parietal junction, right posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri, and left frontal operculum- anterior insula region. Findings suggest that bvFTD is associated with a significant breakdown in goal-directed motivated behavior involving disruption of cortical-basal ganglia circuits that is also related to social and executive function deficits.

  9. The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Achterberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7–10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT. Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant’s profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N = 19, N = 28 and N = 27 and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children.

  10. Children′s behavior pattern and behavior management techniques used in a structured postgraduate dental program

    OpenAIRE

    Sharath A; Rekka P; Muthu M; Prabhu V; Sivakumar N

    2009-01-01

    Background : Anxiety and fear remain the primary emotion of a child entering a dental office. Successful pediatric dentistry depends not only on the dentist′s technical skills, but also on his ability to acquire and maintain a child′s cooperation. Methods: A retrospective study was done using the case records of 247 children, to evaluate their behavior patterns, based on the Wright′s modification of Frankl′s behavior rating scale. Various behavior management tech...

  11. Application of activity sensors for estimating behavioral patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Cain, James W.; Cox, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars in habitat selection studies provides large numbers of precise location data points with reduced field effort. However, inclusion of activity sensors in many GPS collars also grants the potential to remotely estimate behavioral state. Thus, only using GPS collars to collect location data belies their full capabilities. Coupling behavioral state with location data would allow researchers and managers to refine habitat selection models by using diel behavioral state changes to partition fine-scale temporal shifts in habitat selection. We tested the capability of relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors to estimate behavior throughout diel periods using free-ranging female elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, USA, 2013–2014. Collars recorded cumulative number of movements (hits) per 15-min recording period immediately preceding GPS fixes at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hr. We measured diel behavioral patterns of focal elk, categorizing active (i.e., foraging, traveling, vigilant, grooming) and inactive (i.e., resting) states. Active behaviors (foraging, traveling) produced more average hits (0.87 ± 0.69 hits/min, 4.0 ± 2.2 hits/min, respectively; 95% CI) and inactive (resting) behavior fewer hits (−1.1 ± 0.61 95% CI). We differentiated active and inactive behavioral states with a bootstrapped threshold of 5.9 ± 3.9 hits/15-min recording period. Mean cumulative activity-sensor hits corresponded with observed diel behavioral patterns: hits increased during crepuscular (0600, 1800 hr) observations when elk were most active (0000–0600 hr: d = 0.19; 1200–1800 hr: d = 0.64) and decreased during midday and night (0000 hr, 1200 hr) when elk were least active (1800–0000 hr: d = −0.39; 0600–1200 hr: d = −0.43). Even using relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors, managers can

  12. Programmable charge-coupled device /CCD/ correlator for pattern classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D. J.; Eversole, W. L.; Hewes, C. R.; Benz, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The potential use of charge coupled device (CCD) programmable digital/analog correlators for multispectral data classification is discussed. CCD digital/analog correlator technology and the experimental evaluation of a 32-stage 4-bit test device are presented. The design of an IC for use in a multispectral classification system for 16 sensors and 8 bit accuracy is reviewed.

  13. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  14. The Correlation of Electrical Fields and Detonator Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Zakary; Francois, Elizabeth; Gibson, John; Lodes, Rylie; Nakamoto, Teagan; Parrack, Kristina; Smith, Dalton; Tasker, Douglas; Trujillo, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that behavior of the shock is affected by the microstructure of the explosive. Diagnostics are being developed to utilize Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges for shock wave detection and observing transient electric fields generated by shocked Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), which is a piezoelectric explosive. This study has the goal of determining whether PVDF gauges can detect the electrical signature generated by the shock compression of PETN crystals and correlate it with the explosive material microstructure and shock to detonation transition (SDT) process in slapper detonators. Slapper detonators function by inputting current to an exploding foil initiator. The metal foil converts to a plasma causing a thin polymer layer to separate at high velocity and impact the explosive resulting in the SDT. Experiments will observe correlations between changes in the electrical signals and explosive microstructure. LA-UR-17-20883.

  15. Correlating cell behavior with tissue topology in embryonic epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian A Sandersius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements on embryonic epithelial tissues in a diverse range of organisms have shown that the statistics of cell neighbor numbers are universal in tissues where cell proliferation is the primary cell activity. Highly simplified non-spatial models of proliferation are claimed to accurately reproduce these statistics. Using a systematic critical analysis, we show that non-spatial models are not capable of robustly describing the universal statistics observed in proliferating epithelia, indicating strong spatial correlations between cells. Furthermore we show that spatial simulations using the Subcellular Element Model are able to robustly reproduce the universal histogram. In addition these simulations are able to unify ostensibly divergent experimental data in the literature. We also analyze cell neighbor statistics in early stages of chick embryo development in which cell behaviors other than proliferation are important. We find from experimental observation that cell neighbor statistics in the primitive streak region, where cell motility and ingression are also important, show a much broader distribution. A non-spatial Markov process model provides excellent agreement with this broader histogram indicating that cells in the primitive streak may have significantly weaker spatial correlations. These findings show that cell neighbor statistics provide a potentially useful signature of collective cell behavior.

  16. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Domestic Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever ...

  17. Correlating pattern of river discharge with degree of urbanization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the hydrological response pattern of urbanized streams to landuse in sub-catchment areas of River Asa in Ilorin, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected directly from the field over a period of one hydrological year. Rainfall data were collected in each basin using a standard rain gauge of 20cm orifice ...

  18. A project proposal on Patterns and correlates of physical activity in families on Lolland-Falster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Therese; Jepsen, Randi; Grøntved, Anders

    Background: Physical inactivity has become an increasingly important topic in health promotion and health research. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Engaging in physical activity has...... the authorities' recommendation for 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Parents are believed to play an important role in influencing their children’s health behavior. Yet, the results of studies on parent-child physical activity (or inactivity) correlations are mixed. Possible...... use in relation to parent-child interaction is lacking. Design and methods: The present project is a cross-sectional study on a subsample of the large “The Lolland-Falster Health Study” (LOFUS). LOFUS is a comprehensive, cross-sectional population study. The study aim is to investigate patterns...

  19. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Sedentary Behaviors in Spanish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate children’s psychosocial and environmental factors associated with sedentary behavior (SB. Method. The study involved a total of 420 children (mean 9.2 years; 52.9% girls from the community of Madrid, Spain. SB and physical activity (PA were objectively measured using accelerometers. TV viewing and potential correlates were assessed by questionnaire. Mixed-model regression analysis, adjusted for clustering within school locations, evaluated the relation of each independent variable with SBs. Results. Girls showed higher levels of SB than boys, whereas boys reported more TV viewing (p<.001 in all cases. Regression analysis showed that MVPA levels were negatively related to objective SB measurement in both boys and girls (p<.001. Parent and friend support to PA were negatively associated with SB on weekdays in boys and girls, respectively (p<.05. In the boys’ group, parental professional level was a positive predictor of SB on weekend days (p=.011. Boys with more positive neighborhood perceptions spent less time watching TV (p<.001, whereas mother’s leisure-time PA level was a negative correlate of TV viewing in girls’ group (p<.01. Conclusion. Different psychosocial and environmental correlates of SB were identified. Present findings are promising targets for interventions to improve children’s health.

  1. [Dietary patterns of children and socioeconomical, behavioral and maternal determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Julia Khéde Dourado; Silva, Angélica Ribeiro E; Santos, Thanise Sabrina Souza; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    To identify dietary patterns of children and to verify their association with socio-economical, behavioral and maternal determinants. A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 328 children aged 8 and 9 years. Dietary intake was assessed by food records in three nonconsecutive days and measured in grams of food groups and nutrients. Factor analysis and subsequent orthogonal rotation (varimax) were used to determine dietary patterns. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations between dietary patterns and the studied determinants. Five dietary patterns were observed: "Traditional", "Sweetened beverages and snacks", "Monotonous", "Healthy" and "Ovo-lacto". A higher maternal level of education was directly associated with "Sweetened beverages and snacks" and "Ovo-lacto" standards. Low income children who were submitted to greater food restriction by parents/guardians followed the more "Traditional" standard, represented by the consumption of rice, beans, vegetables, cooked roots and tubers, and red meat. The "Monotonous" pattern, represented by a high consumption of milk and chocolate milk, was most followed by children from the middle class. Children living in rural areas consumed more foods from the "Ovo-lacto" pattern, when compared to those from the urban area. Dietary patterns of children were associated with family socioeconomic status, maternal level of education, practice of food restriction by parents/guardians and location of residence in urban or rural area. Better socioeconomic conditions contributed to a more nutritionally inadequate dietary pattern. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns statistical correlation between electrocardiographic signals and phonocardiographic

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Garcia, Julio Cesar

    2006-01-01

     Research in the field of bio-signals has spread largely to the digital signal processing, which currently offers powerful tools that enable development and evolution, which is why in recent decades have implemented various techniques in analyzing biomedical signals that allow diagnoses that were not possible before. In the following article statistical analysis it was performed such that signal segments corresponding to ECG and PCG (SCG), in order to find common patterns between them and sub...

  3. Mexican American adolescents' sleep patterns: contextual correlates and implications for health and adjustment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context.

  4. Repeated evolution of male sacrifice behavior in spiders correlated with genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A

    2007-06-01

    According to sexual cannibalism theory, male complicity in terminal mating can be adaptive when the male's future reproductive value is low relative to the benefits of self sacrifice. Spiders and insects that exhibit male sacrifice behavior (either complicity in cannibalism or spontaneous death associated with copulation) often also have male genitalia that stereotypically become broken or disfigured the first time they are used for copulation, potentially lowering his future reproductive value. Theoretical work on monogamy has identified male bias in the effective sex ratio as a precursor to the evolution of monogamy (including male sacrifice) as an adaptive form of paternity protection. Using phylogeny-based statistics and drawing on several phylogenetic studies of araneoid spiders, I investigate relationships between male sacrifice behavior, genital mutilation, extreme sexual size dimorphism, and the accumulation of multiple males in the female web (as an indicator of a male-based effective sex ratio). This investigation focuses on araneoid spiders because several independent origins of sacrifice behavior are known for this group and the phylogenetic structure of the lineage is relatively well studied. I report that male genital mutilation is significantly correlated with sacrifice behavior and argue that this finding is consistent with sexual cannibalism theory. Male sacrifice behavior is also correlated with male accumulation, a result that is consistent with theoretical work on the evolution of monogamy. Male accumulation and extreme sexual size dimorphism are correlated suggesting that sex-based differences in maturation time can lead to a male biased effective sex ratio. Similar patterns of correlated characters may hold for some insect taxa. Studying traits that have appeared independently in multiple lineages is a powerful method for developing general theories about the evolution of biological phenomena.

  5. Patterns and Correlates for Bullying among Young Adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is relatively common and is considered to be a public health problem among adolescents worldwide. The present study examined the risk factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescents in a lower-middle-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years, derived from the Republic of Ghana’s contribution to the Global School-based Health Survey, were analyzed using bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis. A high prevalence of bullying was found among Ghanaian adolescents. Alcohol-related health compromising behaviors (alcohol use, alcohol misuse and getting into trouble as a result of alcohol increased the risk of being bullied. In addition, substance use, being physically attacked, being seriously injured, hunger and truancy were also found to increase the risk of being bullied. However, having understanding parents and having classmates who were kind and helpful reduced the likelihood of being bullied. These findings suggest that school-based intervention programs aimed at reducing rates of peer victimization should simultaneously target multiple risk behaviors. Teachers can also reduce peer victimization by introducing programs that enhance adolescents’ acceptance of each other in the classroom.

  6. Phenology of tropical understory trees: patterns and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Alice Boyle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive phenologies of plants are constrained by climate in highly seasonal regions. In contrast, plants growing in wet tropical forests are freed from many abiotic constraints, which in canopy tree communities lead to a rich diversity of phenological patterns within and among individuals, species and communities. However, basic descriptions of tropical phenological patterns and the processes that shape them are rare. Here, we document the individual-, population-, and landscape-level phenological patterns of two dominant families of understory woody plants important to avian frugivores, the Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, along an elevational transect in Costa Rica. The 226 individual plants belonging to 35 species in this study, varied in the number of reproductive bouts/year, and the timing, duration, and synchrony of reproductive stages. This variation was not related to factors related to their interactions with mutualists and antagonists, nor did it appear to be constrained by phylogeny. Diverse phenological patterns among species led to relatively aseasonal patterns at the community and landscape level. Overall, evidence for biotic processes shaping temporal patterns of fruiting phenology was weak or absent. These findings reveal a number of unexplained patterns, and suggest that factors shaping phenology in relatively aseasonal forests operate in idiosyncratic ways at the species level.En regiones con marcada estacionalidad, los patrones fenológicos de las plantas están limitados por el clima. Por el contrario, las plantas que crecen en bosques húmedos tropicales, no tienen tantas limitaciones abióticas y es por esto que el dosel presenta una diversidad muy rica en los patrones fenológicos de individuos, especies y comunidades. Sin embargo, es muy escasa la información sobre la descripción básica de los patrones fenológicos tropicales y de los procesos que los afectan. En este documento, presentamos los patrones fenol

  7. Computation of antenna pattern correlation and MIMO performance by means of surface current distribution and spherical wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the stringent demand for an accurate prediction of MIMO channel capacity and diversity performance in wireless communications, more effective and suitable models that account for real antenna radiation behavior have to be taken into account. One of the main challenges is the accurate modeling of antenna correlation that is directly related to the amount of channel capacity or diversity gain which might be achieved in multi element antenna configurations. Therefore spherical wave theory in electromagnetics is a well known technique to express antenna far fields by means of a compact field expansion with a reduced number of unknowns that was recently applied to derive an analytical approach in the computation of antenna pattern correlation. In this paper we present a novel and efficient computational technique to determine antenna pattern correlation based on the evaluation of the surface current distribution by means of a spherical mode expansion.

  8. Simple models for studying complex spatiotemporal patterns of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri V.; Titova, Lyudmila I.

    2017-06-01

    Minimal mathematical models able to explain complex patterns of animal behavior are essential parts of simulation systems describing large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of trophic communities, particularly those with wide-ranging species, such as occur in pelagic environments. We present results obtained with three different modelling approaches: (i) an individual-based model of animal spatial behavior; (ii) a continuous taxis-diffusion-reaction system of partial-difference equations; (iii) a 'hybrid' approach combining the individual-based algorithm of organism movements with explicit description of decay and diffusion of the movement stimuli. Though the models are based on extremely simple rules, they all allow description of spatial movements of animals in a predator-prey system within a closed habitat, reproducing some typical patterns of the pursuit-evasion behavior observed in natural populations. In all three models, at each spatial position the animal movements are determined by local conditions only, so the pattern of collective behavior emerges due to self-organization. The movement velocities of animals are proportional to the density gradients of specific cues emitted by individuals of the antagonistic species (pheromones, exometabolites or mechanical waves of the media, e.g., sound). These cues play a role of taxis stimuli: prey attract predators, while predators repel prey. Depending on the nature and the properties of the movement stimulus we propose using either a simplified individual-based model, a continuous taxis pursuit-evasion system, or a little more detailed 'hybrid' approach that combines simulation of the individual movements with the continuous model describing diffusion and decay of the stimuli in an explicit way. These can be used to improve movement models for many species, including large marine predators.

  9. Behavioral Patterns in Special Education. Good Teaching Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorta, Manuela; Borges, África

    2017-01-01

    Providing quality education means to respond to the diversity in the classroom. The teacher is a key figure in responding to the various educational needs presented by students. Specifically, special education professionals are of great importance as they are the ones who lend their support to regular classroom teachers and offer specialized educational assistance to students who require it. Therefore, special education is different from what takes place in the regular classroom, demanding greater commitment by the teacher. There are certain behaviors, considered good teaching practices, which teachers have always been connected with to achieve good teaching and good learning. To ensure that these teachers are carrying out their educational work properly it is necessary to evaluate. This means having appropriate instruments. The Observational Protocol for Teaching Functions in Primary School and Special Education (PROFUNDO-EPE, v.3., in Spanish) allows to capture behaviors from these professionals and behavioral patterns that correspond to good teaching practices. This study evaluates the behavior of two special education teachers who work with students from different educational stages and educational needs. It reveals that the analyzed teachers adapt their behavior according the needs and characteristics of their students to the students responding more adequately to the needs presented by the students and showing good teaching practices. The patterns obtained indicate that they offer support, help and clear guidelines to perform the tasks. They motivate them toward learning by providing positive feedback and they check that students have properly assimilated the contents through questions or non-verbal supervision. Also, they provide a safe and reliable climate for learning.

  10. Rethinking Hearing Aid Fitting by Learning From Behavioral Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The recent introduction of Internet connected hearing instruments offers a paradigm shift in hearing instrument fitting. Potentially this makes it possible for devices to adapt their settings to a changing context, inferred from user interactions. In a pilot study we enabled hearing instrument....... A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...

  11. Correlations between technical skills and behavioral skills in simulated neonatal resuscitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T; Leonard, D; Sierocka-Castaneda, A; Chan, D; Thompson, M

    2014-10-01

    Neonatal resuscitation requires both technical and behavioral skills. Key behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation have been identified by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Correlations and interactions between technical skills and behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation were investigated. Behavioral skills were evaluated via blinded video review of 45 simulated neonatal resuscitations using a validated assessment tool. These were statistically correlated with previously obtained technical skill performance data. Technical skills and behavioral skills were strongly correlated (ρ=0.48; P=0.001). The strongest correlations were seen in distribution of workload (ρ=0.60; P=0.01), utilization of information (ρ=0.55; P=0.03) and utilization of resources (ρ=0.61; P=0.01). Teams with superior behavioral skills also demonstrated superior technical skills, and vice versa. Technical and behavioral skills were highly correlated during simulated neonatal resuscitations. Individual behavioral skill correlations are likely dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  12. Neighborhood binary speckle pattern for deformation measurements insensitive to local illumination variation by digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Speckle pattern-based characteristics of digital image correlation (DIC) restrict its application in engineering fields and nonlaboratory environments, since serious decorrelation effect occurs due to localized sudden illumination variation. A simple and efficient speckle pattern adjusting and optimizing approach presented in this paper is aimed at providing a novel speckle pattern robust enough to resist local illumination variation. The new speckle pattern, called neighborhood binary speckle pattern, derived from original speckle pattern, is obtained by means of thresholding the pixels of a neighborhood at its central pixel value and considering the result as a binary number. The efficiency of the proposed speckle pattern is evaluated in six experimental scenarios. Experiment results indicate that the DIC measurements based on neighborhood binary speckle pattern are able to provide reliable and accurate results, even though local brightness and contrast of the deformed images have been seriously changed. It is expected that the new speckle pattern will have more potential value in engineering applications.

  13. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  14. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  15. Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Klaus; Weber, René

    2006-12-01

    Modern video games represent highly advanced virtual reality simulations and often contain virtual violence. In a significant amount of young males, playing video games is a quotidian activity, making it an almost natural behavior. Recordings of brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during gameplay may reflect neuronal correlates of real-life behavior. We recorded 13 experienced gamers (18-26 years; average 14 hrs/week playing) while playing a violent first-person shooter game (a violent computer game played in self-perspective) by means of distortion and dephasing reduced fMRI (3 T; single-shot triple-echo echo-planar imaging [EPI]). Content analysis of the video and sound with 100 ms time resolution achieved relevant behavioral variables. These variables explained significant signal variance across large distributed networks. Occurrence of violent scenes revealed significant neuronal correlates in an event-related design. Activation of dorsal and deactivation of rostral anterior cingulate and amygdala characterized the mid-frontal pattern related to virtual violence. Statistics and effect sizes can be considered large at these areas. Optimized imaging strategies allowed for single-subject and for single-trial analysis with good image quality at basal brain structures. We propose that virtual environments can be used to study neuronal processes involved in semi-naturalistic behavior as determined by content analysis. Importantly, the activation pattern reflects brain-environment interactions rather than stimulus responses as observed in classical experimental designs. We relate our findings to the general discussion on social effects of playing first-person shooter games. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Behavioral and neural correlates of communication via pointing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Cleret de Langavant

    Full Text Available Communicative pointing is a human specific gesture which allows sharing information about a visual item with another person. It sets up a three-way relationship between a subject who points, an addressee and an object. Yet psychophysical and neuroimaging studies have focused on non-communicative pointing, which implies a two-way relationship between a subject and an object without the involvement of an addressee, and makes such gesture comparable to touching or grasping. Thus, experimental data on the communicating function of pointing remain scarce. Here, we examine whether the communicative value of pointing modifies both its behavioral and neural correlates by comparing pointing with or without communication. We found that when healthy participants pointed repeatedly at the same object, the communicative interaction with an addressee induced a spatial reshaping of both the pointing trajectories and the endpoint variability. Our finding supports the hypothesis that a change in reference frame occurs when pointing conveys a communicative intention. In addition, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using H(2O(15 PET-scan showed that pointing when communicating with an addressee activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the right medial prefrontal cortex, in contrast to pointing without communication. Such a right hemisphere network suggests that the communicative value of pointing is related to processes involved in taking another person's perspective. This study brings to light the need for future studies on communicative pointing and its neural correlates by unraveling the three-way relationship between subject, object and an addressee.

  17. Genomic abnormalities in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma correlate with pattern of invasion: biologic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Amemiya, Yutaka; Seth, Arun; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    The pattern-based classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, which classifies tumors based on the destructiveness of stromal invasion, is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases and adverse outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated clinically important molecular alterations in endocervical adenocarcinoma, including KRAS and PIK3CA mutations; however, correlation between the molecular landscape and pathological variables including pattern of invasion has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, 20 endocervical adenocarcinomas were classified using the pattern-based classification system and were subjected to targeted sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) that surveys hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were correlated with clinical and pathologic variables including pattern of invasion. Five (25%), six (30%), and nine (45%) cases were classified as patterns A, B, and C respectively. Lymph node metastases, advanced stage at presentation and mortality from disease were exclusively seen in destructively invasive tumors (patterns B or C). Prevalent mutations in the cohort involved PIK3CA (30%), KRAS (30%), MET (15%), and RB1 (10%). Most (94%) relevant genomic alterations were present in destructively invasive tumors with PIK3CA, KRAS, and RB1 mutations seen exclusively in pattern B or C subgroups. KRAS mutations correlated with advanced stage at presentation (FIGO stage II or higher). Our findings indicate that the pattern of stromal invasion correlates with genomic abnormalities detected by next-generation sequencing, suggesting that tumors without destructive growth (pattern A) are biologically distinct from those with destructive invasion (patterns B and C), and that pattern B endocervical adenocarcinoma is more closely related to its pattern C counterpart. The pattern-based classification may be used as a triage

  18. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns and Their Correlates among University Students in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Salameh, Pascale; Jomaa, Lamis; Issa, Carine; Farhat, Ghada; Salamé, Joseph; Zeidan, Nina; Baldi, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unhealthy dietary habits are major risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early years of adulthood. Limited studies have explored the food consumption patterns among young adults in Lebanon. Our study aimed to examine common dietary patterns and their correlates among a large sample of university student population in Lebanon, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 stud...

  19. Correlation between ovarian growth, vitellogenin titer, and yolk polypeptide pattern in the haemolymph of Calliphora vicina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Jensen, P. V.

    1982-01-01

    During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition.......During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition....

  20. [The relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior and parents' oral health information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-qi

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between the infant nursing bottle caries in city community and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information, and to provide scientific basis for future infant nursing bottle caries prevention. Three hundred infants aged 6, 7, 12, 18 months in April 2009 in Bai Guan Street Community Hospital Shangyu City were enrolled in this study, nursing bottle caries were examined and recorded. Questionnaires on infant basic data, feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information were asked and recorded in these 300 parents. The relationship was analyzed between the infant nursing bottle caries and the questionnaires by Chi-square test with the SPSS14.0 software package. The infant nursing bottle caries correlated obviously with the habit of sleeping with the nursing bottle or mammary papilla in mouth, and did not correlate with the breast or artificial feeding patterns. The occurrence rate of infant nursing bottle caries was significantly lower in the infants with oral health behavior than those without oral health behavior. After feeding food, more parents feed the infants with little plain boiled water than clean the infant oral cavity with finger cap wet carbasus. 56.7% of parents had no acknowledge of danger of infant nursing bottle caries. There is some correlation between the infant nursing bottle caries and the feeding patterns, oral health behavior, parents' oral health information.

  1. Personality patterns and Smoking behavior among students in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharri, Ali; Jahani, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Asl, Asghar Mohammadpour

    2017-03-01

    Psychological factors have always been considered for their role on risk taking behavior such as substance abuse, risky driving and smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking behavior and potential personality patterns among high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Through a multistage sampling in a cross-sectional study, 1000 students were enrolled to represent the final grade high school student population of Tabriz, Iran in 2013. The personality patterns along with smoking status and some background information were collected through standard questionnaires along with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Fourteen personality patterns and ten clinical syndromes. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare numeric scales among the study participants, with respect to their smoking status. Stata version 13 statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of smoking by personality status. Two logistic models were developed in both of whom male sex was identified as a determinant of regular smoking (1 st model) and ever-smoking (2 nd model). Depressive personality increased the likelihood of being a regular smoker by 2.8 times (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). The second personality disorder included in the model was sadistic personality with an odds ratio of 7.9 (96% CI: 1.2-53%). Histrionic personality increased the likelihood of experiencing smoking by 2.2 times (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.1) followed by borderline personality (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 0.97-8.1). Histrionic and depressive personalities could be considered as strong associates of smoking, followed by borderline and sadistic personalities. A causal relationship couldn't be assumed unless well controlled longitudinal studies reached the same findings using psychiatric interviews.

  2. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Droplet impact behavior on heated micro-patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Yu, Tongxu; Fan, Jing; Sun, Weijie; Cao, Zexian

    2016-03-01

    Impact behavior of droplets on a surface is an intriguing research topic, and its control should be very useful in diverse industrial applications. We investigated the impact behavior of water droplets on the textured and chemically treated surface of silicon and obtained the impact mode map on the parameter plane subtended by the Weber number (up to 85) and temperature (up to 320 °C). The patterns comprise of micropillars (14 μm in height) in square lattice with a lattice constant of 10 and 20 μm, and the surface was further made superhydrophobic by coating with graphene nanosheets. Six distinct impact modes are identified. It was found that the impact mode map can be dramatically altered by modifying the texture and chemistry of the surface, and the observations are well explained with regard to heat transfer, vapor/bubble generation and vapor flow beneath the droplet. Instability in the droplet arising from the mismatch between vapor generation rate and exhaust conditions is the dominant factor in determining the impact mode. Our results revealed more facts and features of the droplet impact phenomenon and can be very useful for target-oriented surface design towards precise control of droplet impact behavior on heated substrates.

  4. Children's behavior pattern and behavior management techniques used in a structured postgraduate dental program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath, Asokan; Rekka, P; Muthu, M S; Rathna Prabhu, V; Sivakumar, N

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and fear remain the primary emotion of a child entering a dental office. Successful pediatric dentistry depends not only on the dentist's technical skills, but also on his ability to acquire and maintain a child's cooperation. A retrospective study was done using the case records of 247 children, to evaluate their behavior patterns, based on the Wright's modification of Frankl's behavior rating scale. Various behavior management techniques like the tell-show-do, reinforcements, voice control, and hand over mouth exercise used in the postgraduate section of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, India, were also evaluated in this study. Behavior of the children improved on the subsequent visits. Tell-show-do was the most common behavior management technique used and more aversive management techniques were rarely used in managing children in the dental office. Proper assessment of children's behavior helps the dentist to plan appointments and render effective and efficient dental treatment. Appropriate use of management techniques can improve the child's behavior in subsequent dental visits.

  5. Children′s behavior pattern and behavior management techniques used in a structured postgraduate dental program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anxiety and fear remain the primary emotion of a child entering a dental office. Successful pediatric dentistry depends not only on the dentist′s technical skills, but also on his ability to acquire and maintain a child′s cooperation. Methods: A retrospective study was done using the case records of 247 children, to evaluate their behavior patterns, based on the Wright′s modification of Frankl′s behavior rating scale. Various behavior management techniques like the tell-show-do, reinforcements, voice control, and hand over mouth exercise used in the postgraduate section of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, India, were also evaluated in this study. Results: Behavior of the children improved on the subsequent visits. Tell-show-do was the most common behavior management technique used and more aversive management techniques were rarely used in managing children in the dental office. Conclusion: Proper assessment of children′s behavior helps the dentist to plan appointments and render effective and efficient dental treatment. Appropriate use of management techniques can improve the child′s behavior in subsequent dental visits.

  6. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  7. Effects of behavioral patterns and network topology structures on Parrondo’s paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ye; Cheong, Kang Hao; Cen, Yu-Wan; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-11-01

    A multi-agent Parrondo’s model based on complex networks is used in the current study. For Parrondo’s game A, the individual interaction can be categorized into five types of behavioral patterns: the Matthew effect, harmony, cooperation, poor-competition-rich-cooperation and a random mode. The parameter space of Parrondo’s paradox pertaining to each behavioral pattern, and the gradual change of the parameter space from a two-dimensional lattice to a random network and from a random network to a scale-free network was analyzed. The simulation results suggest that the size of the region of the parameter space that elicits Parrondo’s paradox is positively correlated with the heterogeneity of the degree distribution of the network. For two distinct sets of probability parameters, the microcosmic reasons underlying the occurrence of the paradox under the scale-free network are elaborated. Common interaction mechanisms of the asymmetric structure of game B, behavioral patterns and network topology are also revealed.

  8. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

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    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  9. Behavioral pattern of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos metropolis

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    Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the travel behavior of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire. A total of 84 samples were used as representative population, while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significant. The results that were obtained indicated that a positive correlation exists between frequency of   travel and commuters income in Lagos Metropolis and also that a positive correlation exists between frequency of travel and distance covered by commuters in Lagos Metropolis. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were also adopted to present the socio-economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that about 57% of sampled population are male, 62 % are civil servants, 48% of respondents travel for business purposes. Also, that majority of the respondents (50% said that the commercial public transport is highly prone to accident, while about 64% of the respondents commute on daily basis. It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.

  10. An Evaluation of Accelerometer-derived Metrics to Assess Daily Behavioral Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Sampson, Joshua; Li, Haocheng; Lyden, Kate; Matthews, Charles E.; Carroll, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The way physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are accumulated throughout the day (i.e., patterns) may be important for health, but identifying measurable and meaningful metrics of behavioral patterns is challenging. This study evaluated accelerometer-derived metrics to determine if they predicted PA and SB patterns and were reliably measured. Methods We defined and measured 55 metrics that describe daily PA and SB using data collected by using the activPal (AP) monitor in four studies. The first two studies were randomized-crossover designs that included recreationally-active participants. Study one experimentally manipulated time spent in moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time and study two held time in exercise constant and manipulated SB. Study three included inactive participants who increased exercise, decreased sedentary time or both. The study conditions induced distinct behavioral patterns, thus we tested whether the new metrics could improve the prediction of an individual’s study condition after adjusting for the overall volume of physical activity or SB using conditional logistic regression. In a fourth study, we measured the three-month reliability for the pattern metrics by calculating intraclass correlations (ICCs) in a community-dwelling sample who wore the AP monitor twice for seven-days. Results In each of the experimental studies, we identified new metrics that could improve the accuracy for predicting condition beyond SB and MVPA volume. In study one, 23 metrics were predictive of a highly active condition and 24 metrics were predictive of a highly sedentary condition in study two. In the fourth study, the median ICC (25–75th percentiles) of the metrics were 0.59 (0.46, 0.65). Conclusions Several new metrics were predictive of patterns of SB, exercise and non-exercise behavior and are moderately reliable over a three-month period. Applying these metrics to determine if daily

  11. A Comparison of Eating Patterns Across Two Obesity Treatments: Behavior Therapy vs. Behavioral Choice Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-06

    impacting changes in eating behaviors. The issue of methodology for assessing eating patterns is an important one to consider. As noted previously...Stunkard, A.J. (1978). Psychodynamics of obesity.Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis , 6, 103-115. Goodman, E., & Whitaker, R.C. (2002...1970). Self-monitoring: Methodological limitations and clinical applications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 148-152. Klesges

  12. A novel method for repeatedly generating speckle patterns used in digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sweedy, Ahmed; Gitzhofer, François; Baroud, Gamal

    2018-01-01

    Speckle patterns play a key role in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement, and generating an optimal speckle pattern has been the goal for decades now. The usual method of generating a speckle pattern is by manually spraying the paint on the specimen. However, this makes it difficult to reproduce the optimal pattern for maintaining identical testing conditions and achieving consistent DIC results. This study proposed and evaluated a novel method using an atomization system to repeatedly generate speckle patterns. To verify the repeatability of the speckle patterns generated by this system, simulation and experimental studies were systematically performed. The results from both studies showed that the speckle patterns and, accordingly, the DIC measurements become highly accurate and repeatable using the proposed atomization system.

