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Sample records for behavioral patterns correlate

  1. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...

  2. Detection versus location judgments in a hidden pattern task: functional MRI and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, R Bruce; D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Song, Xiaowei; Runke, Dwayne S; Ryner, Lawrence

    2011-08-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess cortical involvement in a hidden pattern task. The experimental and control conditions involved judgment of the presence/absence versus the position of a complex pattern. Activation specific to hidden pattern identification was concentrated on frontal, dorsal parietal, and mesolimbic cortex. This was consistent not only across individual subjects, but with hidden figures tasks used in previous fMRI investigations. Results suggest that pattern identification relies on a relatively stable neural network controlling selective attention. In combination with fMRI, hidden pattern tasks may be useful in neuropsychological assessment of visual search and object identification.

  3. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  4. Pruning Redundant Alarm Correlation Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Efficient methods exist for discovering association rules from large collections of data. The number of discovered rules can, however, be so large. At the same time it is well known that many discovered associations are redundant or minor variations of others. Their existence may simply be due to chance rather than true correlation. Thus, those spurious and insignificant rules should be removed. In this paper, we propose a novel technique to overcome this problem. The technique firstly introduces the new concept -- structure rule cover, and then present a quantitative method to prune redundant correlation patterns. The user can now obtain a complete picture of the domain without being overwhelmed by a huge number of rules.

  5. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  6. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  7. Patterns of interhemispheric correlation during human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg-Zylberbaum, J; Ramos, J

    1987-09-01

    Correlation patterns between the electroencephalographic activity of both hemispheres in adult subjects were obtained. The morphology of these patterns for one subject was compared with another subject's patterns during control situations without communication, and during sessions in which direct communication was stimulated. Neither verbalization nor visual or physical contact are necessary for direct communication to occur. The interhemispheric correlation patterns for each subject were observed to become similar during the communication sessions as compared to the control situations. These effects are not due to nonspecific factors such as habituation or fatigue. The results support the syntergic theory proposed by one of the authors (Grinberg-Zylberbaum).

  8. Semantic verbal fluency pattern, dementia rating scores and adaptive behavior correlate with plasma Aβ42 concentrations in Down syndrome young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDel Hoyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is an intellectual disability disorder in which language and, specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease, including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong Alzheimer’s disease predictor being the Semantic Verbal Fluency Task (SVFT a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP and the biological amyloidosis markers in Down syndrome. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with Down syndrome to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II, and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42, as a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In Down syndrome, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II. The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with Down syndrome.

  9. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  10. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  11. Central pattern generation underlying Limulus rhythmic behavior patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon A. Wyse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many behavioral activities of the horseshoe crab Limulus are rhythmic, and most of these are produced in large part by central pattern generators within the CNS. The chain of opisthosomal (‘abdominal’ ganglia controls gill movements of ventilation and gill cleaning, and the prosomal ring of fused ganglia (brain and segmental ‘thoracic’ ganglia controls generation of feeding and locomotor movements of the legs. Both the opisthosomal CNS and the prosomal CNS can generate behaviorally appropriate patterns of motor output in isolation, without movements or sensory input. Preparations of the isolated opisthosomal CNS generate rhythmic output patterns of motor activity characterized as fictive ventilatory and gill cleaning rhythms. Moreover, CNS preparations also express longer-term patterns, such as intermittent ventilation or sequential bouts of ventilation and gill cleaning. Such longer-term patterns are commonly observed in intact animals. The isolated prosomal CNS does not spontaneously generate the activity patterns characteristic of walking, swimming, and feeding. However, perfusion of octopamine in the isolated prosomal CNS activates central pattern generators underlying rhythmic chewing movements, and injection of octopamine into intact Limulus promotes the chewing pattern of feeding, whether or not food is presented. Our understanding of the ability of neuromodulators such as octopamine to elicit or alter central motor programs may help to clarify the central neural circuits of pattern generation that produce and coordinate these rhythmic behaviors [Current Zoology 56 (5: 537–549, 2010].

  12. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Palazzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ∼1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ∼11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing, this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  13. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems) exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ) decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ˜1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ˜11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing), this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  14. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  15. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Chiara [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jacobs, Karin [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Seemann, Ralf [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Blossey, Ralf [Centre for Bioinformatics, Saarland University, PO Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Becker, Juergen [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Gruen, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2003-01-15

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  16. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  17. 云模式用户行为关联聚类的协同过滤推荐算法%Cloud pattern collaborative filtering recommenderalgorithm using user behavior correlation clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪蓉; 万年红

    2011-01-01

    传统的协同过滤推荐算法基于互联网模式单纯从某个角度研究电子商务推荐问题,推荐质量明显不高.为改善推荐效果,提高推荐系统的伸缩性和实用价值,基于研究云模式的用户行为相似性度量公式、用户行为等级函数、关联规则函数,定义关联聚类方法,改进相应算法,提出一种云模式用户行为关联聚类的协同过滤推荐算法.最后使用MovieLens和阿里巴巴的云测试数据进行局部实验与全局实验,并对各种算法的实验结果进行对比分析.实验结果表明,该算法推荐效果明显优于传统算法,具有较强的伸缩性和较高的实用价值.%The traditional collaborative filtering recommender algorithms based on Internet pattern research merely E-commerce recommender problem from one angle, and their recommender quality is evidently not high. To improve recommender efficiency, and to achieve scalability and utility of recommendation systems, with studying user behavior similarity measure formula, grade function and correlation rule function based on cloud pattern, a correlation clustering method was put forward. To improve the corresponding algorithms, a cloud pattern collaborative filtering recommender algorithm based on user behavior correlation clustering was proposed. Finally, the improved algorithms were validated by local and global experiments using MovieLens and Alibaba cloud testing data. The experimental results show that the recommender efficiency of the proposed algorithm is obviously higher than those of traditional algorithms, and it has stronger scalability and higher utility.

  18. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  19. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ramos

    Full Text Available Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database, a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  20. Mining Class-Correlated Patterns for Sequence Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    Sequence labeling is the task of assigning a label sequence to an observation sequence. Since many methods to solve this problem depend on the specification of predictive features, automated methods for their derivation are desirable. Unlike in other areas of pattern-based classification, however, no algorithm to directly mine class-correlated patterns for sequence labeling has been proposed so far. We introduce the novel task of mining class-correlated sequence patterns for sequence labeling and present a supervised pattern growth algorithm to find all patterns in a set of observation sequences, which correlate with the assignment of a fixed sequence label no less than a user-specified minimum correlation constraint. From the resulting set of patterns, features for a variety of classifiers can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The efficiency of the approach and the influence of important parameters are shown in experiments on several biological datasets.

  1. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  2. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges.

  3. Type A behavior pattern and escalating commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, J; Williams, S

    1993-10-01

    Subjects (N = 98) were randomly assigned to high- and low-responsibility conditions in a commitment-escalation experiment. Global Type A behavior pattern and the underlying dimension of achievement strivings were positively related to the desire to continue the same course of action in the high prior-responsibility condition but not in the low prior-responsibility condition. These findings are discussed in terms of future research into the judgment processes of people with Type A personality and the possible role of escalating commitment in disorders experienced by people with Type A personality.

  4. Genetic Basis Underlying Behavioral Correlation Between Fugu Takifugu rubripes and a Closely Related Species, Takifugu niphobles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Sho; Suetake, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Correlated suits of behaviors (behavioral syndrome) are commonly observed in both inter- and intraspecific studies. In order to understand the genetic basis of such a correlation between species, we compared ten behaviors classified into five categories (acclimation, feeding, normal swimming, reaction to a novel object and activity in a novel environment) between two pufferfish species, Takifugu rubripes and T. niphobles. The two species showed consistent differences in nine behaviors with a significant correlation among behaviors. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using second generation hybrids revealed that different sets of small effect QTL are associated with the observed interspecific behavioral disparity. This indicates that correlations in temperament traits between them are governed by many genes with small effects, and each behavior has been selected to form particular combination patterns. One of the QTL showing small pleiotropic effect includes the Drd4 gene known for its association with behavioral traits in some animal taxa including mammals.

  5. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up ‘emergent’ approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment—and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES’s sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials.

  6. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  7. Improving standards in brain-behavior correlation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Guillaume A; Pernet, Cyril R

    2012-01-01

    Associations between two variables, for instance between brain and behavioral measurements, are often studied using correlations, and in particular Pearson correlation. However, Pearson correlation is not robust: outliers can introduce false correlations or mask existing ones. These problems are exacerbated in brain imaging by a widespread lack of control for multiple comparisons, and several issues with data interpretations. We illustrate these important problems associated with brain-behavior correlations, drawing examples from published articles. We make several propositions to alleviate these problems.

  8. Correlations of consumption patterns in social-economic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Leo, Yannick; Sarraute, Carlos; Fleury, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a coupled dataset collecting the mobile phone communication and bank transactions history of a large number of individuals living in Mexico. After mapping the social structure and introducing indicators of socioeconomic status, demographic features, and purchasing habits of individuals we show that typical consumption patterns are strongly correlated with identified socioeconomic classes leading to patterns of stratification in the social structure. In addition we measure correlations between merchant categories and introduce a correlation network, which emerges with a meaningful community structure. We detect multivariate relations between merchant categories and show correlations in purchasing habits of individuals. Our work provides novel and detailed insight into the relations between social and consuming behaviour with potential applications in recommendation system design.

  9. Existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yanxin(张延炘); LI; Sumei(李素梅)

    2003-01-01

    The existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition, namely its range of validity and its limitation, is discussed in this paper conjointly with the function approximation theory of neural networks. The conclusion is that only if the sets to be recognized are linearly separable (which is rare) or the subsets, in which a segmental sample of the targets is involved,are linearly separable, can the classical 4f optical correlation system carry out the task of recognition inerrably. The recognition principle of a joint transform correlator is the same as that of a 4f system, and so is its range of validities. Based on the demonstration of the existence problem of optical correlation based pattern recognition an evaluation on some important problems that were studied in this field over the past 40 years is presented explicitly.

  10. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16

    assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

  11. A study of pattern recovery in recurrent correlation associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R C; Hancock, E R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the recurrent correlation associative memory (RCAM) model of Chiueh and Goodman (1990, 1991). This is an associative memory in which stored binary memory patterns are recalled via an iterative update rule. The update of the individual pattern-bits is controlled by an excitation function, which takes as its argument the inner product between the stored memory patterns and the input patterns. Our contribution is to analyze the dynamics of pattern recall when the input patterns are corrupted by noise of a relatively unrestricted class. We show how to identify the excitation function which maximizes the separation (the Fisher discriminant) between the uncorrupted realization of the noisy input pattern and the remaining patterns residing in the memory. The excitation function which gives maximum separation is exponential when the input bit-errors follow a binomial distribution. We develop an expression for the expectation value of bit-error probability on the input pattern after one iteration. We show how to identify the excitation function which minimizes the bit-error probability. The relationship between the excitation functions which result from the two different approaches is examined for a binomial distribution of bit-errors. We develop a semiempirical approach to the modeling of the dynamics of the RCAM.

  12. Lepton mixing patterns from combinations of elementary correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Shu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent data of reactor neutrino experiments set more stringent constraint on leptonic mixing patterns. We examine all possible patterns on the basis of combinations of elementary correlations of elements of leptonic mixing matrix. we obtain 62 viable mixing patters at 3$\\sigma$ level of mixing parameters. Most of these patterns can be paired via the {\\mu}- interchange which changes the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the sign of $\\cos{\\delta}$. All viable patterns can be classified into two groups: the perturbative patterns and non-perturbative patterns. The former can be obtained from perturbing TBM. The latter cannot be obtained from perturbing any mixing pattern whose $\\theta_{13}$ is zero. Different predictions of Dirac CP phase $\\delta$ of these two types of mixing patterns are discussed. Evolutions of mass matrices of neutrinos with small mixing parameters are discussed via special mixing patterns on the basis of flavor groups. In general cases, a small variation of $\\sin\\theta_{13}$ may bring about large m...

  13. Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eSchwalger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptationcurrents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the timeintervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the intervalcorrelations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators withspike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Ourweak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlationsand the phase-response curve (PRC of the oscillator, provesanti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neuronswith type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter thatdetermines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonicallydecaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related toqualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can beexplained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, thelong-term variability of the spike train associated with thecumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of modeldetails. Our results are verified by comparison with stochasticsimulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalizedintegrate-and-fire models with adaptation.

  14. Monitoring correlative financial data streams by local pattern similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIANG; Yu-cai FENG; Bin ZHANG; Zhong-sheng CAO; Ge FU; Jie SHI

    2009-01-01

    Developing tools for monitoring the correlations among thousands of financial data streams in all online fashion can be interesting and useful work.We aimed to find highly correlative financial data steams in local patterns.A novel distance metric function slope duration distance(SDD)is proposed,which is compatible with the characteristics of actual financial data streams.Moreover, a model monitoring correlations among local patterns(MCALP)is presented,which dramatically decreases the computational cost using an algorithm quickly online segmenting and pruning(QONSP)with O(1)time cost at each time tick t,and our proposed new grid structure.Experimental results showed that MCALP provides an improvement of several orders of magnitude in performance relative to traditional naive linear scan techniques and maintains high precision.Furthermore,the model is incremental,parallelizable,and has a quick response time.

  15. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, J.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiong, Y.; Newman, S.; Xiao, X.; Batbayar, N.; Spragens, Kyle A; Balachandran, S.; Yan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  16. Correlation between permeability and groundwater flow patterns in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Park, Y.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater flow in carbonate rocks is controlled by many factors such as degree of fracture and pore development, weathering and diagenesis. Among these factors, fracture is main factor and can form main flow path. Also, flow patterns in carbonate area are decided by these factors. This study was performed to understand factors controlling permeability and flow patterns in carbonate area and to evaluate correlation between permeability and flow patterns. Data used in this study were collected from many literatures and these data were analyzed and evaluated using graphic and statistical analysis. In many carbonate areas, branching conduit patterns were dominant. Of these areas, permeability was relatively high in areas where moving distance of flow was short and hydraulic gradient was steep. This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  17. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  18. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process.

  19. Physician Behaviors that Correlate with Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Loretto M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of 15 internal medicine residents was observed through a one-way mirror and ratings by the patients of satisfaction with their physicians were obtained. The teaching of caring skills and which physician caring skills affect the patients' satisfaction are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  20. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Behavior. J. Spuhler (Ed.). Chicago: Aldine Press, pp. 135-170, 1967. Hare, R. D. Psychopathy ’ Theory and Research. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970...Hare, R. D. Psychophathy and physiological responses to adrenalin. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 79:138-147, 1972. Hare, R. D. and Quinn, M. J. Psychopathy and

  1. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  2. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  3. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek eJaber-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0. However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1. The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder lose(s this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially towards the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (unethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest.

  4. Physiological and behavioral patterns of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-López, Tarek; García-Gallego, Aurora; Perakakis, Pandelis; Georgantzis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior and emotional arousal of the participants in an experimental auction, leading to an asymmetric social dilemma involving an auctioneer and two bidders. An antisocial transfer (bribe) which is beneficial for the auctioneer (official) is paid, if promised, by the winner of the auction. Some pro-social behavior on both the auctioneers' and the bidders' sides is observed even in the absence of any punishment mechanism (Baseline, Treatment 0). However, pro-social behavior is adopted by the vast majority of subjects when the loser of the auction can inspect the transaction between the winner and the auctioneer (Inspection, Treatment 1). The inspection and punishment mechanism is such that, if a bribe is (not) revealed, both corrupt agents (the denouncing bidder) lose(s) this period's payoffs. This renders the inspection option unprofitable for the loser and is rarely used, especially toward the end of the session, when pro-social behavior becomes pervasive. Subjects' emotional arousal was obtained through skin conductance responses. Generally speaking, our findings suggest that stronger emotions are associated with decisions deviating from pure monetary reward maximization, rather than with (un)ethical behavior per se. In fact, using response times as a measure of the subject's reflection during the decision-making process, we can associate emotional arousal with the conflict between primary or instinctive and secondary or contemplative motivations and, more specifically, with deviations from the subject's pure monetary interest. PMID:25566002

  5. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  6. Spatio-temporal correlation of vegetation and temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, R.; D'Emilio, M.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2010-05-01

    Temperature is one of the variables largely influencing vegetation species distributions (biogeographical regions) and plant development (phenological cycle). Anomalies in temperature regional patterns and in microclimate conditions induce modifications in vegetation cover phenology; in particular in European regions, the responsiveness of vegetation to temperature increase is greater in warmer Mediterranean countries. In order to assess the spatial arrangement and the temporal variability of vegetation and temperature patterns in a typical Mediterranean environment, we investigated monthly NDVI-AVHRR and temperature time series over Southern Italy, core of Mediterranean Basin. Temperature data, obtained from 35 meteoclimatic stations, were rasterized by adopting a combined deterministic-stochastic procedure we suitably implemented for the investigated region in order to obtain spatial data comparable with NDVI maps. For the period 1996-1998, monthly MVC data were clusterized on annual basis by means of a classification procedure to aggregate areas with similar phenological cycles. The same procedure was adopted to jointly evaluate temperature and vegetation profiles and identify areas having similar phenological and temperature patterns. The comparison of the identified clusters showed that the classification obtained with and without temperature profiles are very similar enhancing the strong role of this variable in vegetation development. Some exceptions in the cluster arrangement are due to local anomalies in vegetation distribution, such as forest fires. In order to spatially analyze such a dependence, we also elaborated a time correlation map for each year and we found that the correlation patterns are persistent on the year basis and generally follow the land cover distributions. The correlation values are very high and positive for the forested mountainous areas (R>0.8), whereas they are negative for plan coastal areas (R<-0.8). Low correlation values (R

  7. Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.

  8. Behavioral patterns associated with chemotherapy-induced emesis: A potential signature for nausea in musk shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Christopher Horn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with many diseases, including cancer and its treatments. Although the neurological basis of vomiting is reasonably well known, an understanding of the physiology of nausea is lacking. The primary barrier to mechanistic research on the nausea system is the lack of an animal model. Indeed investigating the effects of anti-nausea drugs in preclinical models is difficult because the primary readout is often emesis. It is known that animals show a behavioral profile of sickness, associated with reduced feeding and movement, and possibly these general measures are signs of nausea. Studies attempting to relate the occurrence of additional behaviors to emesis have produced mixed results. Here we applied a statistical method, t-pattern (temporal pattern analysis, to determine patterns of behavior associated with emesis. Musk shrews were injected with the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (a gold standard in emesis research to induce acute (< 24 h and delayed (> 24 h emesis. Emesis and other behaviors were coded and tracked from video files. T-pattern analysis revealed hundreds of non-random patterns of behavior associated with emesis, including sniffing, changes in body contraction, and locomotion. There was little evidence that locomotion was inhibited by the occurrence of emesis. Eating and drinking, and other larger body movements including rearing, grooming, and body rotation, were significantly less common in emesis-related behavioral patterns in real versus randomized data. These results lend preliminary evidence for the expression of emesis-related behavioral patterns, including reduced ingestive behavior, grooming and exploratory behaviors. In summary, this statistical approach to behavioral analysis in a pre-clinical emesis research model could be used to assess the more global effects and limitations of drugs used to control nausea and its potential correlates, including reduced feeding and

  9. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  10. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  11. Child abuse potential inventory and parenting behavior: relationships with high-risk correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, M E; Scott, S S; Fann, K D

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory by comparing maltreating and high-risk parents' CAP Inventory abuse scores to their behavior during interactions with their children. A second purpose was to determine the degree to which CAP Inventory scores and parenting behavior were related to several known correlates of abuse, as measured by parent and teacher reports. Participants (n = 41) included abusive and high-risk parents and their children referred to a treatment group. Correlational analyses revealed that CAP Inventory scores and observed parenting style yielded highly related findings, supporting construct validity of the CAP Inventory. However, the CAP Inventory and observed behavior index showed a different pattern of relationships to the risk correlates. Implications for assessment of risk status are discussed and recommendations are provided for continued research.

  12. Tourist Behavior Pattern Mining Model Based on Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized travel experience and service of tourist has been a hot topic research in the tourism service supply chain. In this paper, we take the context into consideration and propose an analyzed method to the tourist based on the context: firstly, we analyze the context which influences the tourist behavior patterns, select the main context factors, and construct the tourist behavior pattern model based on it; then, we calculate the interest degree of the tourist behavior pattern and mine out the rules with high interest degree with the association rule algorithm; we can make some recommendations to the tourist with better personalized travelling experience and services. At last, we make an experiment to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method.

  13. Revisiting Kurt Lewin: how to gain insight into environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; van Lenthe, Frank J; Kremers, Stef P J

    2006-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are important determinants of population health. Prevention of weight gain is dependent on the successful balancing of eating and physical activity behaviors. Planned promotion of healthful behavior requires insights into important and changeable determinants and correlates of behavior change. The modest effects of health education have induced a shift in focus from personal to environmental correlates of eating and physical activity behaviors. Six systematic reviews were conducted in 2005 of observational studies of environmental correlates and environmental interventions for weight-related eating behaviors and physical activity for children, adolescents, and adults. The reviews of 297 observational studies showed that few investigations of environmental associations have been replicated, and that most studies used weak research designs and nonvalidated self-report measures, were restricted to micro-environmental factors, and failed to apply multilevel analyses. There is, therefore, very little evidence for an association between environmental factors and weight-related behaviors. However, the reviews of 112 intervention studies indicated much stronger evidence for positive effects of micro-physical and sociocultural environmental changes on eating and physical activity behaviors. Inspired by quotes from Kurt Lewin, we argue that before large-scale environmental change interventions are launched, better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of environmental factors, including macrolevel factors, for obesogenic behavioral change is needed. Such research should (1) develop better measures of environmental exposure, (2) attempt to integrate personal and environmental correlates of obesogenic behaviors, (3) take a solution-oriented, rather then a problem-oriented approach, and (4) identify access points for inducing behavior change instead of finding explanations for existing behavioral patterns.

  14. Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John

    2003-06-01

    A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance.

  15. Family dynamics and self-injury behaviors: a correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Ruth Ogden; Pavkov, Thomas W; Hecker, Lorna L; Seliner, Michelle M

    2014-04-01

    This study tested the relationship between family dynamics and self-injury. A total of 189 participants responded to a web-based survey collecting information related to previous self-injury behaviors and family dynamics. Participants were over 18 years old who had used self-injury (intentionally harming themselves physically to relieve painful emotions without suicidal intent), but who had not used self-injury for over a year. Results indicated that healthy family dynamics were negatively correlated and associated with higher scores of self-injury behaviors. This study offers some evidence that family dynamics influence self-injury behaviors. The implications for family therapy are discussed.

  16. Rethinking Hearing Aid Fitting by Learning From Behavioral Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    users to remotely enhance auditory focus and attenuate background noise to improve speech intelligibility. N=5, participants changed program settings and adjusted volume on their hearing instruments using their smartphones. We found that individual behavioral patterns affected the usage of the devices....... A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...

  17. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Jeffrey Scott [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, Hc in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd5(Si2Ge2), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, Ms, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected

  18. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Sexting Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Maziarz, Lauren; Ward, Britney

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexting among sixth through twelfth grade students and its correlations with other risk behaviors. The survey was conducted in 35 different schools in a midwestern state. Overall, 17% of students engaged in sexting, which varied significantly by age (3% of 12-year-olds to 32% of…

  20. Behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer: sex-specific behavior comparisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Peishi YAN; Xiuxiang MENG; Jinchao FENG; Hongfa XU; Qisen YANG; Zuojian FENG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the behavior of captive alpine musk deer and to determine if daily behavior patterns varied between females and males. From August 2002 to January 2003, focal sampling was used to observe 32 adult captive alpine musk deer (13 female and 19 male) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu Province. Results indicated similar behavior patterns for males and females, with only two out of 12 recorded behaviors showing significant sex differences. In comparison to females, males rested for a longer duration and exhibited tail pasting more frequently. This study also provided the first recording of tail pasting by female musk deer.

  1. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  2. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  3. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response. PMID:27713693

  4. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Jacinto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC(PrL circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM. Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC, basolateral amygdala (BLA and prelimbic (PrL mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC, during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA and BLA-mPFC(PrL theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response.

  5. Neural correlates of behavioral preference for culturally familiar drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Tomlin, Damon; Cypert, Kim S; Montague, Latané M; Montague, P Read

    2004-10-14

    Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi are nearly identical in chemical composition, yet humans routinely display strong subjective preferences for one or the other. This simple observation raises the important question of how cultural messages combine with content to shape our perceptions; even to the point of modifying behavioral preferences for a primary reward like a sugared drink. We delivered Coke and Pepsi to human subjects in behavioral taste tests and also in passive experiments carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two conditions were examined: (1) anonymous delivery of Coke and Pepsi and (2) brand-cued delivery of Coke and Pepsi. For the anonymous task, we report a consistent neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that correlated with subjects' behavioral preferences for these beverages. In the brand-cued experiment, brand knowledge for one of the drinks had a dramatic influence on expressed behavioral preferences and on the measured brain responses.

  6. Correlations among the Reiss Screen, the Adaptive Behavior Scale Part II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin K.; Shenouda, Nivine

    1999-01-01

    Relations among instruments used in community mental-health services for people with developmental disabilities were explored with 284 individuals. Correlation coefficients were evaluated for statistical significance and effect size for subtests of the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Adaptive…

  7. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  8. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  9. Visual attention: Linking prefrontal sources to neuronal and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey; Squire, Ryan Fox; Merrikhi, Yaser; Noudoost, Behrad

    2015-09-01

    Attention is a means of flexibly selecting and enhancing a subset of sensory input based on the current behavioral goals. Numerous signatures of attention have been identified throughout the brain, and now experimenters are seeking to determine which of these signatures are causally related to the behavioral benefits of attention, and the source of these modulations within the brain. Here, we review the neural signatures of attention throughout the brain, their theoretical benefits for visual processing, and their experimental correlations with behavioral performance. We discuss the importance of measuring cue benefits as a way to distinguish between impairments on an attention task, which may instead be visual or motor impairments, and true attentional deficits. We examine evidence for various areas proposed as sources of attentional modulation within the brain, with a focus on the prefrontal cortex. Lastly, we look at studies that aim to link sources of attention to its neuronal signatures elsewhere in the brain.

  10. Characterization of SEM speckle pattern marking and imaging distortion by Digital Image Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Guery, Adrien; Latourte, Felix; Hild, François; Roux, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Surface patterning by e-beam lithography and SEM imaging distortions are studied via digital image correlation. The global distortions from the reference pattern, which has been numerically generated, are first quantified from a digital image correlation procedure between the (virtual) reference pattern and the actual SEM image both in secondary and backscattered electron imaging modes. These distortions result from both patterning and imaging techniques. These two con...

  11. A Gesture Recognition System for Detecting Behavioral Patterns of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Vela, Antonio; Escalera, Sergio; Igual, Laura; Pujol, Oriol; Moya, Josep; Violant, Verónica; Anguera, María T

    2016-01-01

    We present an application of gesture recognition using an extension of dynamic time warping (DTW) to recognize behavioral patterns of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose an extension of DTW using one-class classifiers in order to be able to encode the variability of a gesture category, and thus, perform an alignment between a gesture sample and a gesture class. We model the set of gesture samples of a certain gesture category using either Gaussian mixture models or an approximation of convex hulls. Thus, we add a theoretical contribution to classical warping path in DTW by including local modeling of intraclass gesture variability. This methodology is applied in a clinical context, detecting a group of ADHD behavioral patterns defined by experts in psychology/psychiatry, to provide support to clinicians in the diagnose procedure. The proposed methodology is tested on a novel multimodal dataset (RGB plus depth) of ADHD children recordings with behavioral patterns. We obtain satisfying results when compared to standard state-of-the-art approaches in the DTW context.