  13. [Behavioral patterns of domestic terrorist groups in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Wataru

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the behavioral patterns of Japanese extremist groups, based on 377 terror incidents that occurred in Japan between 1990 and 2010. These incidents included bombings, rocket attacks, hostage taking, and vehicle assaults. Information was drawn primarily from on-line newspaper databases. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed using five categories: extremist group identity, time of attack, target of attack, attack strategy, and method of claiming responsibility. Extremist group characteristics varied along two dimensions: the interaction level between terrorist and victim, and the indiscriminate level of use of force. We categorized multiple far-left, far-right, and religious extremist groups based on these two dimensions. Our findings may help prevent terror attacks, and help identify the group responsible for a given incident.

  14. Association between personality disorder and violent behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Daniel Martins; de Pádua Serafim, Antonio

    2008-07-18

    Personality disorders are associated with criminality and antisocial and borderline personalities as strong predictors of violence. Nevertheless antisocial patients show more instrumental violence, while borderline patients more emotional violence. We surveilled medical records of a personality disorder facility, searching data of aggression and crimes against property among 11 patients with antisocial personality disorder and 19 borderline personality disorder. We found that there are differences regarding engagement in violence and lawbreaking according to the personality disorder: antisocial patients statistically engage more in crimes against property than the borderline patients, and more in this kind of crime than in aggression, whilst borderline patients show a tendency to engage more in episodes of aggression and physical violence than antisocial patients, and less in crimes against property. We conclude that the distinct personality leads to a distinct pattern of crimes and violence: antisocial patients are cold and get more involved in crimes requiring more detailed planning, whilst borderline patients are impulsive and engage in explosive episodes of physical violence. Further studies on the association among personality disorder, behavior pattern and violence type may be useful for both treatment and criminal profiling.

  15. Tuning Primary Learning Style for Children with Secondary Behavioral Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Mosharraf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalization is one of the most expected features in the current educational systems. User modeling is supposed to be the first stage of this process, which may incorporate learning style as an important part of the model. Learning style, which is a non-stable characteristic in the case of children, differentiates students in learning preferences. This paper identifies a new hybrid method to initiate and update the information of children’s learning style in an educational system. At the start-up phase, children’s learning style information is gathered through the modified Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC questionnaire, which is based on the well-known Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. This primary information will be tuned by tracking children’s behaviors during the learning process. Analytical data mining helped us to cluster these behaviors and find their patterns. The proposed method was applied on 81 fourth grade children in elementary school. Delivering results suggest that this method provides a good precision in recognizing children learning style and may be an appropriate solution for non-stability problems in their preferences.

  16. Correlations between instructor’s caring behavior and nursing students’ caring behavior: an international study

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    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Theoretically, caring relationship between faculty – student generates a caring moment. However, there is a scarcity of empirical evidence about how caring interactions with faculty can enhance students’ caring outcomes. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the levels of students’ and instructors’ caring behavior and to explore the correlations between instructors’ and students’ caring behavior. Methods: A descriptive, non – experimental design has been used in this study. Data collection was based on interviews using two standardized questionnaires; the Nursing Students’ Perception of Instructor Caring (NSPIC and the Caring Behavior Inventory (CBI. Respondents were consisting of nursing students from identified schools and colleges of nursing in different countries. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0. Results: The sample was consisted of 368 nursing students (91% female, 9% male from seven countries (26% Philippines, 31.5% Greece, 1% Kenya, 0.5 Oman, 35.5% India, 5% Nigeria, 0.5% Saudi Arabia. Forty two percent of students are in the second year of studies, 13% in the third year and 45% in the fourth year. The mean score of NSPIC was 4.02±0.30 and the mean of CBI was4.56±0.13. The mean for each factor of NSPIC was 4.39±0.13 for the factor “instills confidence through caring”, 3.92±0.212 for “supportive learning climate”, 4.06±0.06 for “appreciation of life’s meaning”, 3.66±0.11 for “control versus flexibility” and 4.01±0.48 for “respectful sharing”. The mean for each factor of CBI was 4.63±0.11 for the factor “assurance”, 4.58±0.06 for “knowledge and skills”, 4.55±0.18 for “respectful” and 4.47±0.14 for “connectedness”. Correlation analysis showed statistically significance between relevant variables. Conclusions: Instructors’ caring behavior affects nursing students’ caring behavior. Through positive faculty modeling and role modeling, nursing

  17. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sr, Ashwinirani; Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T; Gowd, T Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-10-01

    The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (pblood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups.

  18. Diurnal pattern and behavior of oviposition of Toxorhynchites theobaldi in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-Bernal, H C; Reyes-Villanueva, F

    1989-03-01

    The diurnal pattern and oviposition behavior of Toxorhynchites theobaldi natural populations were studied in 25 artificial containers in the field. The mosquito exhibited a bimodal oviposition pattern with the lower peak at 1100 hr and a mean of 15.7 eggs per container. The higher peak was observed at 1900 hr with a mean of 80.9 eggs per container. Each female flew from 21 to 58 elliptic vertical circles before ejecting one egg upon the surface. In 270 oviposition events, the average was 31.4 ellipses, and the frequency distribution of flights number with different ellipse numbers was fitted to a Poisson distribution. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.70) between the oviposition rate and the container surface area.

  19. Correlated behavioral traits in rats of the Roman selection lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in

  20. "Correlates of Affectionate and Angry Behavior." Practitioner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Notes that the most comforting finding in Mill and Romano- White's study was the high level of affectionate caregiver behaviors in early childhood settings. Suggests that a broader definition of anger might yield different results. Argues that the lack of a relationship between caregivers' self-esteem and angry or affectionate behavior contradicts…

  1. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  2. Detection of a Solitude Senior's Irregular States Based on Learning and Recognizing of Behavioral Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeki; Onishi, Masaki; Kojima, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kunio

    Recently, attention is paid to monitoring systems that watch behavior of a solitude person in home as the population of solitude seniors has increased. This paper proposes a monitoring system focused on behavioral patterns of a solitude senior. In general, the number of behavioral patterns are limited in the case of aged person in a room. It is possible for a system like a HMM to learn the frequently appeared behavioral patterns. By utilizing HMMs to deal with behavioral patterns, the system can detect irregular pattern by the degree of likelihood in the case when non-daily behavioral patterns appeared. Such a case could be an irregular state of the living life of the person. Soon after, the system reports an alarm of occurrence of the irregular state according to demand.

  3. The metabolic pattern of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reflects early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne Katherina; Renken, Remco J; Janzen, Annette; Vadasz, David; Pagani, Marco; Arnaldi, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Nobili, Flavio; Mayer, Geert; Leenders, Klaus L; Oertel, Wolfgang H O

    2018-02-23

    Rationale: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Lewy-body disorders. Spatial covariance analysis of [ 18 F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) data has disclosed a specific brain pattern of altered glucose metabolism in PD. In this study, we identify the metabolic pattern underlying iRBD and compare it to the known PD pattern. To understand the relevance of the iRBD pattern to disease progression, we study the expression of the iRBD pattern in de novo PD patients. Methods: The iRBD-related pattern was identified in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 21 patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD and 19 controls using spatial covariance analysis. Expression of the iRBD-related pattern was subsequently computed in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 44 controls and 38 de novo, treatment-naïve PD patients. Of these 38 PD patients, 24 had probable RBD according to the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Neuropsychological evaluation showed mild cognitive impairment in 20 PD patients (PD-MCI), of whom sixteen also had concomitant RBD and roughly half (11/20) had bilateral motor symptoms. Results: The iRBD-related pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and hippocampus, and by relative hypometabolism in middle cingulate, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices. This topography partially overlapped with the PD-related pattern (PDRP). The iRBD-related pattern was significantly expressed in PD patients compared to controls (Ppattern expression was not significantly different between PD patients with and without probable RBD, or between PD patients with unilateral or bilateral parkinsonism. iRBD-related pattern expression was higher in PD-MCI patients, compared to PD patients with preserved cognition ( P = 0.001). Subject scores on the iRBD-related pattern were highly correlated to subject scores on the PDRP (r=0.94, Ppatterns

  4. Quantifying the behavior of stock correlations under market stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Kenett, Dror Y; Stanley, H Eugene; Helbing, Dirk; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-01-01

    Understanding correlations in complex systems is crucial in the face of turbulence, such as the ongoing financial crisis. However, in complex systems, such as financial systems, correlations are not constant but instead vary in time. Here we address the question of quantifying state-dependent correlations in stock markets. Reliable estimates of correlations are absolutely necessary to protect a portfolio. We analyze 72 years of daily closing prices of the 30 stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). We find the striking result that the average correlation among these stocks scales linearly with market stress reflected by normalized DJIA index returns on various time scales. Consequently, the diversification effect which should protect a portfolio melts away in times of market losses, just when it would most urgently be needed. Our empirical analysis is consistent with the interesting possibility that one could anticipate diversification breakdowns, guiding the design of protected portfolios.

  5. Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the extent of coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sinnaeve

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but the relationship of whole blood gene expression changes with coronary disease remains unclear. We have investigated whether gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the severity of coronary disease and whether these patterns correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis in the vascular wall. Patients were selected according to their coronary artery disease index (CADi, a validated angiographical measure of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis that correlates with outcome. RNA was extracted from blood of 120 patients with at least a stenosis greater than 50% (CADi > or = 23 and from 121 controls without evidence of coronary stenosis (CADi = 0. 160 individual genes were found to correlate with CADi (rho > 0.2, P<0.003. Prominent differential expression was observed especially in genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation. Using these 160 genes, a partial least squares multivariate regression model resulted in a highly predictive model (r(2 = 0.776, P<0.0001. The expression pattern of these 160 genes in aortic tissue also predicted the severity of atherosclerosis in human aortas, showing that peripheral blood gene expression associated with coronary atherosclerosis mirrors gene expression changes in atherosclerotic arteries. In conclusion, the simultaneous expression pattern of 160 genes in whole blood correlates with the severity of coronary artery disease and mirrors expression changes in the atherosclerotic vascular wall.

  6. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: how it correlates to quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Jong Tae

    2013-12-01

    To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21-88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P0.05). Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun, E-mail: lvjenny0417@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee, E-mail: yourheeya@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung, E-mail: AA40501@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Tae, E-mail: jtlee@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US.

  8. The Association Between Parental Behavior Patterns and the Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in Tehran Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pazuki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten

  9. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T.; Lee, K.; Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G.; Kim, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  10. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Clinical Pathology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, E.K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Surgery (E.K.K), St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  11. Behavioral pattern identification for structural health monitoring in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shalabh

    Estimation of structural damage and quantification of structural integrity are critical for safe and reliable operation of human-engineered complex systems, such as electromechanical, thermofluid, and petrochemical systems. Damage due to fatigue crack is one of the most commonly encountered sources of structural degradation in mechanical systems. Early detection of fatigue damage is essential because the resulting structural degradation could potentially cause catastrophic failures, leading to loss of expensive equipment and human life. Therefore, for reliable operation and enhanced availability, it is necessary to develop capabilities for prognosis and estimation of impending failures, such as the onset of wide-spread fatigue crack damage in mechanical structures. This dissertation presents information-based online sensing of fatigue damage using the analytical tools of symbolic time series analysis ( STSA). Anomaly detection using STSA is a pattern recognition method that has been recently developed based upon a fixed-structure, fixed-order Markov chain. The analysis procedure is built upon the principles of Symbolic Dynamics, Information Theory and Statistical Pattern Recognition. The dissertation demonstrates real-time fatigue damage monitoring based on time series data of ultrasonic signals. Statistical pattern changes are measured using STSA to monitor the evolution of fatigue damage. Real-time anomaly detection is presented as a solution to the forward (analysis) problem and the inverse (synthesis) problem. (1) the forward problem - The primary objective of the forward problem is identification of the statistical changes in the time series data of ultrasonic signals due to gradual evolution of fatigue damage. (2) the inverse problem - The objective of the inverse problem is to infer the anomalies from the observed time series data in real time based on the statistical information generated during the forward problem. A computer-controlled special

  12. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  13. Correlating parenting styles with child behavior and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child's behavior during the first dental visit. Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children's Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pauthoritarian and permissive parents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit.

  14. Characterization of Damage in Magnesium Using Digital Image Correlation and Electron Backscattered Diffraction Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcko, Michael J.; Mas, Pauline; Bruhis, Moisei; Wilkinson, David S.

    The microscopic strain distribution of commercially pure magnesium has been investigated during room temperature deformation. Digital image correlation (DIC) coupled with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) patterning has been used to relate strain measurements with the microstructure. Sheet magnesium tensile samples were etched and a random pattern of points were machined onto the sample surface using a focused ion beam (FIB). The samples were pulled in tension under an optical microscope. Images were obtained in increments and the DIC method was used to calculate the strain distribution. The strain distribution was compared to the EBSD pattern and the results show that strain localization is associated with twin and grain boundaries.

  15. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizo, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issues of these PDE (partial differential equations models are questions of actual interest in mathematical biology research.

    En esta nota repasamos algunos modelos basados en individuos para describir el movimiento colectivo de agentes, a lo que nos referimos usando la voz inglesa swarming. Estos modelos se basan en EDOs (ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y muestran un comportamiento asintótico complejo y rico en patrones, que mostramos numéricamente. Además, comentamos cómo se conectan estos modelos de partículas con las ecuaciones en derivadas parciales para describir la evolución de densidades de individuos de forma continua. Las cuestiones matemáticas relacionadas con la estabilidad de de estos modelos de EDP's (ecuaciones en derivadas parciales despiertan gran interés en la investigación en biología matemática.

  16. Family patterns of development dyslexia, Part II: Behavioral phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.H.; Melngailis, I.; Bedrosian, M. [Childrens Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The motor control of bimanual coordination and motor speech was compared between first degree relatives from families with at least 2 dyslexic family members, and families where probands were the only affected family members. Half of affected relatives had motor coordination deficits; and they came from families in which probands also showed impaired motor coordination. By contrast, affected relatives without motor deficits came from dyslexia families where probands did not have motor deficits. Motor coordination deficits were more common and more severe among affected offspring in families where both parents were affected than among affected offspring in families where only one parent was affected. However, motor coordination deficits were also more common and more severe in affected parents when both parents were affected than among affected parents in families where only one parent was affected. We conclude that impaired temporal resolution in motor action identifies a behavioral phenotype in some subtypes of developmental dyslexia. The observed pattern of transmission for motor deficits and reading impairment in about half of dyslexia families was most congruent with a genetic model of dyslexia in which 2 codominant major genes cosegregate in dyslexia pedigrees where the proband is also motorically impaired. 54 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Finding Correlation and Predicting System Behavior in Large IT Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Modern IT development infrastructure has a large number of components that must be monitored, for instance servers and network components. Various system-metrics (build time, CPU utilization, queries time etc.) are gathered to monitor system performance. In practice, it is extremely difficult for a system administrator to observe a correlation between several systemmetrics and predict a target system-metric based on highly correlated system-metrics without machine learning support. The experi...

  18. Patterns and correlates of agreement between parent, teacher, and male adolescent ratings of externalizing and internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, E; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined how well 394 triads of male youths, caregivers, and teachers agreed about youth problems reported on the Achenbach checklists. Dyadic agreement was measured through difference scores (subtracting the raw score of youth self-report from the caregiver's or teacher's score for shared items), q correlations between pairs of raters across items, and D2 (generalized distance between item profiles) for both externalizing and internalizing items. Teachers reported fewer internalizing and externalizing problems than did caregivers or youths. Teacher-youth disagreement was higher for African American than European American males about externalizing criteria. Caregiver depression and stress (but not paternal antisocial behavior or maternal substance abuse) correlated with higher disagreement with other informants about all criteria. These factors appear to increase disagreement about the level of problems but not about specific symptom patterns.

  19. Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-06-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.

  20. Correlating Parenting Styles with Child Behavior and Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S.; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child’s behavior during the first dental visit. Methods Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children’s Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. Results 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (P.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Conclusions Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit. PMID:25685975

  1. Neural Correlates of Dynamically Evolving Interpersonal Ties Predict Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction – rather than trait empathy – motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance. PMID:22403524

  2. Optical time-domain analog pattern correlator for high-speed real-time image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyup; Goda, Keisuke; Fard, Ali; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-01-15

    The speed of image processing is limited by image acquisition circuitry. While optical pattern recognition techniques can reduce the computational burden on digital image processing, their image correlation rates are typically low due to the use of spatial optical elements. Here we report a method that overcomes this limitation and enables fast real-time analog image recognition at a record correlation rate of 36.7 MHz--1000 times higher rates than conventional methods. This technique seamlessly performs image acquisition, correlation, and signal integration all optically in the time domain before analog-to-digital conversion by virtue of optical space-to-time mapping.

  3. Behavioral Correlates of Coping Strategies in Close Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bélanger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific coping strategies and problem-solving/communication behaviors in close relationships. The sample consisted of 72 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Marital Coping Questionnaire and who also participated in a filmed 30-minute discussion where they had to solve a relational problem. Observed behaviors were coded using a macroscopic coding system for dyadic interactions. For both men and women, results show significant relationships between coping strategies, marital interaction, and marital adjustment. For women, coping strategies and behavioral dimensions independently accounted for observed fluctuations in marital satisfaction scores. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Household Budget Survey (HBS) data covering many households' characteristics was used. Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was applied to ...

  5. Evaluating Preterm Infants with the Bayley-III: Patterns and Correlates of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle M.; Patra, Kousiki; Nelson, Michael N.; Silvestri, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the Third Edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) and: (1) early patterns of neurodevelopmental performance among preterm infants 8-12 months of age; and (2) correlations between known risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants in this cohort. Mean Language Index (LI;…

  6. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1985-11-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  7. Pattern recognition correlating materials properties of the elements to their kinetics for the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kevin C; Bard, Allen J

    2013-10-23

    Here we demonstrate the use of a previously reported pattern recognition algorithm to evaluate correlations between 50 different materials properties of the elements and their kinetics for the hydrogen evolution reaction in acid. We determined that the melting point and bulk modulus of the elements quantitatively gave the highest correlations of all materials properties investigated. We also showed that the melting point and bulk modulus correlations held true for a popular hydrogen evolution catalysts alloy, NiMo, and a previously untested material, MoSi2. In addition, we quantified the previously known relationship between the d-band center of an element and its kinetics for hydrogen evolution, and found that the melting point and bulk modulus correlations have correlations that are similar to but slightly stronger than those of the d-band center.

  8. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  9. Inference from correlated patterns: a unified theory for perceptron learning and linear vector channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown.

  10. Inference from correlated patterns: a unified theory for perceptron learning and linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashima, Y

    2008-01-01

    A framework to analyze inference performance in densely connected single-layer feed-forward networks is developed for situations where a given data set is composed of correlated patterns. The framework is based on the assumption that the left and right singular value bases of the given pattern matrix are generated independently and uniformly from Haar measures. This assumption makes it possible to characterize the objective system by a single function of two variables which is determined by the eigenvalue spectrum of the cross-correlation matrix of the pattern matrix. Links to existing methods for analysis of perceptron learning and Gaussian linear vector channels and an application to a simple but nontrivial problem are also shown

  11. Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Myra D.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…

  12. Academic Procrastination: Frequency and Cognitive-Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the frequency of and reasons for college students' (N=342) procrastination on academic tasks. A high percentage of students reported problems with procrastination. Results indicated that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective…

  13. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Fahrenfort (Johannes J.); F.A.A.M. Winden, van (Frans); B. Pelloux (Benjamin); M. Stallen (Mirre); K.R. Ridderinkhof (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to

  14. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrenfort, J.J.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.; Pelloux, B.; Stallen, M.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit

  15. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  16. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    research and clinical care. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder, structural connectivity , functional connectivity , resting-state, restrictive... Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...pipeline. This will enable us to better understand the nature of disrupted connectivity in autism and its relation to core symptoms. The state-of-the

  17. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  18. Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The definition of what sleep is depends on the method that is applied to record sleep. Behavioral and (electro)-physiological measures of sleep clearly overlap in mammals and birds , but it is often unclear how these two relate in other vertebrates and invertebrates. Homeostatic regulation of sleep, where the amount of sleep depends on the amount of previous waking, can be observed in physiology and behavior in all animals this was tested in. In mammals and birds, sleep is generally subdivided into two states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. In mammals the combination of behavioral sleep and the changes in the slow-wave range of the NREM sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) can explain and predict the occurrence and depth of sleep in great detail. For REM sleep this is far less clear. Finally, the discovery that slow-waves in the NREM sleep EEG are influenced locally on the cortex depending on prior waking behavior is an interesting new development that asks for an adaptation of the concept of homeostatic regulation of sleep. Incorporating local sleep into models of sleep regulation is needed to obtain a comprehensive picture.

  19. Mobile Phone Sensor Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Daily-Life Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. Methods A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. Results A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must be replicated in a larger study among participants with confirmed clinical symptoms, they suggest that phone sensors offer numerous clinical opportunities, including continuous monitoring of at-risk populations with

  20. Mobile Phone Sensor Correlates of Depressive Symptom Severity in Daily-Life Behavior: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P; Mohr, David C

    2015-07-15

    Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must be replicated in a larger study among participants with confirmed clinical symptoms, they suggest that phone sensors offer numerous clinical opportunities, including continuous monitoring of at-risk populations with little patient burden and

  1. Statistics and dynamics of attractor networks with inter-correlated patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, E.

    2007-02-01

    In an embodied feature representation view, the semantic memory represents concepts in the brain by the associated activation of the features that describe it, each one of them processed in a differentiated region of the cortex. This system has been modeled with a Potts attractor network. Several studies of feature representation show that the correlation between patterns plays a crucial role in semantic memory. The present work focuses on two aspects of the effect of correlations in attractor networks. In first place, it assesses how a Potts network can store a set of patterns with non-trivial correlations between them. This is done through a simple and biologically plausible modification to the classical learning rule. In second place, it studies the complexity of latching transitions between attractor states, and how this complexity can be controlled.

  2. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  3. Correlations between Student Discussion Behavior, Attitudes, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    An important result of physics education research is that students' learning and success in a course is correlated with their beliefs, attitudes, and expectations regarding physics. However, it is hard to assess these beliefs for individual students, and traditional survey instruments such as the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) are…

  4. Shear behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete using full-field displacements from digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Sahith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete beams with discrete hooked-end steel fibers at 0.5% volume fraction are tested with a shear span to depth (a/d ratio equal to 1.8. Digital image correlation (DIC technique was used to obtain the full-filed displacements from the beam. The formation and propagation of a shear crack which directly influences the load response and the peak load in the load response of the beam is monitored using the displacement information available from DIC. There is a continuous increase in slip across the crack faces with increasing load, which produces an increase in the crack opening. The dilatant behavior indicated by the proportion of crack opening to slip displacement obtained from the control and the SFRC beams is identical. Failure in control beams is brittle and was produced by the opening of dominant shear crack within the shear span. At the peak load, the shear crack pattern in fiber reinforced concrete is identical to the crack pattern in the control beam. The fiber reinforced concrete beams exhibit post peak load carrying capacity with continued slip of the dominant shear crack. The crack bridging stress provided by the fibers results in a significant increase shear transfer across the crack which provides significant post-peak load carrying capacity with increasing slip of the shear crack.

  5. Patterns of sexual risk behavior among undergraduate university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: ...

  6. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  7. Discovering the Two-Step Lag Behavioral Patterns of Learners in the College SPOC Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Liu, Sanya; Sun, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    Due to high retention rates, small private online course (SPOC) has become increasingly popular among universities. However, existing analyses of learning behavioral patterns in SPOC remain extremely lacking. This present study conducts an empirical analysis on the behavioral patterns of 12,517 undergraduates engaging in a college's SPOC platform,…

  8. Identification of Correlated GRACE Monthly Harmonic Coefficients Using Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piretzidis, D.; Sra, G.; Sideris, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    This study explores new methods for identifying correlation errors in harmonic coefficients derived from monthly solutions of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission using pattern recognition and neural network algorithms. These correlation errors are evidenced in the differences between monthly solutions and can be suppressed using a de-correlation filter. In all studies so far, the implementation of the de-correlation filter starts from a specific minimum order (i.e., 11 for RL04 and 38 for RL05) until the maximum order of the monthly solution examined. This implementation method has two disadvantages, namely, the omission of filtering correlated coefficients of order less than the minimum order and the filtering of uncorrelated coefficients of order higher than the minimum order. In the first case, the filtered solution is not completely free of correlated errors, whereas the second case results in a monthly solution that suffers from loss of geophysical signal. In the present study, a new method of implementing the de-correlation filter is suggested, by identifying and filtering only the coefficients that show indications of high correlation. Several numerical and geometric properties of the harmonic coefficient series of all orders are examined. Extreme cases of both correlated and uncorrelated coefficients are selected, and their corresponding properties are used to train a two-layer feed-forward neural network. The objective of the neural network is to identify and quantify the correlation by providing the probability of an order of coefficients to be correlated. Results show good performance of the neural network, both in the validation stage of the training procedure and in the subsequent use of the trained network to classify independent coefficients. The neural network is also capable of identifying correlated coefficients even when a small number of training samples and neurons are used (e.g.,100 and 10, respectively).

  9. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  10. Phases of scaling and cross-correlation behavior in traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.;Fullerton, Matthew;Kämpf, Mirko;Beltran-Ruiz, Cristina;Busch, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    While many microscopic models of traffic flow describe transitions between different traffic phases, such transitions are difficult to quantify in measured traffic data. Here we study long-term traffic recordings consisting of ≈2900 days of flow, density, and velocity time series with minute resolution from a Spanish motorway. We calculate fluctuations, cross-correlations, and long-term persistence properties of these quantities in the flow–density diagram. This leads to a data-driven definit...

  11. Sequential Learning and Recognition of Comprehensive Behavioral Patterns Based on Flow of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibo, Tatsuya; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Takao; Iwata, Motoi; Shiozaki, Akira

    Recently, surveillance cameras have been set up everywhere, for example, in streets and public places, in order to detect irregular situations. In the existing surveillance systems, as only a handful of surveillance agents watch a large number of images acquired from surveillance cameras, there is a possibility that they may miss important scenes such as accidents or abnormal incidents. Therefore, we propose a method for sequential learning and the recognition of comprehensive behavioral patterns in crowded places. First, we comprehensively extract a flow of people from input images by using optical flow. Second, we extract behavioral patterns on the basis of change-point detection of the flow of people. Finally, in order to recognize an observed behavioral pattern, we draw a comparison between the behavioral pattern and previous behavioral patterns in the database. We verify the effectiveness of our approach by placing a surveillance camera on a campus.

  12. Enhancing pattern of gastric carcinoma at dynamic incremental CT: correlation with gross and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Yoon, Yup

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the enhancing pattern of gastric carcinomas at dynamic incremental CT and to correlate it with pathologic findings. We retrospectively evaluated the enhancement pattern of stomach cancer on dynamic incremental CT of the 78 patients. All the lesions had been pathologically proved after surgery. The enhancement pattern was categorized as good or poor in the early phase;homogeneous, heterogeneous or ring enhancement;the presence or absence of delayed enhancement. There were 16 cases of early gastric cancer (EGC), and 62 cases of advanced gastric cancer(AGC). The Borrmann type of AGC were 1(n=1), 2(n=20), 3=(n=32), 4(n=8) and 5(n=1). The histologic patterns of AGC were tubular(n=49), signet ring cell(n=10), and mucinous(n=3). The enhancing patterns were compared with gross and histologic findings and delayed enhancement was correlated with pathologic evidence of desmoplasia. Good enhancement of tumor was seen in 24/41cases (58.5%) with AGC Borrmann type 3-5, in 6/21(28.6%) with AGC Borrmann type 1-2, and in 3/16(18.8%) with EGC (P<.05). By histologic pattern, good enhancement of tumor was seen in 8/10(80%) with signet ring cell type, in 21/49(42.9%) with tubular type, and in 1/3(33.3%) with mucinous type(P<.05). EGC was homogeneously enhanced in 14/16cases (87.5%), but AGC was heterogeneously enhanced in 33/62(53.2%), respectively(P<.01). There was no significant correlation between delayed enhancement and the presence of desmoplasia. AGC Borrmann type 3-5 and signet ring cell type have a tendency to show good enhancement and EGC is more homogeneously enhanced at dynamic incremental CT

  13. Olfactory LOVER: Behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eLarsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories (AMs are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym - Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare.

  14. Image Correlation Pattern Optimization for Micro-Scale In-Situ Strain Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Cannon, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is a function of three primary ingredients: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Development of the first two (i.e. image acquisition techniques and image correlation algorithms) has led to widespread use of DIC; however, fewer developments have been focused on the third ingredient. Typically, subjects of DIC images are mechanical specimens with either a natural surface pattern or a pattern applied to the surface. Research in the area of DIC patterns has primarily been aimed at identifying which surface patterns are best suited for DIC, by comparing patterns to each other. Because the easiest and most widespread methods of applying patterns have a high degree of randomness associated with them (e.g., airbrush, spray paint, particle decoration, etc.), less effort has been spent on exact construction of ideal patterns. With the development of patterning techniques such as microstamping and lithography, patterns can be applied to a specimen pixel by pixel from a patterned image. In these cases, especially because the patterns are reused many times, an optimal pattern is sought such that error introduced into DIC from the pattern is minimized. DIC consists of tracking the motion of an array of nodes from a reference image to a deformed image. Every pixel in the images has an associated intensity (grayscale) value, with discretization depending on the bit depth of the image. Because individual pixel matching by intensity value yields a non-unique scale-dependent problem, subsets around each node are used for identification. A correlation criteria is used to find the best match of a particular subset of a reference image within a deformed image. The reader is referred to references for enumerations of typical correlation criteria. As illustrated by Schreier and Sutton and Lu and Cary systematic errors can be introduced by representing the underlying deformation with under

  15. SYSTEM DESIGN AND BEHAVIOR OF PATTERN RECOGNITION OF CONTROL CHART USING NEURAL NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Yulius Halim

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of unnatural patterns in control charts is important to get more understanding about the process problem. Shewhart control chart can recognize shift pattern only, while the others cannot be detected by this chart. Neural networks were proposed by many researchers to achieve the better recognition of the patterns. A system of neural networks needs to be fitted to this problem by realizing the behaviors of control charts. Each behavior will affect the development of each part of the...