  12. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  13. Cross-correlation patterns in social opinion formation with sequential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research on large-scale internet data suggests existence of patterns in the collective behavior of billions of people even though each of them may pursue own activities. In this paper, we interpret online rating activity as a process of forming social opinion about individual items, where people sequentially choose a rating based on the current information set comprising all previous ratings and own preferences. We construct an opinion index from the sequence of ratings and we show that (1) movie-specific opinion converges much slower than an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sequence of ratings, (2) rating sequence for individual movies shows lesser variation compared to an i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (3) the probability density function of the asymptotic opinions has more spread than that defined over opinion arising from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, (4) opinion sequences across movies are correlated with significantly higher and lower correlation compared to opinion constructed from i.i.d. sequence of ratings, creating a bimodal cross-correlation structure. By decomposing the temporal correlation structures from panel data of movie ratings, we show that the social effects are very prominent whereas group effects cannot be differentiated from those of surrogate data and individual effects are quite small. The former explains a large part of extreme positive or negative correlations between sequences of opinions. In general, this method can be applied to any rating data to extract social or group-specific effects in correlation structures. We conclude that in this particular case, social effects are important in opinion formation process.

  14. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  15. Color pattern recognition based on the joint fractional Fourier transform correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Jin; Yupei Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new system of multi-channel single-output joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) for color pattern recognition is proposed based on the conventional system of multi-channel single-output joint transform correlator (JTC). The theoretical analysis and optical experiments are performed. With this method, one can obtain three correlation peaks at the output plane which show a pair of desired cross-correlation peaks and one auto-correlation peak. In comparison, the conventional system leads to more correlation peaks playing a noise role in color pattern recognition.

  16. Dynamical behavior of price forecasting in structures of group correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the prediction of the future prices from the structures and the networks of the companies in special financial groups. After the financial group network has been constructed from the value of the high cross-correlation, each company in a group is simulated and analyzed how it buys or sells stock is anaylzed and how it makes rational investments is forecasted. In the shortmemory behavior rather than the long-memory behavior, each company among a group can make a rational investment decision by using a stochastic evolution rule in the financial network. In particular, we simulate and analyze the investment situation in connection with the empirical data and the simulated result.

  17. Performance of Dynamically Simulated Reference Patterns for Cross-Correlation Electron Backscatter Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian E; Christensen, Jordan J; Singh, Saransh; De Graef, Marc; Fullwood, David T; Homer, Eric R; Wagoner, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution (or "cross-correlation") electron backscatter diffraction analysis (HR-EBSD) utilizes cross-correlation techniques to determine relative orientation and distortion of an experimental electron backscatter diffraction pattern with respect to a reference pattern. The integrity of absolute strain and tetragonality measurements of a standard Si/SiGe material have previously been analyzed using reference patterns produced by kinematical simulation. Although the results were promising, the noise levels were significantly higher for kinematically produced patterns, compared with real patterns taken from the Si region of the sample. This paper applies HR-EBSD techniques to analyze lattice distortion in an Si/SiGe sample, using recently developed dynamically simulated patterns. The results are compared with those from experimental and kinematically simulated patterns. Dynamical patterns provide significantly more precision than kinematical patterns. Dynamical patterns also provide better estimates of tetragonality at low levels of distortion relative to the reference pattern; kinematical patterns can perform better at large values of relative tetragonality due to the ability to rapidly generate patterns relating to a distorted lattice. A library of dynamically generated patterns with different lattice parameters might be used to achieve a similar advantage. The convergence of the cross-correlation approach is also assessed for the different reference pattern types.

  18. Psychophysiological correlates of parenting behavior in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Propper, Cathi; Gariepy, Jean-Louis; Barnett, Melissa; Moore, Ginger A; Calkins, Susan; Cox, Martha J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated HPA and vagal functioning as correlates of parenting in mothers of 175 six-month-old children. Salivary cortisol indexed HPA functioning and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reduction indexed vagal regulation. Positive engagement and negative intrusiveness were observed during the Face-to-Face Still Face Paradigm (FFSFP) reunion and a semi-structured free play episode. Mixed modeling was used to examine differences in maternal behaviors across contexts as a function of psychophysiology. Main effects of cortisol levels, as well as interactions with RSA reduction and context, predicted negative intrusiveness. Mothers with high cortisol exhibited more negative intrusiveness if they also had lower RSA reduction. Mothers were also less negatively intrusive during the FFSFP than the free play if they had lower cortisol levels. There were no associations between psychophysiological measures and positive engagement. The findings suggest: (1) that parenting behaviors are associated with maternal stress physiology; (2) considerations of single physiological systems related to parenting behaviors may be incomplete; and (3) type and context of behaviors must be considered when examining biobehavioral associations with parenting.

  19. Longtime Behavior for Mutually Catalytic Branching with Negative Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Doering, Leif

    2011-01-01

    In several examples, dualities for interacting diffusion and particle systems permit the study of the longtime behavior of solutions. A particularly difficult model in which many techniques collapse is a two-type model with mutually catalytic interaction introduced by Dawson/Perkins for which they proved under some assumptions a dichotomy between extinction and coexistence directly from the defining equations. In the present article we show how to prove a precise dichotomy for a related model with negatively correlated noises. The proof combines a self-duality to ensure uniform integrability via moment bounds on exit-times of correlated Brownian motions from the first quadrant and explicit second moment calculations. Since the uniform integrability bound is independent of the branching rate our proof can be extended to infinite branching rate processes.

  20. EXTRACTING HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS BY MINING GEO-SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forghani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one’s travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users’ network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  1. Effect of Charge Patterning on the Phase Behavior of Polymer Coacervates for Charge Driven Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sing, Charles E.

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo associative liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed under suitable conditions of ionic strength, temperature and pH to form what are known as `polymeric complex coacervates'. Polymer coacervates find use in diverse array of applications like microencapsulation, drug delivery, membrane filtration and underwater adhesives. The similarity between complex coacervate environments and those in biological systems has also found relevance in areas of bio-mimicry. Our previous works have demonstrated how local charge correlations and molecular connectivity can drastically affect the phase behavior of coacervates. The precise location of charges along the chain therefore dramatically influences the local charge correlations, which consequently influences the phase behavior of coacervates. We investigate the effect of charge patterning along the polymer chain on the phase behavior of coacervates in the framework of the Restricted Primitive Model using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that charge patterning dramatically changes the phase behavior of polymer coacervates, which contrasts with the predictions of the classical Voorn-Overbeek theory. This provides the basis for designing new materials through charge driven self assembly by controlling the positioning of the charged monomers along the chain.

  2. Behavior and neural correlates of empathy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, Sandy; Güroğlu, Berna; Rieffe, Carolien; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined neural correlates of empathy in adolescence while observing harmful acts. A total of 32 participants (aged 12-19 years) viewed pictures depicting negative (offenders inflicting intentional harm) and positive (friends socializing) social situations. After viewing each picture, participants could allocate hypothetical points to either the offender or the victim in a dictator game. Behaviorally, participants of all ages acted prosocially towards victims, fairly towards positive individuals and punishingly towards offenders. Brain imaging analyses showed that viewing negative situations was associated with more activation in the bilateral intraparietal lobule and the superior temporal sulcus (STS), whereas viewing positive situations was associated with more medial prefrontal cortex and left temporal parietal junction activity. Analyses testing for associations between brain activity and self-reported empathy showed that the STS was correlated negatively with reports of understanding others' distress and the willingness to help others. Together, the findings suggest that adolescents show similar prosocial behavior, as previously reported in adults with greater STS activity, when observing negative social acts that is modulated by an individual's empathy for others.

  3. Memristor-MOS analog correlator for pattern recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ca-Ram; Lee, Sang-Jin; Oh, Kwang-Seok; Cho, Kyoungrok

    2013-05-01

    Emergence of new materials having significant improved properties continues to influence the formulation of novel architectures and as such new developments pave the way for innovative circuits and systems such as those required in visual imaging and recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for the design of an analog comparator suitable for pattern matching using two Memristors as part of both the stored image data as well as that of the input signal. Our proposed comparator based on Memristor-CMOS fabrication process generates a signal indicating similarity/dissimilarity between two pattern data derived from image sensor and the corresponding Memristor-based template memory. For convenience, we also present an overview of a simplified Memristor model and hence provide simulation results for comparison with that of a conventional analog CMOS comparator.

  4. [Comparison of Health-related Behavior Patterns of Boys and Girls in Germany: Results of the MoMo Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, S; Mess, F; Woll, A

    2015-12-22

    Aim of the study: For optimal health promotion in adolescents, it is important to know their typical behavior patterns. The aims of this study were to identify and compare sex-specific health-related behavior patterns of adolescents in Germany. Methods: The KiGGS Survey and the MoMo Study assessed the health behavior of 832 boys and 811 girls by means of a questionnaire. The indices physical activity, diet quality and media use were included in cluster analyses for boys and girls separately. Results: For each sex, 4 clusters with similar characteristics on the three included indices were identified. However, cluster size, level of the characteristics and correlates were different in boys and girls: fewer girls showed high activity levels. Overall, physical activity and media use were less pronounced in the behavior pattern of girls. There was a stronger association of behavior patterns with socio-economic status in girls. In boys, behavior patterns were significantly associated with prevalence of overweight. Conclusions: The similar cluster solutions for boys and girls support the assumption that there are typical health-related behavior patterns among German adolescents. This finding might facilitate the precise definition of homogeneous target groups for health promotion programs. Furthermore, it seems that sex-specific foci should be set.

  5. Computation of antenna pattern correlation and MIMO performance by means of surface current distribution and spherical wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the stringent demand for an accurate prediction of MIMO channel capacity and diversity performance in wireless communications, more effective and suitable models that account for real antenna radiation behavior have to be taken into account. One of the main challenges is the accurate modeling of antenna correlation that is directly related to the amount of channel capacity or diversity gain which might be achieved in multi element antenna configurations. Therefore spherical wave theory in electromagnetics is a well known technique to express antenna far fields by means of a compact field expansion with a reduced number of unknowns that was recently applied to derive an analytical approach in the computation of antenna pattern correlation. In this paper we present a novel and efficient computational technique to determine antenna pattern correlation based on the evaluation of the surface current distribution by means of a spherical mode expansion.

  6. Psychosocial correlates of substance use behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Darlene R; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional data were collected on substance use behaviors and potential correlates in 1,494 African American students enrolled in grades 5-12 in eight schools in a central Alabama school district. Using a risk and asset framework, self-reported recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use were analyzed by identifying and measuring levels of influence, including individual, family, and school. For alcohol and marijuana use, recurrent risk factors were age, being hit by a parent, affiliation with gangs, and a tolerant attitude of peers toward drug use. For cigarette use, risk factors were peer-oriented: associations with gangs or cohorts holding lenient attitudes about substance use. For all substances, salient asset factors were academic achievement and parental monitoring. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce substance use behaviors should be directed at adolescents in terms of academic achievement and grade level as well as their social environments. For the latter, peer/family risks and family/school assets should be the foci for programs to minimize the short- and long-term consequences of these behaviors. Hence, the emphasis should be placed on modeling attitudes, preventing gang and family violence, encouraging parental supervision, and building positive teacher-student interactions.

  7. Patterns of correlation of facial shape with physiological measurements are more integrated than patterns of correlation with ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, S.; Bookstein, F. L.; Millesi, E.; Wallner, B.; Schaefer, K.

    2017-01-01

    This article exploits a method recently incorporated in the geometric morphometric toolkit that complements previous approaches to quantifying the facial features associated with specific body characteristics and trait attribution during social perception. The new method differentiates more globally encoded from more locally encoded information by a summary scaling dimension that is estimated by fitting a line to the plot of log bending energy against log variance explained, partial warp by partial warp, for some sample of varying shapes. In the present context these variances come from the regressions of shape on some exogenous cause or effect of form. We work an example involving data from male faces. Here the regression slopes are steepest, and the sums of explained variances over the uniform component, partial warp 1 and partial warp 2 are greatest, for the conventional body mass index, followed by cortisol and, lastly, perceived health. This suggests that physiological characteristics may be represented at larger scale (global patterns), whereas cues in perception are of smaller scale (local patterns). Such a polarity within psychomorphospace, the global versus the focal, now has a metric by which patterns of morphology can be modeled in both biological and psychological studies. PMID:28349947

  8. Symmetry Detection in Visual Impairment: Behavioral Evidence and Neural Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Cattaneo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral symmetry is an extremely salient feature for the human visual system. An interesting issue is whether the perceptual salience of symmetry is rooted in normal visual development. In this review, we discuss empirical work on visual and tactile symmetry detection in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. On the one hand, available evidence suggests that efficient visual symmetry detection may need normal binocular vision development. On the other hand, converging evidence suggests that symmetry can develop as a principle of haptic perceptual organization in individuals lacking visual experience. Certain features of visual symmetry detection, however, such as the higher salience of the patterns containing a vertical axis of symmetry, do not systematically apply to the haptic modality. The neural correlates (revealed with neuroimaging associated with visual and haptic symmetry detection are also discussed.

  9. Wicket spikes: clinical correlates of a previously undescribed EEG pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiher, J; Lebel, M

    1977-02-01

    From an analysis of the electroencephalograms of 4,458 patients who underwent recording during both wakefulness ans sleep, through the years 1969 to 1975, wicket spikes-- recorded in 39 patients-- may be described as follows: They were found during both wakefulness ans sleep, almost exclusively in adults. Their cardinal feature is a changing mode of occurrence through any single recording: from intermittent trains of more or less sustained, arciform, discharges resembling mu rhythm, to sporadic, urinary, single spikes. When occurring singly, wicket spikes can be mistaken for anterior or middle temporal spikes, since they predominate in eith er area, and since they share with them other characteristics such as amplitude (60 to 210 microvolts), polarity (surface negative) duration, and configuration. Wicket spikes should not be considered interictal abnormalities; they do nor correlate with epilepsy or with any particular symptom complex.

  10. Spray pattern analysis for metered dose inhalers I: Orifice size, particle size, and droplet motion correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, H; Hickey, A J; Brace, G; Barbour, T; Gallion, J; Grove, J

    2006-10-01

    Factors that influence spray pattern measurements of pressurized, metered-dose inhalers have been evaluated. Spray patterns were correlated with changes in actuator orifice diameter, particle size profiles, and calculated estimates of particle-size dynamics of plumes during a spray. Spray patterns, regardless of actuator orifice size, were ellipsoid in the vertical direction. Measures of elliptical ratio, major axis, and minor axis were significantly influenced by orifice size in a non-linear fashion over the range of orifice sizes investigated. Spray patterns also correlated with particle size profile and spray geometry measurements. Spray distribution asymmetry may be related to droplet evaporation and sedimentation processes. However, the spray patterns did not appear sensitive to changes in gravitational force acting on the plume. Instead, it is postulated that elliptical spray patterns may have dependence on fluid dynamic processes within the inhaler actuator. Developing an understanding of these processes may provide a basis for developing spray pattern tests with relevance to product performance.

  11. Increasing accuracy and precision of digital image correlation through pattern optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Ruggles, T. J.; Cannon, A. H.

    2017-04-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is based on three primary components: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Focus on the third component, the image subject, has been relatively limited and primarily concerned with comparing pseudo-random surface patterns. In the current work, a strategy is proposed for the creation of optimal DIC patterns. In this strategy, a pattern quality metric is developed as a combination of quality metrics from the literature rather than optimization based on any single one of them. In this way, optimization produces a pattern which balances the benefits of multiple quality metrics. Specifically, sum of square of subset intensity gradients (SSSIG) was found to be the metric most strongly correlated to DIC accuracy and thus is the main component of the newly proposed pattern quality metric. A term related to the secondary auto-correlation peak height is also part of the proposed quality metric which effectively acts as a constraint upon SSSIG ensuring that a regular (e.g., checkerboard-type) pattern is not achieved. The combined pattern quality metric is used to generate a pattern that was on average 11.6% more accurate than a randomly generated pattern in a suite of numerical experiments. Furthermore, physical experiments were performed which confirm that there is indeed improvement of a similar magnitude in DIC measurements for the optimized pattern compared to a random pattern.

  12. Pattern-matching analysis of fine echo delays by the spectrogram correlation and transformation receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Munhum; Allen, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Among a few previous attempts to model the outstanding echolocation capability of bats, the work by Saillant et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 2691-2712 (1993)] is, arguably, one of the most frequently referenced studies in which the predictions of spectrogram correlation and transformation (SCAT) model were compared to the results of relevant behavioral experiments. The SCAT model consists of cochlear, spectrogram correlation and spectrogram transformation blocks, where the latter two processes estimate the overall and the fine time delays between the animal's call and the echoes, given the neural representation of the acoustic signals generated by the cochlear block. This paper first provides a rigorous account of the spectrogram transformation (ST) block. By approximating the neural signals in analytic forms, many aspects of the ST block are explained and discussed in relation to the predictive scope of the model. Furthermore, based on these analytical arguments, the ST block is investigated from a different point of view, interpreted as a pattern-matching process which may operate at the high level of the animal's auditory pathway.

  13. Patterns of correlation between vehicle occupant seat pressure and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gunther; Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François

    2012-01-01

    Seat pressure is known as a major factor of seat comfort in vehicles. In passenger vehicles, there is lacking research into the seat comfort of rear seat occupants. As accurate seat pressure measurement requires significant effort, simulation of seat pressure is evolving as a preferred method. However, analytic methods are based on complex finite element modeling and therefore are time consuming and involve high investment. Based on accurate anthropometric measurements of 64 male subjects and outboard rear seat pressure measurements in three different passenger vehicles, this study investigates if a set of parameters derived from seat pressure mapping are sensitive enough to differentiate between different seats and whether they correlate with anthropometry in linear models. In addition to the pressure map analysis, H-Points were measured with a coordinate measurement system based on palpated body landmarks and the range of H-Point locations in the three seats is provided. It was found that for the cushion, cushion contact area and cushion front area/force could be modeled by subject anthropometry, while only seatback contact area could be modeled based on anthropometry for all three vehicles. Major differences were found between the vehicles for other parameters.

  14. Correlation Pattern among “Asian Paper Tigers” Currencies: A Dynamic Conditional Correlation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaimah Zainudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC for eight currencies in the East Asia region, known as Asian Paper Tigers from the period of July 2002 to July 2012. The estimation results generated from DCC model verify that each tested exchange rate's volatility is determined by its own previous volatility shock, however failed to find any evidence with its own residual shock. While for correlation estimation results, we support the evidence that the conditional correlations for all tested pairs currencies are highly affected by their previous correlation. Most of the Asian Paper Tigers currencies recorded a low conditional correlation over the tested sampling period except for CNYJPY, MYRCNY, MYRIDR, MYRTHB, JPYTHB and PHPKRW. The findings further verify that mixing the currencies within different monetary regime plays a significant role in enhancing the currency portfolio diversification results. Although in unstable period, both JPYTHB and MYRJPY are the most promising combinations to be included in the optimal currency investment basket where both pairs have small and stable correlations either during the global recession period or European liquidity crisis period.

  15. Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Klaus; Weber, René

    2006-12-01

    Modern video games represent highly advanced virtual reality simulations and often contain virtual violence. In a significant amount of young males, playing video games is a quotidian activity, making it an almost natural behavior. Recordings of brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during gameplay may reflect neuronal correlates of real-life behavior. We recorded 13 experienced gamers (18-26 years; average 14 hrs/week playing) while playing a violent first-person shooter game (a violent computer game played in self-perspective) by means of distortion and dephasing reduced fMRI (3 T; single-shot triple-echo echo-planar imaging [EPI]). Content analysis of the video and sound with 100 ms time resolution achieved relevant behavioral variables. These variables explained significant signal variance across large distributed networks. Occurrence of violent scenes revealed significant neuronal correlates in an event-related design. Activation of dorsal and deactivation of rostral anterior cingulate and amygdala characterized the mid-frontal pattern related to virtual violence. Statistics and effect sizes can be considered large at these areas. Optimized imaging strategies allowed for single-subject and for single-trial analysis with good image quality at basal brain structures. We propose that virtual environments can be used to study neuronal processes involved in semi-naturalistic behavior as determined by content analysis. Importantly, the activation pattern reflects brain-environment interactions rather than stimulus responses as observed in classical experimental designs. We relate our findings to the general discussion on social effects of playing first-person shooter games.

  16. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  17. Flow Pattern and Heat Transfer Behavior of Boiling Two—Phase flow in Inclined Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDezhang; OuyangNing

    1992-01-01

    Movable Electrical Conducting Probe (MECP),a kind of simple and reliable measuring transducer,used for predicting full-flow-path flow pattern in a boiling vapor/liquid two-phase flow is introduced in this paper when the test pipe is set at different inclination angles,several kinds of flow patterns,such as bubble,slug,churn,intermittent,and annular flows,may be observed in accordance with the locations of MECP.By means of flow pattern analysis,flow fleld numerical calculations have been carried out,and heat transfer coeffcient correlations along full-flow-path derived.The results show that heat transfer performance of boiling two-phase flow could be significanfly augmanted as expected in some flow pattern zones.The results of the investigation,measuring techniques and conclusions contained in this paper would be a useful reference in foundational research for prediction of flow pattern and heat transfer behavior in boiling two-phase flow,as well as for turbine vane liquid-cooling design.

  18. Patterns and Correlations in Economic Phenomena Uncovered Using Concepts of Statistical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H.E.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, H.V.; Salinger, M.A.

    This paper discusses some of the similarities between work being done by economists and by physicists seeking to find "patterns" in economics. We also mention some of the differences in the approaches taken and seek to justify these different approaches by developing the argument that by approaching the same problem from different points of view, new results might emerge. In particular, we review two such new results. Specifically, we discuss the two newly-discovered scaling results that appear to be "universal", in the sense that they hold for widely different economies as well as for different time periods: (i) the fluctuation of price changes of any stock market is characterized by a probability density function (PDF), which is a simple power law with exponent alpha + 1 = 4 extending over 102 standard deviations (a factor of 108 on the y-axis); this result is analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter power law describing the histogram of earthquakes of a given strength; (ii) for a wide range of economic organizations, the histogram that shows how size of organization is inversely correlated to fluctuations in size with an exponent approx 0.2. Neither of these two new empirical laws has a firm theoretical foundation. We also discuss results that are reminiscent of phase transitions in spin systems, where the divergent behavior of the response function at the critical point (zero magnetic field) leads to large fluctuations. We discuss a curious "symmetry breaking" for values of Sigma above a certain threshold value Σ_c; here Σ is defined to be the local first moment of the probability distribution of demand Ω - the difference between the number of shares traded in buyer-initiated and seller-initiated trades. This feature is qualitatively identical to the behavior of the probability density of the magnetization for fixed values of the inverse temperature.

  19. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  20. Correlation between radiologic and ultrasonographic patterns and clinical manifestations in symptomatic hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alimonti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of data have recenlty been published regarding ultrasonographic (US findings of osteoarthritic joints, but very few data concern hip joints. In the current study we described US patterns concerning 490 patients affected by symptomatic hip osteoarthritis (OA who underwent to intra-articular injections of hyaluronic products under US guidance. All patients were studied by US and X-ray of hip, clinical evaluation was assessed by the followings indexes: Lequesne, pain VAS, ICED, Global Physician Assessment and Global Patient Assessment. US findings were summarized in four main patterns, effusion and synovial proliferation were also detected. The aim of this study was to correlate US findings with clinical assessment and radiographic findings (according to Kellegren- Lawrence classification. Pearson’s r correlation coefficient were computed and come out significant and positive between X ray and US patterns and between clinical indexes and US patterns. Also the correlation between K-L score and US patterns showed a significant positive correlation indicating that higher K-L scores are associated with increasing abnormal US findings. Our data suggest that ultrasonography of the hip may give useful information about the state of synovial membrane, synovial fluid, joint margins and bone profile in hip OA. Further studies are needed to evaluate their prevalence in hip OA symptomatic and not-symptomatic patients and their correlation to treatment outcome.

  1. Family patterns of development dyslexia, Part II: Behavioral phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, P.H.; Melngailis, I.; Bedrosian, M. [Childrens Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The motor control of bimanual coordination and motor speech was compared between first degree relatives from families with at least 2 dyslexic family members, and families where probands were the only affected family members. Half of affected relatives had motor coordination deficits; and they came from families in which probands also showed impaired motor coordination. By contrast, affected relatives without motor deficits came from dyslexia families where probands did not have motor deficits. Motor coordination deficits were more common and more severe among affected offspring in families where both parents were affected than among affected offspring in families where only one parent was affected. However, motor coordination deficits were also more common and more severe in affected parents when both parents were affected than among affected parents in families where only one parent was affected. We conclude that impaired temporal resolution in motor action identifies a behavioral phenotype in some subtypes of developmental dyslexia. The observed pattern of transmission for motor deficits and reading impairment in about half of dyslexia families was most congruent with a genetic model of dyslexia in which 2 codominant major genes cosegregate in dyslexia pedigrees where the proband is also motorically impaired. 54 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    Full Text Available This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. In the 'minimal glide' condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal.

  3. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizo, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issues of these PDE (partial differential equations models are questions of actual interest in mathematical biology research.

    En esta nota repasamos algunos modelos basados en individuos para describir el movimiento colectivo de agentes, a lo que nos referimos usando la voz inglesa swarming. Estos modelos se basan en EDOs (ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y muestran un comportamiento asintótico complejo y rico en patrones, que mostramos numéricamente. Además, comentamos cómo se conectan estos modelos de partículas con las ecuaciones en derivadas parciales para describir la evolución de densidades de individuos de forma continua. Las cuestiones matemáticas relacionadas con la estabilidad de de estos modelos de EDP's (ecuaciones en derivadas parciales despiertan gran interés en la investigación en biología matemática.

  4. Sequence Pattern Correlation of Amino Acid in Collision-induced Dissociation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG,Hao-Wei(宋浩威); YUE,Gui-Hua(岳贵花); LU,Yu(陆宇); YANG,Peng-Yuan(杨芃原); WANG,Hong-Hai(王洪海)

    2002-01-01

    A novel approach of sequence pattern correlation has been applied to predict an expected amino acid sequence from CID ESI-MS spectra. The proposed approach deduces sequence patterns with no help from known protein database such that it is useful to identify an unknown peptide or new protein. The algorithm applies a cross-correlation to match an experimental CID spectrum with predicted sequence pattern generated from fragmentation information. The fragmentation knowledge of both y-series and other non y-series are utilized to generate the predicted sequence patterns. In contrast to the normal de novo approach, the proposed approach is insensitive to mass tolerance and non-susceptive to spectral integrality with no need for selection of a starting point.

  5. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Freijeiro,Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and...

  6. Prediction of spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity from pairwise correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Marre, Olivier; Boustani, Sami El; Fregnac, Yves; Destexhe, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatio-temporal patterns significantly better than Ising models taking into acco...