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  17. Comparing Urban Form Correlations of the Travel Patterns of Older and Younger Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Using disaggregated data from the Danish National Travel Survey conducted between 2006–2011, this study compares the travel patterns of older (65–84 years of age) and younger (18–64 years of age) adults regarding land use, socio-economic conditions and urban structures. The results highlight...... significant differences between travel patterns and their urban form correlates for the older and younger adult populations. Spatial variables such as density and regional accessibility have different and potentially reverse associations with travel among older adults. The car use of older adults...

  18. Comparing urban form correlations of the travel patterns of older and younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Using disaggregated data from the Danish National Travel Survey conducted between 2006 - 2011, this study compares the travel patterns of older (65 – 84 years of age) and younger (18 – 64 years of age) adults regarding land use, socio-economic conditions and urban structures. The results highlight...... significant differences between travel patterns and their urban form correlates for the older and younger adult populations. Spatial variables such as density and regional accessibility have different and potentially reverse associations with travel among older adults. The car use of older adults...

  19. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  20. Smoking patterns, quit behaviors, and smoking environment of workers in small manufacturing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Erika A; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Hannan, Peter J; Lando, Harry A; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    This study describes smokers employed at 47 small manufacturing companies in Minnesota, USA. Smokers (n = 713) participating in a group-randomized trial completed a baseline survey on their smoking patterns, quit behaviors, smoking environment, workplace attitudes about smoking, and correlates of smoking. These characteristics were examined by job type and a latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to group workers with similar characteristics. Production workers had the highest prevalence of daily smoking (88% vs. 68% among managers), and addiction (61% vs. 26% among managers), and the highest mean level of perceived stress (6.4 vs. 4.9 among managers). The LCA identified three subgroups of smokers that differed in levels of barriers to cessation. Production workers were most likely to be in the group with greater barriers (P = 0.01). These results underscore the importance of targeting interventions to production workers and those who exhibit the greatest barriers to cessation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  2. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    , gender, and school attendance since some patterns differed when stratifying by these factors. The models supported patterns for average intensity, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity. These latent class derived patterns can be used in other youth studies to explore correlates or outcomes and to target sedentary behavior or physical activity interventions.

  3. Patterns of Verbal Behavior and Judgments of Satisfaction in the Supervision Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Elizabeth L.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between verbal behavior patterns and supervisor (N=9) and trainee (N=30) judgments of satisfaction in the supervision interview. Results confirm the predictive validity of verbal behavior. Negative social emotional behavior added to the discomfort experienced. Use of excessive supportive communication is in question…

  4. Brain morphometric correlates of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: This findings suggests that grey matter integrity in superior temporal pole could be a neurobiological correlate of the allelic association between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and violent behavior due to its implication in socio-emotional processing.

  5. The correlation analysis on the landscape pattern index and hydrological processes in the Yanhe watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. X.; Li, J.

    2015-05-01

    Yanhe watershed, as a typical and experimental district of Soil and Water Conservation District, has long been plagued by soil erosion due to severe human disturbances. Exploring the relationship between watershed landscape pattern and hydrological processes can find effective ways to solve soil erosion problems. At first, with remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Information System) technology and based on SWAT model, this paper analyzed and simulated ecological hydrological processes in Yanhe watershed. It is on subbasin scale that the runoff and sediment yields were simulated monthly in Yanhe watershed using SWAT model. Secondly, it quantified landscape pattern with landscape indices. The seven landscape indices at the landscape level were selected with principal component factor analysis, including Disjunct Core Area Density (DCAD), Radius of gyration (GYRATE_SD), Patch Cohesion Index (COHESION), Shannon's diversity index (SHEI), Total Core Area (TCA), Perimeter-Area Fractal dimension index (PAFRAC), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI), etc. Thirdly, a new composite landscape index was constructed on the basis of eco-hydrological processes, which was closely related to soil erosion. The results are as follows: (1) Coupled analysis on the relationship of landscape indices and annual runoff as well as annual sediment yields in each subbasin, the correlation coefficient of seven selected landscape indices and runoff is very small, no passing all significant tests. But the correlation between sediment yields and the indices except for TCA and IJI is significant, and the absolute value of the correlation coefficient is between 0.3 and 0.5. (2) According to the "source-sink" theory of soil erosion, Slope-HRUs landscape index (SHLI) was built and can reflect the relationship between landscape pattern and soil erosion processes to a certain extent. The coupling relationship between Slope-HRUs landscape index (SHLI) and annual sediment yields in each subbasin is

  6. Bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease: CT patterns and correlation with inflammatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dongil; Jin Lee, Soon; Ah Cho, Young; Lim, Hyo K.; Hoon Kim, Seung; Jae Lee, Won; Hoon Lim, Jae; Park, Haewon; Rae Lee, Young

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess CT patterns of bowel wall thickening in patients with Crohn's disease and to correlate these patterns with inflammatory activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 58 helical abdominal CT scans of 53 patients with pathologically proven Crohn's disease. CT patterns of thickened bowel wall were divided into four types based on patterns of mural stratification and enhancement: type A, multilayered mural stratification; type B, two layers with strong mucosal enhancement and prominent low-density submucosa; type C, two layers without strong mucosal enhancement; and type D, homogeneous enhancement. We evaluated CT findings of the bowel and adjacent structures. We also reviewed pathologic features and clinical data to determine inflammatory activity. RESULTS: Fifty-five (95%) of 58 CT examinations showed bowel wall thickening. Of these 55 CT scans, type A pattern was found in 33 (60%), type B in 10 (18%), type C in five (9%), and type D in seven (13%). CT scans with type A showed significantly more wall thickening than those with either type C or type D. Histology revealed 43 cases with active disease and 12 with quiescent appearance. Thirty of 33 CT scans with type A and all 10 with type B were classified as acute disease, and three of five with type C and six of seven with type D as quiescent. CONCLUSION: In patients with Crohn's disease, CT patterns of bowel wall thickening correlated with inflammatory activity. Thickened bowel wall with layering enhancement is predictive of acute disease, and that of homogeneous enhancement suggests quiescence. Choi, D., et al. (2003)Clinical Radiology,58, 68--74

  7. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  8. Life style and patterns of health and social behavior in high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, P P; Earls, F J; Montgomery, A C

    1988-10-01

    This article examines the life style of young people aged 14 to 19 years to describe the interrelations among social and health-related modes of behavior. The data were derived from a national survey, conducted from 1984 to 1986, of 2,787 respondents using consolidated health services for high-risk youths. A broad range of health habits, risk behaviors, and social activities are examined, including leisure activities, social relations, sexual behavior, substance use behavior, violent social behavior, seat belt use, dental hygiene, sleep behavior, weight, and preventive medical care. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are used to determine the empirical patterns among these behaviors. The analyses show two major modes of behavior, health-promoting and health-compromising, while a third pattern can be interpreted as group or social activity. Implications of these life-style distinctions are discussed in relation to health promotion.

  9. Real-valued composite filters for correlation-based optical pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, P. K.; Balendra, Anushia

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the technology of optical devices such as spatial light modulators (SLMs) have influenced the research and growth of optical pattern recognition. In the research leading to this report, the design of real-valued composite filters that can be implemented using currently available SLMs for optical pattern recognition and classification was investigated. The design of real-valued minimum average correlation energy (RMACE) filter was investigated. Proper selection of the phase of the output response was shown to reduce the correlation energy. The performance of the filter was evaluated using computer simulations and compared with the complex filters. It was found that the performance degraded only slightly. Continuing the above investigation, the design of a real filter that minimizes the output correlation energy and the output variance due to noise was developed. Simulation studies showed that this filter had better tolerance to distortion and noise compared to that of the RMACE filter. Finally, the space domain design of RMACE filter was developed and implemented on the computer. It was found that the sharpness of the correlation peak was slightly reduced but the filter design was more computationally efficient than the complex filter.

  10. Applied Cognitive Models of Behavior and Errors Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    learning objectives. The resulting history of estimates over performance in the scenario can provide insights into the specific progress of learning...Knee, hip , and leg injuries (c) Direct, blunt trauma (d) Broken arms and ribs (e) Both (a) and (b) (f) Both (a) and (c) (g) (a), (b) and (c) 4...What pattern(s) of injury are most associated with the “Down and Under” mechanism of injury? (a) Head and neck injuries (b) Knee, hip , and leg

  11. Cardiometabolic Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Patterns in U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gabrielle P; Evenson, Kelly R; Herring, Amy H; Hales, Derek; Stevens, June

    2017-09-01

    Daily or weekly averages of physical activity and sedentary behavior could mask patterns of behavior throughout the week that independently affect cardiovascular health. We examined associations between day-to-day physical activity and sedentary behavior latent classes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in U.S. youth. Data were from 3984 youth ages 6-17 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006) and from previously published accelerometry latent classes characterizing average counts per minute and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of the classes with waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Participants spent 50.4% of the day in sedentary behavior and 5.3% of the day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Average counts per minute were 516.4 for a 7-d period. Significant differences in CVD risk factors were between extreme classes with few differences observed in intermediate classes. Youth in latent class 4 (highest average counts per minute) had lower systolic blood pressure (-4.11 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -7.74 to -0.55), lower glucose (-4.25 mg·dL, 95% CI = -7.84 to -0.66]), and lower insulin (-6.83 μU·mL, 95% CI = -8.66 to -4.99]) compared with youth in class 1 (lowest average counts per minute). Waist circumference was lower for the least sedentary class (-2.54 cm, 95% CI = -4.90 to -0.19) compared with the most sedentary class. Some associations were attenuated when classes were adjusted for mean physical activity or sedentary level. There is some indication that patterns, in addition to the total amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior, may be important for cardiovascular health in youth. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior

  12. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children’s Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Silva Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children’s behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204 that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children’s behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P<0.05. Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P<0.001. OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children’s behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children’s behavior during procedures.

  13. An Assessment of Correlation between Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susha Miriam; Philip, Biju; Madathody, Deepika; Mathew, Manu; Paul, Jose; Dlima, Johnson Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Investigators over years have been fascinated by dermatoglyphic patterns which has led to the development of dermatoglyphics as a science with numerous applications in various fields other than being the best and most widely used method for personal identification. To assess the correlation between dermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. A total of 180 patients, aged 18-40 years, were selected from those who attended the outpatient clinic of the Deparment of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Mar Baselios Dental College, Kothamangalam, Kerala, India. The fingerprints of both hands were taken by ink and stamp method after proper hand washing. The patterns of arches, loops and whorls in fingerprints were assessed. The total ridge count was also evaluated. Data was also sent to the fingerprint experts for expert evaluation. The sagittal jaw relation was determined from the patient's lateral cephalogram. The collected data was then statistically analyzed using Chi-square tests, ANOVA and Post-hoc tests and a Multinomial regression prediction was also done. A significant association was observed between the dermatoglyphic pattern exhibited by eight fingers and the sagittal skeletal discrepancies (pdermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. Dermatoglyphics could serve as a cost effective screening tool of these craniofacial problems.

  14. Optimized digital speckle patterns for digital image correlation by consideration of both accuracy and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; Xu, Xiangyang; He, Xiaoyuan

    2018-02-01

    The technique of digital image correlation (DIC), which has been widely used for noncontact deformation measurements in both the scientific and engineering fields, is greatly affected by the quality of speckle patterns in terms of its performance. This study was concerned with the optimization of the digital speckle pattern (DSP) for DIC in consideration of both the accuracy and efficiency. The root-mean-square error of the inverse compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm and the average number of iterations were used as quality metrics. Moreover, the influence of subset sizes and the noise level of images, which are the basic parameters in the quality assessment formulations, were also considered. The simulated binary speckle patterns were first compared with the Gaussian speckle patterns and captured DSPs. Both the single-radius and multi-radius DSPs were optimized. Experimental tests and analyses were conducted to obtain the optimized and recommended DSP. The vector diagram of the optimized speckle pattern was also uploaded as reference.

  15. SYSTEM DESIGN AND BEHAVIOR OF PATTERN RECOGNITION OF CONTROL CHART USING NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Yulius Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of unnatural patterns in control charts is important to get more understanding about the process problem. Shewhart control chart can recognize shift pattern only, while the others cannot be detected by this chart. Neural networks were proposed by many researchers to achieve the better recognition of the patterns. A system of neural networks needs to be fitted to this problem by realizing the behaviors of control charts. Each behavior will affect the development of each part of the system. Some problem need to be pointed also when dealing with the patterns of the control chart.

  16. Correlation of adolescents' self-concept and self-esteem with some unwholesome behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.

  17. Hippocampal neurogenesis and pattern separation: A meta-analysis of behavioral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Thiago F A; Bitencourt, Alexandre M; Maximilla, Naiana R; Barros, Daniela M; Monserrat, José M

    2017-09-01

    The generation of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mammals has become a widely accepted phenomenon, but the functional significance of the adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is not fully understood. One of the main hypotheses currently investigated suggests that neurogenesis contributes to pattern separation in the dentate gyrus. Many behavioral studies were conducted aiming to test this hypothesis using rodents as animal model. In those studies, researches ablated neurogenesis in the animals and subsequently evaluate them in tests of behavioral pattern separation, that is, behaviors that are thought to rely on the computational process of pattern separation. The results of these studies are varied, with most supporting a role for neurogenesis in pattern separation, but some others not. To address this controversy we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the effect of neurogenesis ablation on behavioral pattern separation. Analysis results indicated that most of the literature in the topic is surprisingly consistent and, although there are two studies with divergent results, the bulk of the literature supports an effect of hippocampal neurogenesis on behavioral pattern separation. We discuss those findings in light of other behavioral effects of hippocampal neurogenesis ablation, limitations of behavioral data and other lines of evidence about the effect of hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neural correlates of improvements in personality and behavior following a neurological event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marcie L; Manzel, Kenneth; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-11-21

    Research on changes in personality and behavior following brain damage has focused largely on negative outcomes, such as increased irritability, moodiness, and social inappropriateness. However, clinical observations suggest that some patients may actually show positive personality and behavioral changes following a neurological event. In the current work, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of positive personality and behavioral changes following a discrete neurological event (e.g., stroke, benign tumor resection). Patients (N = 97) were rated by a well-known family member or friend on five domains of personality and behavior: social behavior, irascibility, hypo-emotionality, distress, and executive functioning. Ratings were acquired during the chronic epoch of recovery, when psychological status was stabilized. We identified patients who showed positive changes in personality and behavior in one or more domains of functioning. Lesion analyses indicated that positive changes in personality and behavior were most consistently related to damage to the bilateral frontal polar regions and the right anterior dorsolateral prefrontal region. These findings support the conclusion that improvements in personality and behavior can occur after a neurological event, and that such changes have systematic neuroanatomical correlates. Patients who showed positive changes in personality and behavior following a neurological event were rated as having more disturbed functioning prior to the event. Our study may be taken as preliminary evidence that improvements in personality and behavior following a neurological event may involve dampening of (premorbidly) more extreme expressions of emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems as correlates for suicide-related behaviors in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kimberly B; Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Ouéda, Christiane; Wilcox, Holly C

    2011-05-01

    Suicide rates in Mexico have been rising steadily for several decades. This study examined the relationship of depressed mood and antisocial behavior problems with thoughts of death, suicide plans and attempts. Data from 22,966 individuals who participated in a population-based nationally-representative survey in Mexico were analyzed. After adjusting for covariates, all odds ratios for thoughts of death and suicidal behaviors were statistically significant in relation to antisocial behavior problems and depressed mood, both moderate and severe. Multiplicative effects of depressed mood and antisocial problems were found, with comorbid individuals showing increased risk of thoughts of death and suicidal plans and attempts, compared to individuals displaying none. Possible explanations, particularly for the multiplicative effect of both mood and problem behaviors on suicide-related behaviors, are discussed in the context of prior findings and directions for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel iris patterns matching algorithm of weighted polar frequency correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.

  1. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  2. [Correlations among disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lin, Zu-Chun; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2012-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an enigmatic disease that currently remains incurable. Failure to adopt positive self-care behaviors can exacerbate recurrent clinical symptoms and significantly affect a patient's capacity to function normally in work, family and social setting. Proper disease perception can improve patient attitudes toward disease management and positively influence behavior. This study investigated correlations between disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis. This study used a cross-sectional method and enrolled 82 outpatients currently receiving treatment for interstitial cystitis at a medical center in East Taiwan. A structured questionnaires filled out individually and submitted by mail was used for date collection. (1) The mean perception scale score was 7.6, with 63.3% providing correct responses. (2) The mean attitude score of 3.5 indicated respondents held positive attitudes. (3) The mean self-care behavior score of 3.4 indicated a leaning toward "occasional" self-care behavior. (4) Correlations among disease perception, attitude and self-care behavior in participants exhibited a significant, mild and positive correlation. (5) Higher education level correlated positively with insight and attitude toward interstitial cystitis. Participants with lower "current voiding problems" had a more positive attitude toward their disease. Participants with higher "numbers of painful sites" had better disease perception and better self care behaviors. Patients reporting "symptoms aggravated by other conditions" also had better interstitial cystitis perception. We found positive correlations among disease perceptions, attitudes and self-care behaviors in patients with interstitial cystitis. We strongly recommend that all healthcare providers evaluate patient disease perception extent. Nurses should provide patients with correct disease concepts, and encourage positive attitudes and self-caring behaviors

  3. Theoretical estimation for correlations of diffraction patterns from objects differently oriented in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, B; Martin, A V; Wang, F; Chapman, H N; Weckert, E

    2011-06-01

    Coherent diffraction imaging of single biomolecules is expected to open unique opportunities for studies of non-crystalline samples. There are, however, still many technical and physical issues that need to be resolved in a more quantitative manner, especially if one aims for structural information at high resolution. Signal recorded from an object after a single shot is low. As primarily proposed in Spence and Doak (2004) and Huldt et al. (2003), averaging over the diffraction patterns from many different shots is necessary, in order to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for image reconstruction. The images of the randomly oriented molecules have to be sorted out in order to identify those corresponding to the similar spatial orientations of the objects. This procedure is called the classification of diffraction images. Here we approach the classification in the framework of pattern-to-pattern correlations, and analyse theoretically the correlations between diffraction images of differently oriented objects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Move Over! Studying Flatfish Travel Patterns to Profile Fish Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla

    2012-01-01

    The way an animal moves from place to place can inform us about its life and environment. In this lesson, students examine the travel patterns of juvenile flatfishes in an estuary. The process of sampling bottom-dwelling fishes is explained, and data from a university-based marine science laboratory are evaluated. Students compare the distance…

  5. Patterns of Antenatal Care Seeking Behavior in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is important in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on inequities on ANC seeking pattern among the pregnant women in Nigeria. Aim: The study was designed to explore inequities due to age, education, and socioeconomic status (SES) of women of ...

  6. Clinical and socio-behavioral correlates of tooth loss: a study of older adults in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focusing 50 year olds and above, this study assessed the frequency, extent and correlates of tooth loss due to various reasons. Frequency and correlates of posterior occluding support was also investigated. Method A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Pwani region and in Dar es Salaam in 2004/2005. One thousand and thirty-one subjects, mean age 62.9 years participated in a clinical examination and completed interviews. Results The prevalence of tooth loss due to any reason was 83.5 %, due to caries 63.4% and due to other reasons than caries, 32.5%. A total of 74.9% had reduced number of posterior occluding units. Compared to subjects having less than 5 teeth lost due to caries, those with 5 or more lost teeth were more likely to be females, having decayed teeth, confirming dental attendance and to be among the least poor residents. Compared to subjects who had lost less than 5 teeth due to reasons other than caries, those who had lost 5 or more teeth were more likely to be of higher age, having mobile teeth, being males, being very poor and to disconfirm dental attendance when having problems. Predictors of prevalence of tooth loss (1 or more lost tooth due to various reasons and reduced number of occluding units followed similar patterns of relationships. Conclusion The results are consistent with prevalence and extent of tooth loss due to caries and due to reasons other than caries being differently related to disease- and socio- behavioral risk indicators. Caries was the principle cause of tooth loss and molar teeth were the teeth most commonly lost.

  7. High-risk sexual behavior and pattern of condom utilization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS) is unique in its devastating impact on the social, economic and demographic development. This study was conducted to assess College students' `knowledge' about condom distribution, high-risk behavior and pattern of condom utilization.

  8. MR patterns of rotator cuff impingement lesions and histopathologic correlation of cadaver tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Minkoff, J.; Sherman, O.; Schinella, R.; Weinreb, J.C.; Golimbu, C.; Zazlav, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports shoulder MR examinations of 250 patients retrospectively evaluated and correlated with surgical/arthrographic results in 68 patients and with clinical data in all for assessment of the signal pattern and the configuration of rotator cuff lesions. MR-histopathologic evaluation of the supraspinatus tendon of 8 cadaver shoulders was also correlated with these findings. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 92% in the diagnosis of cuff tears. The most common and accurate criterion for a tear was a tendinous defect, characterized by intense signal on T2-weighted images; less often the torn region consisted of an extremely degenerated and attenuated tendon or was obscured by scar. Presence of secondary findings was mandatory for diagnosis in the latter group. Signal pattern associated with tendonitis varied, and in some simulated that of tendon degeneration (fatty infiltration and fibrillation) or cellular proliferation observed on anatomic specimens. Associated tendinous enlargement and subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis in these patients best correlated with the severity of clinical and surgical findings

  9. Beyond Knowledge : Patterns of Sexuality and Correlates of High Risk Behaviour among Urban Youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruneh, Yordanos Mequanint

    2004-01-01

    A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...

  10. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-08-15

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals.

  11. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  12. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  13. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  14. Correlations among behavior, performance and environment in broiler breeders using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare issues have received much attention not only to supply farmed animal requirements, but also to ethical and cultural public concerns. Daily collected information, as well as the systematic follow-up of production stages, produces important statistical data for production assessment and control, as well as for improvement possibilities. In this scenario, this research study analyzed behavioral, production, and environmental data using Main Component Multivariable Analysis, which correlated observed behaviors, recorded using video cameras and electronic identification, with performance parameters of female broiler breeders. The aim was to start building a system to support decision-making in broiler breeder housing, based on bird behavioral parameters. Birds were housed in an environmental chamber, with three pens with different controlled environments. Bird sensitivity to environmental conditions were indicated by their behaviors, stressing the importance of behavioral observations for modern poultry management. A strong association between performance parameters and the behavior "at the nest", suggesting that this behavior may be used to predict productivity. The behaviors of "ruffling feathers", "opening wings", "preening", and "at the drinker" were negatively correlated with environmental temperature, suggesting that the increase of in the frequency of these behaviors indicate improvement of thermal welfare.

  15. In-situation safety behaviors among patients with panic disorder: descriptive and correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Tadashi; Furukawa, Toshi A; Nakano, Yumi; Noda, Yumiko; Ogawa, Sei; Watanabe, Norio; Chen, Junwen; Noguchi, Yuka

    2013-07-01

    In-situation safety behaviors play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety because they prevent patients from experiencing unambiguous disconfirmation of their unrealistic beliefs about feared catastrophes. Strategies for identifying particular safety behaviors, however, have not been sufficiently investigated. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a comprehensive list of safety behaviors seen in panic disorder and to examine their frequency; and (ii) correlate the safety behaviors with panic attack symptoms, agoraphobic situations and treatment response. The subjects consisted of 46 consecutive patients who participated in group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder. All the patients completed a Safety Behavior List that was developed based on experiences with panic disorder patients. Carrying medications, distracting attention, carrying a plastic bottle, and drinking water were reported by more than half of the patients. The strongest correlations between panic symptoms and safety behaviors were found between symptoms of derealization and listening to music with headphones, paresthesia and pushing a cart while shopping, and nausea and squatting down. The strongest association between agoraphobic situations and safety behaviors was found between the fear of taking a bus or a train alone and moving around. Staying still predicted response to the CBT program, while concentrating on something predicted lack of response. An approximate guideline has been developed for identifying safety behaviors among patients with panic disorder and should help clinicians use CBT more effectively for these patients. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  17. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Jyoti; Diwanji, Amish; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Sharma, Dipal

    2017-01-01

    To develop a simple method to assess the level of anxiety by using children's drawings and correlating them with Frankl's behavior rating scale. A total of 178 patients aged of 3 to 14 years were handed out two-page forms which contained three sections on coloring and drawing, along with general information, and Frankl's behavior rating scale for the visit. The three types of drawing exercises given to the patients were geometric copy drawings, coloring a nonthreatening figure, and an empty sheet for freehand drawing. Out of 178 patients, 60 showed definitely positive behavior, 73 exhibited positive behavior, 37 showed negative behavior, and 8 were definitely negative on Frankl's behavior rating scale; 133 children had none or, 1 stress marker and 45 exhibited 2 or 3 stress markers in their drawings. Chi-square (χ 2 ) analysis was done with a 2 × 2 contingency table. Observed χ 2 value was 46.166, which at 1 degree of freedom was much greater than that at 0.995 percentile. Therefore, the result was highly significant. Children requiring specialized behavioral techniques can be identified by the presence of stress markers in their drawings. This nonverbal activity by itself can have an overall positive effect on the behavior displayed in the dental clinic. Mathur J, Diwanji A, Sarvaiya B, Sharma D. Identifying Dental Anxiety in Children's Drawings and correlating It with Frankl's Behavior Rating Scale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):24-28.

  18. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  19. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wendy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  20. Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, D.; Aquila, A.; Bajt, S.; Barthelmess, M.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Coppola, N.; Doak, R. B.; Epp, S. W.; Erk, B.; Foucar, L.; Gumprecht, L.; Hampton, C. Y.; Hartmann, A.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Kassemeyer, S.; Kimmel, N.; Laksmono, H.; Liang, M.; Loh, N. D.; Lomb, L.; Martin, A. V.; Nass, K.; Reich, C.; Rolles, D.; Rudek, B.; Rudenko, A.; Schulz, J.; Shoeman, R. L.; Sierra, R. G.; Soltau, H.; Steinbrener, J.; Stellato, F.; Stern, S.; Weidenspointner, G.; Frank, M.; Ullrich, J.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Bogan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Diffractive imaging with free-electron lasers allows structure determination from ensembles of weakly scattering identical nanoparticles. The ultra-short, ultra-bright X-ray pulses provide snapshots of the randomly oriented particles frozen in time, and terminate before the onset of structural damage. As signal strength diminishes for small particles, the synthesis of a three-dimensional diffraction volume requires simultaneous involvement of all data. Here we report the first application of a three-dimensional spatial frequency correlation analysis to carry out this synthesis from noisy single-particle femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns of nearly identical samples in random and unknown orientations, collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our demonstration uses unsupported test particles created via aerosol self-assembly, and composed of two polystyrene spheres of equal diameter. The correlation analysis avoids the need for orientation determination entirely. This method may be applied to the structural determination of biological macromolecules in solution.

  1. Design of correlation filters for pattern recognition with disjoint reference image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-González, Pablo Mario; Kober, Vitaly

    2011-11-01

    Correlation filters for pattern recognition are commonly designed under the assumption that the shape and appearance of an object of interest are explicitly known. In this paper, we consider a signal model in which an object of interest is given at unknown coordinates in a cluttered reference image and corrupted by additive noise. The reference image is used to design filters for detecting a target in scenes with a nonoverlapping background and additive noise. An optimum correlation filter with respect to peak-to-output energy for object detection is derived. The shape and appearance of the target are estimated from the reference image. Two methods to estimate the frequency response of the derived filter are used. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed filters are presented and discussed. The performance of the filters is evaluated in terms of discrimination capability and location accuracy for different statistics of the backgrounds and noise processes present in the signal model.

  2. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pegorini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.

  3. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito José; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, Fábio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni

    2015-11-11

    Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.

  4. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Silfee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Methods Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. Results After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM (OR = 1.403, p = .018; and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05. Conclusions There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  5. Patterns of Partners' Abusive Behaviors as Reported by Latina and Non-Latina Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…

  6. Patterns of trading profiles at the Nordic Stock Exchange. A correlation-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musciotto, Federico; Marotta, Luca; Miccichè, Salvatore; Piilo, Jyrki; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the trading behavior of Finnish individual investors trading the stocks selected to compute the OMXH25 index in 2003 by tracking the individual daily investment decisions. We verify that the set of investors is a highly heterogeneous system under many aspects. We introduce a correlation based method that is able to detect a hierarchical structure of the trading profiles of heterogeneous individual investors. We verify that the detected hierarchical structure is highly overlapping with the cluster structure obtained with the approach of statistically validated networks when an appropriate threshold of the hierarchical trees is used. We also show that the combination of the correlation based method and of the statistically validated method provides a way to expand the information about the clusters of investors with similar trading profiles in a robust and reliable way.

  7. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-02

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  9. Regime Behavior in Paleo-Reconstructed Streamflow: Attributions to Atmospheric Dynamics, Synoptic Circulation and Large-Scale Climate Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, A.; Devineni, N.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown that streamflow behavior and dynamics have a significant link with climate and climate variability. Patterns of persistent regime behavior from extended streamflow records in many watersheds justify investigating large-scale climate mechanisms as potential drivers of hydrologic regime behavior and streamflow variability. Understanding such streamflow-climate relationships is crucial to forecasting/simulation systems and the planning and management of water resources. In this study, hidden Markov models are used with reconstructed streamflow to detect regime-like behaviors - the hidden states - and state transition phenomena. Individual extreme events and their spatial variability across the basin are then verified with the identified states. Wavelet analysis is performed to examine the signals over time in the streamflow records. Joint analyses of the climatic data in the 20th century and the identified states are undertaken to better understand the hydroclimatic connections within the basin as well as important teleconnections that influence water supply. Compositing techniques are used to identify atmospheric circulation patterns associated with identified states of streamflow. The grouping of such synoptic patterns and their frequency are then examined. Sliding time-window correlation analysis and cross-wavelet spectral analysis are performed to establish the synchronicity of basin flows to the identified synoptic and teleconnection patterns. The Missouri River Basin (MRB) is examined in this study, both as a means of better understanding the synoptic climate controls in this important watershed and as a case study for the techniques developed here. Initial wavelet analyses of reconstructed streamflow at major gauges in the MRB show multidecadal cycles in regime behavior.

  10. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD.Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions.Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize exploration and novelty seeking and, in parallel with

  11. Marked inbred mouse strain difference in the expression of quinpirole induced compulsive like behavior based on behavioral pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Seddik, Amir; Oppelaar, Hugo; Westenberg, Herman G M; Kas, Martien J H

    2012-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and complex psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2-3%. Recent work has shown that OCD rituals were not only characterized by a high rate of repetition but also by an increased behavioral repertoire due to additional non-functional unique acts. These two behavioral characteristics may provide an ethological basis for studying compulsive behavior in an animal model of OCD. Here, quinpirole induced behavior (so far only investigated in rats) has been studied in A/J and C57BL/6J mice by using behavioral pattern analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic background is mediating this behavior. Results showed that open field motor activity levels of saline treated C57BL/6J mice was significantly higher compared to A/J treated saline mice. Long-term quinpirole treatment increased open field motor activity levels in A/J, but not in C57BL/6J. Quinpirole treatment induced a strain dependent difference in behavioral repertoire. There was a dose dependent increase in the number of different behavioral patterns in A/J, whereas, in C57BL/6J there was a dose dependent decrease. This data suggest that genetic background is important in expressing quinpirole induced compulsive like behavior. Following quinpirole treatment, A/J mice express a greater behavioral repertoire with a high rate of repetition. This phenotype resembles that of OCD rituals in patients and indicates that this strain is very interesting to further validate for studying neurobiological mechanisms of compulsive behavior. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on backg...

  13. A Model for Relating Advertising Media Exposures to Purchase Incidence Behavior Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fred S. Zufryden

    1987-01-01

    A stochastic model is proposed to study the effect of advertising on consumer purchase dynamics by specifically relating the distribution of exposures, from a brand's media schedule, to brand purchase incidence behavior patterns over time. The approach is based on underlying individual consumer behavior assumptions that reflect the dynamics of exposures to advertising and brand purchase behavior, conditional on the level of advertising exposure received. Moreover, a population-based model is ...

  14. Physical Activity Behavior Patterns during School Leisure Time in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity (PA in children is paramount to attenuate the incidence of chronic disease and to improve social and cognitive health. Limited research exists examining the observed PA patterns during school leisure times in children from the U.S. The purpose of this study was to examine the observed PA patterns of children during three school leisure times: before school, during lunch, and after school. The SOPLAY instrument was used to observe PA during the three leisure times across six weeks at four elementary schools in the U.S. Observer PA counts were stratified by sex, PA intensity (sedentary, walking, and very active, and leisure time. Multi-level models were employed to examine the effect of leisure time and PA intensity on observer PA counts, adjusting for day and school-level clustering. Lunch displayed the greatest number of counts for sedentary, walking, and very active PA intensities (p 0.05. After school displayed the fewest counts for walking and very active PA in both sexes (p < 0.05. An emphasis should be placed on increasing walking and very active PA intensities before school and during lunch in girls and after school in both sexes. Keywords: after school, before school, lunch, SOPLAY, systematic observation

  15. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, o...

  16. Correlation of parents' religious behavior with family's emotional relations and students' self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.

  17. Quantification of correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Paulina; Saravia, Julia; Ferrandière, Beatriz Decencière; Perret, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Phenotypic selection is widely accepted as the primary cause of adaptive evolution in natural populations, but selection on complex functional properties linking physiology, behavior, and morphology has been rarely quantified. In ectotherms, correlational selection on thermal physiology, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism is of special interest because of their potential coadaptation. We quantified phenotypic selection on thermal sensitivity of locomotor performance (sprint speed), thermal preferences, and resting metabolic rate in captive populations of an ectothermic vertebrate, the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara. No correlational selection between thermal sensitivity of performance, thermoregulatory behavior, and energy metabolism was found. A combination of high body mass and resting metabolic rate was positively correlated with survival and negatively correlated with fecundity. Thus, different mechanisms underlie selection on metabolism in lizards with small body mass than in lizards with high body mass. In addition, lizards that selected the near average preferred body temperature grew faster that their congeners. This is one of the few studies that quantifies significant correlational selection on a proxy of energy expenditure and stabilizing selection on thermoregulatory behavior.

  18. Quantifying Tourist Behavior Patterns by Travel Motifs and Geo-Tagged Photos from Flickr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With millions of people traveling to unfamiliar cities to spend holidays, travel recommendation becomes necessary to assist tourists in planning their trips more efficiently. Serving as a prerequisite to travel recommender systems, understanding tourist behavior patterns is therefore of great importance. Recently, geo-tagged photos on social media platforms like Flickr have provided a rich data source that captures location histories of tourists and reflects their preferences. This article utilizes geo-tagged photos from Flickr to extract trajectories of tourists and then extends the concept of motifs from topological spaces, to temporal spaces and to semantic spaces, for detecting tourist mobility patterns. By representing trajectories in terms of three distinct types of travel motif and further using them to measure user similarity, typical tourist travel behavior patterns associated with distinct sightseeing tastes/preferences are identified and analyzed for tourism recommendation. Our empirical results confirm that the proposed analytical framework is effective to uncover meaningful tourist behavior patterns.

  19. Adolescent sedentary behaviors: correlates differ for television viewing and computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Wolstein, Joelle

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity in youth. Understanding correlates of specific sedentary behaviors can inform the development of interventions to reduce sedentary time. The current research examines correlates of leisure computer use and television viewing among adolescents in California. Using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, we examined individual, family, and environmental correlates of two sedentary behaviors among 4,029 adolescents: leisure computer use and television watching. Linear regression analyses adjusted for a range of factors indicated several differences in the correlates of television watching and computer use. Correlates of additional time spent watching television included male sex, American Indian and African American race, lower household income, lower levels of physical activity, lower parent educational attainment, and additional hours worked by parents. Correlates of a greater amount of time spent using the computer for fun included older age, Asian race, higher household income, lower levels of physical activity, less parental knowledge of free-time activities, and living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of nonwhite residents and higher proportions of low-income residents. Only physical activity was associated similarly with both watching television and computer use. These results suggest that correlates of time spent on television watching and leisure computer use are different. Reducing screen time is a potentially successful strategy in combating childhood obesity, and understanding differences in the correlates of different screen time behaviors can inform the development of more effective interventions to reduce sedentary time. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlations for the partition behavior of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Andrews, B.A.; Asenjo, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    with 3% w/w NaCl was used for alpha-amylase. The concentration of the protein in each of the phases affected its partition behavior. The pattern for the individual proteins was dependent on their physicochemical properties. In the top phase, maximum protein concentration was determined mainly by a steric...

  1. Behavioral pattern separation and its link to the neural mechanisms of fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Iris; Goossens, Liesbet; Michielse, Stijn; Bakker, Jindra; Lissek, Shmuel; Papalini, Silvia; Verhagen, Simone; Leibold, Nicole; Marcelis, Machteld; Wichers, Marieke; Lieverse, Ritsaert; van Os, Jim; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Schruers, Koen

    2017-11-01

    Fear generalization is a prominent feature of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is defined as enhanced fear responding to a stimulus that bears similarities, but is not identical to a threatening stimulus. Pattern separation, a hippocampal-dependent process, is critical for stimulus discrimination; it transforms similar experiences or events into non-overlapping representations. This study is the first in humans to investigate the extent to which fear generalization relies on behavioral pattern separation abilities. Participants (N = 46) completed a behavioral task taxing pattern separation, and a neuroimaging fear conditioning and generalization paradigm. Results show an association between lower behavioral pattern separation performance and increased generalization in shock expectancy scores, but not in fear ratings. Furthermore, lower behavioral pattern separation was associated with diminished recruitment of the subcallosal cortex during presentation of generalization stimuli. This region showed functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Together, the data provide novel experimental evidence that pattern separation is related to generalization of threat expectancies, and reduced fear inhibition processes in frontal regions. Deficient pattern separation may be critical in overgeneralization and therefore may contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and PTSD. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. A study of associations among attachment patterns, maltreatment, and behavior problem in institutionalized children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko; Tanimukai, Mitsue; Akazawa, Junko

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the relationships among children's history of maltreatment, attachment patterns, and behavior problems in Japanese institutionalized children. Twenty-nine children (12 boys and 17 girls) from three different institutions in the Kinki area (Western part of Japan) participated in this study. Their average age was 6. 41-years (ranging from 4 to 10). Thirteen of the children (44.8%) had history of maltreatment before they were institutionalized. Children's attachment was assessed by the Attachment Doll Play Assessment (George & Solomon, 1990, 1996, 2000). The child's main caregiver answered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Archenbach, 1991) to identify children's behavior problems. Results indicated a significant relationship between maltreatment history and attachment pattern. The relationship between attachment pattern and behavior problem was also confirmed. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender Differences in Patterns and Correlates of Khat and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although research suggests gender differences in patterns of tobacco use, whether gender moderates concurrent use of tobacco and other substances remains unclear. In some parts of Africa and the Middle East, tobacco is often accompanied with khat (Catha edulis), a widely used substance in these regions. The concurrent use of tobacco and khat may represent a public health burden spreading to other countries in Europe and North America. Method: A total of 189 participants (69 women) khat users and smokers in Yemen were asked to complete questionnaires that focused on patterns of khat and tobacco use. Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and correlational analyses were conducted. Results: Reported frequency and intensity of khat and tobacco use were greater among men than in women. Also, reported number of cigarettes smoked during a khat session was higher among men than among women, whereas frequency of waterpipe use during the session was greater among women than among men. Smoking status (daily or occasional) was positively associated with khat use in women only. Age of onset of khat use was inversely related to the number of cigarettes smoked during a khat session and with intensity of khat chewing. The majority of participants reported that they had thought about and have attempted to quit khat and tobacco use. Conclusions: The results provide evidence for gender differences in patterns of concurrent use of tobacco and khat. Identifying determinants of tobacco and khat use may be useful in reducing the risk of their negative health outcomes. PMID:23197767

  4. Thermo-mechanical toner transfer for high-quality digital image correlation speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Zappa, Emanuele; Matta, Fabio; Sutton, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy and spatial resolution of full-field deformation measurements performed through digital image correlation are greatly affected by the frequency content of the speckle pattern, which can be effectively controlled using particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. This paper introduces a novel toner-transfer technique to impress a well-defined and repeatable speckle pattern on plane and curved surfaces of metallic and cement composite specimens. The speckle pattern is numerically designed, printed on paper using a standard laser printer, and transferred onto the measurement surface via a thermo-mechanical process. The tuning procedure to compensate for the difference between designed and toner-transferred actual speckle size is presented. Based on this evidence, the applicability of the technique is discussed with respect to surface material, dimensions and geometry. Proof of concept of the proposed toner-transfer technique is then demonstrated for the case of a quenched and partitioned welded steel plate subjected to uniaxial tensile loading, and for an aluminum plate exposed to temperatures up to 70% of the melting point of aluminum and past the melting point of typical printer toner powder.

  5. Application of Latent Class Analysis to Identify Behavioral Patterns of Response to Behavioral Lifestyle Interventions in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Coughlin, Janelle W; Appel, Lawrence J; Tyson, Crystal; Stevens, Victor J; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Brantley, Phillip J; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2015-08-01

    Examining responders and non-responders to behavioral lifestyle interventions among overweight/obese adults with additional comorbidities may aid in refining and tailoring obesity treatment. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of latent class analysis to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions based on adherence to diet and exercise recommendations. Repeated measures latent class analysis was applied to two clinical trial datasets, combination of two active interventions in the PREMIER Trial (n = 501) and phase 1 of the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial (WLM; n = 1685), to identify patterns of response to behavioral lifestyle interventions. Treatment response was based on adherence to daily recommendations for fruit/vegetable, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and exercise at baseline and 6 months. In PREMIER, three distinct latent classes emerged: responders (45.9%), non-responders (23.6%), and early adherers (30.5%). Responders and Early Adherers had greater weight loss at 6 and 18 months and were more likely to meet behavioral recommendations at 18 months than Non-responders. For WLM, there were four latent classes: partial responders (16%), non-responders (40%), early adherers (2%), and fruit/veggie only responders (41%). Non-responders in WLM had significantly less weight loss at 6 months compared to that of the other three latent classes. Latent class analysis is a useful method to apply to clinical trial data to identify distinct patterns of response to behavioral interventions. Overweight/ obese participants who respond to behavioral lifestyle treatment (i.e., meet behavioral recommendations) have significantly greater weight loss than that of participants who do not make behavioral changes.

  6. Individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters correlate with anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Anyan

    Full Text Available Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e.g., brain lesions, chronic stress, global gene deletion affect behavior independently of circadian system. This study investigates the relationship between individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats. The circadian phenotype of male Lewis rats was characterized by analyzing wheel running behavior under standard 12h:12h LD conditions, constant dark, constant light, and rate of re-entrainment to a phase advance. Rats were then tested on a battery of behavioral tests: activity box, restricted feeding, elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and fear conditioning. Under 12h:12h LD conditions, percent of daily activity in the light phase and variability in activity onset were associated with longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test. Variability in onset also correlated positively with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rate of re-entrainment correlated positively with measures of anxiety in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Lastly, we found that free running period under constant dark was associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Our results provide a previously uncharacterized relationship between circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats and provide a basis for future examination into circadian clock

  7. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  8. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  9. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    the advantage over normal cameras that they can operate independent of light, and in many situations they perform better with Computer Vision software as segmentation of moving objects is easier in thermal video. At the same time concerns for privacy issues when tracking people can be neglected since...... studies. Our method builds on previous work and extends the analysis to the GIS domain by capturing georeferenced tracks. This allows for analysis of the tracks in relation to other spatio-temporally referenced data. Environmental variables that might influence movement patterns in urban landscapes......-Analyst software developed at Lund University. Tracks of people walking alone or in social groups of different sizes were recorded, as well as people waiting, people having a conversation, and people dragging their bikes or pushing prams or wheelchairs. The tracks of ‘facers’ working for a charity organization...

  10. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  11. Laser Opto-Electronic Correlator for Robotic Vision Automated Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville

    1995-01-01

    A compact laser opto-electronic correlator for pattern recognition has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Specifically it is a translation sensitivity adjustable compact optical correlator (TSACOC) utilizing convergent laser beams for the holographic filter. Its properties and performance, including the location of the correlation peak and the effects of lateral and longitudinal displacements for both filters and input images, are systematically analyzed based on the nonparaxial approximation for the reference beam. The theoretical analyses have been verified in experiments. In applying the TSACOC to important practical problems including fingerprint identification, we have found that the tolerance of the system to the input lateral displacement can be conveniently increased by changing a geometric factor of the system. The system can be compactly packaged using the miniature laser diode sources and can be used in space by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and ground commercial applications which include robotic vision, and industrial inspection of automated quality control operations. The personnel of Standard International will work closely with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to transfer the technology to the commercial market. Prototype systems will be fabricated to test the market and perfect the product. Large production will follow after successful results are achieved.

  12. Correlations between sea surface temperature, circulation patterns and the distribution of hermatypic corals of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J. E. N.; Minchin, Peter R.

    1992-07-01

    Techniques of multivariate exploratory data analysis and regression are used to examine correlations between patterns of distribution of the hermatypic corals of the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, sea surface temperature (SST) and dispersal time. The species composition of all localities is highly correlated with geographic position, with species richness decreasing with latitude. There is an abrupt decrease in diversity between reefal (Ryukyu Islands) and non-reefal (mainland) localities. The compositional data are strongly unidimensional and this dimension is correlated with SST. There are eight high latitude endemic species as well as other species "locked-up" in northern localities as a result of the northward-flowing Kuroshio Current. On a broad scale, overall similarity in coral species composition can be predicted solely from absolute differences in SST and dispersal time makes no significant contribution. Except for short term or localized chilling, the minimum SST for coral reef development is 18°C. Of all Japanese species, 22.5% tolerate a minimum SST of 10.4°C, 27% tolerate 13.2°C and 48% tolerate 14.1°C. Thus, approximately half of all species tolerate temperatures 4°C below the 18°C minimum required for reef development.

  13. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  15. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Behavior Assessment Battery: A Pilot Study of the Affective, Behavioral, and Cognitive Correlates Surrounding Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Hoffman Ruddy, Bari; Lehman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) report to experience anxiety and voice problems in particular situations, indicate the presence of negative speech-associated attitude, and/or the use of coping behaviors, by means of the Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB) modified for voice. Thirty-two participants with ADSD and 32 adults without a voice disorder participated in this study. Each person completed four different BAB-Voice subtests. These standardized self-report tests are adaptations of the original BAB for people who stutter and explore an individual's speech-related belief, negative emotional reaction to and speech problems in particular speech situations, and the use of concomitant behaviors. Individuals with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) scored statistically significantly higher compared to typical speakers on all BAB subtests, indicating that individuals with SD report being significantly more anxious and experiencing significantly more voice problems in particular speech circumstances. They also reported a significant amount of negative speech-associated attitude and the use of a significant number of coping behaviors. Internal reliability was good for three of the four BAB subtests. The BAB is capable of reflecting the dimensions that surround the disorder of SD. The self-report measures have the potential to augment the observations made by the clinician and may lead to a more diverse and all-encompassing therapy for the person suffering from SD. Future research with a revised version of the BAB-Voice will continue to explore the validity, reliability, and replicability of the initial data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Patterns of sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Rice, Cara E; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2017-11-21

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections. Recent research has documented the importance of understanding the multidimensional nature of sexual risk behavior; however, little is known about how multidimensional patterns of sexual behavior among MSM may be associated with STIs. This study applies latent class analysis to data from a large, HIV- sample of 18-25 year old MSM recruited from social and sexual networking websites (N = 5,965; 76% white, 11% Latino, 5% Black, 4% Asian, 4% other; 74% homosexual, 21% bisexual, 1% heterosexual, 3%, unsure/questioning 1% other) to uncover multidimensional patterns of past-year sexual behaviors, partner factors, and protective behavior and their associations with self-reported STI diagnosis. We selected a model with 8 classes, with nearly half of participants belonging to a class marked by multiple behaviors with more than one partner, and smaller numbers of individuals in classes with a smaller number of behaviors, romantic relationships, and sexual inactivity. Class membership was associated with recent STI diagnosis, with classes marked by no penetrative sex or receptive anal sex with consistent condom use having lower prevalence than those with inconsistent condom use, including those engaging in only insertive anal sex. Findings suggest heterogeneity of behaviors within MSM and that prevention messages may be more effective if they are tailored to individuals' patterns of sexual behavior, as well as demographic and socio-contextual factors.

  18. Towards high-throughput phenotyping of complex patterned behaviors in rodents: focus on mouse self-grooming and its sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Roth, Andrew; Green, Jeremy; Pham, Mimi; Stewart, Adam; Liang, Yiqing; Kobla, Vikrant; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly recognized in biological psychiatry, rodent self-grooming is a complex patterned behavior with evolutionarily conserved cephalo-caudal progression. While grooming is traditionally assessed by the latency, frequency and duration, its sequencing represents another important domain sensitive to various experimental manipulations. Such behavioral complexity requires novel objective approaches to quantify rodent grooming, in addition to time-consuming and highly variable manual observation. The present study combined modern behavior-recognition video-tracking technologies (CleverSys, Inc.) with manual observation to characterize in-depth spontaneous (novelty-induced) and artificial (water-induced) self-grooming in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We specifically focused on individual episodes of grooming (paw licking, head washing, body/leg washing, and tail/genital grooming), their duration and transitions between episodes. Overall, the frequency, duration and transitions detected using the automated approach significantly correlated with manual observations (R=0.51-0.7, pgrooming, also indicating that behavior-recognition tools can be applied to characterize both the amount and sequential organization (patterning) of rodent grooming. Together with further refinement and methodological advancement, this approach will foster high-throughput neurophenotyping of grooming, with multiple applications in drug screening and testing of genetically modified animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  20. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, S.; Fischer, A.H.; Hess, U.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results

  1. Dyslipidemia Pattern in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Correlation of Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Joshi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a multi-factorial disease which affects the immune system and ultimately various tissues in the body that typically affects middle-aged individuals. Our objectives were to evaluate prevalence of dyslipidemias and its pattern in RA patients in Central India and correlate dyslipidemia with disease activity. This cross-sectional study was conducted on RA patients at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences and Post Graduate Institute, Indore (M.P. between January 2014 and December 2015. Lipid profiles were determined following 12-hour overnight fasting, and the association of lipid profiles with and disease activity was determined. The maximum number of cases presented in the age group was 41-50(36%. Disease is more prevalent in female population. Maximum number of pateints (34 patients had duration of illness ranged between 1 to 10 years. Most of the patients presented with high disease activity (90%. Total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in female cases as compared to controls. Similar to total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol was significantly higher in female cases as compared to controls. There was no significant difference of HDL, VLDL and TG between cases and controls. Mean lipid profile values were similar in male cases and controls. Positive correlation of DAS-28 (ESR was observed with total cholesterol and LDL levels in female patients only. No correlation of HDL, LDL and triglyceride were observed with DAS- 28 (ESR in both male and female patients. Lipid profiles were similar in both treatment naive and on treatment patients. No significant difference in mean lipid profile values expect HDL was observed in two groups created on the basis of RA factor. A lipid profile value has no positive or negative correlation with duration of illness. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 132-137

  2. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in the rates and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Audrey J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Meade, Christina S; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Calsyn, Donald A; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities; yet research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors is limited. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network trials. The sample was 41% non-Hispanic White, 32% non-Hispanic Black, and 27% Hispanic (N = 2,063). HIV risk behaviors and measures of substance and psychosocial HIV risk factors in the past month were obtained. Non-Hispanic Blacks engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than non-Hispanic Whites. While non-Hispanic Whites were the most likely to report any injection drug use, Hispanics engaged in the most HIV drug risk behaviors. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behavior by race/ethnicity. Alcohol use severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Greater psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites. Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with the magnitude of the relationship stronger for Hispanics. These findings highlight the need for further research testing HIV risk prevention interventions within racial/ethnic groups to identify target behaviors or risk factors that are salient to inform HIV interventions. The present study provides a systematic examination of race/ethnicity differences in the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and HIV risk behaviors. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR). The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students' place of living and their parents' job, and using computer games. Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents.

  5. Disruption of microvascular flow-patterns in Alzheimer's disease correlates with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Bæksager; Egefjord, Lærke; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    BACKGROUND: The capillary dysfunction hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) proposes that changes in capillary morphology and function disrupts microvascular flow-patterns, consequently, limiting oxygen delivery, causing tissue-hypoxia and neurodegeneration. Capillary dysfunction is characterized...... and neurodegeneration in AD. METHOD: 24 patients diagnosed with AD were assessed at inclusion and after six months. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we estimated CTH, flow-normalized CTH termed relative transit time heterogeneity (RTH), OEFmax and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Neurodegeneration...... by elevated capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) and accompanying raised maximum oxygen extraction fraction (OEFmax), which theoretically reflects weakened tissue oxygen-tension. AIM: We tested whether the severity of CTH and the level of OEFmax correlated with the severity of cognitive symptoms...

  6. Specificity of Correlation Pattern Recognition Methods Application in Security Holograms Identity Control Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, R. S.; Odinokov, S. B.; Tsyganov, I. K.; Talalaev, V. E.; Koluchkin, V. V.

    Automatic inspection of security hologram (SH) identity is highly demanded issue due high distribution of SH worldwide to protect documents such as passports, driving licenses, banknotes etc. While most of the known approaches use inspection of SH design features none of these approaches inspect the features of its surface relief that is a direct contribution to original master matrix used for these holograms production. In our previous works we represented the device that was developed to provide SH identification by processing of coherent responses of its surface elements. Most of the algorithms used in this device are based on application of correlation pattern recognition methods. The main issue of the present article is a description of these methods application specificities.

  7. Correlation of isotopic cisternographic patterns in multiple sclerosis with CSF IgG values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, S.; Inzitari, D.; Castagnoli, A.; Amaducci, L.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-eight patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined with isotopic cisternography (IC) in order to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. Cisternography was also performed in 15 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in 14 with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type as controls. IC pattern of ''mixed'' type was found in 18 MS patients and all those with Alzheimer senile dementia examined, while the IC examination did not show abnormality in any of 15 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In MS patients, the abnormal IC picture proved to be significantly correlated with the CSF IgG values as calculated by Link's and Tourtelotte's formulas. The abnormal IC in MS may be due to altered CSF reabsorption or increased transependymal flow, or it may be related to the abnormal concentration of IgG.

  8. Correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of pasture-grazed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida Santana Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers in grazing tropical. The experiment was conducted on the Princesa do Mateiro Farm, in the city of Ribeirão do Largo, Bahia. A total of 20 heifers with genetic makeup 5/8 dairy Guzerá and 3/8 Holstein, average age of 18 months and body weight of 187 ± 13.1 kg have been used. The experiment lasted 224 days and involved animals raised in a rotational grazing system with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú. Grazing time was not correlated with any of the variables associated with intake. Rumination time showed positive correlations with the intake of forage dry matter (DMIF and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI. Variables associated with the time spent on feeding at the trough, overall feeding and total chewing were not correlated with intake (P>0.05. There have been positive correlations between the number of grazing periods (NGP and rumination periods (NRP and total DM intake (TDMI, organic matter (OMI, forage (DMIF, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, total carbohydrates (TCHI and ether extract (EEI. Crude protein intake (CPI was positively correlated with NGP and NRP. The mouthful rate was positively correlated with TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI and CPI. Average time per swallow was negatively correlated with TDMI, OMI, NDFI, TCHI and EEI. Positive correlations have been observed between the number of mouthfuls per day and TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI. The number of chews per bolus showed negative correlations with DMIS and CPI. The time per cake ruminated has correlated negatively with the intake of crude protein. The number of chews per bolus showed positive correlations with the intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The number of boli per day showed positive correlations with DMIF and TCHI. The time spent on chewing showed no significant correlation with intake. In conflict with the national and international

  9. Cognitive and behavioral correlates of caudate subregion shape variation in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daniel X; Kelley, Ryan G; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Raman, Mira; Thompson, Paul M; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired general cognitive abilities, perseverative behaviors, and social difficulties. Neural signals related to these functions are communicated through frontostriatal circuits, which connect with distinct regions of the caudate nucleus (CN). Enlargement of the CN is the most robust and reproduced neuroanatomical abnormality in FXS, but very little is known on how this affects behavioral/cognitive outcomes in this condition. Here, we investigated topography within focal regions of the CN associated with prefrontal circuitry and its link with aberrant behavior and intellect in FXS. Imaging data were acquired from 48 individuals with FXS, 28 IQ-matched controls without FXS (IQ-CTL), and 36 typically developing controls (TD-CTL). Of the total participant count, cognitive and behavioral assessment data were obtained from 44 individuals with FXS and 27 participants in the IQ-CTL group. CN volume and topography were compared between groups. Correlations were performed between CN topography and cognitive as well as behavioral measures within FXS and IQ-CTL groups. As expected, the FXS group had larger CN compared with both IQ-CTL and TD-CTL groups. Correlations between focal CN topography and frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits in the FXS group supported the hypothesis that CN enlargement is related to abnormal orbitofrontal-caudate and dorsolateral-caudate circuitry in FXS. These findings deepen our understanding of neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral problems in FXS and hold promise for informing future behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions targeting specific neural pathways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behavior in Dealing with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo

    2016-01-01

    Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.

  11. Neuro-behavioral pattern of sleep bruxism in wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marila Rezende Azevedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Sleep Bruxism (SB is a non-functional rhythmic movement of the mandible with multifactorial aetiology and complex diagnose. It has been the subject of various studies over the past decades and it is considered a result of actions of the Central Nervous System modulated by Autonomous Nervous System. In this work, we test the hypothesis that SB subjects present a typical and defined neurobehavioral pattern that can be distinct from that of non-bruxers subjects and can be measured during wakefulness. Methods Fifteen sleep bruxers (experimental-group EG and fifteen non-bruxers (control-group CG took part in the experiments. To verify the presence and severity of SB, clinical examinations, anamneses and questionnaires, including Visual Analogic Scale - faces (VAS-f and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were applied. To legitimate the diagnoses of SB, a disposable instrument (Bitestrip® to assess the masseter activity during sleep was employed. All subjects were submitted to a set of experiments for measuring various visual evoked responses during the presentation of visual stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral images. Events in Visual Evoked Potential (VEP were used to compare the neural responses of both CG and EG. Results VAS-f showed EG with higher perception of stress than CG (trait: p=0.05, and lower quality of life for (state: p=0.007. STAI I and II showed significant differences of anxiety between CG and EG (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively, being EG the highest. The EG Bitestrip scores confirmed that 100% of subjects were sleep bruxers. Significant differences were found between EG and CG for events associated with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant images in the first 250 ms after stimulation. In general, EG subjects showed higher amplitude and shorter latency of VEP events. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish between SB and non-bruxers subjects during wakefulness, based on differences in amplitude and

  12. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  13. Heterogeneous pattern of DNA methylation in developmentally important genes correlates with its chromatin conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Puja; Singh, Kiran; Sachan, Manisha

    2017-01-11

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification, playing a crucial role in the development and differentiation of higher organisms. DNA methylation is also known to regulate transcription by gene repression. Various developmental genes such as c-mos, HoxB5, Sox11, and Sry show tissue-specific gene expression that was shown to be regulated by promoter DNA methylation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the establishment of chromatin marks (active or repressive) in relation to heterogeneous methylation in the promoter regions of these developmentally important genes. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to immuno-precipitate chromatin by antibodies against both active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K9me3) chromatin regions. The analysis of ChIP results showed that both the percentage input and fold enrichment of activated chromatin was higher in tissues expressing the respective genes as compared to the tissues not expressing the same set of genes. This was true for all the genes selected for the study (c-mos, HoxB5, Sox11, and Sry). These findings illustrate that inconsistent DNA methylation patterns (sporadic, mosaic and heterogeneous) may also influence gene regulation, thereby resulting in the modulation of chromatin conformation. These findings illustrate that various patterns of DNA methylation (asynchronous, mosaic and heterogeneous) correlates with chromatin modification, resulting in the gene regulation.

  14. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

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    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  15. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joshua R; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Kirk, E Christopher; Rehorek, Susan J; DeLeon, Valerie B; Smith, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta) to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius), compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits of nocturnal species, mainly emerge during postnatal development.

  16. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  17. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

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    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  18. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  19. Molecular signatures in childhood acute leukemia and their correlations to expression patterns in normal hematopoietic subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna; Olofsson, Tor; Lindgren, David; Nilsson, Björn; Ritz, Cecilia; Edén, Patrik; Lassen, Carin; Råde, Johan; Fontes, Magnus; Mörse, Helena; Heldrup, Jesper; Behrendtz, Mikael; Mitelman, Felix; Höglund, Mattias; Johansson, Bertil; Fioretos, Thoas

    2005-12-27

    Global expression profiles of a consecutive series of 121 childhood acute leukemias (87 B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 11 T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and 23 acute myeloid leukemias), six normal bone marrows, and 10 normal hematopoietic subpopulations of different lineages and maturations were ascertained by using 27K cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised analyses revealed segregation according to lineages and primary genetic changes, i.e., TCF3(E2A)/PBX1, IGH@/MYC, ETV6(TEL)/RUNX1(AML1), 11q23/MLL, and hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes). Supervised discriminatory analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes correlating with lineage and primary genetic change. The gene-expression profiles of normal hematopoietic cells were also studied. By using principal component analyses (PCA), a differentiation axis was exposed, reflecting lineages and maturation stages of normal hematopoietic cells. By applying the three principal components obtained from PCA of the normal cells on the leukemic samples, similarities between malignant and normal cell lineages and maturations were investigated. Apart from showing that leukemias segregate according to lineage and genetic subtype, we provide an extensive study of the genes correlating with primary genetic changes. We also investigated the expression pattern of these genes in normal hematopoietic cells of different lineages and maturations, identifying genes preferentially expressed by the leukemic cells, suggesting an ectopic activation of a large number of genes, likely to reflect regulatory networks of pathogenetic importance that also may provide attractive targets for future directed therapies.

  20. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  1. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: correlation with clinical symptomatology, emotional recognition and ward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. STABILITY OF PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR IN THE BUTTERFLY TECHNIQUE OF THE ELITE SWIMMERS

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    Hugo Louro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find patterns in the butterfly swimming technique, with an adaptation of the Behavioral Observation System Tech. This, as an instrument for ad-hoc qualitative analysis, enables the study of the stability of the technical implementation. When used in the training of swimmers, analysis can reduce the variability of behavioral tuning swimming technique. Through the analysis of temporal patterns (T-pattern and a sequence of five cycles running at hand maximum speed, the behavior of four technical Portuguese elite swimmers, with a record of 259 alphanumeric codes and a total of 160 configurations, were studied. The structure of the original instrument, based on a mixed system of categories and formats Field, can record technical features, observed during the execution of hand cycles. The validity was ensured through the index of intra-observer reliability (95% and inter-observer accuracy (96%. To detect patterns in each swimmer, the Theme 5.0 software was used, which allowed to identify the stable structures of technical performance within a critical interval of time (p <0.05 - t-patterns. The patterns were different, adjusting to the characteristics of technical implementation of the swimmers. It was found that the swimmer can create settings with different levels of structure complexity, depending on the implementation of changes within the hand cycle. Variations of codes in each configuration obtained using the SOCTM, allowed determining the differences between swimmers. However, the records showed a clear behavioral similarity when comparing the result with a general pattern of the butterfly technique. The potential quality of this instrument seems to be important due to the patterns obtained from a temporal sequence

  3. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pegorini, Vinicius; Karam, Leandro Zen; Pitta, Christiano Santos Rocha; Cardoso, Rafael; da Silva, Jean Carlos Cardozo; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jos?; Ribeiro, Richardson; Bertotti, F?bio Luiz; Assmann, Tangriani Simioni

    2015-01-01

    Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for th...