  7. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  8. Gallbladder wall thickening: MR imaging and pathologic correlation with emphasis on layered pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S.E.; Lee, J.M.; Hahn, S.T. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Clinical Pathology, St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Rha, S.E.; Choi, B.G. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, E.K. [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Surgery (E.K.K), St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening with pathologic findings on the basis of the layered pattern and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in gallbladder disease. We retrospectively evaluated the source images of HASTE sequences for MR cholangiography in 144 patients with gallbladder wall thickening. The layered pattern of thickened wall was classified into four patterns. Type 1 shows two layers with a thin hypointense inner layer and thick hyperintense outer layer. Type 2 has two layers of ill-defined margin. Type 3 shows multiple hyperintense cystic spaces in the wall. Type 4 shows diffuse nodular thickening without layering. MR findings of a layered pattern of thickened gallbladder were well correlated with histopathology. Chronic cholecystitis matched to type 1, acute cholecystitis corresponded to type 2, adenomyomatosis showed type 3, and the gallbladder carcinomas showed type 4. All four layered patterns were associated with PPV of 73% or greater, sensitivity of 92% or greater and specificity of 95% or greater. Our results indicate that MR findings of gallbladder wall thickening are characteristic in each entity and correlate well with pathologic findings. The classification of the layered pattern may be valuable for interpreting thickened gallbladder wall. (orig.)

  9. "Correlates of Affectionate and Angry Behavior." Practitioner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Notes that the most comforting finding in Mill and Romano- White's study was the high level of affectionate caregiver behaviors in early childhood settings. Suggests that a broader definition of anger might yield different results. Argues that the lack of a relationship between caregivers' self-esteem and angry or affectionate behavior contradicts…

  10. Correlated Behavioral Traits in Rats of the Roman Selection Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Maxson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in activ

  11. Cognitive and Behavioral Correlates of the Spatial Environment: An Interactional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Dobrowolny, Mirilia Bonnes

    1978-01-01

    Employs cognitive mapping and behavioral mapping strategies in conjunction, using behavioral data to help verify the cognitive mapping findings. Indicates that both observed and reported environmental behavior patterns are directly related to those spatial areas emphasized or excluded in the cognitive maps and to subjective distortions in mapping.…

  12. Quantifying the Behavior of Stock Correlations Under Market Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Helbing, Dirk; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2012-10-01

    Understanding correlations in complex systems is crucial in the face of turbulence, such as the ongoing financial crisis. However, in complex systems, such as financial systems, correlations are not constant but instead vary in time. Here we address the question of quantifying state-dependent correlations in stock markets. Reliable estimates of correlations are absolutely necessary to protect a portfolio. We analyze 72 years of daily closing prices of the 30 stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). We find the striking result that the average correlation among these stocks scales linearly with market stress reflected by normalized DJIA index returns on various time scales. Consequently, the diversification effect which should protect a portfolio melts away in times of market losses, just when it would most urgently be needed. Our empirical analysis is consistent with the interesting possibility that one could anticipate diversification breakdowns, guiding the design of protected portfolios.

  13. Evaluating Preterm Infants with the Bayley-III: Patterns and Correlates of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle M.; Patra, Kousiki; Nelson, Michael N.; Silvestri, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the Third Edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) and: (1) early patterns of neurodevelopmental performance among preterm infants 8-12 months of age; and (2) correlations between known risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants in this cohort. Mean Language Index (LI;…

  14. Genetic correlations among facets of type A behavior and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew M; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A; Jang, Kerry L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between multiple dimensions of Type A behavior and personality. Adult twins (N=247 pairs) completed a self-report personality measure and a work style questionnaire that measured six facets of Type A behavior: impatience, anger, work involvement, time urgency, job dissatisfaction, and competitiveness. Univariate results suggest that only the job dissatisfaction facet of Type A behavior was explained by non-genetic (environmental) factors. Multivariate results suggest that all of the genetically determined facets of Type A behavior show some correspondence with at least one of the personality factors found in the study, suggesting that some of the phenotypic (observed) relationships could be due to common genetic factors.

  15. Correlates of Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Preschool Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    1971-01-01

    Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)

  16. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Role of the Amygdala in Anxiety Disorders Gina L. Forster, Andrew M...Amygdala in Male Reproductive Behavior a Node in the Mammalian Social Behavior Network. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 877, 242-257...the Basolateral and Central Amygdaloid Nuclei. Brain Res Bull . 71, 466-474. S0361- 9230(06)00305-4 [pii] 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2006.10.004. [85

  17. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  18. Does the Euro crisis change the cross-correlation pattern between bank shares and national indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze if the Euro crisis, which started in 2009, changes the cross-correlation pattern of bank shares with the national stock indexes in both in Eurozone and non-Eurozone countries. We study all banks listed in the main stock indexes of European Union countries, applying the detrended cross-correlation coefficient. An increase in the correlation indicates that the banking sector now has a greater influence in the national index, while a decrease in the correlation means the opposite. Our results show that 19 of the 39 banks analyzed in the Eurozone increased their correlation with national indexes, whilst in the non-Eurozone countries this happened with 14 of the 24 studied banks. While some authors argue that the crisis may have been aggravated by the weight of banks in the economy, Eurozone policy makers should pay attention to this feature.

  19. Non Correlation DWT Based Watermarking Behavior in Different Color Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two digital watermarking techniques. Digital watermarking techniques based on correlation and digital watermarking techniques that are not based on correlation. In previous work, we proposed a DWT2 based CDMA image watermarking scheme to study the effects of using eight color spaces RGB, YCbCr, JPEG-YCbCr, YIQ, YUV, HSI, HSV and CIELab, on watermarking algorithms based on correlation techniques. This paper proposes a non correlation based image watermarking scheme in wavelet transform domain and tests it in the same color spaces, to develop studying, reach a comprehensive analysis and focus on satisfying the requirements of based non coloration watermarking algorithms. To achieve more security, imperceptibility and robustness of the proposed scheme, first, the binary watermark image encodes by applying ATM, CCM and exclusive OR. Then, the scrambled watermark embeds into intended quantized approximation coefficients of wavelet transform by LSB insertion technique.

  20. Behavioral patterns in a population of Samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarcus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tegner, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of behavioral patterns in different species is an important part of the proper management and conservation of wild populations of animals. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of behavioral patterns in the samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarcus) of northern South Africa. Using the scan- sampling procedure, the behaviors of an isolated population of free-ranging samango monkeys in the Soutpansberg, Limpopo Province, were recorded during 16 days in...

  1. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  2. The behavioral correlates of overall and distinctive life history strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Funder, David C

    2013-11-01

    Life history (LH) theory provides an evolutionary theoretical framework for understanding individual differences in maturation, mating, reproduction, parenting, and social interaction. However, the psychometric assessment of human life history has been largely limited to generalized self-reports. Using template matching, this article examines the relationship between personality differences associated with slow-life history (slow-LH) and social behavior in 3 archival datasets. Two of these datasets include direct observations of behavior in the laboratory, and the 3rd provides self-reports of behavior in real life situations experienced within the preceding 24 hr. The results paint a consistent picture of the slow-LH individual as engaging in numerous adaptive social behaviors. However, when "normativeness" (the tendency for most people to be normal in both the statistical and evaluative sense) is statistically removed from the LH scores, a slightly different picture emerges. Both slow-LH and fast-LH persons display a number of behaviors that may be either adaptive or maladaptive in different contexts. Specifically, slow-LH individuals tended to behave in a manner that was considerate, kind, hard-working, and reliable but also socially awkward, insecure, and overcontrolling. Fast-LH individuals came across as talkative, socially skilled, dominant, and charming but also unpredictable, hostile, manipulative, and impulsive. These results are consistent with the evolutionary interpretation of LH strategies as being adapted to systematically different environments rather than better or worse approaches to reproductive fitness overall.

  3. Latent Patterns of Risk Behavior in Urban African-American Middle School Students in Baltimore City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Sarra L.; Whitaker, Damiya E.; von Thomsen, Sarah; Severtson, S. Geoffrey; Latimer, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in high-risk behaviors, including early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol use, marijuana use, tobacco use, and externalizing behavior are vulnerable to a broad range of adverse outcomes as adults. Latent class analysis was used to determine whether varying patterns of risk behavior existed for 212 urban African-American…

  4. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  5. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  6. Behavior Correlates of Rorschach Response in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frances G.

    Teachers in a private special education school for students with learning and/or adjustment difficulties completed Bristol Social Adjustment Guides (BSAGs), an observation scale for identifying maladaptive classroom behaviors, for 157 students (7-21 years old). Rorschachs were administered to the same group of students. Data from each test were…

  7. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  8. Frequency, Clinical Correlates, and Ratings of Behavioral Changes in Primary Brain Tumor Patients: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Grahame K.; Eng-Siew eKoh; Diane eWhiting; Wright, Kylie M.; Teresa eSimpson; Rochelle eFirth; Lauren eGillett; Kathryn eYounan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have addressed the specific behavioral changes associated with primary brain tumor (PBT). This paper will report on the frequency and demographic/clinical correlates of such behaviors, and the reliability of rating such behaviors among people with PBT, family informants, and clinicians. The association of behavioral changes and patient functional status will also be discussed. Methods A total of 57 patients with 37 family informants were recruited from two large...

  9. Correlated Node Behavior Model based on Semi Markov Process for MANETS

    CERN Document Server

    Azni, A H; Noh, Zul Azri Muhamad; Basari, Abd Samad Hasan; Hussin, Burairah

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model for node behavior namely Correlated Node Behavior Model which is an extension of Node Behavior Model. The model adopts semi Markov process in continuous time which clusters the node that has correlation. The key parameter of the process is determined by five probabilistic parameters based on the Markovian model. Computed from the transition probabilities of the semi-Markov process, the node correlation impact on network survivability and resilience can be measure quantitatively. From the result, the quantitative analysis of correlated node behavior on the survivability is obtained through mathematical description, and the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed model are verified through numerical analysis. The analytical results show that the effect from correlated failure nodes on network survivability is much severer than other misbehaviors.

  10. Correlates of diurnal sleep patterns in infants of adolescent and adult single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P T; Chang, A; Kameshima, S; Bloch, M

    1991-04-01

    Sleep behavior has been related to both child and environmental factors, but the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. This study was an examination of the relation of diurnal sleep patterns to perinatal risk, infant temperament, home environment, parenting stress, emotional support, and social class. Twenty-three adolescent and 23 single adult mothers and infants were assessed in the home at 4 and 12 months. Percent sleep during the night was most strongly related to parenting stress and variability of night sleep to emotional support. Emotional support mediated effects of stress at 4 months. Results support the value of clinical assessment of sleep behavior.

  11. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  12. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianhua; Qian, Tianlu; Xi, Changbai; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities. PMID:27548197

  13. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  14. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianhua; Qian, Tianlu; Xi, Changbai; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen

    2016-08-18

    The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  15. Gamma synchrony predicts neuron-neuron correlations and correlations with motor behavior in extrastriate visual area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-12-11

    Correlated variability of neuronal responses is an important factor in estimating sensory parameters from a population response. Large correlations among neurons reduce the effective size of a neural population and increase the variation of the estimates. They also allow the activity of one neuron to be informative about impending perceptual decisions or motor actions on single trials. In extrastriate visual area MT of the rhesus macaque, for example, some but not all neurons show nonzero "choice probabilities" for perceptual decisions or non-zero "MT-pursuit" correlations between the trial-by-trial variations in neural activity and smooth pursuit eye movements. To understand the functional implications of zero versus nonzero correlations between neural responses and impending perceptions or actions, we took advantage of prior observations that specific frequencies of local field potentials reflect the correlated activity of neurons. We found that the strength of the spike-field coherence of a neuron in the gamma-band frequency range is related to the size of its MT-pursuit correlations for eye direction, as well as to the size of the neuron-neuron correlations. Spike-field coherence predicts MT-pursuit correlations better for direction than for speed, perhaps because the topographic organization of direction preference in MT is more amenable to creating meaningful local field potentials. We suggest that the relationship between spiking and local-field potentials is stronger for neurons that have larger correlations with their neighbors; larger neuron-neuron correlations create stronger MT-pursuit correlations. Neurons that lack strong correlations with their neighbors also have weaker correlations with pursuit behavior, but still could drive pursuit strongly.

  16. Hormonal correlates of breeding behavior and pouch color in the Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, José Luis; Núñez-de la-Mora, Alejandra; D'Alba, Liliana; Wingfield, John C

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that testosterone (T) influences the expression of the behavior and many sexual traits during reproduction in vertebrates. However, patterns of circulating concentrations of T vary tremendously across free-living populations. Here the profiles of plasma T levels in the Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens, are presented during the courtship, incubation and chick rearing stages of breeding. In addition, the predicted interrelationship of T and the expression of a sexually selected trait, the red gular pouch of males is investigated. Plasma levels of corticosterone (Cort) are reported in relation to the demands of breeding conditions in colonies. Blood samples were obtained from 26 males and 32 females in the 1993-1994 breeding season and 41 courting males in 1997. Pouch color and size were also estimated in these males. As expected, T levels changed across the breeding stages: birds showed high levels of T during courtship and much lower circulating levels during incubation and chick rearing. Consistent with the expected effect of T, individual pouch color and size correlated with circulating levels of this hormone. In this highly dimorphic species no correlation was found between T and body condition or tail asymmetry. Cort, in contrast, did not change across the three reproductive stages.

  17. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  18. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Dakota to perform such research, and complements the strong emphasis and infrastructure already in place to conduct psychological, behavioral and...the first and only opportunity in the State of South Dakota to perform such research, and complements the strong emphasis and infrastructure already in...and accessory basal (AB) nuclei [64], which also receive 31 projections from the CA1 and subiculum areas of the ventral hippocampus [65-67]. The 32 B

  19. K1: Your Wandering Mind: Neuronal Correlates and Behavioral Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maunsell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No matter how hard we focus on a task, we cannot prevent our attention from wandering. By recording simultaneously from dozens of neurons in visual cerebral cortex, it is now possible to obtain a nearly instantaneous measure of how visual attention is allocated. This approach is providing new insights into the mechanisms that control attention to locations and features, and how short-term drifts in attention affect behavioral performance.