  4. Central pattern generators in the turtle spinal cord: selection among the forms of motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul S G

    2018-02-01

    Neuronal networks in the turtle spinal cord have considerable computational complexity even in the absence of connections with supraspinal structures. These networks contain central pattern generators (CPGs) for each of several behaviors, including three forms of scratch, two forms of swim, and one form of flexion reflex. Each behavior is activated by a specific set of cutaneous or electrical stimuli. The process of selection among behaviors within the spinal cord has multisecond memories of specific motor patterns. Some spinal cord interneurons are partially shared among several CPGs, whereas other interneurons are active during only one type of behavior. Partial sharing is a proposed mechanism that contributes to the ability of the spinal cord to generate motor pattern blends with characteristics of multiple behaviors. Variations of motor patterns, termed deletions, assist in characterization of the organization of the pattern-generating components of CPGs. Single-neuron recordings during both normal and deletion motor patterns provide support for a CPG organizational structure with unit burst generators (UBGs) whose members serve a direction of a specific degree of freedom of the hindlimb, e.g., the hip-flexor UBG, the hip-extensor UBG, the knee-flexor UBG, the knee-extensor UBG, etc. The classic half-center hypothesis that includes all the hindlimb flexors in a single flexor half-center and all the hindlimb extensors in a single extensor half-center lacks the organizational complexity to account for the motor patterns produced by turtle spinal CPGs. Thus the turtle spinal cord is a valuable model system for studies of mechanisms responsible for selection and generation of motor behaviors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The concept of the central pattern generator (CPG) is a major tenet in motor neuroethology that has influenced the design and interpretations of experiments for over a half century. This review concentrates on the turtle spinal cord and describes studies from

  5. Different correlation patterns of cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons with striatal projection neurons

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    Avital eAdler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is populated by a single projection neuron group, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and several groups of interneurons. Two of the electrophysiologically well-characterized striatal interneuron groups are the tonically active neurons (TANs, which are presumably cholinergic interneurons, and the fast spiking interneurons (FSIs, presumably parvalbumin (PV expressing GABAergic interneurons. To better understand striatal processing it is thus crucial to define the functional relationship between MSNs and these interneurons in the awake and behaving animal. We used multiple electrodes and standard physiological methods to simultaneously record MSN spiking activity and the activity of TANs or FSIs from monkeys engaged in a classical conditioning paradigm. All three cell populations were highly responsive to the behavioral task. However, they displayed different average response profiles and a different degree of response synchronization (signal correlation. TANs displayed the most transient and synchronized response, MSNs the most diverse and sustained response and FSIs were in between on both parameters. We did not find evidence for direct monosynaptic connectivity between the MSNs and either the TANs or the FSIs. However, while the cross correlation histograms of TAN to MSN pairs were flat, those of FSI to MSN displayed positive asymmetrical broad peaks. The FSI-MSN correlogram profile implies that the spikes of MSNs follow those of FSIs and both are driven by a common, most likely cortical, input. Thus, the two populations of striatal interneurons are probably driven by different afferents and play complementary functional roles in the physiology of the striatal microcircuit.

  6. Self-regulatory strategies as correlates of physical activity behavior in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Katie L; Balto, Julia M; Motl, Robert W

    2018-02-08

    To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional, or survey, study. University-based research laboratory. Convenience sample of 68 persons with MS. Not applicable. Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Correlation analyses indicated that GLTEQ scores were positively and significantly associated with overall self-regulation (r=0.43), self-monitoring (r=0.45), goal-setting (r=0.27), reinforcement (r=0.30), time management (r=0.41), and relapse prevention (r=0.53) PASR-12 scores. Regression analyses indicated that relapse prevention (B=5.01; SE B=1.74; β=0.51) and self-monitoring (B=3.65; SE B=1.71; β=0.33) were unique predictors of physical activity behavior, and relapse prevention demonstrated a significant association with physical activity behavior that was accounted for by EXSE. Our results indicate that self-regulatory strategies, particularly relapse prevention, may be important correlates of physical activity behavior that can inform the design of future behavioral interventions in MS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on background subtraction on RGB and depth video sequences of behaviors, extracting and integrating historical images of the behavior outlines, feature extraction and classification. The new method of 3D human behavior recognition has achieved the rapid and efficient recognition of behavior videos. A large number of experiments show that the proposed method has faster speed and higher recognition rate. The recognition method has good robustness for different environmental colors, lightings and other factors. Meanwhile, the feature of mixed texture-edge uniform local binary pattern can be used in most 3D behavior recognition.

  8. The relationship between selected social factors and the clothing buying behavior patterns of black college students

    OpenAIRE

    Legette, Dana Denise

    1994-01-01

    Blacks have been noted as being one of the largest consumer groups in the United States. In general, Black consumers have been portrayed in the literature as a single, undifferentiated "Black Market" which consists of economically deprived consumers who have a uniform set of consumer needs; however, little is known about influences and behavior of segments of the Black market in reference to the external factors which influence their clothing buying behavior patterns. The purpose ...

  9. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  10. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  11. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen, E-mail: caoj@bjfu.edu.cn; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood by wetting models. • We found lower wetting speed of water droplets on thermally modified wood surface. • Dynamic wetting behavior and surface chemical components show a strong correlation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C{sub 1}/C{sub 2} ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  12. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood by wetting models. • We found lower wetting speed of water droplets on thermally modified wood surface. • Dynamic wetting behavior and surface chemical components show a strong correlation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C 1 /C 2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

  13. Patterns in clinical students' self-regulated learning behavior: a Q-methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Teunissen, Pim W; Helmich, Esther; van Exel, Job; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C

    2017-03-01

    Students feel insufficiently supported in clinical environments to engage in active learning and achieve a high level of self-regulation. As a result clinical learning is highly demanding for students. Because of large differences between students, supervisors may not know how to support them in their learning process. We explored patterns in undergraduate students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, to improve tailored supervision, using Q-methodology. Q-methodology uses features of both qualitative and quantitative methods for the systematic investigation of subjective issues by having participants sort statements along a continuum to represent their opinion. We enrolled 74 students between December 2014 and April 2015 and had them characterize their learning behavior by sorting 52 statements about self-regulated learning behavior and explaining their response. The statements used for the sorting were extracted from a previous study. The data was analyzed using by-person factor analysis to identify clusters of individuals with similar sorts of the statements. The resulting factors and qualitative data were used to interpret and describe the patterns that emerged. Five resulting patterns were identified in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, which we labelled: Engaged, Critically opportunistic, Uncertain, Restrained and Effortful. The five patterns varied mostly regarding goals, metacognition, communication, effort, and dependence on external regulation for learning. These discrete patterns in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment are part of a complex interaction between student and learning context. The results suggest that developing self-regulated learning behavior might best be supported regarding individual students' needs.

  14. Patterns of substance use and correlates of lifetime and active injection drug use among women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Loeliger, Kelsey B; Marcus, Ruthanne; Pillai, Veena; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    While drug use is associated with HIV risk in Southeast Asia, little is known about substance use behaviors among women, including drug injection. To describe patterns of substance use among women using alcohol and drugs in Malaysia and identify correlates of lifetime and active drug injection, a risk factor for HIV transmission. A survey of 103 women who used drugs in the last 12 months assessed drug use history and frequency, including drug injection and drug use during pregnancy, self-reported HIV-status, childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse, and access to and utilization of harm reduction services, including needle-syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist maintenance therapy (OAT). Principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to assess drug use grouping. Amphetamine-type substances (ATS; 82.5%), alcohol (75.7%) and heroin (71.8%) were the most commonly used drugs across the lifetime. Drug injection was reported by 32.0% (n = 33) of participants with 21.4% (n = 22) having injected in the last 30 days. PCA identified two groups of drug users: opioids/benzodiazepines and club drugs. Lifetime drug injection was significantly associated with lower education, homelessness, prior criminal justice involvement, opioid use, polysubstance use, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and being HIV-infected, but not with prior OAT. Women who use drugs in Malaysia report high levels of polysubstance use and injection-related risk behaviors, including sharing of injection equipment and being injected by others. Low OAT utilization suggests the need for improved access to OAT services and other harm reduction measures that prioritize women.

  15. Correlates of adaptive behavior profiles in a large cohort of children with autism: The autism speaks Autism Treatment Network registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manina; Bennett, Amanda; Shui, Amy M

    2017-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder have deficits in adaptive functioning. This study examines the adaptive behavior, its association with cognitive ability, gender, age, and symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from Autism Treatment Network registry, the adaptive behavior profiles were examined in 2538 school-aged children (between 5 and 17 years, mean: 8.8 years, standard deviation: 3.0) who had an overall intelligence quotient and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores available. The children were grouped according to their intelligence quotient (low intelligence quotient 85), age (5-10 and 11-17 years), and gender for the analyses. Significantly lower Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores were found in borderline and average intelligence quotient groups when compared to mean intelligence quotient, while an opposite pattern was seen in the low intelligence quotient group, with better adaptive behavior scores than mean intelligence quotient. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale standard scores were positively correlated with intelligence quotient and poorly associated with autism spectrum disorder severity. Younger children had significantly higher Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores. Adjusted comparisons by gender were not significant. Adaptive behavior profiles in the intelligence quotient categories are discussed. This study confirms a positive relationship between adaptive behavior and intellectual function in autism and indicates that children with higher intelligence quotient and older age are specifically impaired, with lower adaptive behavior, highlighting the need for assessment and targeted intervention in these groups. Future directions for research are discussed.

  16. Morphological correlates of corticosteroid-induced changes in prefrontal cortex-dependent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, João J; Pêgo, José M; Taipa, Ricardo; Bessa, João M; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sousa, Nuno

    2005-08-24

    Imbalances in the corticosteroid milieu have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is also a hallmark of these conditions, causing impairments in executive functions such as behavioral flexibility and working memory. Recent studies have suggested that the PFC might be influenced by corticosteroids released during stress. To test this possibility, we assessed spatial working memory and behavioral flexibility in rats submitted to chronic adrenalectomy or treatment with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (300 microg/kg); the behavioral analysis was complemented by stereological evaluation of the PFC (prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate regions), the adjacent retrosplenial and motor cortices, and the hippocampal formation. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in a pronounced impairment in working memory and behavioral flexibility, effects that correlated with neuronal loss and atrophy of layer II of the infralimbic, prelimbic, and cingulate cortices. Exposure to corticosterone produced milder impairments in behavioral flexibility, but not in working memory, and reduced the volume of layer II of all prefrontal areas. Interestingly, adrenalectomy-induced deleterious effects only became apparent on the reverse learning task and were not associated with structural alterations in the PFC. None of the experimental procedures influenced the morphology of retrosplenial or motor cortices, but stereological measurements confirmed previously observed effects of corticosteroids on hippocampal structure. Our results describe, for the first time, that imbalances in the corticosteroid environment can induce degeneration of specific layers of the PFC; these changes appear to be the morphological correlate of corticosteroid-induced impairment of PFC-dependent behavior(s).

  17. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  19. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millán, María S

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical–digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption–decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical–digital solutions. (review article)

  20. Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI of the brain infarction: correlation between onset of infarction and enhancing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, An Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Lee, Sung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between onset of brain infarction and Gd-DTPA enhancing patterns on MRI. We reviewed MRI of 58 lesions in 45 patients with clinically documented brain infarction retrospectively. Axial, coronal and sagittal T1WI (TR/TE 450-520/20), T2WI (TR/TE 2190/90) and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI were performed with a 0.5T superconductive MR system. We analyzed Gd-enhancing patterns that were divided into intravascular, meningeal, and parenchymal enhancement. Parenchymal pattern was subdivided into mottled, partial ring like and dense enhancement. Intravascular enhancement was seen at 1-10 days in 30(53%) of 58 infarctions. Meningeal enhancement (13%) was noted at 1-6 days. Parenchymal enhancement (50%) was seen at 2-28 days and subdividing patterns are as follows: The mottled enhancement pattern was seen earlier at 2-8 days and partial ring like or dense enhancement patterns at 5-28 days. After reviewing Gd-enhanced MRI of infarction, the intravascular and meningeal enhancement patterns were earlier than parenchymal enhancement. Among parenchymal patterns, the mottled pattern was seen earlier than partial ring like or dense patterns. In conclusion, Gd-enhancing patterns of brain infarction are useful in estimating the age of infarction including acute infarction

  1. Patterns and Correlates of Public Health Informatics Capacity Among Local Health Departments: An Empirical Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac McCullough, J.; Goodin, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the nationwide patterns in the use of public health informatics systems by local health departments (LHDs) and whether LHDs tend to possess informatics capacity across a broad range of information functionalities or for a narrower range. This study examined patterns and correlates of the presence of public health informatics functionalities within LHDs through the creation of a typology of LHD informatics capacities. Methods: Data were available for 459 LHDs from the 2013 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. An empirical typology was created through cluster analysis of six public health informatics functionalities: immunization registry, electronic disease registry, electronic lab reporting, electronic health records, health information exchange, and electronic syndromic surveillance system. Three-categories of usage emerged (Low, Mid, High). LHD financial, workforce, organization, governance, and leadership characteristics, and types of services provided were explored across categories. Results: Low-informatics capacity LHDs had lower levels of use of each informatics functionality than high-informatics capacity LHDs. Mid-informatics capacity LHDs had usage levels equivalent to high-capacity LHDs for the three most common functionalities and equivalent to low-capacity LHDs for the three least common functionalities. Informatics capacity was positively associated with service provision, especially for population-focused services. Conclusion: Informatics capacity is clustered within LHDs. Increasing LHD informatics capacity may require LHDs with low levels of informatics capacity to expand capacity across a range of functionalities, taking into account their narrower service portfolio. LHDs with mid-level informatics capacity may need specialized support in enhancing capacity for less common technologies. PMID:25598871

  2. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  3. Effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, electroencephalogram, behavioral patterns, and epileptic activity of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Ates, N.; Skarsfeldt, T.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    In this study we addressed the effects of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist sertindole in rats. The compound was administered in doses of 0.08, 0.32, and 1.28 mg/kg, whereas a control group received the solvent. The effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, behavioral patterns, and background

  4. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S.…

  5. Behavioral and Physiological Neural Network Analyses: A Common Pathway toward Pattern Recognition and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Lauter, Judy L.; Coffee, Michael; Clary, Logan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Rumph, Marilyn; Rumph, Robin; Kyle, Betty; Ninness, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study…

  6. The Influences of Physical Activity on Patterns of Sleep Behavior of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A light exercise program was set up for 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease who exercised each day for 40 minutes. Their sleep patterns were compared with a control group who did not exercise. Results indicate that those who participated in the exercise program manifested 40% less restless behavior, while those in the non-exercise group showed a…

  7. Measurement of the Type A Behavior Pattern by Self-Report Questionnaires: Several Perspectives on Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the Type A behavior pattern as measured by paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The Jenkins Activity Survey, Framingham Type A Scale, Thurstone Activity Scales, a new bipolar adjective Type A measure, and measures of achievement and nurturance needs were completed by 418 students. (Author/BS)

  8. Patterns of Interactions and Behaviors: Physical Education in Korean Elementary, Middle, and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Jwa K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the differences between elementary, middle, and high school physical education classes in Korea based on teacher and student behavior and teacher-student interaction patterns. The subjects who participated in this study were fifteen certified full-time physical education teachers at selected…

  9. Identifying and Predicting Distinct Patterns of Implementation in a School-Wide Behavior Support Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Ghemraoui, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which distinct patterns of fidelity of implementation emerged for 5,331 schools over a five-year course of implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). We used latent class analysis to classify schools based on their likelihood of implementing SWPBIS with…

  10. A circuit model of the temporal pattern generator of Caenorhabditis egg-laying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Mi; Schafer, William R.; Breitling, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Background: Egg-laying behavior in the nematode C. elegans displays a distinct clustered temporal pattern: egg-laying events occur primarily in bursts or active phases, separated by inactive phases during which eggs are retained. The onset of the active phase can be modeled as a Poisson process with

  11. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  12. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  13. Pattern Separation and Goal-Directed Behavior in the Aged Canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Yassa, Michael A.; deRivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2017-01-01

    The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern…

  14. Condom Use Behaviors and Correlates of Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programs, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviors and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male personnel, aged 18–30, who completed a cross-sectional s...

  15. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods Th...

  16. Correlation between RNA Degradation Patterns of Rat's Brain and Early PMI at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Li, Z H; Tuo, Y; Liu, L; Li, K; Bian, J; Ma, J L; Chen, L

    2016-06-01

    To explore the correlation between early postmortem interval (PMI) and eight RNA markers of rat's brain at different temperatures. Total 222 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (PMI=0 h) and four experimental groups. And the rats in the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and respectively kept at 5 ℃, 15 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ in a controlled environment chamber. The RNA was extracted from brain tissues, which was taken at 9 time points from 1 h to 24 h postmortem. The expression levels of eight markers, β-actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, were detected using real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, respectively. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of normalized RNA markers was performed by SPSS software. Mathematical model for PMI estimation was established using R software. Another 6 SD rats with known PMI were used to verify the mathematical model. 5S rRNA, miR-9 and miR-125b were suitable as internal reference markers for their stable expression. Both β-actin and GAPDH had well time-dependent degradation patterns and degraded continually with prolongation of PMI in 24 h postmortem. The mathematical model of the variation of ΔCt values with PMI and temperature was set up by R software and the model could be used for PMI estimation. The average error rates of model validation using β-actin and GAPDH were 14.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH are well correlated with PMI and environmental temperature. The mathematical model established in present study can provide references for estimating early PMI under various temperature conditions. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  17. Patterns and correlates of physical activity in adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Burton, N W; Trost, S G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged public health importance of physical activity (PA), few studies have examined levels of PA in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of PA in adolescents in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 798 students, aged 13-17 years; 48% girls, from eight purposively selected secondary schools in Dhaka city, Bangladesh completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 3-Day PA Recall. Parents completed a separate questionnaire to provide household/family-level data. Multilevel generalized linear modelling was used to identify the correlates of PA for boys and girls. Two-thirds (66%) of the adolescents met the recommendations of 60 min/day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily, with more boys than girls (76% and 55%, respectively). The most common activities reported were walking for travel (42%), cricket (33%) and household chores (30%). Multivariable modelling showed that girls' PA was positively associated with mother's education level, walking to school, involvement in school sports and having home sports equipment. Boys' PA was positively associated with mother's employment, having home sports equipment, having a playground at school and walking to school. One third of adolescents in Bangladesh were insufficiently active with girls less active than boys. Walking to school and access to sports facilities including playgrounds and home equipment may be important to promote activity among Bangladeshi adolescents, with special attention to the girls. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  19. Disordered eating behavior and mental health correlates among treatment seeking obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M; Rossi, G; Aquilano, P; De Fazio, P; Segura-Garcia, C; Rossetti, M; Petrone, A; Lo Russo, T; Vendemiale, G; Bellomo, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk for psychopathological disorders, however, little is known about which obese patients are most vulnerable to psychopathological disorders. We therefore investigated 126 treatment-seeking obese women to describe eating disorder pathology and mental health correlates, and to identify disordered eating behaviors that may place obese at increased risk for psychopathological disorders. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to identify Eating Disorders (ED). A battery of psychological tests, including the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (ASQ,) Clinical Depression Questionnaire (CDQ), Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) scales and structured clinical interview were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitudes by using both multiple regression analysis and non-parametric correlation. Disordered eating behaviors and emotional behavioral aspects related to Anorexia Nervosa, such as ineffectiveness, are strongly linked to the depression and anxiety in obese subjects. No correlation was found between psychopathological disorders and age or anthropometric measurements. Findings corroborate earlier work indicating that psychological distress is elevated in obese treatment seeking, bolstering the need for mental health assessment of such individuals. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of psychopathological aspects. This is an important result which may inform the development of effective interventions for obese patients and prevention of psychopathological disorders.

  20. “Rational” or “Intuitive”: Are Behavioral Biases Correlated Across Stock Market Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human judgments are systematically affected by various biases and distortions. The main goal of our study is to analyze the effects of five well-documented behavioral biases—namely, the disposition effect, herd behavior, availability heuristic, gambler’s fallacy and hot hand fallacy—on the mechanisms of stock market decision making and, in particular, the correlations between the magnitudes of the biases in the cross-section of market investors. Employing an extensive online survey, we demonstrate that, on average, active capital market investors exhibit moderate degrees of behavioral biases. We then calculate the cross-sectional correlation coefficients between the biases and find that all of them are positive and highly significant for both professional and non-professional investors and for all categories of investors, as classified by their experience levels, genders, and ages. This finding suggests that an investor who is more inclined to employ a certain intuitive decision-making technique will most likely accept other techniques as well. Furthermore, we determine that the correlation coefficients between the biases are higher for more experienced investors and male investors, indicating that these categories of investors are likely to behave more consistently, or, in other words, are more likely to decide for themselves whether to rely on simplifying decision-making techniques in general or to reject all of them. Alternatively, this finding may suggest that these investors develop more sophisticated “adaptive toolboxes”, or collections of heuristics, and apply them more systematically.

  1. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis for Large-Scale Warehouse-Out Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Zheng, Xu-Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Based on cross-correlation algorithm, we analyze the correlation property of warehouse-out quantity of different warehouses, respectively, and different products of each warehouse. Our study identifies that significant cross-correlation relationship for warehouse-out quantity exists among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. Further, we take multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis for warehouse-out quantity among different warehouses and different products of a warehouse. The results show that for the warehouse-out behaviors of total amount, different warehouses and different products of a warehouse significantly follow multifractal property. Specifically for each warehouse, the coupling relationships of rebar and wire rod reveal long-term memory characteristics, no matter for large fluctuation or small one. The cross-correlation effect on long-range memory property among warehouses probably has less to do with product types,and the long-term memory of YZ warehouse is greater than others especially in total amount and wire rod product. Finally, we shuffle and surrogate data to explore the source of multifractal cross-correlation property in logistics system. Taking the total amount of warehouse-out quantity as example, we confirm that the fat-tail distribution of warehouse-out quantity sequences is the main factor for multifractal cross-correlation. Through comparing the performance of the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), centered multifractal detrending moving average cross-correlation analysis (MF-X-DMA) algorithms, the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms, we find that the forward and backward MF-X-DMA algorithms exhibit a better performance than the other ones.

  2. Behavioral and familial correlates of episodic heroin abuse among suburban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathus, S A; Fichner-Rathus, L; Siegel, L J

    1977-08-01

    Behavioral and familial correlates of predominantly White, suburban heroin abusers were investigated to determine whether such abuse was self-contained experimentation or suggestive of generalized personality disorders and impaired family relationships. Twenty of 296 male high school students recruited from 10 middle-class suburban schools had engaged in episodic heroin abuse. Of 29 antisocial behaviors other than heroin abuse assessed, heroin abusers engaged in 16 significantly more frequently. Heroin abusers found their fathers to be significantly less nice, honest, strong, and kind than did nonabusers, according to semantic differential technique. They found themselves to be significantly less strong than did nonabusers, suggesting failure to model themselves after adequately coping fathers. Heroin abusers also found their mothers to be significantly less fair, honest, and valuable than did nonabusers. It was concluded that episodic heroin abuse among suburban adolescents is suggestive both of generalized antisocial behavior and of impaired family relationships.

  3. Associations Between Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Inhibitory Control and Amphetamine Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Gorka, Stephanie M; Hedeker, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Kareken, David A; Phan, K Luan; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-08-01

    Poor inhibitory control and sensitivity to drug reward are two significant risk factors for drug abuse. Although the two have been largely viewed as separate and independent risk factors, there is new evidence to suggest that they may be related at both the behavioral and neural level. This study examined associations between behavioral and neural correlates of inhibitory control and sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine in humans. Healthy volunteers (n=63) first completed the stop signal task, a behavioral measure of inhibitory control. Then they participated in four sessions in which they received amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and arousal at regular intervals. Finally, a subset of participants (n=38) underwent an fMRI scan to assess neural correlates of inhibitory control. In the first phase of the study, participants with longer stop signal reaction time (SSRT) reported greater amphetamine-induced euphoria and stimulation than those with shorter SSRT. In the second phase, fMRI of response inhibition showed the expected activation in right prefrontal regions. Further, individuals who exhibited less activation in the right middle frontal gyrus during the inhibition task reported more euphoria during the amphetamine sessions. This study is the first to show associations between poor inhibitory control and amphetamine reward sensitivity at both behavioral and neural levels in humans. These findings extend our understanding of risk for drug abuse in individuals with poor inhibitory control and suggest novel targets for prevention efforts.

  4. Correlation of lip patterns, gender, and blood group in North Kerala population: A study of over 800 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Shaini; Gopinath, Divya; Shameena, P M; Sudha, S; Lakshmi, J Dhana; Litha

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-changing field of criminal justice, the constant revision of criteria for acceptable evidence by the judiciary poses new challenges in forensic investigation. The applicability of cheiloscopy in individual identification is an area of extensive research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns in North Kerala population, to assess any sexual dimorphism in lip patterns, and to correlate lip print patterns with ABO and Rh blood groups. A total of 858 students, 471 males and 387 females, from different colleges in the district of Kozhikode in North Kerala were included in the study. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cello tape and transferred onto white papers. Blood group of the participants was noted. The most predominant pattern observed was Type I (48.3%), followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I', and Type V. We also observed that the lower lip exhibited an overwhelming predominance of Type I pattern in the North Kerala population while the upper lip showed a more even distribution. Gender-wise difference was observed with Type II being the most common in males and Type IV being the predominant pattern in females. No correlation was obtained between the blood groups and lip patterns. The potential usefulness of cheiloscopy in forensic medicine still remains largely untapped and under-recognized. Similar studies in different populations with large sample sizes will allow a more definite picture of lip print patterns to emerge.

  5. Level of khat dependence, use patterns, and psychosocial correlates in Yemen: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Hoffman, Richard; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    Chronic khat use is associated with negative health consequences. However, no study has fully characterized individuals who are khat dependent. This paper examines socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of adult khat dependence. A total of 270 khat users (129 women) in Yemen completed face-to-face interviews and provided demographic information and data on patterns of khat use, subjective mood, and sleep quality. The Severity of Dependence Scale-Khat (SDS-khat) was used to assess level of khat dependence. A series of analysis of variance was conducted. Khat users, on average, used khat for 5.2 hours a day (SD = 2.3) for 5.7 days a week (SD = 2.0). Individuals who screened positive for khat dependence reported longer duration of khat sessions per day, higher frequency of khat use per week, greater levels of negative mood and sleep disturbances, and were more likely to endorse physical symptoms after khat use (P < 0.05). Future research should elucidate mechanisms responsible for khat dependence symptomatology.

  6. Mouse V1 population correlates of visual detection rely on heterogeneity within neuronal response patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montijn, Jorrit S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Pennartz, Cyriel MA

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the primary sensory cortex for the detection, discrimination, and awareness of visual stimuli, but it is unknown how neuronal populations in this area process detected and undetected stimuli differently. Critical differences may reside in the mean strength of responses to visual stimuli, as reflected in bulk signals detectable in functional magnetic resonance imaging, electro-encephalogram, or magnetoencephalography studies, or may be more subtly composed of differentiated activity of individual sensory neurons. Quantifying single-cell Ca2+ responses to visual stimuli recorded with in vivo two-photon imaging, we found that visual detection correlates more strongly with population response heterogeneity rather than overall response strength. Moreover, neuronal populations showed consistencies in activation patterns across temporally spaced trials in association with hit responses, but not during nondetections. Contrary to models relying on temporally stable networks or bulk signaling, these results suggest that detection depends on transient differentiation in neuronal activity within cortical populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10163.001 PMID:26646184

  7. Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Hege; Rosenvinge, Jan Harald; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Friborg, Oddgeir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Objective The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558). Subjects A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men) with a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (9.8) years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4) kg/m2 participated. Measurements Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness), the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint of eating (CR)) and the HADS (anxiety and depression). Results The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour. PMID:24685661

  8. Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Gade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Design: The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558. Subjects: A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men with a mean (SD age of 42.6 (9.8 years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4 kg/m2 participated. Measurements: Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE, uncontrolled eating (UE and cognitive restraint of eating (CR and the HADS (anxiety and depression. Results: The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour.

  9. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  10. The pattern and correlates of intimate partner violence among women in Kano, Nigeria

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    Tanko S. Tanimu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV has been increasingly recognised as a major public health and human rights problem that cuts across all populations, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural groups.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, pattern and correlates of IPV among women attending the General Out Patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. It was also designed to determine the pattern of health complications associated with IPV as well as the perception of women on intimate partner violence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Three hundred and ninety-three women aged 15–49 years who were in or had ever been in an intimate relationship were recruited. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about their socio-demographic characteristics while information on IPV was obtained using the Composite Abuse Scale. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16.0.Results: The prevalence of IPV within the previous year was 42.0%. Of all the 393 participants recruited in the study, 46.6% had experienced emotional/psychological violence, harassment/controlling behaviour was present in 43.3%, physical violence was reported in 29.0%, sexual violence was present in 21.9% and 37.9% of the participants had experienced severe combined abuse. Being married (χ2 = 24.726, p = 0.000 and pregnancy reduced the risk of IPV (χ2= 6.690, p = 0.030, while polygamous family setting (χ2 = 9.734, p = 0.008 and an extended family type (χ2 = 9.593, p = 0.023 were associated with an increased risk of IPV. Alcohol consumption by the partner (p = 0.000, OR 2.335, CI 1.151–3.230 was found to be a positive correlate as well as a complication of IPV. Other patterns of health complications that were significantly associated with IPV were depression (p = 0.000, OR 3.517, CI 4.061–22.306, miscarriage

  11. The pattern and correlates of intimate partner violence among women in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimu, Tanko S; Yohanna, Stephen; Omeiza, Suleiman Y

    2016-11-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been increasingly recognised as a major public health and human rights problem that cuts across all populations, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural groups. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, pattern and correlates of IPV among women attending the General Out Patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. It was also designed to determine the pattern of health complications associated with IPV as well as the perception of women on intimate partner violence. This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Three hundred and ninety-three women aged 15-49 years who were in or had ever been in an intimate relationship were recruited. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about their socio-demographic characteristics while information on IPV was obtained using the Composite Abuse Scale. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. The prevalence of IPV within the previous year was 42.0%. Of all the 393 participants recruited in the study, 46.6% had experienced emotional/psychological violence, harassment/controlling behaviour was present in 43.3%, physical violence was reported in 29.0%, sexual violence was present in 21.9% and 37.9% of the participants had experienced severe combined abuse. Being married (χ2 = 24.726, p = 0.000) and pregnancy reduced the risk of IPV (χ2= 6.690, p = 0.030), while polygamous family setting (χ2 = 9.734, p = 0.008) and an extended family type (χ2 = 9.593, p = 0.023) were associated with an increased risk of IPV. Alcohol consumption by the partner (p = 0.000, OR 2.335, CI 1.151-3.230) was found to be a positive correlate as well as a complication of IPV. Other patterns of health complications that were significantly associated with IPV were depression (p = 0.000, OR 3.517, CI 4.061-22.306), miscarriage (p = 0.004, OR 2.080, CI 1.591-2.269) and the presence

  12. Correlation between temporal pole MRI abnormalities and surface ictal EEG patterns in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Garzon, Eliana; Oliveira, Pedro A L; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo S; Bianchin, Marino M; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze ictal patterns observed during continuous Video-EEG monitoring in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and to correlate these EEG patterns to temporal pole abnormalities observed on magnetic resonance imaging exams. We analyzed 147 seizures from 35 patients with TLE and unilateral HS. Ictal patterns were classified and correlated to signal abnormalities and volumetric measures of the temporal poles. Volume differences over 10% were considered abnormal. The most frequent type of ictal pattern was rhythmic theta activity (RTA), encountered in 65.5% of the seizures. Rhythmic beta activity (RBA) was observed in 11% of the seizures, localized attenuation in 8%, interruption of epileptiform discharges in 6%, repetitive discharges in 5.5%, and rhythmic delta activity (RDA) in 4%. Sixty-six percent of the patients presented signal abnormalities in the temporal pole that were always ipsilateral to the HS. Sixty percent presented significant asymmetry of the temporal poles consisting of reduced volume that was also always ipsilateral to HS. Although patients with RTA as the predominant ictal pattern tended to present asymmetry of temporal poles (p=0.305), the ictal EEG pattern did not correlate with temporal pole asymmetry or signal abnormalities. RTA is the most frequent initial ictal pattern in patients with TLE due to unilateral HS. Temporal pole signal changes and volumetric reduction were commonly found in this group of patients, both abnormalities appearing always ipsilateral to the HS. However, neither temporal pole volume reduction nor signal abnormalities correlated with the predominant ictal pattern, suggesting that the temporal poles are not crucially involved in the process of epileptogenesis.

  13. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group. They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior.

  14. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Francisco J P; Herrera, Ana Del Refugio C; Rubalcava, San J A; Martínez, Kalina I M

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group). They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior.

  15. Behavior Patterns of Antisocial Teenagers Interacting with Parents and Peers: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Francisco J. P.; Herrera, Ana del Refugio C.; Rubalcava, San J. A.; Martínez, Kalina I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior may begin during childhood and if maintained during adolescence, is likely to continue and escalate during adulthood. During adolescence, in particular, it has been established that antisocial behavior may be reinforced and shaped by exchanges between the teenager and his parents and peers, although the molecular process of these relations is as yet unknown. This paper explores the patterns of social interaction established by adolescents with and without the risk of engaging in antisocial behavior in order to understand the exchanges of them with their most important social groups, during 2 years. The study involved a sample of 70 adolescents classified into these two groups (with risk of antisocial behavior and control group). They were video-recorded interacting with one of their parents and one of their peers, independently. The interaction was done about the negotiation of conflictive conversational topics. Those video-records were registered by pairs of trained observers, using an observational catalog with nineteen behavioral categories, to know about the molecular interactional patterns characteristics. Thirty participants were evaluated only once, 30 were evaluated two times, and the other 10 were evaluated three times, the evaluations were performed annually. It was found that a higher occurrence of eye contact and use of open questions and elaborate answers appears to act as a protective factor for engaging in antisocial behavior. PMID:28626430

  16. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. The heritability and genetic correlates of mobile phone use: a twin study of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Zhu, Gu; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-02-01

    There has been almost no overlap between behavior genetics and consumer behavior research, despite each field's importance in understanding society. In particular, both have neglected to study genetic influences on consumer adoption and usage of new technologies -- even technologies as important as the mobile phone, now used by 5.8 out of 7.0 billion people on earth. To start filling this gap, we analyzed self-reported mobile phone use, intelligence, and personality traits in two samples of Australian teenaged twins (mean ages 14.2 and 15.6 years), totaling 1,036 individuals. ACE modeling using Mx software showed substantial heritabilities for how often teens make voice calls (.60 and .34 in samples 1 and 2, respectively) and for how often they send text messages (.53 and. 50). Shared family environment - including neighborhood, social class, parental education, and parental income (i.e., the generosity of calling plans that parents can afford for their teens) -- had much weaker effects. Multivariate modeling based on cross-twin, cross-trait correlations showed negative genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and intelligence (around -.17), and positive genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and extraversion (about .20 to .40). Our results have implications for assessing the risks of mobile phone use such as radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and driving accidents, for studying adoption and use of other emerging technologies, for understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive and personality traits that predict consumer behavior, and for challenging the common assumption that consumer behavior is shaped entirely by culture, media, and family environment.

  18. Elementary School Children’s Cheating Behavior and its Cognitive Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Omrin, Danielle S.; Evans, Angela D.; Fu, Genyue; Chen, Guopeng; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school children’s cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates were investigated using a guessing game. Children (N = 95) between 8 and 12 years of age were asked to guess which side of the screen a coin would appear on and received rewards based on their self-reported accuracy. Children’s cheating behavior was measured by examining whether children failed to adhere to the game rules by falsely reporting their accuracy. Children’s theory-of-mind understanding and executive functioning skills were also assessed. The majority of children cheated during the guessing game, and cheating behavior decreased with age. Children with better working memory and inhibitory control were less likely to cheat. However, among the cheaters, those with greater cognitive flexibility use more tactics while cheating. Results revealed the unique role that executive functioning plays in children’s cheating behavior: Like a double-edged sword, executive functioning can inhibit children’s cheating behavior on the one side, while it can promote the sophistication of children’s cheating tactics on the other. PMID:24464240

  19. Behavioral changes in early ALS correlate with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi; Senda, Jo; Ishihara, Tetsuro; Niimi, Yoshiki; Kawai, Yoshinari; Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2011-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disorder with impairment of frontotemporal functions such as cognition and behavior, but the behavioral changes associated with ALS are not well defined. Twenty-one consecutive patients with sporadic ALS and 21 control subjects participated in the study. The Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe) was used to assess behavioral change. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images (DTI) were performed to explore the associations of brain degeneration with behavior. All patients were evaluated before the notification of ALS. FrSBe scores of ALS patients before notification were significantly increased compared to those of control subjects. Moreover, the FrSBe Apathy score of ALS patients significantly changed from pre- to post-illness (P<0.001). The severity of apathy was significantly correlated with atrophy in the prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal (P=0.006) and dorsolateral prefrontal (P=0.006) cortices in VBM, and in the right frontal gyrus (P<0.001) in DTI. ALS patients exhibited apathy during the early course of the illness, the severity of which was significantly associated with frontal lobe involvement. These findings support the view that a continuum exits between ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlled buckling behavior of patterned oxide structures on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejitual, T.S.; Morris, N.J.; Cairns, D.R.; Sierros, K.A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

    2013-12-31

    There is currently a great interest to design and fabricate novel flexible devices for solar cell, solid-state lighting, biomedical and energy harvesting applications. Such devices require the use of electrode components. Desired electrodes must exhibit structural integrity, low electrical resistivity and, in most cases, high optical transparency in the visible range. Despite growing efforts to replace them, transparent conducting oxide layers deposited on polymer substrates are still enjoying a dominant role as the electrode component. This is because of their excellent combination of electrical and optical properties. However, their performance when they are subjected to externally-applied mechanical stresses is limited. Such performance has been extensively investigated for the case of continuous brittle oxide films on polymer substrates. However, there is relatively little work reported to date on the mechanical behavior of patterned conducting layers on compliant substrates. In this study we report on the mechanical behavior of various patterned indium tin oxide shapes and sizes on polyethylene terephthalate. Micron-sized shapes include squares, circles, and zigzag-based structures. Controlled buckling experiments are performed in-situ using an optical microscope in order to monitor critical strains and potential failure mechanisms. In addition, ITO electrical resistance changes are continuously monitored during deformation. Furthermore, ex-situ characterization of the tested surfaces using scanning electron microscopy is conducted. Higher crack onset values are observed for the smaller size patterns. Also, square-shaped patterns are found to exhibit the lowest crack onset values. SEM observations suggest cracking-driven and buckling-driven delamination during ITO tensile and compressive buckling mode respectively. In both cases, failure is observed to initiate from the pattern edges. - Highlights: • In-situ experimental analysis of various patterned shapes

  1. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  2. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonality patterns of mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Falguni; Postolache, Nadine; Mohyuddin, Hira; Vaswani, Dipika; Balis, Theodora; Raheja, Uttam K; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-12-01

    Although humans have become partially isolated from physical seasonal environmental changes through artificial lighting and temperature control, seasonal changes in mood and behavior have been described across hemispheres, continents, ethnicities and occupations. The Old Order Amish are more exposed than the general population to environmental seasonal changes both occupationally as well as through their limited use of electric light in the winter and air conditioning in the summer; yet, their seasonal changes in mood and behavior have not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to analyze seasonal patterns in mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who returned completed Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires (SPAQ). Monthly seasonal patterns were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVAs, followed by a post hoc t-test if significant. The χ 2 was used for presence or absence of seasonal patterns for each item. More than 75% of the participants reported at least one seasonal change. More than 75 % endorsed seasonality in "feeling best" but only populations.

  4. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  5. Correlates of Tinder Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Tatar, Ovidiu; Sutton, Arielle; Fisher, William; Naz, Anila; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-12-01

    Tinder is a frequently used geosocial networking application that allows users to meet sexual partners in their geographical vicinity. Research examining Tinder use and its association with behavioral outcomes is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the correlates of Tinder use and risky sexual behaviors in young adults. Participants aged 18-26 were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire between January and May 2016. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, Tinder use, health related behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes. Associations among these variables were estimated using multivariate logistic regressions. The final sample consisted of 415 participants (n = 166 Tinder users; n = 249 nonusers). Greater likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of education (OR = 2.18) and greater reported need for sex (OR = 1.64), while decreased likelihood of using Tinder was associated with a higher level of academic achievement (OR = 0.63), lower sexual permissiveness (OR = 0.58), living with parents or relatives (OR = 0.38), and being in a serious relationship (OR = 0.24). Higher odds of reporting nonconsensual sex (OR = 3.22) and having five or more previous sexual partners (OR = 2.81) were found in Tinder users. Tinder use was not significantly associated with condom use. This study describes significant correlates of using Tinder and highlights a relationship between Tinder use with nonconsensual sex and number of previous sexual partners. These findings have salience for aiding public health interventions to effectively design interventions targeted at reducing risky sexual behaviors online.

  6. Correlations between behavior, memory, sleep-wake and melatonin in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Stella Donadon; Giacheti, Celia Maria; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Campos, Leila Maria Guissoni; Pinato, Luciana

    2016-05-15

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosomic region 7q11.23, presents with peculiar behavioral and neurocognitive phenotypes that are marked by apparently preserved social and communicative abilities, which contrasts with low overall cognitive and particularly visuospatial performance. In addition, parents often report complaints of sleep disorders and behavioral problems of unknown cause. Sleep is a biological phenomenon that is modulated by the plasma concentration of melatonin and with influence on behavioral aspects and memory. Thus, this study sought to investigate the behavior, memory and the presence of sleep disorders in WBS and to correlate these factors with each other and with the plasma melatonin content. We used the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL), the digit subtest of the Wechsler scale for auditory memory, the visual sequential memory subtest of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Determination of urinary aMT6s, an indirect measure of plasma melatonin content, was held for 72h by ELISA, and the analysis of the circadian rhythm of this content was performed by the Cosinor method. The results of the CBCL showed that 87% of the WBS group presented with a clinical score on the overall competence and total behavioral problems. Furthermore, the behavioral problems that were most frequently reported by parents were anxiety and problems of thought. All individuals with WBS presented with impairments in auditory memory and 47% with impairments in visual sequential memory; 65% of the WBS group presented with an indicative of at least one sleep disorder, where respiratory, initiation and maintenance of sleep (DIMS) and hyperhidrosis were the most frequent disorders. The night time aMT6s levels were lower in individuals with WBS when compared with controls; 53% of the WBS group did not present with circadian rhythm

  7. Catalog Learning: Carabid Beetles Learn to Manipulate with Innate Coherent Behavioral Patterns

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    Zhanna Reznikova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fascinating problems in comparative psychology is how learning contributes to solving specific functional problems in animal life, and which forms of learning our species shares with non-human animals. Simulating a natural situation of territorial conflicts between predatory carabids and red wood ants in field and laboratory experiments, we have revealed a relatively simple and quite natural form of learning that has been overlooked. We call it catalog learning, the name we give to the ability of animals to establish associations between stimuli and coherent behavioral patterns (patterns consist of elementary motor acts that have a fixed order. Instead of budgeting their motor acts gradually, from chaotic to rational sequences in order to learn something new, which is characteristic for a conditioning response, animals seem to be “cataloguing” their repertoire of innate coherent behavioral patterns in order to optimize their response to a certain repetitive event. This form of learning can be described as “stimulus-pattern” learning. In our experiments four “wild” carabid species, whose cognitive abilities have never been studied before, modified their behavior in a rather natural manner in order to avoid damage from aggressive ants. Beetles learned to select the relevant coherent behavioral patterns from the set of seven patterns, which are common to all four species and apparently innate. We suggest that this form of learning differs from the known forms of associative learning, and speculate that it is quite universal and can be present in a wide variety of species, both invertebrate and vertebrate. This study suggests a new link between the concepts of cognition and innateness.

  8. Observational fear learning in degus is correlated with temporal vocalization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidhar, Navdeep K; Insel, Nathan; Dong, June Yue; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2017-08-14

    Some animals learn to fear a situation after observing another individual come to harm, and this learning is influenced by the animals' social relationship and history. An important but sometimes overlooked factor in studies of observational fear learning is that social context not only affects observers, but may also influence the behavior and communications expressed by those being observed. Here we sought to investigate whether observational fear learning in the degu (Octodon degus) is affected by social familiarity, and the degree to which vocal expressions of alarm or distress contribute. 'Demonstrator' degus underwent contextual fear conditioning in the presence of a cagemate or stranger observer. Among the 15 male pairs, observers of familiar demonstrators exhibited higher freezing rates than observers of strangers when returned to the conditioning environment one day later. Observer freezing during testing was, however, also related to the proportion of short- versus long- inter-call-intervals (ICIs) in vocalizations recorded during prior conditioning. In a regression model that included both social relationship and ICI patterns, only the latter was significant. Further investigation of vocalizations, including use of a novel, directed k-means clustering approach, suggested that temporal structure rather than tonal variations may have been responsible for communicating danger. These data offer insight into how different expressions of distress or fear may impact an observer, adding to the complexity of social context effects in studies of empathy and social cognition. The experiments also offer new data on degu alarm calls and a potentially novel methodological approach to complex vocalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  10. Psychological factors are important correlates of dietary pattern in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A; Dunbar, Sandra B; Tohill, Beth C; Gary, Rebecca; Higgins, Melinda K; Frediani, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, the central distribution of adipose tissue, is a well-established cardiometabolic disease risk factor. The prevalence has steadily increased since 1988, and now more than 50% of adults have abdominal obesity. Psychological distress coupled with increased dietary energy density (ED) may contribute to abdominal obesity. Guided by the stress and coping model, this study examined the relationship between psychological factors (perceived stress and depressive symptoms) and dietary ED in overweight, working adults. The first hypothesis tested if psychological factors explained a significant amount of food and beverage ED variance above that accounted for by demographic factors. The second hypothesis tested if psychological factors explained a significant amount of food and nonalcoholic beverage ED variance above that accounted for by demographic factors. Post hoc analyses compared macronutrient composition and food group pattern between overweight, working adults with and without depressive symptoms. This descriptive, cross-sectional, correlation study was composed of 87 overweight, working adults (mean age, 41.3 [SD, 10.2] years; mean body mass index, 32.1 [SD, 6.1] kg/m²; 73.6% women; 50.6% African American). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II and Perceived Stress Scale and weighed-3-day-food record analyzed for caloric intake (kilocalories) and weight (in grams) of consumed foods and beverages that were used to calculate ED (in kilocalories/gram). Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, and sequential regression modeling were used for data analysis. Depressive symptoms were reported by 21.9% of participants and explained variance in food and beverage ED above that accounted for by African American race and reporting adequate caloric intake. Depressive symptoms explained variance in food and nonalcoholic beverage ED above that accounted for male sex, African

  11. A Study of Clinical Presentation and Correlative Histopathological Patterns in Renal Parenchymal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K; Nair, R R; Seethalekshmy, N V; Kurian, G; Mathew, A; Sreedharan, S; Paul, Z

    2018-01-01

    Suspicion and subsequent detection of renal disease is by an assessment of the urinalysis and renal function in the clinical context. Our attempt in this study is to correlate initial presenting features of urinalysis and renal function to the final histopathological diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of 1059 native kidney biopsies performed from January 2002 to June 2015 at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences was conducted. Correlative patterns between urinalysis, renal function, and final histopathological diagnosis were studied. Five hundred and eleven (48%) patients had nephrotic syndrome. Out of these, 193 (38%) had pure: nephrotic syndrome, 181 (35.8%) had associated microhematuria, 110 (21.7%) had microhematuria and renal failure, and 27 (5.3%) had only associated renal failure. Minimal change disease (MCD) (30%), membranous nephropathy (30%), and IgA nephropathy (29%) were the major diseases in the respective groups. Five hundred and five (47.6%) patients had subnephrotic proteinuria. Out of these, 29 (5.6%) had only subnephrotic proteinuria, 134 (27%) had additional microhematuria, 300 (59%) had subnephrotic proteinuria, microhematuria, and renal failure, and 42 (8%) had subnephrotic proteinuria with renal failure. Lupus Nephritis (45% and 40%) and IgA Nephropathy (32% and 21%) were the major disorders in the subgroups respectively. Forty-two patients (3.7%) were biopsied for isolated renal failure with bland urinary sediment. Cast nephropathy and acute interstitial nephritis were the major diseases. Out of 89 patients with diabetes who were biopsied, 15 (16.8%) had diabetic nephropathy, 45 (50.5%) had no diabetic nephropathy, and 29 (32.5%) had diabetic nephropathy along with a non-diabetic renal disease. Postinfectious glomerulonephritis was the major glomerular disease. IgA nephropathy (22.2%) and membranous nephropathy (15.5%) were the major diseases in patients with diabetes with no diabetic nephropathy. In our population, MCD and membranous

  12. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Total ozone patterns over the northern mid-latitudes: spatial correlations, extreme events and dynamical contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Bodeker, G. E.; Davison, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    Tools from geostatistics and extreme value theory are applied to analyze spatial correlations in total ozone for the northern mid-latitudes. The dataset used in this study is the NIWA combined total ozone dataset (Bodeker et al., 2001; Müller et al., 2008). New tools from extreme value theory (Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007) have recently been applied to the world's longest total ozone record from Arosa, Switzerland (e.g. Staehelin 1998a,b), in order to describe extreme events in low and high total ozone (Rieder et al., 200x). Within the current study, patterns in spatial correlation and frequency distributions of extreme events (e.g. ELOs and EHOs) are studied for the northern mid-latitudes. New insights in spatial patterns of total ozone for the northern mid-latitudes are presented. Koch et al. (2005) found that the increase in fast isentropic transport of tropical air to northern mid-latitudes contributed significantly to ozone changes between 1980 and 1989. Within this study the influence of changes in atmospheric dynamics (e.g. tropospheric and lower stratospheric pressure systems) on column ozone over the northern mid-latitudes is analyzed for the time period 1979-2007. References: Bodeker, G.E., J.C. Scott, K. Kreher, and R.L. McKenzie, Global ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates using TOMS and GOME intercompared against the Dobson network: 1978-1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D19), 23029-23042, 2001. Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer Series in Statistics, ISBN:1852334592, Springer, Berlin, 2001. Koch, G., H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter (2005), A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12810, doi:10.1029/2004GL022062. Müller, R., Grooß, J.-U., Lemmen, C., Heinze, D., Dameris, M., and Bodeker, G.: Simple measures of ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 251-264, 2008. Ribatet

  15. Exploring Learners' Sequential Behavioral Patterns, Flow Experience, and Learning Performance in an Anti-Phishing Educational Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Cian-Yu; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lin, Yu-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to provide a game-based anti-phishing lesson to 110 elementary school students in Taiwan, explore their learning behavioral patterns, and investigate the effects of the flow states on their learning behavioral patterns and learning achievement. The study recorded behaviour logs, and applied a pre- and post-test on…

  16. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  17. Obesity and other correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9-12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in daily PA (DPA), vigorous PA (VPA), muscle-strengthening activity (MSA), viewing television (TV), and using computers or video games (C/VG). A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors.

  18. Attitudinal, Behavioral, and Environmental Correlates of Child and Parent Self-Efficacy in Walking to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Wenhua; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-12-17

    As a critical social cognitive construct, self-efficacy plays a determinant role in children's walking to school (WTS). However, little is known about factors that are underlying children's and parents' self-efficacy in WTS. The purpose of this study is to examine behavioral, attitudinal, and environmental correlates of child self-efficacy and parent self-efficacy in WTS, and to assess differences in the correlates of child versus parent self-efficacy. Data were collected from students ( N = 1224) and parents ( N = 1205) from 81 elementary schools across Texas in 2009-2012. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to identify significant factors that are associated with children's self-efficacy and parents' self-efficacy. Results from this study showed that the parent self-efficacy was more likely to be related to their own behaviors or attitudes, rather than the environmental factors or their child's input. The child self-efficacy, however, was influenced not only by their own and parental behaviors or attitudes, but also by environmental factors. This study suggests that both parental and child self-efficacy are important factors to be considered when making decisions about school transportation.

  19. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA and participation in daily PA (DPA, vigorous PA (VPA, muscle-strengthening activity (MSA, viewing television (TV, and using computers or video games (C/VG. A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors.

  20. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant

  1. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global NDVI Trends: Correlations with Climate and Human Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vegetation activity are driven by multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, which can be reflected by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from satellites. In this paper, NDVI trends from 1982 to 2012 are first estimated by the Theil–Sen median slope method to explore their spatial and temporal patterns. Then, the impact of climate variables and human activity on the observed NDVI trends is analyzed. Our results show that on average, NDVI increased by 0.46 × 10−3 per year from 1982 to 2012 globally with decadal variations. For most regions of the world, a greening (increasing–browning (decreasing–greening (G-B-G trend is observed over the periods 1982–2004, 1995–2004, and 2005–2012, respectively. A positive partial correlation of NDVI and temperature is observed in the first period but it decreases and occasionally becomes negative in the following periods, especially in the Humid Temperate and Dry Domain Regions. This suggests a weakened effect of temperature on vegetation growth. Precipitation, on the other hand, is found to have a positive impact on the NDVI trend. This effect becomes stronger in the third period of 1995–2004, especially in the Dry Domain Region. Anthropogenic effects and human activities, derived here from the Human Footprint Dataset and the associated Human Influence Index (HII, have varied impacts on the magnitude (absolute value of the NDVI trends across continents. Significant positive effects are found in Asia, Africa, and Europe, suggesting that intensive human activity could accelerate the change in NDVI and vegetation. A more accurate attribution of vegetation change to specific climatic and anthropogenic factors is instrumental to understand vegetation dynamics and requires further research.

  2. Evolution of the binge drinking pattern in college students: neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of online health information-seeking behaviors in a low-income Hispanic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, R I; Millery, M; Fleck, E; Bakken, S

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the correlates of online health information-seeking behaviors among Hispanic residents of a low-income urban neighborhood. Data were collected with a community survey from 1045 unique participants at ambulatory care clinics in a largely Hispanic immigrant community in northern Manhattan, New York. A descriptive correlational analysis was conducted using logistic regression. A majority of the participants were born outside the United States (85.7%), and half (50.3%) had completed high school. A logistic regression revealed that five independent variables were significantly correlated with online health information-seeking behaviors: age, education, marital status, primary language, and health literacy. Age and Spanish as preferred language were negatively associated with online health information-seeking (OR = 0.93 and 0.50), whereas education and health literacy were positively associated with online health information-seeking (OR = 4.28 and 1.28). The findings have implications for designing online health information resources and interventions appropriate for the populations they are likely to reach. Furthermore, the findings highlight the need for special efforts to ensure access to reliable health information for immigrant populations and those with low health literacy.

  4. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Affective Apathy Sub-Domains in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome. PMID:24904518

  5. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioral, and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder's neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome.

  6. Fathers’ Involvement: Correlates and Consequences for Child Socioemotional Behavior in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Martin, Peter; Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal relationships between fathers’ involvement, as measured by reading, and child socioemotional behavior between infancy and age 7 in 9,238 intact two-parent families from the U.K. Millennium Cohort Study, a national cohort of British children born between 2000 and 2002. Once a variety of covariates and the potential bidirectional nature of relationships were taken into account, a path model showed that fathers’ involvement with their children in infancy significantly predicted better socioemotional behavior at age 3, although the relationship was not strong. Fathers’ reading with their children between ages 3 and 7 was not significantly associated with child socioemotional behavior, but mothers’ reading with their children at age 3 was significantly associated with improved child socioemotional behavior at ages 3 and 5. Results also suggested that parenting in the 21st-century British context remains fairly gendered. Both mothers and fathers were more likely to engage in physical activities with their sons and artistic activities with their daughters. Fathers’ reading was socially patterned in predicted directions. PMID:28503014

  7. Sleep patterns and their association with depression and behavior problems among Chinese adolescents in different grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Jiang, Lan; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to examine sleep patterns and their association with depression and behavior problems among Chinese adolescents in different grades. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 cities of mainland China. A total of 8,998 Chinese adolescents (49.3% males) aged 9-20 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions on sleep patterns, depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and demographic characteristics. The percentage of adolescents who slept less than 7 hr on weekdays increased with grade, while the percentage of adolescents who slept less than 7 hr on weekends remained the same. The gap in sleep length between weekdays and weekends increased from 0.6 hr in grade 5 to 2.3 hr in Grade 12. The regression analysis showed that poor sleep habits were linked to greater emotional and behavioral problems. The associations of sleep length with those problems differed by symptom and grade. Sleeping less related to depression in all grades. More behavior problems were observed in primary school students who had less sleep and in senior high school students who had more sleep than their peers. The preference for going to bed late stably related to both adolescent depression and behavior problems in all grades, although it posed a greater risk for students in higher grades. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Correlation of morphological pattern of optical coherence tomography in diabetic macular edema with systemic risk factors in middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Bansal, Preeti; Shejao, Harsha; Hegde, Raghuraj; Roy, Debesh; Biswas, Shyamapada

    2015-02-01

    To study correlation of different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns of diabetic macular edema (DME) with systemic risk factors. Institutional cross-sectional double-masked non-interventional study with 330 eyes of middle-aged male type 2 diabetes patients with DME. Various systemic parameters were measured. Diffuse retinal thickening (DRT), cystoid and serous patterns of DME were identified on OCT. Comparison between DRT versus non-DRT and serous versus non-serous eyes was done in respect to systemic parameters. Correlation of serous and DRT pattern was tested with systemic parameters above and below specified values. Mean age was 54.4 ± 7.1 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 8.7 ± 4.2 years. Mean serum globulin level was significantly higher (p = 0.018) in serous compared to non-serous group. Prevalence of serous DME was significantly high in those with serum globulin level >3.5 gm/dl (prevalence ratio = 3.01, p = 0.040). Significant correlation of central macular thickness was observed with duration of diabetes (p = 0.002, r = 0.440).Visual acuity (logMAR) was correlated significantly with HbA1C (p = 0.031, r = 0.305). Increased serum globulin, a positive phase reactant of inflammation, was found significant independent risk factor for development of serous DME. This study did not identify any modifiable systemic factor for any of the OCT patterns in DME.

  9. Correlation between Gastric Mucosal Morphologic Patterns and Histopathological Severity of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis Using Conventional Narrow Band Imaging Gastroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Loyd, Ryan A.; Matrakool, Likit

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Identifying specific gastric mucosal morphologic patterns useful for detecting Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and correlation with histopathological severity. Methods. The endoscopists classified the C-NBI gastroscopic findings into 5 gastric mucosal morphologic patterns as follows: type 1: regular arrangement of collecting venules, type 2: cone-shaped gastric pits, type 3: rod-shaped gastric pits with prominent sulci, type 4: ground glass-like morphology, and type 5: dark brown patches with bluish margin and irregular border. Biopsies of all of the cases were then evaluated by 5 pathologists for definitive Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. Result. Type 1 and type 2 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori negative status (58/60, P < 0.01). Type 3, type 4, and type 5 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori positive status (132/140, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of type 3, 4, or 5 morphologies for predicting Helicobacter pylori positive were 94.28%, 96.66%, 98.50%, and 87.87%, respectively, correlated well with inflammation grading according to the Sydney classification (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Our study suggests that gastric mucosal morphologic patterns in the Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa can be reliably identified using C-NBI gastroscopy with good correlation with inflammation grading. PMID:26120585

  10. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Correlation between Thermal and Noxious Gas Environments, Pig Productivity and Behavioral Responses of Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyung Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare.

  12. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  13. Strongly correlated Fermi-systems: Non-Fermi liquid behavior, quasiparticle effective mass and their interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .

  14. Risk factors and correlates of deliberate self-harm behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, Herbert; Lee, Jeong-Ran; Grimm, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F

    2009-06-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior--without suicidal intent--is a serious health problem and may be studied as a clinical phenomenon in its own right. Empirical studies of sociodemographic and psychological correlates and risk factors are systematically reviewed. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX (German psychological literature), and reference lists. We targeted self-induced bodily harm without conscious suicidal intent. Studies on suicidal behavior or self-poisoning were only included if they also assessed nonsuicidal self-harm. Fifty-nine original studies met the criteria. Deliberate self-harm may occur at all ages, yet adolescents and young adults are at a higher risk. Evidence on gender is complex. Only 5 studies realize a prospective design (6 months to 10 years) and test predictors. The majority use cross-sectional and retrospective methods. No longitudinal study (separately) examines new incidence. Evidence of correlates encompasses distal/proximal, person/environment, and state/trait factors. Many studies report associations between current self-harm behavior and a history of childhood sexual abuse. Adolescent and adult self-harmers experience more frequent and more negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, and aggressiveness, than persons who do not self-harm. Two studies yield specific interactions between childhood trauma and current traits and states such as low emotional expressivity, low self-esteem, and dissociation with respect to a vulnerability to self-harm. Evidence of distal, biographical stressors is fairly strong. Proximal stressors have rarely been investigated; protective factors, hardly at all. Despite many findings of correlates, the data do not yet justify terming them risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed.

  15. Genotype-phenotype correlations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Behavioral characteristics and changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Penhallow, Jessica; Ansari, Morad; Barton, Stephanie; Bourn, David; FitzPatrick, David R; Goodship, Judith; Hammond, Peter; Roberts, Catherine; Welham, Alice; Oliver, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder associated with unusual facial features, limb abnormalities, a wide range of health conditions, and intellectual disability. Mutations in five genes that encode (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulate (NIPBL, HDAC8) the cohesin complex have been identified in up to 70% of individuals. Genetic cause remains unknown for a proportion of individuals. There is substantial heterogeneity in all aspects of CdLS but very little is known about what predicts phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, we evaluated genotype-phenotype associations in 34 individuals with CdLS. Participants with NIPBL mutations had significantly lower self help skills and were less likely to have verbal skills relative to those who were negative for the NIPBL mutation. No significant differences were identified between the groups in relation to repetitive behavior, mood, interest and pleasure, challenging behavior, activity, impulsivity, and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder whilst controlling differences in self help skills. Significant correlations indicating lower mood, interest and pleasure, and increased insistence on sameness with older age were identified for those who were NIPBL mutation positive. The findings suggest similarities in the behavioral phenotype between those with and without the NIPBL mutation once differences in self help skills are controlled for. However, there may be subtle differences in the developmental trajectory of these behaviors according to genetic mutation status in CdLS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cerebral correlates of depressed behavior in rats, visualized using 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecott-Hazard, S.; Mazziotta, J.; Phelps, M.