  20. Correlation between facial patterns and function of the masticatory muscles in girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakawaji, Kenji; Kodachi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Teruo; Harazaki, Morihiro; Isshiki, Yasushige

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between maxillo-facial patterns and function of the masticatory muscles was evaluated using electromyography, in 16 women with functional normal occlusion and 16 girls with chronological normal occlusion half of them had the dolico facial pattern and the others had the brachyo facial pattern by Ricketts analysis. For the electromyography, loads of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kg were applied to the mandible, and muscular activity waves were obtained from the masseter muscle and the anterior belly of the temporal muscle during isometric contraction by surface electrode induction. The median frequency value (MFV) in a frequency curve obtained by high-speed Fourier transform of the electromyographic waves was set to the evaluation index. The MFV at each applied load was higher in the adult brachyo facial pattern group than in the adult dolico facial pattern group in both the masseter and temporal muscles, whereas the differences in the MFV were slight in the child group at a 5% significance level. The child group showed approximately half the incidence of significant correlation coefficients in comparison with the adult group and a large standard deviation without marked differences in the facial patterns due to their individual differences in growth with a 5% significant level. The adult brachyo facial pattern group showed a high regression coefficient of the MFV in the masseter muscle according to the increase in the amount of the applied load. Although differences in the cooperative contraction patterns similar to those in the adult group were observed in both the child dolico and brachyo facial pattern groups, no marked significant differences were observed in the child group, who had large individual differences due to their immature growth.

  1. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  2. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  3. Numerical investigation of the influence of pattern topology on the mechanical behavior of PEGDA hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Stanciulescu, Ilinca

    2017-02-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels can be potentially used as scaffold material for tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) due to their good biocompatibility and biomechanical tunability. The photolithographic patterning technique is an effective approach to pattern PEGDA hydrogels to mimic the mechanical behavior of native biological tissues that are intrinsically anisotropic. The material properties of patterned PEGDA hydrogels largely depend on the pattern topology. In this paper, we adopt a newly proposed computational framework for fibrous biomaterials to numerically investigate the influence of pattern topology, including pattern ratio, orientation and waviness, on the mechanical behavior of patterned PEGDA hydrogels. The material parameters for the base hydrogel and the pattern stripes are directly calibrated from published experimental data. Several experimental observations reported in the literature are captured in the simulation, including the nonlinear relationship between pattern ratio and material linear modulus, and the decrease of material anisotropy when pattern ratio increases. We further numerically demonstrate that a three-region (toe-heel-linear) stress-strain relationship typically exhibited by biological tissues can be obtained by tuning the pattern waviness and the relative stiffness between the base hydrogel and pattern stripes. The numerical strategy and simulation results presented here can provide helpful guidance to optimize pattern design of PEGDA hydrogels toward the targeted material mechanical properties, therefore advance the development of TEHVs.

  4. Some neural correlates of sensorial and cognitive control of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogmen, Haluk; Prakash, R. V.; Moussa, M.

    1992-07-01

    Development and maintenance of unsupervised intelligent activity relies on an active interaction with the environment. Such active exploratory behavior plays an essential role in both the development and adult phases of higher biological systems including humans. Exploration initiates a self-organization process whereby a coherent fusion of different sensory and motor modalities can be achieved (sensory-motor development) and maintained (adult rearrangement). In addition, the development of intelligence depends critically on an active manipulation of the environment. These observations are in sharp contrast with current attempts of artificial intelligence and various neural network models. In this paper, we present a neural network model that combines internal drives and environmental cues to reach behavioral decisions for the exploratory activity. The vision system consists of an ambient and a focal system. The ambient vision system guides eye movements by using nonassociative learning. This sensory based attentional focusing is augmented by a `cognitive' system using models developed for various aspects of frontal lobe function. The combined system has nonassociative learning, reinforcement learning, selective attention, habit formation, and flexible criterion categorization properties.

  5. A high-speed readout scheme for fast optical correlation-based pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gregor J.; Lewis, Meirion F.; Wilson, Rebecca

    2004-12-01

    We describe recent developments to a novel form of hybrid electronic/photonic correlator, which exploits component innovations in both electronics and photonics to provide fast, compact and rugged target recognition, applicable to a wide range of security applications. The system benefits from a low power, low volume, optical processing core which has the potential to realise man portable pattern recognition for a wide range of security based imagery and target databases. In the seminal Vander Lugt correlator the input image is Fourier transformed optically and multiplied optically with the conjugate Fourier transform of a reference pattern; the required correlation function is completed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the product optically. The correlator described here is similar in principle, but performs the initial Fourier transforms and multiplication electronically, with only the final most computationally demanding output Fourier transform being performed optically. In this scheme the Fourier transforms of both the input scene and reference pattern are reduced to a binary phase-only format, where the multiplication process simplifies to a simple Boolean logic XOR function. The output of this XOR gate is displayed on a state-of-the-art Fast Bit Plane Spatial Light Modulator (FBPSLM). A novel readout scheme has been developed which overcomes the previous system output bottleneck and for the first time allows correlation frame readout rates capable of matching the inherently fast nature of the SLM. Readout rates of up to ~1 MHz are now possible, exceeding current SLM capabilities and meeting potential medium term SLM developments promised by SLMs based on novel materials and architectures.

  6. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijeiro, Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and spatial variables of diversity patterns is to assess the relative support for niche- and dispersal-driven hypotheses. Our results show that despite a broad congruence in the factors correlated with cryptocephaline and chrysomeline richness, environmental variables (particularly temperature) were more relevant in cryptocephalines, whereas spatial variables were more relevant in chrysomelines (that showed a significant longitudinal gradient besides the latitudinal one), in line with the higher proportion of flightless species within chrysomelines. The variation in species composition was also related to environmental and spatial factors, but this pattern was better predicted by spatial variables in both groups, suggesting that species composition is more linked to dispersal and historical contingencies than species richness, which would be more controlled by environmental limitations. Among historical factors, Pleistocene glaciations appear as the most plausible explanation for the steeper decay in assemblage similarity with spatial distance, both in cryptocephalines and chrysomelines.

  7. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  8. Image Correlation Pattern Optimization for Micro-Scale In-Situ Strain Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomarito, G. F.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Cannon, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of digital image correlation (DIC) is a function of three primary ingredients: image acquisition, image analysis, and the subject of the image. Development of the first two (i.e. image acquisition techniques and image correlation algorithms) has led to widespread use of DIC; however, fewer developments have been focused on the third ingredient. Typically, subjects of DIC images are mechanical specimens with either a natural surface pattern or a pattern applied to the surface. Research in the area of DIC patterns has primarily been aimed at identifying which surface patterns are best suited for DIC, by comparing patterns to each other. Because the easiest and most widespread methods of applying patterns have a high degree of randomness associated with them (e.g., airbrush, spray paint, particle decoration, etc.), less effort has been spent on exact construction of ideal patterns. With the development of patterning techniques such as microstamping and lithography, patterns can be applied to a specimen pixel by pixel from a patterned image. In these cases, especially because the patterns are reused many times, an optimal pattern is sought such that error introduced into DIC from the pattern is minimized. DIC consists of tracking the motion of an array of nodes from a reference image to a deformed image. Every pixel in the images has an associated intensity (grayscale) value, with discretization depending on the bit depth of the image. Because individual pixel matching by intensity value yields a non-unique scale-dependent problem, subsets around each node are used for identification. A correlation criteria is used to find the best match of a particular subset of a reference image within a deformed image. The reader is referred to references for enumerations of typical correlation criteria. As illustrated by Schreier and Sutton and Lu and Cary systematic errors can be introduced by representing the underlying deformation with under

  9. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  10. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  11. A correlation of fecal volatiles and steroid hormone profiles with behavioral expression during estrous cycle of goat, Capra hircus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Ramachandran, Rajamanickam; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Saravanakumar, Veluchamy Ramesh; Suriyakalaa, Udhayaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Archunan, Govindaraju; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2014-09-15

    with qualitative differences in the volatile compounds and the two antioxidants rendered the estrus identifiable. Furthermore, the fecal steroid analysis also supported the detection of hormonal status during the estrous cycle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report correlating the behavior with volatiles and hormones in the feces samples from female Indian goats. It is concluded that the volatile pattern and hormone profile in feces, supported by specific behavioral patterns, should be considered a better modality of non-invasive estrus detection in goats.

  12. Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond

    1995-01-01

    Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.

  13. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  14. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  15. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: amitabha-62@rediffmail.com; Sarkar, S. [University of North Bengal, Department of Physics (India); Singh, G. [SUNY at Fredonia, Department of Computer and Information Science (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  16. Sharp critical behavior for pinning model in random correlated environment

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the effect for random pinning models of long range power-law decaying correlations in the environment. For a particular type of environment based on a renewal construction, we are able to sharply describe the phase transition from the delocalized phase to the localized one, giving the critical exponent for the (quenched) free-energy, and proving that at the critical point the trajectories are fully delocalized. These results contrast with what happens both for the pure model (i.e. without disorder) and for the widely studied case of i.i.d. disorder, where the relevance or irrelevance of disorder on the critical properties is decided via the so-called Harris Criterion.

  17. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  18. Interpersonal Characteristics of Male Criminal Offenders: Personality, Psychopathological, and Behavioral Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in conceptualizing the interpersonal style of individuals who engage in serious antisocial behavior has increased in recent years. This study examines the personality, psychopathological, and behavioral correlates of interpersonal dominance and warmth, as operationalized via scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. Morey, 2007),…

  19. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  20. Genotype-Environment Correlations in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Antisocial Behavioral Problems and Coercive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Fulker, David; Rutter, Michael; Polmin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal study with adopted children to examine genotype-environment correlations for behavioral problems. Found that children genetically at risk for antisocial behavior were more likely to receive negative parenting from adoptive parents than children not genetically at risk. Most of the association between negative parenting and…

  1. Dispersal behavior correlates with personality of a North American fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josh E.RASMUSSEN; Mark C.BELK

    2012-01-01

    The process of dispersal is determined by the interaction of individual (intrinsic) traits and environmental (extrinsic) factors.Although many studies address and quantify dispersal,few evaluate both intrinsic and extrinsic factors jointly.We test the relative importance of intrinsic traits (exploration tendency and size) and extrinsic factors (population density and habitat quality) on dispersal of a medium-sized western United States minnow,southern lcatherside chub Lepidomeda aliciae.A generalized linear model with a binomial response was used to determine the probability of individuals dispersing one year after tagging.Medium-sized individuals that were more prone to explore novel environments were 10.7 times more likely to be recaptured outside of their original capture area after a year (dispersal) compared to non-explorer individuals of the same size class.Differences between explorer classifications within the small and large size classes were negligible.Open habitat within 50 m upstream also increased the probability of dispersal relative to controls.Relative location within the study reach,and population density were not significantly related to dispersal probabilities of individuals.Our results indicate that understanding ofpersonality may illuminate patterns of dispersal within and among populations [Current Zoology 58 (2):260-270,2012].

  2. Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J; Bouffard, Marc; Johnson, Jennifer A

    2004-01-01

    The generality of findings implicating secondary auditory areas in auditory imagery was tested by using a timbre imagery task with fMRI. Another aim was to test whether activity in supplementary motor area (SMA) seen in prior studies might have been related to subvocalization. Participants with moderate musical background were scanned while making similarity judgments about the timbre of heard or imagined musical instrument sounds. The critical control condition was a visual imagery task. The pattern of judgments in perceived and imagined conditions was similar, suggesting that perception and imagery access similar cognitive representations of timbre. As expected, judgments of heard timbres, relative to the visual imagery control, activated primary and secondary auditory areas with some right-sided asymmetry. Timbre imagery also activated secondary auditory areas relative to the visual imagery control, although less strongly, in accord with previous data. Significant overlap was observed in these regions between perceptual and imagery conditions. Because the visual control task resulted in deactivation of auditory areas relative to a silent baseline, we interpret the timbre imagery effect as a reversal of that deactivation. Despite the lack of an obvious subvocalization component to timbre imagery, some activity in SMA was observed, suggesting that SMA may have a more general role in imagery beyond any motor component.

  3. Dispersal behavior correlates with personality of a North American fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh E. RASMUSSEN, Mark C. BELK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of dispersal is determined by the interaction of individual (intrinsic traits and environmental (extrinsic factors. Although many studies address and quantify dispersal, few evaluate both intrinsic and extrinsic factors jointly. We test the relative importance of intrinsic traits (exploration tendency and size and extrinsic factors (population density and habitat quality on dispersal of a medium-sized western United States minnow, southern leatherside chub Lepidomeda aliciae. A generalized linear model with a binomial response was used to determine the probability of individuals dispersing one year after tagging. Medium-sized individuals that were more prone to explore novel environments were 10.7 times more likely to be recaptured outside of their original capture area after a year (dispersal compared to non-explorer individuals of the same size class. Differences between explorer classifications within the small and large size classes were negligible. Open habitat within 50 m upstream also increased the probability of dispersal relative to controls. Relative location within the study reach, and population density were not significantly related to dispersal probabilities of individuals. Our results indicate that understanding of personality may illuminate patterns of dispersal within and among populations [Current Zoology 58 (2: 260-270, 2012].

  4. Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Bassiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intraandextra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmoticswelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate spermquality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swellingtest (HOST has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore,this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters,protamine deficiency and apoptosis.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomlycollected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided intotwo portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorldHealth Organization (WHO-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOSTprocedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and lateor early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package forthe Social Studies (SPSS 11.5.Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR of abnormal sperm headmorphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviablespermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01. In addition, a significant correlation was observedbetween d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03and p=0.04, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between percentageof sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01. Furthermore, significantcorrelations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protaminedeficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity.Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which aremature and intact sperms.

  5. Paternal Correlates of Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfeiler, Melissa M.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined paternal correlates of the cognitive and behavioral functioning of children with myelomeningocele, when controlling for maternal and biological/child correlates as possible sources of variance. Participants were 48 parent dyads of children with myelomeningocele (21 males, 27 females) between the ages of 4 and 12 years (mean 8y,…

  6. Critical Dynamics Behavior of the Wolff Algorithm in the Site-Bond-Correlated Ising Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P. R. A.; Onody, R. N.