    1988-01-01

    14 C-2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was used to investigate changes in the rate of cerebral metabolism in 3 rat models of depressed behavior. The models had already been established in the literature and were induced by injections of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, withdrawal from chronic amphetamine, or stress. We verified that exploratory behaviors were depressed in each model and that an antidepressant drug, tranylcypromine, prevented the depressed behavior in each model. 2DG studies revealed that the rate of regional glucose metabolism was elevated bilaterally in the lateral habenula of each of the 3 models. Regional metabolic rates were reduced in each model in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus, and inferior colliculus. Forebrain global metabolic rates were also reduced in each of the models. Tranylcypromine prevented the elevated rate of lateral habenula metabolism seen in each of the models alone but did not significantly affect the rates of global metabolism. Our findings of identical metabolic changes in each of the models indicate that these changes are not idiosyncratic to a particular model; rather, they correlate with a generalizable state of depressed exploratory behavior in rats

  17. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  18. The apple of their eye: Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of parents' perceptions of child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed gaps in the existing literature about correlates of parental perception of child weight using a community sample. This study evaluated how weight-status and its perception related to parents' personal and parenting attitudes/behaviors. Participants were parents (N = 1,007; 65.3% mothers, 34.4% fathers) of children 5 to 15 years old. Parents completed online measures of personal eating attitudes/behaviors, attitudes/behaviors about their children's eating and weight, and parental practices related to weight-related attitudes. Parents frequently underestimated children's overweight/obesity, even more frequently than their own overweight/obesity (P child weight-status (P child weight-status. Parents' child-focused eating attitudes/behaviors were related to actual (P child weight-status (P obesity and to guide parent responses to perceived overweight/obesity. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, and the serious consequences during childhood and into adulthood, further research is needed to enhance understanding of parents' specific needs to engage in prevention and treatment programs. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. A naturalistic examination of the temporal patterns of affect and eating disorder behaviors in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Crosby, Ross D; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Fishermen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K K Choo

    Full Text Available Fishermen in Southeast Asia have been found to be highly vulnerable to HIV, with research evidence highlighting the role of sexual risk behaviors. This study aims to estimate the rate of HIV as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV infections among Malaysian fishermen, and the risky sexual and injection drug use behaviors that may contribute to these infections. The study also includes an assessment of socio-demographic, occupational and behavioral correlates of testing positive for HIV or HCV, and socio-demographic and occupational correlates of risk behaviors. The study had a cross-sectional design and recruited 406 fishermen through respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Participants self-completed a questionnaire and provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing. We conducted and compared results of analyses of both unweighted data and data weighted with the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool (RDSAT. Of the participating fishermen, 12.4% were HIV positive and 48.6% had HCV infection. Contrary to expectations and findings from previous research, most fishermen (77.1% were not sexually active. More than a third had a history of injection drug use, which often occurred during fishing trips on commercial vessels and during longer stays at sea. Of the fishermen who injected drugs, 42.5% reported unsafe injection practices in the past month. Reporting a history of injection drug use increased the odds of testing HIV positive by more than 6 times (AOR = 6.22, 95% CIs [2.74, 14.13]. Most fishermen who injected drugs tested positive for HCV. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use, being older than 25 years, working on a commercial vessel and spending four or more days at sea per fishing trip. There is an urgent need to strengthen current harm reduction and drug treatment programs for Malaysian fishermen who inject drugs, especially among fishermen who work on commercial vessels and engage in deep-sea fishing.

  1. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  2. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal ...

  3. The Metabolic Syndrome and Behavioral Correlates in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...

  4. Does education confer a culture of healthy behavior? Smoking and drinking patterns in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic and environm...... drinking. Correlations between shared environmental influences on education and the health behaviors were substantial among the well-educated for smoking in both sexes and drinking in males, reinforcing this notion.......More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic...... and environmental sources of health-related behaviors. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21,522 members of the Danish Twin Registry, born during 1931-1982, reported smoking and drinking habits. The authors used quantitative genetic models to examine how these behaviors' genetic...

  5. ANALYSIS CORRELATION OF 'UKBM' USING ON HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBER IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristrini Ristrini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The government effort to continuously increase the empowerment of community was held with the using of posyandu, namely posyandu revitalization. That strategy is hoped to increase knowledge of community on health efforts that has promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative nature. The knowledge and positive behavior from community member on any health efforts that have been done by government and community in using posyandu/poskesdes can be influenced by factors namely individual characteristic, environment and active role of community figure in the health sector. Methods: Analysis scope that has been done was in the border of data in Riskesdas 2007 and the re-interview did not held to deeply review the variables in the Riskesdes 2007. Further have been done the analysis of correlation between that variables to know the using of posyandu/poskesdes with hygienic behavior. Results: Further analysis result about correlation between the using of posyandu/poskesdes on hygienic behavior of household member in Indonesia, there were 27.36% of household that using the service in posyandu/poskesdes. There were 62.5% household asserted that they did not need any service of posyandu/poskesdes, because such as there were not any household member who is sick, pregnantor have not any baby/children under five years old. The main reasons (outside there were not any person who need the service to not using posyandu/poskesdes service was household characteristic. According to the area type, in the big city the reason "incompleteness of posyandu/poskesdes service in was more dominated, while in the village the main reason was the distance of service location. The not existence of posyandu/poskesdes was asserted as the reason to not using the service of posyandu/poskesdes with similar percentage between big city and village area. In overall the percentage of population above 10 years old who have proper behavior in the matter of BAB (Defecation

  6. High order neural correlates of social behavior in the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duer, Aron; Paffhausen, Benjamin H; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-10-30

    Honeybees are well established models of neural correlates of sensory function, learning and memory formation. Here we report a novel approach allowing to record high-order mushroom body-extrinsic interneurons in the brain of worker bees within a functional colony. New method The use of two 100 cm long twisted copper electrodes allowed recording of up to four units of mushroom body-extrinsic neurons simultaneously for up to 24h in animals moving freely between members of the colony. Every worker, including the recorded bee, hatched in the experimental environment. The group consisted of 200 animals in average. Animals explored different regions of the comb and interacted with other colony members. The activities of the units were not selective for locations on the comb, body directions with respect to gravity and olfactory signals on the comb, or different social interactions. However, combinations of these parameters defined neural activity in a unit-specific way. In addition, units recorded from the same animal co-varied according to unknown factors. Comparison with existing method(s): All electrophysiological studies with honey bees were performed so far on constrained animals outside their natural behavioral contexts. Yet no neuronal correlates were measured in a social context. Free mobility of recoded insects over a range of a quarter square meter allows addressing questions concerning neural correlates of social communication, planning of tasks within the colony and attention-like processes. The method makes it possible to study neural correlates of social behavior in a near-natural setting within the honeybee colony. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and Selection of Behavioral Patterns Using Theme: A Concrete Example in Grassroots Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Amatria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Observational methodology provides a rigorous yet flexible framework for capturing behaviors over time to allow for the performance of subsequent diachronic analyses of the data captured. Theme is a specialized software program that detects hidden temporal behavioral patterns (T-patterns within data sets. It is increasingly being used to analyze performance in soccer and other sports. The aim of this study was to show how to select and interpret T-patterns generated by the application of three “quantitative” sort options in Theme and three “qualitative” filters established by the researchers. These will be used to investigate whether 7-a-side (F7 or 8-a-side (F8 soccer is best suited to the learning and skills development needs of 7- and 8-year-old male soccer players. The information contained in the T-patterns generated allowed us to characterize patterns of play in children in this age group. For both formats, we detected technical-tactical behaviors showing that children of this age have difficulty with first-touch actions and controlling the ball after a throw-in. We also found that ball control followed by a pass or a shot at the goal are common in the central corridor of the pitch. Further, depth of play is achieved by ball control, followed by dribbling and a pass or shot. In F8, we saw that depth of play was achieved through ball control, followed by dribbling and passing of one or more opponents leading to a pass or shot. However, in F7, we saw that players succeeded in advancing from their goal area to the rival goal area through a sequence of actions.

  8. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  9. The Effects of Topographical Patterns and Sizes on Neural Stem Cell Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Li, Ning; Huang, Rong; Song, Qin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Qi; Su, Ruigong; Kong, Tao; Tang, Mingliang; Cheng, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    Engineered topographical manipulation, a paralleling approach with conventional biochemical cues, has recently attracted the growing interests in utilizations to control stem cell fate. In this study, effects of topological parameters, pattern and size are emphasized on the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs). We fabricate micro-scale topographical Si wafers with two different feature sizes. These topographical patterns present linear micro-pattern (LMP), circular micro-pattern (CMP) and dot micro-pattern (DMP). The results show that the three topography substrates are suitable for ANSC growth, while they all depress ANSC proliferation when compared to non-patterned substrates (control). Meanwhile, LMP and CMP with two feature sizes can both significantly enhance ANSC differentiation to neurons compared to control. The smaller the feature size is, the better upregulation applies to ANSC for the differentiated neurons. The underlying mechanisms of topography-enhanced neuronal differentiation are further revealed by directing suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) signaling pathway in ANSC using U0126, known to inhibit the activation of Erk. The statistical results suggest MAPK/Erk pathway is partially involved in topography-induced differentiation. These observations provide a better understanding on the different roles of topographical cues on stem cell behavior, especially on the selective differentiation, and facilitate to advance the field of stem cell therapy. PMID:23527077

  10. National Motives and Domestic Planned Violence: An Examination of Time-Lagged Correlational Trends in Cross-Time Regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Societies, *Conflict, Statistical processes, Behavioral science, Motivation, Social psychology, Nations, Political science, Correlation techniques, Pattern recognition, Hypotheses, Regression analysis

  11. Tritium behavior pattern in some soil-plant systems in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the distribution pattern of tritium in the soil/plant environment gives valuable ecological information on the natural water balance. The results of such a study for the conditions obtaining in India are given in this paper. Field studies are carried out by injection of tritium into some soil/plant systems and following the transfer pathways. The method of extraction for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) is based on the vacuum freeze-drying technique while the tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) is estimated by a modified version of the Shoniger method. The determination of residence time of tritium in aqueous and organic phase in a number of tropical trees has been carried out both for stem-injection as well as intake from the soil. From the results of this study the tree biomass and transpiration rates have been determined. The tritium profile over time, for an acute exposure in certain trees such as Morinda Tinetoria, Achras Sapota etc. shows significantly different patterns compared to the normal pattern shown by Mangifera Indica, Terminalia Catappa, Ficus Glomerata etc. The period of investigation in each case varied from 400 to 1000 h. In most of the cases, the TBT fractions were very low compared to TFWT fractions in the initial stages. The tritium behavior in the tree reflects significant characteristics of the tritium behavior in the soil system. The authors have found that the leaf sampling can be used as an indicator of total environmental tritium behavior. (author)

  12. Correlation between vegetation pattern and microtopography in periglacial areas of the Central Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdol, Renato

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributional patterns of plant species were analyzed within periglacial microforms belonging to the collective groups of patterned grounds and sorted stripes In the Ortles-Cevedale group (Lombardy, Italy. The edges of primitive polygons are practically free of vegetation, whilst the central areas are colonized by pioneer plants of detritic slopes. This is clearly correlated with a low degree of sediment sorting. The morphological evolution of the forms proceeds at a faster rate at the edge of polygons than in the central areas. Vegetation, on the other hand, colonizes the coarse debris at the polygons’ edges slowly but colonizes the fine material in the central areas actively. The centre of the most evolved polygons is covered by a carpet of Salix herbacea. Age determinations of Salix shoots are not useful for dating purposes, but provide Information about the local microclimate.

    [es] Se han analizado los modelos de distribución de especies vegetales en microformas periglaciares pertenecientes al tipo de suelos estructurales en el Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardía, Italia. Los límites de los polígonos de piedras están prácticamente libres de vegetación, mientras las áreas centrales están colonizadas por plantas pioneras de laderas pedregosas. La evolución morfológica actúa a mayor velocidad en el borde de los polígonos que en las áreas centrales. Por otro lado, la vegetación coloniza lentamente los bordes de los polígonos, y más activamente las zonas centrales. El centro de la mayoría de los polígonos está cubierto por un manto de Salix herbacea. La determinación de la edad de los vástagos de Salix no ha sido un método útil a efectos cronológicos, pero proporciona información sobre el microclima local.
    [fr] On étude les modèles de distribution d'espèces végétaux dans microformes périglaciaires appartenants au type de sols structurales dans l'Ortles-Cevedale (Lombardie

  13. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Heart Period in Infancy as Correlates of Later Oppositional Defiant and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Propper, Cathi; Rehder, Peter; Gueron-Sela, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in childhood and adolescence are associated with distinct patterns of psychophysiological functioning, and that individual differences in these patterns have implications for developmental pathways to disorder. Very little is known about the…

  14. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  15. Momentary Patterns of Covariation between Specific Affects and Interpersonal Behavior: Linking Relationship Science and Personality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M.; Girard, Jeffrey M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Scott, Lori N.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory’s principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the two systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. PMID:27148786

  16. Adolescent Physiological and Behavioral Patterns of Emotion Dysregulation Predict Multisystemic Therapy Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarski, D Anne; Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether physiological and behavioral indicators of emotion dysregulation assessed over the course of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) were related to treatment response. Participants were 180 ethnically diverse adolescents ( n =120 males), ranging in age from 12 to 17 years. Treatment response was assessed through therapist report and official arrest records. Changes in cortisol reactivity and changes in scores on a behavioral dysregulation subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were used as indicators of emotion dysregulation. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses examined whether a less favorable treatment response was associated with cortisol reactivity measures (a) collected early in treatment and (b) over the course of treatment, as well as with behavioral reports of emotion dysregulation reported (c) early in treatment, and (d) over the course of treatment. Sex was explored as a moderator of these associations. Results indicated that both cortisol and behavioral indices of emotion dysregulation early in treatment and over the course of therapy predicted treatment responsiveness. This relationship was moderated by sex: girls were more likely to evidence a pattern of increasing emotion regulation prior to successful therapy response. The results lend further support to the notion of incorporating emotion regulation techniques into treatment protocols for delinquent behavior.

  17. Maternal patterns of marijuana use and early sexual behavior in offspring of teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-03-01

    Teenage mothers use marijuana more frequently than older mothers, and marijuana use may predict HIV risk behavior in offspring. Our goals were to (1) describe trajectories of marijuana use in teenage mothers and (2) determine if these trajectories were associated with early sexual behavior in their offspring. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were recruited at a prenatal clinic and interviewed during pregnancy, at delivery, and during follow-up visits when offspring were 6, 10, 14 and 16 years old. At 16 years, 332 women (71 % Black, 29 % White) and their offspring were assessed. Mothers were asked about their marijuana use at each time point. Offspring reported on their sexual behavior at age 14. Trajectory analyses using growth mixture models revealed four maternal patterns of marijuana use: no use, only at the 6 year follow-up, quit by the 16 year follow-up, and used across most of the time points. The children of chronic users were more likely to have early sex. The maternal marijuana trajectory group variable remained a statistically significant predictor in multivariate models controlling for race, gender, socioeconomic status, child pubertal timing, child externalizing behavior problems, and child marijuana use. These findings suggest that a minority of teenage mothers continue to use marijuana over time. Chronic maternal marijuana use across a decade was associated with early sex in offspring (oral or vaginal sex by age 14). Early sexual behavior places these children at significantly higher risk of teenage pregnancy and HIV risk behaviors.

  18. [Drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Zeng, Xinying; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To understand the drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population in China. Floating population were selected through multistage clustering sampling method, stratified by 6 major industries in 170 counties and districts from 31 provinces/autonomous regions, and Xinjiang Construction Corps, in mainland China. Design-based methods were adopted to analyze the drinking behavior in subpopulations. A total of 48 697 floating population aged 18-59 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence rate of drinking was 51.7% with 71.9% in men and 24.7% in women, in the last 12 months. Among those who ever drank, the weekly drinking prevalence and daily alcohol intake were 53.9% and 18.7 g in males while 16.7% and 4.1 g in females, respectively, among those floating population. Weekly drinking prevalence rates, for both genders, increased along with the increase of age (P population from the construction industry had the highest prevalence rates on items as weekly drinking, daily alcohol intake and prevalence of unhealthy drinking behaviors, except for hazardous drinking behaviors. Drinking behavior was prevalent among floating population in China. Significant difference was seen between genders. Unhealthy drinking behaviors varied greatly among male drinkers at different age groups or education levels as well as among those working in the different industries.

  19. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Pin; Zhuge, Xu-Qing; Zheng, Qian; Shi, Bing; Gong, Cai-Xia; Wang, Yan

    2013-02-01

    To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate. A total of 93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of 6-11 year-old and treated at West China Stomatology Hospital were selected. And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school in Chengdu. Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists. Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups. The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency. All patients showed elevations in behavior problems. But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders. Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties. Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An assessment of schoolyard features and behavior patterns in children's utilization and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Kingston, Beverly; Kutchman, Eve; Lampe, Sarah; Nigg, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Careful research that elucidates how behavior relates to design in the context of elementary school grounds can serve to guide cost-efficient design with the goal of encouraging physical activity (PA). This work explores patterns in children's PA behavior within playground spaces with the specific goal of guiding healthy playground design. Data on children's utilization and PA behavior in 6 playgrounds divided into 106 observation zones were collected in 2005 and 2006 at Denver elementary school playgrounds using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Analyses of variance and t tests determined whether there were differences in utilization and behavior patterns across observations zones and between genders. This study provides evidence that children prefer to use certain types of playground zones and that they are more likely to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in some zones. The authors observed statistically significant differences between genders. Boys were more likely to engage in MVPA in zones without equipment, girls were more likely to use zones with equipment. This work suggests that the inclusion or omission of specific playground features may have an impact on the way that children use the spaces.

  2. A continental analysis of correlations between tree patterns in African savannas and human and environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.A.; Langevelde, van F.; Vijver, van de C.A.D.M.; Raad, de A.L.; Leeuw, de J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses possible relationships between natural processes taking place in savannas and the tree patterns found in savannas. This can lead to new hypotheses about which processes are driving savanna physiognomy. To do so tree patterns were quantified for African savannas from historical

  3. Non-linear mechanical behavior of a sintered material for braking application using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ruddy; Magnier, Vincent; Serrano-Munoz, Itziar; Brunel, Jean-Francois; Brunel, Florent; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Henrion, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Friction materials for braking applications are complex composites made of many components to ensure the various performances required (friction coefficient level, low wear, mechanical strength, thermal resistance, etc.). The material is developed empirically by a trial and error approach. With the solicitation, the material evolves and probably also its properties. In the literature, the mechanical behavior of such materials is generally considered as linear elastic and independent of the loading history. This paper describes a methodology to characterize the mechanical behavior of such a heterogeneous material in order to investigate its non-linear mechanical behavior. Results from mechanical tests are implemented into material laws for numerical simulations. Thanks to the instrumentation, some links with the microstructure can also be proposed. The material is made of a metallic matrix embedding graphite and ceramic particles and is manufactured by sintering. It is used for dry friction applications such as high-energy brake for trains, cars and motorcycles. Compression tests are done with digital image correlation to measure full-filled displacement. It allows to calculate strain fields with enough resolution to identify the material heterogeneity and the role of some of the components of the formulation. A behavior model of the material with plasticity and damage is proposed to simulate the non-linear mechanical behavior and is implemented in an FEM code. Results of mechanical test simulations are compared with two types of experiments showing good agreement. This method thus makes it possible to determine mechanical properties at a virgin state but is extensible for characterizing a material having been submitted to braking solicitations.

  4. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  5. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  6. Can Link Analysis Be Applied to Identify Behavioral Patterns in Train Recorder Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathie, Ailsa; Walker, Guy H

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept analysis was conducted to establish whether link analysis could be applied to data from on-train recorders to detect patterns of behavior that could act as leading indicators of potential safety issues. On-train data recorders capture data about driving behavior on thousands of routine journeys every day and offer a source of untapped data that could be used to offer insights into human behavior. Data from 17 journeys undertaken by six drivers on the same route over a 16-hr period were analyzed using link analysis, and four key metrics were examined: number of links, network density, diameter, and sociometric status. The results established that link analysis can be usefully applied to data captured from on-vehicle recorders. The four metrics revealed key differences in normal driver behavior. These differences have promising construct validity as leading indicators. Link analysis is one method that could be usefully applied to exploit data routinely gathered by on-vehicle data recorders. It facilitates a proactive approach to safety based on leading indicators, offers a clearer understanding of what constitutes normal driving behavior, and identifies trends at the interface of people and systems, which is currently a key area of strategic risk. These research findings have direct applications in the field of transport data monitoring. They offer a means of automatically detecting patterns in driver behavior that could act as leading indicators of problems during operation and that could be used in the proactive monitoring of driver competence, risk management, and even infrastructure design. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Emotional intelligence subscales: are they correlated with child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Adhami, Ziya Ebrahim; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Jamali, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the correlation between emotional intelligence subscales and childs anxiety and behavior in the dental setting. The study included 123 children aged 7-12 years, who were scheduled to attend two consecutive sessions. In the first session, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Bar-on EQ-I: YV) was administered to participants. The anxiety and behavior in children was evaluated during similar dental procedures in the second session using the Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale and the Frankl scale, respectively. 23 children were eliminated from the study, leaving 100 participants (47 boys and 53 girls) with a mean age of 9.32 +/- 1.59 years for study. There were statistically significant positive correlations between Frankl score and EQ total score (p interpersonal scale (p interpersonal scale (p 0.05). The results provide evidence that children with higher total EQ as well as higher scores of intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability and stress management scales can generally be flexible and effective in coping in the dental setting. Higher score in stress management subscale seems to be related to better control over affective information including anxiety compared with other subscales in stressful situations. Overall, they behave and cooperate better than children with lower scores.

  8. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kommuri Sahithi; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth; Reddy, Madupu Padma

    2016-01-01

    The sense of coherence (SOC) has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5%) males and 511 (65.5%) females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender ( P = 0.000). The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0) was observed for 67 (24.9%) males and 118 (23.1%) females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale ( r = -0.287). The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status) were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  9. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommuri Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  10. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: correlation of expiratory high-resolution CT findings with inspiratory patterns and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magkanas, E.; Voloudaki, A.; Bouros, D.; Prassopoulos, P.; Alexopoulou, C.; Tzanakis, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Linardakis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the presence and extent of air trapping (AT) on chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) in sarcoidosis and to correlate such findings with patterns, lesion extent on inspiratory CT and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Material and Methods: Thirty patients with sarcoidosis underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT and PFT. HRCT images were evaluated for presence, distribution and AT extent as well as the predominant HRCT pattern and the extent of lesions at inspiration. Attenuation difference in the AT regions at expiration and at inspiration were calculated. The presence and extent of AT were correlated with PFT, extent of involvement and predominant inspiratory patterns. Results: AT was present in 25/30 patients with no lung zone predilection. AT was the only CT indication of pulmonary sarcoidosis in 3/30 patients who also had normal PFT. Attenuation difference between inspiration and expiration ranged from -40 HU to 106 HU. In 2 patients, a paradoxical decrease of lung attenuation was observed at expiration. A significant correlation was found between AT extent at expiration, with residual volume-total lung capacity ratio and residual volume. Conclusion: AT is an additional HRCT finding in sarcoidosis. AT may involve any lung zone, including costophrenic angles and may be the only CT feature of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Strong correlation is only found with PFT values that are specific for incomplete lung emptying at expiration

  11. The behavior of stress correlations and glass transition temperature in liquid aluminum at cooling and heating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, E. M.; Pisarev, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics study of stress correlations and shear viscosity behavior of the rapidly cooled and re-heated liquid aluminum film is performed. The embedded atom method potential is used at the simulation. The stress correlation behavior is studied in the plane of the film and along the direction normal to the plane. The behavior of the kinematic viscosity and the stress correlations are compared for cooling and heating process. Using two methods we showed that the glass transition for the cooling process is higher than for the heating. The first method is based on the stress correlations in the plane of the film and the steep change of the kinematic viscosity. The second method is based on the transverse oscillations in the film. The glass transition temperature is estimated from the dependence of the oscillation damping on temperature. The increasing in the kinematic viscosity correlates with the decrease of transverse oscillations damping in the film.

  12. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C1/C2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  13. Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Delia L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here.

  14. Disruption of microvascular flow-patterns in Alzheimer's disease correlates with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Bæksager; Egefjord, Lærke; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    BACKGROUND: The capillary dysfunction hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) proposes that changes in capillary morphology and function disrupts microvascular flow-patterns, consequently, limiting oxygen delivery, causing tissue-hypoxia and neurodegeneration. Capillary dysfunction is characterized...

  15. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  16. Temporal and environmental patterns of sedentary and active behaviors during adolescents' leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Marshall, Simon J; Gorely, Trish; Cameron, Noel

    2009-01-01

    There is great interest in young people's overweight and obesity. Few data, however, describe when sedentary and physically active behaviors are likely to occur during the day or how these behaviors are related to location. The purpose of this study was to describe sedentary and active leisure-time behaviors of adolescents across the day and setting. Adolescents (male n = 579, female n = 967; aged 13-16 years) completed time-use diaries for three weekdays and one weekend day. At 15 min intervals, participants recorded what they were doing and where they were. TV viewing and sports/exercise peaked at different times in the day, although TV viewing was two to three times more likely to occur than sports/exercise. TV viewing was most likely to occur during the middle to late evening. The playing of computer games was low, particularly for girls. Weekend data showed TV viewing was the most reported activity throughout the day. For boys, "being in the garden" was highly predictive of engaging in sports/exercise, but this declined rapidly with age. Motorized travel to school was reported twice as often as active travel. Momentary assessments of behavior, in conjunction with contemporaneous reports of environmental factors, describe important patterns of leisure-time active and sedentary behaviors in youth.

  17. Brief Report: Examination of Correlates of Adaptive Behavior in Children with HFASD Using the BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christin A.; Donnelly, James P.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lopata, Christopher; Jordan, Allyson K.

    2017-01-01

    This study extended the research on correlates of adaptive functioning of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2). Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between adaptive behavior and age, IQ, and ASD symptomology, in a…

  18. The effects of regional angling effort, angler behavior, and harvesting efficiency on landscape patterns of overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Len M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Lester, Nigel; Kushneriuk, Rob

    2011-10-01

    We used a coupled social-ecological model to study the landscape-scale patterns emerging from a mobile population of anglers exploiting a spatially structured walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery. We systematically examined how variations in angler behaviors (i.e., relative importance of walleye catch rate in guiding fishing site choices), harvesting efficiency (as implied by varying degrees of inverse density-dependent catchability of walleye), and angler population size affected the depletion of walleye stocks across 157 lakes located near Thunder Bay (Ontario, Canada). Walleye production biology was calibrated using lake-specific morphometric and edaphic features, and angler fishing site choices were modeled using an empirically grounded multi-attribute utility function. We found support for the hypothesis of sequential collapses of walleye stocks across the landscape in inverse proportionality of travel cost from the urban residence of anglers. This pattern was less pronounced when the regional angler population was low, density-dependent catchability was absent or low, and angler choices of lakes in the landscape were strongly determined by catch rather than non-catch-related attributes. Thus, our study revealed a systematic pattern of high catch importance reducing overfishing potential at low and aggravating overfishing potential at high angler population sizes. The analyses also suggested that density-dependent catchability might have more serious consequences for regional overfishing states than variations in angler behavior. We found little support for the hypotheses of systematic overexploitation of the most productive walleye stocks and homogenized catch-related qualities among lakes sharing similar access costs to anglers. Therefore, one should not expect anglers to systematically exploit the most productive fisheries or to equalize catch rates among lakes through their mobility and other behaviors. This study underscores that understanding landscape

  19. Global Multi-Year O3-CO Correlation Patterns from Models and TES Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Telford, P. J.; Aghedo, A. M.; Braesicke, P.; Faluvegi, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Bowman, K. W.; Pyle, J. A.; Shindell, D. T.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between measured tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been used extensively in tropospheric chemistry studies to explore the photochemical characteristics of different regions and to evaluate the ability of models to capture these characteristics. Here, we present the first study that uses multi-year, global, vertically resolved, simultaneous and collocated O3 and CO satellite (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) measurements, to determine this correlation in the middle/lower free troposphere for two different seasons, and to evaluate two chemistry-climate models. We find results that are fairly robust across different years, altitudes and timescales considered, which indicates that the correlation maps presented here could be used in future model evaluations. The highest positive correlations (around 0.8) are found in the northern Pacific during summer, which is a common feature in the observations and the G-PUCCINI model. We make quantitative comparisons between the models using a single-figure metric (C), which we define as the correlation coefficient between the modeled and the observed O3-CO correlations for different regions of the globe. On a global scale, the G-PUCCINI model shows a good performance in the summer (C =0.71) and a satisfactory performance in the winter (C = 0.52). It captures midlatitude features very well, especially in the summer, whereas the performance in regions like South America or Central Africa is weaker. The UKCA model (C = 0.46/0.15 for July-August/December-January on a global scale) performs better in certain regions, such as the tropics in winter, and it captures some of the broad characteristics of summer extratropical correlations, but it systematically underestimates the O3-CO correlations over much of the globe. It is noteworthy that the correlations look very different in the two models, even though the ozone distributions are similar. This demonstrates that this technique provides a powerful

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of correlation between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and aerosols over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    An accurate knowledge is needed on the complex relation between atmospheric trace gasses and aerosol variability and their sources to explain trace gases-aerosols-climate interaction and next-generation modeling of climate change and air quality. In this regard, we have used tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Exponent (AE) obtained from satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/Aura and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua over South Asia. NO2-AOD correlation with coefficient r = 0.49 is determined over the landmass of South Asia during 2005-2015. Yearly mean NO2-AOD correlation over South Asia shows large variations ranging from r = 0.32 to 0.86 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The highest correlation ( r = 0.66) is seen over eastern regions of Bangladesh and India, as well as adjoining areas of western Myanmar mostly linked to anthropogenic activities. A significant correlation ( r = 0.59) associated with natural causes is found over some parts of Sistan region, located at the borders of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and adjoining territory. We find significant positive correlations for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with r = 0.50 and r = 0.61, respectively. A linear regression on the annual correlation coefficients data suggests that NO2-AOD correlation is strengthening with an increase of 12.9% over South Asia during the study period. The spatial distribution of data slopes reveals positive trends in NO2-AOD correlation over megacities Lahore, Dhaka, Mumbai and Kolkata linked to growing anthropogenic activities. Singrauli city (India) has the highest correlation ( r = 0.62) and 35% increase in correlation coefficient value per year. A negative correlation is observed for megacity Karachi ( r = -0.37) suggesting the non-commonality of NO2 and aerosols emission sources. AE has also been used to discuss its correlation with NO2 over the areas with dominance of fine-mode aerosols.

  1. Sexually dimorphic patterns of episomal rAAV genome persistence in the adult mouse liver and correlation with hepatocellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Allison P; Cunningham, Sharon C; Graf, Nicole S; Alexander, Ian E

    2009-09-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAVs) show exceptional promise for liver-targeted gene therapy, with phenotype correction in small and large animal disease models being reported with increasing frequency. Success in humans, however, remains a considerable challenge that demands greater understanding of host-vector interactions, notably those governing the efficiency of initial gene transfer and subsequent long-term persistence of gene expression. In this study, we examined long-term enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression and vector genome persistence in the mouse liver after rAAV2/8-mediated gene transfer in early adulthood. Two intriguing findings emerged of considerable scientific and clinical interest. First, adult female and male mice showed distinctly different patterns of persistence of eGFP expression across the hepatic lobule after exhibiting similar patterns initially. Female mice retained a predominantly perivenous pattern of expression, whereas male mice underwent inversion of this pattern with preferential loss of perivenous expression and relative retention of periportal expression. Second, these changing patterns of expression correlated with sexually dimorphic patterns of genome persistence that appear linked both spatially and temporally to underlying hepatocellular proliferation. Observation of the equivalent phenomenon in man could have significant implications for the long-term therapeutic efficacy of rAAV-mediated gene transfer, particularly in the context of correction of liver functions showing metabolic zonation.

  2. MR imaging of the femoral marrow in adult acute leukemia. Correlation of MRI patterns with FAB subtype and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Takagi, Shojiro; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Ichikawa, Tamaki; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Nagai, Jun

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging of the femoral marrow was performed in 36 patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 7 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The MRI appearance was classified into five patterns: fatty marrow; faint signal; nodular pattern; heterogeneous infiltration; and diffuse infiltration. The MRI patterns of the femoral marrow were compared among the FAB subtypes of acute leukemia, and the MRI patterns were correlated with prognosis. All five MRI patterns were observed in the femoral marrow in adult acute leukemia, and diffuse infiltration was most commonly seen (41.9%). A completely fatty marrow was also depicted in two cases (4.7%) and faint signal in four cases (9.3%) in spite of untreated acute leukemia. The M2 subtype of AML tended to be demonstrated as a minimally abnormal MRI finding, which was significantly different from the other types of AML. The patients who showed fatty marrow or faint signal were thought to have a good prognosis, while diffuse or heterogeneous infiltration was regarded as a poor prognostic sign. However, there were some exceptions to these rules, and no significant differences were revealed in prognosis between minimally abnormal and advanced MRI patterns. We concluded that MRI of the femoral marrow could be useful in the assessment of tumor volume of adult acute leukemia, and that there were limitations to predicting prognosis on the basis of the MRI manifestations. (author)

  3. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents' addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. A sectional and descriptive-analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother's literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students ( p =0.009). Concentrating on adolescents' behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents' health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital.

  4. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  5. Personalized Behavior Pattern Recognition and Unusual Event Detection for Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have become widely used for obtaining help in emergencies, such as accidents, crimes, or health emergencies. The smartphone is an essential device that can record emergency situations, which can be used for clues or evidence, or as an alert system in such situations. In this paper, we focus on mobile-based identification of potentially unusual, or abnormal events, occurring in a mobile user's daily behavior patterns. For purposes of this research, we have classified events as “unusual” for a mobile user when an event is an infrequently occurring one from the user's normal behavior patterns–all of which are collected and recorded on a user's mobile phone. We build a general unusual event classification model to be automated on the smartphone for use by any mobile phone users. To classify both normal and unusual events, we analyzed the activity, location, and audio sensor data collected from 20 mobile phone users to identify these users' personalized normal daily behavior patterns and any unusual events occurring in their daily activity. We used binary fusion classification algorithms on the subjects' recorded experimental data and ultimately identified the most accurately performing fusion algorithm for unusual event detection.

  6. Design of Driving Behavior Pattern Measurements Using Smartphone Global Positioning System Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies such as GPS, cellphone, Bluetooth device, etc. offers opportunities for collecting high-fidelity temporal-spatial travel data in a cost-effective manner. With the vehicle trajectory data achieved from a smartphone app Metropia, this study targets on exploring the trajectory data and designing the measurements of the driving pattern. Metropia is a recently available mobile traffic app that uses prediction and coordinating technology combined with user rewards to incentivize drivers to cooperate, balance traffic load on the network, and reduce traffic congestion. Speed and celeration (acceleration and deceleration are obtained from the Metropia platform directly and parameterized as individual and system measurements related to traffic, spatial and temporal conditions. A case study is provided in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach utilizing the trajectory data from the actual app usage. The driving behaviors at both individual and system levels are quantified from the microscopic speed and celeration records. The results from this study reveal distinct driving behavior pattern and shed lights for further opportunities to identify behavior characteristics beyond safety and environmental considerations.

  7. Ordered patterns of cell shape and orientational correlation during spontaneous cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke T Maeda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using computational analyses. METHODOLOGY: We observed spontaneously migrating Dictyostelium cells in both a vegetative state (round cell shape and slow motion and starved one (elongated cell shape and fast motion. We then extracted regular patterns of morphological dynamics and the pattern-dependent systematic coordination with filamentous actin (F-actin and cell movement by statistical dynamic analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that Dictyostelium cells in both vegetative and starved states commonly organize their own shape into three ordered patterns, elongation, rotation, and oscillation, in the absence of external stimuli. Further, cells inactivated for PI3-kinase (PI3K and/or PTEN did not show ordered patterns due to the lack of spatial control in pseudopodial formation in both the vegetative and starved states. We also found that spontaneous polarization was achieved in starved cells by asymmetric localization of PTEN and F-actin. This breaking of the symmetry of protein localization maintained the leading edge and considerably enhanced the persistence of directed migration, and overall random exploration was ensured by switching among the different ordered patterns. Our findings suggest that Dictyostelium cells spontaneously create the ordered patterns of cell shape mediated by PI3K/PTEN/F-actin and control the direction of cell movement by coordination with these patterns even in the absence of external stimuli.

  8. Correlation Between Executive Function Behaviors and Educational Achievement of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Developmental cordination disorder (DCD is a serious deficit in development of motor coordination, which affects educational achievements and daily life activities to a considerable extent. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate correlations between components of executive function and spelling and math performance of 7 - 11-year-old children with DCD. Materials and Methods A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 53 primary school children with DCD. Persian version of motor observation questionnaire for teachers (PMOQ-T was used to detect DCD. Executive functions and educational achievements of these children were evaluated using behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF and a researcher-made test, respectively. Results were analyzed through SPSS software (v. 21 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The findings showed that components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, working memory (r = -0.44, P < 0.01 and organization of material (r = -0.28, P < 0.05 were significantly correlated with the spelling test. And components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, shift (r = -0.38, P < 0. 01, working memory (r = -0.28, P < 0.05, and planning (r = -.29, P<0.05 were correlated with math test. Conclusions The results may help clinicians for early intervention and focus on related components of executive function to improve the educational performance of DCD children. Knowing that executive function skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potentiality of targeted math and spelling interventions for DCD children.

  9. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  10. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascale eSalameh; Lamis eJomaa; Carine eIssa; Ghada eFarhat; Joseph eSalamé; Nina eZeidan; Isabelle eBaldi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body ma...

  11. Sexual behaviors and partner-specific correlates of heterosexual anal intercourse among truck drivers and their wives in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Sakthivel Saravanamurthy, P; Detels, Roger

    2015-02-01

    It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.

  12. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between Doppler flow patterns in growth-restricted fetuses and neonatal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, J. C.; Boelen, M. R.; Schmitz, D. M.; Casarella, L.; van der Laan, M. E.; Bos, A. F.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objectives To investigate whether prenatal Doppler parameters in growth-restricted fetuses are correlated with neonatal circulatory changes. Methods In 43 cases of suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR), serial Doppler measurements of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  14. Rotation-invariant pattern recognition using morphological phase-only correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Deng, Yibing; Liu, Shutian

    2006-01-01

    We present a rotation-invariant nonlinear correlator based on the circular harmonic filter (CHF) and the previously proposed morphological phase-only correlator (MPC) [Q. Wang, S. Liu, Opt. Commun. 244 (2005) 93]. We refer to this correlator as a rotation-invariant MPC (RIMPC). Through computer simulation, we compare the output results of RIMPC with those of rotation-invariant MC (RIMC) and CHF when input scene is corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise, white additive Gaussian noise and cluttered background. Our results show that RIMPC yields higher discriminability, sharper and higher correlation peaks and displays better stability against the above three kinds of noise than do the RIMC and common CHF.

  15. Correlations of theory of mind deficits with clinical patterns and quality of life in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eUrbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of theory of mind (ToM impairments in patients with schizophrenia. The clinical consequences of these impairments are currently under debate. Accumulated evidence suggests that ToM deficits are linked to negative and disorganization symptoms, but direct correlations are lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether ToM deficits are related to reduced quality of life (QoL. Methods: To extend the understanding of objective (i.e., clinical symptoms and subjective (QoL correlates of impaired ToM, we assessed 206 patients with schizophrenia based on performance of an ecological task (Versailles-Situational Intention Reading, V-SIR, a Communication Disorders Scale (SCD, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Clinical Global Impression rating, and a QoL questionnaire (S-QoL. Statistical inferences were drawn from correlations analyses considering both factors/subscales aggregates and single items.Results: ToM performance was negatively correlated to disorganization and negative PANSS factors. Poor V-SIR performance was correlated with conceptual disorganization, difficulties in abstract thinking and apathy/social withdrawal. The SCD was correlated with negative, disorganization, and anxiety/depression PANSS factors. The S-QoL total score was not significantly correlated with ToM performance. Only the item difficulties in expressing feelings was significantly correlated with poorer V-SIR performance. Conclusions: We discuss the intriguing paucity of the results and what they reveal about the difficulties faced by psychiatrists with patients not expressing complaints about lack of social skills.

  16. The effects of sleep on the neural correlates of pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Christopher R; Hodges, Cooper B; Bodily, Ty A; Muncy, Nathan M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2018-02-01

    Effective memory representations must be specific to prevent interference between episodes that may overlap in terms of place, time, or items present. Pattern separation, a computational process performed by the hippocampus, overcomes this interference by establishing nonoverlapping memory representations. Although it is widely accepted that declarative memories are consolidated during sleep, the effects of sleep on pattern separation have yet to be elucidated. We used whole-brain, high-resolution functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of sleep on a task that places high demands on pattern separation. Sleep had a selective effect on memory specificity and not general recognition memory. Activity in brain regions related to memory retrieval and cognitive control demonstrated an interaction between sleep and delay. Surprisingly, there was no effect of sleep on hippocampal activity using a group-level analysis. To further understand the role of the hippocampus on our task, we performed a representational similarity analysis, which showed that hippocampal activation was biased toward pattern separation relative to cortical activation and that this bias increased following a delay (regardless of sleep). Cortical activation, conversely, was biased toward pattern completion and this bias was preferentially enhanced by sleep. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Correlation between Gastric Mucosal Morphologic Patterns and Histopathological Severity of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis Using Conventional Narrow Band Imaging Gastroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit

    2015-01-01

    Identifying specific gastric mucosal morphologic patterns useful for detecting Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and correlation with histopathological severity. The endoscopists classified the C-NBI gastroscopic findings into 5 gastric mucosal morphologic patterns as follows: type 1: regular arrangement of collecting venules, type 2: cone-shaped gastric pits, type 3: rod-shaped gastric pits with prominent sulci, type 4: ground glass-like morphology, and type 5: dark brown patches with bluish margin and irregular border. Biopsies of all of the cases were then evaluated by 5 pathologists for definitive Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. Type 1 and type 2 patterns were statistically significant in predicting Helicobacter pylori negative status (58/60, P Helicobacter pylori positive status (132/140, P Helicobacter pylori positive were 94.28%, 96.66%, 98.50%, and 87.87%, respectively, correlated well with inflammation grading according to the Sydney classification (P Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa can be reliably identified using C-NBI gastroscopy with good correlation with inflammation grading.

  18. Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Trinder, John; Manber, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, P B; Henggeler, S W; Limber, S P; Melton, G B; Nation, M A

    2000-09-01

    Examined prevalence of gun ownership and the links among gun ownership, reasons for gun ownership, and antisocial behavior in a sample of nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students. Participants completed the Questionnaire for Students (Olweus, 1995) and included 6,263 students from 36 elementary and middle schools, of whom most were African American (range = 46%-95% per school). Reasons for gun ownership were strongly associated with rates of antisocial behavior. Youths who owned guns for sporting reasons reported rates of antisocial behavior that were only slightly higher than those reported by youths who did not own guns. Youths who owned guns to gain respect or to frighten others reported extremely high rates of antisocial behavior. These high-risk adolescent gun owners were likely to come from families of high-risk gun owners, associate with friends who were high-risk gun owners, and engage in high rates of bullying behavior. Findings suggest that effective violence prevention programs must target high-risk youths, address risk factors that go beyond individual settings, and address a comprehensive array of risk factors.

  20. Determination and correlation of phase behavior and physical properties for benign synthetic process of diphenylcarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Jin; Jeong, Inyong

    2013-10-01

    Polycarbonate (PC) over other types of plastic has unbeatable strength combined with light weight, temperature resistance, impact resistance, etc. The polycarbonate material is usually produced by the reaction of bisphenol A and toxic phosgene. Therefore, new non-phosgene polycarbonate production process, which started with diphenyl carbonate (DPC) without phosgene was developed. However, process design data for optimum design and operation of this benign process are still insufficient. In this work, to provide a green process design data for optimum separation of DPC, MPC, DMC, methanol and anisole that occurs in the synthetic process of DPC, phase behavior: VLE, LLE, SLE and physical properties for binary and ternary systems were determined and correlated with activity coefficient models and Redlich-Kister polynomials.

  1. Correlates among healthy lifestyle cognitive beliefs, healthy lifestyle choices, social support, and healthy behaviors in adolescents: implications for behavioral change strategies and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie A; Melnyk, Bernadette M; Jacobson, Diana L; O'Haver, Judith A

    2011-01-01

    The foundation for healthy lifestyle behaviors begins in childhood. As such, the relationships among cognitive beliefs, healthy lifestyle choices, and healthy lifestyle behaviors in adolescents have been explored. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among cognitive variables, social support, and healthy lifestyle behaviors in adolescents. A descriptive correlational design was used for this study. Students from two high schools in the Southwest United States were recruited to participate (N = 404). Significant correlations existed among cognitive variables, social support, behavioral skills, and health lifestyle behaviors. This study demonstrated that cognitive beliefs about leading a healthy lifestyle, including attitudes and intended choices, are related to physical activity as well as the intake of fruits and vegetables. In working with adolescents on healthy lifestyle behavior change, it is important to implement strategies to strengthen their cognitive beliefs about their ability to make healthy choices and engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Strengthening these beliefs should lessen their perception that these behaviors are difficult to perform, which ultimately should result in healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  3. Patterns of Sedentary Behavior in US Middle-Age and Older Adults: The REGARDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of objectively-measured sedentary behavior in a national cohort of U.S. middle-aged and older adults and determine factors that influence prolonged sedentary behavior. Methods We studied 8,096 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a population-based study of black and white adults ≥45 years. Seven-day accelerometry was conducted. Prolonged sedentary behavior was defined as accumulating ≥50% of total sedentary time in bouts ≥30 min. Results The number of sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min were 8.8 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.9, 1.9 ± 1.1, and 0.8 ± 0.7 bouts/day, respectively. Sedentary bouts ≥20, ≥30, ≥60, and ≥90 min accounted for 60.0 ± 13.9%, 48.0 ± 15.5%, 26.0 ± 15.4%, and 14.2 ± 12.9% of total sedentary time, respectively. Several factors were associated with prolonged sedentary behavior in multivariate-adjusted models (Odds Ratio [95% CI]): older age (65-74 years: 1.99 [1.55-2.57]; ≥75 years: 4.68 [3.61-6.07] vs. 45-54 years), male sex (1.41 [1.28-1.56] vs. female), residence in non-stroke belt/buckle region of U.S. (stroke belt: 0.87 [0.77-0.98]; stroke buckle: 0.86 [0.77-0.95] vs. non-belt/buckle), body mass index (BMI) (overweight: 1.33 [1.18-1.51]; obese: 2.15 [1.89-2.44] vs. normal weight), winter (1.18 [1.03-1.35] vs. summer), and low amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) [0 min/week: 2.00 [1.66-2.40] vs. ≥150 min/week). Conclusions In this sample of U.S. middle-aged and older adults, a large proportion of total sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts of sedentary behavior as almost one-half was accumulated in sedentary bouts ≥30 min. Several sociodemographic (age, sex, BMI), behavioral (MVPA), environmental (region), and seasonal factors are associated with patterns of prolonged sedentary behavior. PMID:26460633

  4. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  5. Neural correlates of distraction in borderline personality disorder before and after dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-02-01

    Neural underpinnings of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by limbic hyperactivity and disturbed prefrontal activity. It is unknown whether neural correlates of emotion regulation change after a psychotherapy which has the goal to improve emotion dysregulation in BPD, such as dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). We investigated distraction as a main emotion regulation strategy before and after DBT in female patients with BPD. Thirty-one BPD patients were instructed to either passively view or memorize letters before being confronted with negative or neutral pictures in a distraction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm was applied before and after a 12-week residential DBT-based treatment program. We compared the DBT group to 15 BPD control patients, who continued their usual, non-DBT-based treatment or did not have any treatment, and 22 healthy participants. Behaviorally, BPD groups and healthy participants did not differ significantly with respect to alterations over time. On the neural level, BPD patients who received DBT-based treatment showed an activity decrease in the right inferior parietal lobe/supramarginal gyrus during distraction from negative rather than neutral stimuli when compared to both control groups. This decrease was correlated with improvement in self-reported borderline symptom severity. DBT responders exhibited decreased right perigenual anterior cingulate activity when viewing negative (rather than neutral) pictures. In conclusion, our findings reveal changes in neural activity associated with distraction during emotion processing after DBT in patients with BPD. These changes point to lower emotional susceptibility during distraction after BPD symptom improvement.

  6. Behavioral versus genetic correlates of lipoproteins and adiposity in identical twins discordant for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Blanche, Patricia J; Krauss, Ronald M

    2005-07-19

    Lipoprotein and weight differences between vigorously active and sedentary monozygotic (MZ) twins were used to (1) estimate the effects of training while controlling for genotype and (2) estimate genetic concordance (ie, similarity) in the presence of divergent lifestyles. Thirty-five pairs of MZ twins (25 male, 10 female) were recruited nationally who were discordant for vigorous exercise (running distances differed by > or =40 km in male and > or =32 km in female twins). The active twins ran an average (mean+/-SD) of 63.0+/-20.4 km/wk, whereas the mostly sedentary twins averaged 7.0+/-13.5 km/wk. The active twins had significantly lower body mass index (difference+/-SE, -2.12+/-0.57 kg/m2, P=0.0007) and significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.14+/-0.04 mmol/L, P=0.004), HDL2 (2.71+/-1.04 U, P=0.01), and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (0.10+/-0.03 g/L, P=0.004). Despite the difference in lifestyle, when adjusted for sex, the correlations between the discordant MZ twin pairs were significant (PHDL cholesterol (r=0.69), apoA-I (r=0.58), and HDL2 (r=0.67). There was no significant MZ twin correlation for body mass index (r=0.17). None of the active twins having an overweight twin were themselves overweight. Behavior (vigorous exercise) may reduce genetic influences on body mass index. In contrast, genetics (or shared environment) substantially influences HDL cholesterol and HDL subclasses, even in the presence of extreme behavioral differences. There may be greater individual control over moderate degrees of obesity, whereas low HDL cholesterol may be largely predetermined and less effectively treated by vigorous exercise.

  7. Medial cerebellar nuclear projections and activity patterns link cerebellar output to orofacial and respiratory behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianyi eLu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that the cerebellum plays an important role in coordinating both respiratory and orofacial movements. However, the pathway by which the cerebellum engages brainstem substrates underlying these movements is not well understood. We used tract-tracing techniques in mice to show that neurons in the medial deep cerebellar nucleus (mDCN project directly to these putative substrates. Injection of an anterograde tracer into the mDCN produced terminal labeling in the ventromedial medullary reticular formation, which was stronger on the contralateral side. Correspondingly, injection of retrograde tracers into these same areas resulted in robust neuronal cell labeling in the contralateral mDCN. Moreover, injection of two retrograde tracers at different rostral - caudal brainstem levels resulted in a subset of double-labeled cells, indicating that single mDCN neurons collateralize to multiple substrates. Using an awake and behaving recording preparation, we show that spiking activity in mDCN neurons is correlated with respiratory and orofacial behaviors, including whisking and fluid licking. Almost half of the recorded neurons showed activity correlated with more than one behavior, suggesting that these neurons may in fact modulate multiple brainstem substrates. Collectively, these results describe a potential pathway through which the cerebellum could modulate and coordinate respiratory and orofacial behaviors.

  8. Observation of Communication by Physical Education Teachers: Detecting Patterns in Verbal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham García-Fariña

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior of primary school physical education teachers in a natural classroom setting in order to investigate patterns in social constructivist communication strategies before and after participation in a training program designed to familiarize teachers with these strategies. The participants were three experienced physical education teachers interacting separately with 65 students over a series of classes. Written informed consent was obtained from all the students' parents or legal guardians. An indirect observation tool (ADDEF was designed specifically for the study within the theoretical framework, and consisted of a combined field format, with three dimensions, and category systems. Each dimension formed the basis for building a subsequent system of exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories. Twenty-nine sessions, grouped into two separate modules, were coded using the Atlas.ti 7 program, and a total of 1991 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies were recorded. Analysis of intraobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement. Lag sequential analysis, which is a powerful statistical technique based on the calculation of conditional and unconditional probabilities in prospective and retrospective lags, was performed in GSEQ5 software to search for verbal behavior patterns before and after the training program. At both time points, we detected a pattern formed by requests for information combined with the incorporation of students' contributions into the teachers' discourse and re-elaborations of answers. In the post-training phase, we detected new and stronger patterns in certain sessions, indicating that programs combining theoretical and practical knowledge can effectively increase teachers' repertoire of discursive strategies and ultimately promote active engagement in learning. This has important implications for the evaluation and development of teacher

  9. Observation of Communication by Physical Education Teachers: Detecting Patterns in Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fariña, Abraham; Jiménez-Jiménez, F; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior of primary school physical education teachers in a natural classroom setting in order to investigate patterns in social constructivist communication strategies before and after participation in a training program designed to familiarize teachers with these strategies. The participants were three experienced physical education teachers interacting separately with 65 students over a series of classes. Written informed consent was obtained from all the students' parents or legal guardians. An indirect observation tool (ADDEF) was designed specifically for the study within the theoretical framework, and consisted of a combined field format, with three dimensions, and category systems. Each dimension formed the basis for building a subsequent system of exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories. Twenty-nine sessions, grouped into two separate modules, were coded using the Atlas.ti 7 program, and a total of 1991 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) were recorded. Analysis of intraobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement. Lag sequential analysis, which is a powerful statistical technique based on the calculation of conditional and unconditional probabilities in prospective and retrospective lags, was performed in GSEQ5 software to search for verbal behavior patterns before and after the training program. At both time points, we detected a pattern formed by requests for information combined with the incorporation of students' contributions into the teachers' discourse and re-elaborations of answers. In the post-training phase, we detected new and stronger patterns in certain sessions, indicating that programs combining theoretical and practical knowledge can effectively increase teachers' repertoire of discursive strategies and ultimately promote active engagement in learning. This has important implications for the evaluation and development of teacher effectiveness in

  10. Eating disorders in adolescents: correlations between symptoms and central control of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; de Piano, Aline; Tock, Lian; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller do; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between eating disorders (binge eating and bulimia nervosa) and body image dissatisfaction with BMI, anorexigenic and orexigenic factors in adolescents. Thirty-two adolescents, (13 obese [BMI=36.65±5.68] and 19 non-obese [BMI=22.18±3.11]), aged between 14 and 19y, were recruited. Symptoms of eating disorders were measured by self-report questionnaires (BSQ, BITE and BES). Hormones, cytokines and neuropeptides were determined by Elisa kits (Phoenix peptide). A positive correlation was found between: leptin and BES (r=.724), BSQ (r=.705) and BITE (r=.696); BMI and BES (r=.663), BSQ (r=.525) and BITE (r=.732); the same pattern was observed to insulin and TNF-α. A negative correlation was found in α-MSH and AgRP with BES, BSQ and BITE. Blood levels of hormones and neuropeptides could be the link between obesity and eating disorders in adolescents. However, it is not clear which is the cause and which is the consequence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns of movement behaviors and their association with overweight and obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Faulkner, Guy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-07-01

    To identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, and sleep in a large sample of Canadian youth and to examine the associations between the identified subgroups and overweight and obesity. The study is based on 19,831 youth aged 13-18 years from across Ontario, Canada in the COMPASS study. Participants self-reported their movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep), height and weight, and demographics. Latent class analysis and logistic regression models were conducted. Three underlying subgroups were identified in the total sample and male and female subsamples (i.e., unhealthiest movers, active screenies, healthiest movers). In the total sample, the active screenies subgroup was 1.19 (95 % CI 1.09-1.29) times and the unhealthiest movers subgroup was 1.24 (1.14-1.36) times more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared to the healthiest movers subgroup. Similar associations were observed in the female subsample but not in the male subsample. Public health interventions targeting youth subgroups at increased risk of overweight and obesity through integrated approaches accounting for multiple movement behaviors should be considered, especially for females.

  12. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior

  13. Correlations between sleep patterns and cardiovascular diseases in a Chinese middle-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuangshi; Hao, Guang; Bo, Jian; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an association between habitual sleep patterns and cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the results are still controversial. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the relationships between habitual sleep patterns and CV disease based on Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) China study. PURE China study recruited 46 285 participants, aged 35-70, from 12 provinces and 115 communities in China. Habitual sleep patterns and CV disease were self-reported. Multilevel logistic regression was used in our analysis. In this study, 39 515 participants were eligible in our analysis, including 23 345 (59.1%) women and 16 170 (40.9%) men. Sleeping ≥9 h per day was associated with increased odds of CV disease (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32, p = 0.033) compared with sleeping 7-8 h per day. Taking daytime naps was also associated with an increased odds of CV disease, and the CV odds increased with increasing napping duration (p for trend sleeping sleep per night had lowest prevalence of CV disease (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.90, p = 0.001) compared with other sleep patterns. Napping, long and short duration of habitual sleep may increase the odds of CV disease. Only participants sleeping 7-8 hours at night are recommended in this study, and large longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results.

  14. Towards an ethnographic understanding of the European Marriage Pattern: Global correlates and links with female status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.; van Zanden, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution compares the EMP, and the associated Western European family system (inheritance practices, intergenerational co-residence and exogamy), with what is known about family systems and marriage patterns in the rest of the world, with a special focus on the consequences of these family

  15. Correlations between human mobility and social interaction reveal general activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A day in the life of a person involves a broad range of activities which are common across many people. Going beyond diurnal cycles, a central question is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Here we investigate the interplay between differe...... they be of social or of physical character....

  16. Quantitative correlation between slip patterning and microstructure during tensile elongation in 6xxx series aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghodrat, S.; Pirgazi, H.; Kestens, L.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    To the purpose of evaluating the effect of deformation on the microstructure, aluminum structures were analyzed on tensile strained samples extended to 25% elongation. In the substructure of these deformed samples linear slip patterns were observed, generally confined to the bulk of the grain. In

  17. Adaptive Liquid Crystal TV Based Joint Transform Correlator as Applied to Real-Time Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-23

    zero-order 9 K. Fukunaga. Introduction to Statsttcal Pattern Recognition, Ac- dithfcrlation outputdc) is showntiny Figue. whreero-ord- ademic . New York...Snget pioesle aveatesiof epihlusda P, by ab nou e onsrtinwe ae caund beha realor b ursngak pogram the ratinllgtwheriemxmted urm r oogixms of the LoOt a

  18. Patterns and Correlates of Substance Use among Affluent, Suburban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Thomas J.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2006-01-01

    Despite ongoing concern about substance use during adolescence, very little is known about alcohol and drug use among teens living in affluent social settings. In this longitudinal study, cluster analysis was used to characterize patterns of substance use and change in other dimensions of psychosocial adjustment within a cohort of 292 high school…

  19. Correlating Teenage Exposure to Rock/Rap Themes with Associated Behaviors and Thought Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Eva

    A concern to many interested in the development and growth of teenagers is a serious deterioration in the messages of some rock music. Rock music is considered a regenerative and revolutionary act by artists in the music industry--the energy center of a new culture. The psychological impact and meaning of rock music for adolescents is addressed as…

  20. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlating cytotoxicity to elution behaviors of composite resins in term of curing kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junquan; Yang, Huichuan; Cao, Man; Li, Lei; Cai, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Cytotoxicity of photocurable composite resins is a key issue for their safe use in dental restoration. Curing kinetic and elution behaviors of the composite resin would have decisive effects on its cytotoxicity. In this study, composite resins composed of bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), camphorquinone (CQ), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and barium glass powders were prepared by setting the photoinitiators CQ/DMAEMA at 0.5wt%, 1wt% or 3wt% of the total weight of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA. The ratio of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA was 6:4, the ratio of CQ/DMAEMA was 1:1, and the incorporated inorganic powder was 75wt%. Then, curing kinetics were studied by using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photo-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter). Elution behaviors in both ethanol solution and deionized water were monitored by using liquid chromatogram/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by in vitro culture of L929 fibroblasts. Finally, they were all analyzed and correlated in terms of initiator contents. It was found that the commonly used 0.5wt% of photoinitiators was somewhat insufficient in obtaining composite resin with low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Patient communication competence: development of a German questionnaire and correlates of competent patient behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Erik; Schmidt, Erika; Gramm, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our study was to design and psychometrically test a patient questionnaire to capture patient communication competence in the context of patient-provider interaction (CoCo questionnaire). We also aimed to determine patient characteristics associated with competent patient behavior. To assure content validity, we initially conducted 17 focus groups (n=97) made up of patients and providers. In the main study n=1.264 patients with chronic back pain, chronic-ischemic heart disease or breast cancer who underwent inpatient rehabilitation were surveyed at the end of rehabilitation. The CoCo questionnaire contains four scales (patient adherence in communication, critical and participative communication, communication about personal circumstances, active disease-related communication) and 28 items addressing competent patient behavior. We provide evidence of unidimensionality, local independence, reliability, a Rasch-Model fit, the absence of differential item functioning, and signs of construct validity. The most important correlates of communication competence are health literacy and communication self-efficacy. The CoCo questionnaire has good psychometric properties in German. Future research should examine CoCo's responsiveness and analyze criterion validity by means of observation data. The CoCo questionnaire can be recommended for use in evaluating patient communication training programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of impulsive and hostile behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD suffer from a higher degree of impulsive and hostile behavior, compared with other psychiatric disorders. On the other hand, the impulsive behavior in these patients is different from the patients with type II bipolar disorder (BMD II. This study aimed to investigate the differences between patients with BPD and patients with bipolar disorder in the aggressiveness and impulsivity scales. Methods: A descriptive-analytical study through a convenience sampling method was conducted on 117 patients with BPD (30 patients and BMD II (87 patients who completed the Buss and Perry’s Aggression Questionnaire as well as the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The obtained data was analyzed in SPSS using Student’s t-test, and its results were considered significant at P < 0.05 level. Results: The two groups were significantly different in terms of attention and cognitive complexity of Barratt Impulsiveness Scales, hostility, physical aggression, as well as in the total score of Buss and Perry’s aggression and hostility questionnaire, in which the scores in patients with BMD in the above-mentioned scales were higher, compared with the BPD and finally, the marital status variable was significantly correlated with age, physical aggression, anger, anxiety, cognitive complexity, and perseverance.Conclusion: The patients with BMD II experienced a higher degree of excitement in terms of hostility, violence and impulsivity measures; it is also different from the patients with borderline disorder in terms of type of aggressiveness.

  4. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2016-11-27

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of