    Here we apply the Wolff single-cluster algorithm to the site-bond-correlated Ising model and study its critical dynamical behavior. We have verified that the autocorrelation time diminishes in the presence of dilution and correlation, showing that the Wolff algorithm performs even better in such situations. The critical dynamical exponents are also estimated.

  7. Individual differences in reinforcement learning: behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L; Dillon, Daniel G; Birk, Jeffrey L; Holmes, Avram J; Goetz, Elena; Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2008-08-15

    During reinforcement learning, phasic modulations of activity in midbrain dopamine neurons are conveyed to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and basal ganglia (BG) and serve to guide adaptive responding. While the animal literature supports a role for the dACC in integrating reward history over time, most human electrophysiological studies of dACC function have focused on responses to single positive and negative outcomes. The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the dACC in probabilistic reward learning in healthy subjects using a task that required integration of reinforcement history over time. We recorded the feedback-related negativity (FRN) to reward feedback in subjects who developed a response bias toward a more frequently rewarded ("rich") stimulus ("learners") versus subjects who did not ("non-learners"). Compared to non-learners, learners showed more positive (i.e., smaller) FRNs and greater dACC activation upon receiving reward for correct identification of the rich stimulus. In addition, dACC activation and a bias to select the rich stimulus were positively correlated. The same participants also completed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to non-learners, learners displayed stronger BG responses to reward in the MID task. These findings raise the possibility that learners in the probabilistic reinforcement task were characterized by stronger dACC and BG responses to rewarding outcomes. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of the dACC to probabilistic reward learning in humans.

  8. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children’s Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Silva Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children’s behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204 that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children’s behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P<0.05. Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P<0.001. OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children’s behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children’s behavior during procedures.

  9. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  10. Quasi-static tensile deformation and fracture behavior of a highly particle-filled composite using digital image correlation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs) are highly particle-filled composite materials.This paper experimentally studies the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of a PBX simulation by using the semi-circular bending (SCB) test.The deformation and fracture process of a pre-notched SCB sample with a random speckle pattern is recorded by a charge coupled device camera.The displacement and strain fields on the observed surface during the loading process are obtained by using the digital image correlation method....

  11. The effects of chronic social defeat stress on mouse self-grooming behavior and its patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-04-01

    Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research.

  12. Long-distance behavior of temperature correlation functions in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [UMR 5672 du CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We describe a Bethe ansatz based method to derive, starting from a multiple integral representation, the long-distance asymptotic behavior at finite temperature of the density-density correlation function in the interacting onedimensional Bose gas. We compute the correlation lengths in terms of solutions of non-linear integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz type. Finally, we establish a connection between the results obtained in our approach with the correlation lengths stemming from the quantum transfer matrix method. (orig.)

  13. A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian chewing motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Doherty, Alison H; Crompton, Alfred W; Hylander, William L

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and the

  14. Misperceptions of weight status among adolescents: sociodemographic and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodde AE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Bodde,1 Timothy J Beebe,1 Laura P Chen,2 Sarah Jenkins,3 Kelly Perez-Vergara,4 Lila J Finney Rutten,5 Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss6 1Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of Epidemiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN USA; 6HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods: Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results: While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual's BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion: Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent's self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight

  15. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design

  16. Individual Differences in Reinforcement Learning: Behavioral, Electrophysiological, and Neuroimaging Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Holmes, Avram J.; Goetz, Elena; Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    During reinforcement learning, phasic modulations of activity in midbrain dopamine neurons are conveyed to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and basal ganglia and serve to guide adaptive responding. While the animal literature supports a role for the dACC in integrating reward history over time, most human electrophysiological studies of dACC function have focused on responses to single positive and negative outcomes. The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the dACC in probabilistic reward learning in healthy subjects using a task that required integration of reinforcement history over time. We recorded the feedback-related negativity (FRN) to reward feedback in subjects who developed a response bias toward a more frequently rewarded (“rich”) stimulus (“learners”) versus subjects who did not (“non-learners”). Compared to non-learners, learners showed more positive (i.e., smaller) FRNs and greater dACC activation upon receiving reward for correct identification of the rich stimulus. In addition, dACC activation and a bias to select the rich stimulus were positively correlated. The same participants also completed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to non-learners, learners displayed stronger basal ganglia responses to reward in the MID task. These findings raise the possibility that learners in the probabilistic reinforcement task were characterized by stronger dACC and basal ganglia responses to rewarding outcomes. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of the dACC to probabilistic reward learning in humans. PMID:18595740

  17. Growth Patterns of Subway/Metro Systems Tracked by Degree Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Urban transportation systems grow over time as city populations grow and move and their transportation needs evolve. Typical network growth models, such as preferential attachment, grow the network node by node whereas rail and metro systems grow by adding entire lines with all their nodes. The objective of this paper is to see if any canonical regular network forms such as stars or grids capture the growth patterns of urban metro systems for which we have historical data in terms of old maps. Data from these maps reveal that the systems' Pearson degree correlation grows increasingly from initially negative values toward positive values over time and in some cases becomes decidedly positive. We have derived closed form expressions for degree correlation and clustering coefficient for a variety of canonical forms that might be similar to metro systems. Of all those examined, only a few types patterned after a wide area network (WAN) with a "core-periphery" structure show similar positive-trending degree correl...

  18. Correlation of adolescents' self-concept and self-esteem with some unwholesome behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlations between self-image, self-esteem and some unwholesome behavior (alcohol consumption, cigarette and marihuana smoking, overeating at a meal, television watching and computer use in spare time in Slovenian adolescents. We used Offer Self-image Questionnaire for adolescents, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Unwholesome behaviour Questionnaire that was made for the purpose of this research. In the research 392 high school students participated, aged around 15 and 18 years, approximately evenly represented by gender and age. Data was attained in class groups. The results showed low, but statistically significant correlations between some self-concept areas and unwholesome behavior. The highest correlations emerged between the sexual attitudes and all unwholesome behavior. Students with more positive sexual self-concept behave unhealthier. Family self, morals and vocational-educational goals were significantly negatively correlated with most of unwholesome behavior, which suggests that individuals with better family, moral and academic self-concept behave healthier. Significant negative correlations emerged also with coping self: individuals with better self-concept in mastery of the external world and superior adjustment behaved healthier. None of the unwholesome behavior correlated with self-esteem. Results are mainly consistent with previous studies, but also contribute to new comprehensions in psychological theory and practice.

  19. Correlation of bleeding pattern with endometrial histopathologic results in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Yilmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB is referred as bleeding outside of normal menstruation pattern and it is the most common gynecological problem for women of all ages. This study was evaluated the correlation of menstrual bleeding patterns and endometrial histopathological findings in perimenopausal women. Methods: This study was done on perimenopausal aged women presented with AUB for the last 6 months at a gynecology clinic of a tertiary medical center. Only the patients with isolated endometrial causes of AUB were selected for study. A total of 313 cases were included in the study. Abnormal bleeding patterns of the patients were recorded and endometrial sampling was performed to all women. AUB was classified as menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and histopathological findings were classified as Proliferative Endometrium (PE, Secretory Endometrium (SE, Disordered Proliferative Pattern (DPP, Endometrial Polyp (EP, Chronic Endometritis (CE, Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH, and Endometrial Adenocarcinoma (CA. Results: The most common bleeding pattern was menorrhagia (45.0% and the most common histopathological finding was PE+SE (52.0% in our study. PE+SE and endometrial hyperplasia without atypia were found more common in menorrhagia group. The most histopathological findings were found PE+SE in menometrorrhagia and polymenorrhea group (P 0.05. Conclusions: We concluded that although menometrorrhagia and polymenorrhea were significantly more associated with PE+SE, intermenstrual bleeding was significantly more associated with EP and CE. It is noteworthy that endometrial hyperplasia without atypia is significantly higher in patients with menorrhagia which is the most common abnormal bleeding pattern in perimenopausal aged women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 547-550

  20. Comparing urban form correlations of the travel patterns of older and younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Using disaggregated data from the Danish National Travel Survey conducted between 2006 - 2011, this study compares the travel patterns of older (65 – 84 years of age) and younger (18 – 64 years of age) adults regarding land use, socio-economic conditions and urban structures. The results highlight...... significant differences between travel patterns and their urban form correlates for the older and younger adult populations. Spatial variables such as density and regional accessibility have different and potentially reverse associations with travel among older adults. The car use of older adults...... is not substituted by other modes in high-density settings, as is the case for younger adults. Older adults do not respond to high regional accessibility by reducing distance traveled, but travel longer and are also more likely to continue using a car in high-access conditions. Spatial structural conditions have...

  1. Patterns and correlates of nutrition among migrant farm-worker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilanowski, Jill F

    2012-04-01

    Past research has demonstrated a higher incidence of overweight children in migrant farm-worker (MFW) families than in the general U.S. population. This study provided descriptive data on MFWs' acculturation, household food security, and general self-efficacy, and children's food patterns and body mass index. Convenience samples of 60 parent-child dyads were obtained from six MFW camps in two Midwest states. Acculturation and food security were low, higher general self-efficacy was associated with low acculturation, and the majority of children did not meet their U.S. Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. It was noteworthy that 48% of the sample, including siblings (excluded from data analysis), was overweight or obese. The knowledge learned concerning the food patterns and correlates of nutrition in this descriptive phase of the DINE study will direct counseling to MFW mothers on the purchase and preparation of affordable, nutritious, and culturally acceptable foods to achieve healthy weight in their children.

  2. Craniofacial skeletal pattern: is it really correlated with the degree of adenoid obstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Fernando Neuppmann Feres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric pattern of children with and without adenoid obstruction.METHODS: The sample comprised 100 children aged between four and 14 years old, both males and females, subjected to cephalometric examination for sagittal and vertical skeletal analysis. The sample also underwent nasofiberendoscopic examination intended to objectively assess the degree of adenoid obstruction.RESULTS: The individuals presented tendencies towards vertical craniofacial growth, convex profile and mandibular retrusion. However, there were no differences between obstructive and non-obstructive patients concerning all cephalometric variables. Correlations between skeletal parameters and the percentage of adenoid obstruction were either low or not significant.CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that specific craniofacial patterns, such as Class II and hyperdivergency, might not be associated with adenoid hypertrophy.

  3. Chitosan and polycaprolactone membranes patterned via electrospinning: effect of underlying chemistry and pattern characteristics on epithelial/fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek, Murat; Capkın, Merve; Karakeçili, Ayşe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2012-12-01

    Electrospinning was used as an effective route to pattern chitosan (CS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes with submicron fibers having different chemical structure (PCL or PCL/collagen) and physical characteristics (size: between ≈200 and 550 nm; randomly oriented or aligned form). While the PCL fibers with diameters in the same range (≈200 nm) were patterned on both of CS and PCL membranes to evaluate the influence of the underlying membrane chemistry, only CS membranes were patterned with PCL fibers having different sizes simply by changing the electrospinning conditions to investigate the effects of pattern characteristics. Furthermore, collagen was added to the PCL fiber structure to change the chemical composition of the fibers in a cell-attractive way. Two cell lines with different morphologies, fibroblastic MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and epithelial Madine Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, were cultured on the patterned membranes. The observation of cellular behavior in terms of cell morphology and F-actin synthesis was realized by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy analysis during the first 12 h of culture period. The viability of cells was controlled by MTT assay through 96 h of cell culture. The cell culture studies indicated that the leading aspect for the morphology change on patterned membranes was the fiber orientation. The aligned topography controlled the morphology of cells both on CS and PCL membranes. In the presence of collagen in the fiber structure, F-actin filament synthesis increased for MC3T3-E1 and MDBK cell lines.

  4. Clinical and socio-behavioral correlates of tooth loss: a study of older adults in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focusing 50 year olds and above, this study assessed the frequency, extent and correlates of tooth loss due to various reasons. Frequency and correlates of posterior occluding support was also investigated. Method A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Pwani region and in Dar es Salaam in 2004/2005. One thousand and thirty-one subjects, mean age 62.9 years participated in a clinical examination and completed interviews. Results The prevalence of tooth loss due to any reason was 83.5 %, due to caries 63.4% and due to other reasons than caries, 32.5%. A total of 74.9% had reduced number of posterior occluding units. Compared to subjects having less than 5 teeth lost due to caries, those with 5 or more lost teeth were more likely to be females, having decayed teeth, confirming dental attendance and to be among the least poor residents. Compared to subjects who had lost less than 5 teeth due to reasons other than caries, those who had lost 5 or more teeth were more likely to be of higher age, having mobile teeth, being males, being very poor and to disconfirm dental attendance when having problems. Predictors of prevalence of tooth loss (1 or more lost tooth due to various reasons and reduced number of occluding units followed similar patterns of relationships. Conclusion The results are consistent with prevalence and extent of tooth loss due to caries and due to reasons other than caries being differently related to disease- and socio- behavioral risk indicators. Caries was the principle cause of tooth loss and molar teeth were the teeth most commonly lost.

  5. Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P; Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Boccara, Albert C; Russo, Angelo; Smith, Paul; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2005-01-01

    The skin of athymic nude mice is irradiated with a single dose of x-ray irradiation that initiated fibrosis. Digital photographs of the irradiated mice are taken by illuminating the mouse skin with linearly polarized probe light of 650 nm. The specific pattern of the surface distribution of the degree of polarization enables the detection of initial skin fibrosis structures that were not visually apparent. Data processing of the raw spatial distributions of the degree of polarization based on Fourier filtering of the high-frequency noise improves subjective perception of the revealed structure in the images. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis provides information about skin structural size and directionality.

  6. Rotation Invariant Pattern Recognition with a Volume Holographic Wavelet Correlation Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhao TAN(檀文钊); Qingzeng XUE(薛庆增); Yingbai YAN(严瑛白); Guofan JIN(金国藩)

    2003-01-01

    A volume holographic wavelet correlation processor for performing rotation invariant pattern recognition is suggested. It uses wavelet transform to get the digital edge extraction of the original object. Simultaneously a single circular harmonic component is used as the matched filter to get good rotation invariance. The new filter used in this method is called Wavelet Circular Harmonic Component Filter (WCHCF). Simulation results validate the theory and the experiment to recognize human faces with any rotation angle shows the utility of the newly proposed method.

  7. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario

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    Sebastian Wendy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. Aims: To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. Settings and Design: This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey (EUROIMMUN AG. The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2 along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. Results: The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF patterns obtained

  8. Expressing patterns of p16 and CDK4 correlated to prognosis in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po Zhao; Ying-Chuan Hu; Ian C. Talbot

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the correlation between innunostaining patterns of p16 and CDK4 and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Paraffin sections of 74 cases of colorectal carcinoma were analysed immunohistochemically for expression of p16 and CDK4 proteins.RESULTS: Most carcinomas showed stronger p16 and CDK4immunostaining in the cytoplasm than the adenomas or the adjacent normal mucosa. Strong immunostaining of p16 was a predictor for better prognosis whereas strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of CDK4 was a predictor for poor prognosis.Both p16 and CDK4 immunostainings were correlated with histological grade or Dukes' stage.CONCLUSION: These results support the experimental evidence that interaction of expression of p16 and CDK4may play an important role in the Rb/p16 pathway, and the expression paterns of CDK4 and p16 may be imperative in the development of colorectal carcinoma, thus becoming a new prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.

  9. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  10. The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Hajipour, Reza; Sadeghian, Mahdi

    2014-08-15

    "The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method. The Organizational Justice Questionnaire (1998), the Organizational Citizenship Questionnaire, and Organizational Identity Questionnaire (1982) were used for gathering data. Data was analyzed through multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that 4 dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and self-development) are correlated with organizational identity (R² = 0.612); and loyalty and obedience are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.71). Also, loyalty, altruism, and obedience are correlated with procedural justice (R² = 0.69) and loyalty and self-development are correlated with distributional justice (R² = 0.89). A correlation was also detected between interactional justice and organizational identity (R² = 0.89). The findings of the study could serve to identify the factors contributing to the creation and recreation of organizational identity, citizenship behavior and justice among nurses, to promote the performance of the organization, and to achieve organizational goals.

  11. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  12. Towards high-throughput phenotyping of complex patterned behaviors in rodents: focus on mouse self-grooming and its sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Roth, Andrew; Green, Jeremy; Pham, Mimi; Stewart, Adam; Liang, Yiqing; Kobla, Vikrant; Kalueff, Allan V

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly recognized in biological psychiatry, rodent self-grooming is a complex patterned behavior with evolutionarily conserved cephalo-caudal progression. While grooming is traditionally assessed by the latency, frequency and duration, its sequencing represents another important domain sensitive to various experimental manipulations. Such behavioral complexity requires novel objective approaches to quantify rodent grooming, in addition to time-consuming and highly variable manual observation. The present study combined modern behavior-recognition video-tracking technologies (CleverSys, Inc.) with manual observation to characterize in-depth spontaneous (novelty-induced) and artificial (water-induced) self-grooming in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We specifically focused on individual episodes of grooming (paw licking, head washing, body/leg washing, and tail/genital grooming), their duration and transitions between episodes. Overall, the frequency, duration and transitions detected using the automated approach significantly correlated with manual observations (R=0.51-0.7, pgrooming, also indicating that behavior-recognition tools can be applied to characterize both the amount and sequential organization (patterning) of rodent grooming. Together with further refinement and methodological advancement, this approach will foster high-throughput neurophenotyping of grooming, with multiple applications in drug screening and testing of genetically modified animals.

  13. Modified social learning theory re-examined: correlates of self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Linda E; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Modified social learning theory (MSLT) applied to health predicts that health behavior is a multiplicative function of health value and perceptions of control over health. The self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, internal diabetes locus of control (IDLC), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), and health value (HV) were assessed with an index of diabetes self-care activities in 107 patients receiving insulin. Multiple regression analysis showed DSE as the only MSLT construct that correlated with the index of diabetes self-care behaviors (β = .21, p < .05). While the predicted three-way interaction of IDLC × DSE × HV was significant (∆R(2) = 4.5 %, p < .05) in the final step of the hierarchical model, the pattern of the findings only partially supported MSLT. Instead of finding that patients who were simultaneously high on all three predictors scored highest on the behavioral index, we found that patients who were low on all three constructs reported the least amount of diabetes self-care behavior. Implications for further modification of MSLT and its applications to clinical practice are discussed.

  14. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous

  15. A Clinicopathologic Correlation of Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Associated Risk Factors for Human Mammary Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Kirby I.; Kuhns, James G.; Buchanan, Jerry B.; Dwyer, Patricia A.; Heuser, Louis F.; O'Connor, Carol A.; Gray, Laman A.; Polk, Hiram C.

    1982-01-01

    equal distribution frequency of the XM classification existed for screenees 50 years of age or older with cancer (p = 0.50), while screenees 35-49 years of age were more often observed to have the high-risk P2, DY patterns (p <0.001). Analysis of 1,759 histologic characteristics in biopsies of 863 patients with FCDB revealed ductal and lobular hyperplastic lesions, sclerosing adenosis, or epithelial cyst(s) to be the major constituents of 64-69% of the high-risk P2 (P2f, P2n, P2c) image (p < 0.001). These data suggest that XM parenchymal patterns observed in asymptomatic screenees incompletely correlate with known pathologic variables and risk factors. Additionally, benefit for recognition of these preinvasive proliferative pathologic factors and carcinomas appears restricted to the younger screenee. The clinical integration of these risk factors with XM patterns may allow preselection of patients deserving of frequent follow-up for breast cancer; however, these data do not support the contention that Wolfe XM patterns are predictors for screening strategies or that they decisively enhance patient management. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 1.Fig. 2a.Fig. 2b.Fig. 2c.Fig. 2d. PMID:7073355

  16. A STUDY TO FIND CORRELATION BETWEEN DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS AND ABO BLOOD GROUPS

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    Usha Verma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatoglyphics, the study of fingerprints are constant and individualistic. It has been found useful in forensic medicine and identification purpose. It is useful in medical diagnosis of genetically inherited diseases and in detection of crimes. Objectives: The present study was conducted to correlate between digital dermatoglyphics patterns in ABO, Rh blood groups and to evaluate their significance. Methods: A total of 200 first year MBBS students of Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak with known blood groups from age group 17-22 yrs were included in the study. Fingerprints were obtained by Ink method. Parameters studied were arches, whorls, loops. Results: Majority of the subjects (43.5% in the study were of blood group A followed by blood group O, A and AB of whom 94.5% were Rh-positive. The general distribution of pattern of finger print showed high frequency (51.87% of loops followed by whorls and arches. Almost same order was noticed in both Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals or A, B, AB and O blood groups, except blood group O-ve which showed more whorls. Conclusion: There is an association between distribution of finger print pattern and blood groups.

  17. Comparison of phase recovery methods in spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Etchepareborda, Pablo; Bianchetti, Arturo; Veiras, Francisco E.; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2016-05-01

    Spiral interferometry can be used as a solution to the problem of sign ambiguity presented in the conventional speckle pattern interferometric technique when the optical phase needs to be reconstructed from a single closed fringe system. Depressions and elevations of the topography corresponding to the object deformation are distinguished by the direction of rotation of the local spiral fringe pattern. In this work, we implement and compare several methods for optical phase reconstruction by analyzing a single image composed of spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes. The implemented methods are based on contour line demodulation, center line demodulation, Spiral Phase Quadrature Transform and the 2D Riesz transform with multivector structure. Contour line and center line demodulation approaches are exclusively dedicated to images containing a fringe system with spiral structure. The others are based on the 2D Riesz transform, these being well known approaches in conventional interferometry. We examine simulated experiments and analyze some of the emerging drawbacks for solving the phase reconstruction problem by using different mean values of speckle size and background noise levels. We also discuss several numerical procedures that may well improve the efficiency and robustness of the presented numerical implementations. The performance of the implemented demodulation methods is evaluated by using a universal image quality index and therefore a quantitative comparison is also presented.

  18. Thermo-mechanical toner transfer for high-quality digital image correlation speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Paolo; Zappa, Emanuele; Matta, Fabio; Sutton, Michael A.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy and spatial resolution of full-field deformation measurements performed through digital image correlation are greatly affected by the frequency content of the speckle pattern, which can be effectively controlled using particles with well-defined and consistent shape, size and spacing. This paper introduces a novel toner-transfer technique to impress a well-defined and repeatable speckle pattern on plane and curved surfaces of metallic and cement composite specimens. The speckle pattern is numerically designed, printed on paper using a standard laser printer, and transferred onto the measurement surface via a thermo-mechanical process. The tuning procedure to compensate for the difference between designed and toner-transferred actual speckle size is presented. Based on this evidence, the applicability of the technique is discussed with respect to surface material, dimensions and geometry. Proof of concept of the proposed toner-transfer technique is then demonstrated for the case of a quenched and partitioned welded steel plate subjected to uniaxial tensile loading, and for an aluminum plate exposed to temperatures up to 70% of the melting point of aluminum and past the melting point of typical printer toner powder.

  19. A STUDY OF RELATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PATTERN OF FINGER PRINTS AND LIP PRINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The use of conventional methods such as dactylography (study of finger prints & cheiloscopy (study of lip prints is of paramount importance, since personal identification by other means such as DNA analysis is sophisticated and not available in rural and developing countries. Fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of human fingers. The second prints of interest are lip prints. Studies of association between finger print and lip prints are scanty in literature. The present study was aimed to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints and to identify whether there is any correlation between these two parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included 300 college students. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips by gentle movement of the lips. The unglazed white paper was then pressed uniformly over the lips. After the fingers were cleaned with tissue paper, the subjects were instructed to roll the tip of their fingers across the surface of an already made ink-stained pad, ensuring that the ink covered the entire pattern area. The inked finger was then enrolled over a white paper to obtain the print and analyzed using magnified hand lens. These prints were examined using magnifying glass, classified, and analyzed. The data was statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. RESULTS: The percentage distribution of lip print shows that the most frequent lip print pattern in the male is Type I (36.8% and in female it is type II (34.4%. There is no statistically significant association between the pattern of finger prints and lip prints (p value = 0.9. CONCLUSION: It is known that individual parameters, i.e., lip print and finger print patterns play an important role in forensic identification. Correlation of these two parameters in our study did not show any significant association, hence

  20. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  1. Cluster-based statistics for brain connectivity in correlation with behavioral measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol E Han

    Full Text Available Graph theoretical approaches have successfully revealed abnormality in brain connectivity, in particular, for contrasting patients from healthy controls. Besides the group comparison analysis, a correlational study is also challenging. In studies with patients, for example, finding brain connections that indeed deepen specific symptoms is interesting. The correlational study is also beneficial since it does not require controls, which are often difficult to find, especially for old-age patients with cognitive impairment where controls could also have cognitive deficits due to normal ageing. However, one of the major difficulties in such correlational studies is too conservative multiple comparison correction. In this paper, we propose a novel method for identifying brain connections that are correlated with a specific cognitive behavior by employing cluster-based statistics, which is less conservative than other methods, such as Bonferroni correction, false discovery rate procedure, and extreme statistics. Our method is based on the insight that multiple brain connections, rather than a single connection, are responsible for abnormal behaviors. Given brain connectivity data, we first compute a partial correlation coefficient between every edge and the behavioral measure. Then we group together neighboring connections with strong correlation into clusters and calculate their maximum sizes. This procedure is repeated for randomly permuted assignments of behavioral measures. Significance levels of the identified sub-networks are estimated from the null distribution of the cluster sizes. This method is independent of network construction methods: either structural or functional network can be used in association with any behavioral measures. We further demonstrated the efficacy of our method using patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. We identified sub-networks that are correlated with the disease severity by exploiting diffusion

  2. Correlation between CT patterns and pathological classification of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jing [Department of Imaging, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, 389 Xincun Road, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: Zhangjingyxd@163.com; Wang Peijun [Department of Imaging, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, 389 Xincun Road, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: Tongjipjwang@vip.sina.com; Yuan Xiaodong [Department of Radiology, Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yuanxiaodongzj@163.com

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To examine CT patterns of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), analyze their correlation with pathologic classification, and discuss the value of CT in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of IPMN. Methods: CT patterns of 39 IPMN patients, whose clinical data were complete and whose diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and pathology, were classified into three types: (1) simple main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation type, (2) MPD dilation with pancreatic cystic lesion type, and (3) simple pancreatic cystic lesion type. Correlations between the three CT types and Takada pathologic classification (MPD type, furcation type and mixture type) were analyzed. The 39 IPMN cases were pathologically classified as the benign group and the malignant/borderline group. CT characteristics including the presence or absence of mural nodules, intrafocal partitions, focal size and the degree of MPD and common bile duct (CBD) dilation were analyzed statistically. Results: A correlation was found between the CT simple MPD dilation type and the pathological MPD type, between the MPD dilation with pancreatic cystic lesion type and the furcation and mixture types, and between the simple cystic lesion type and the furcation type (p < 0.001). The benign rate was 92% in patients without intrafocal mural nodules, and 42% in patients with intrafocal mural nodules. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.003). The presence or absence of intrafocal partitions was not correlated with benignancy or malignancy (p = 0.793). The maximum diameter of malignant/borderline lesions was bigger than that of benign ones (p = 0.016). There was no significant difference in MPD and CBD diameters between the benign and malignant/borderline groups. Regardless of pathological classification, the MPD diameter was larger than the CBD diameter in all cases (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The three CT types of IPMN well correlated with the pathologic classification

  3. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Fischer, Agneta H; Hess, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results are discussed in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, as well as susceptibility to reinforcement, and psychoanalytic views of conversion hysteria.

  4. Correlation of parents' religious behavior with family's emotional relations and students' self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.

  5. Characterization of spatiotemporally complex gait patterns using cross-correlation signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiwon; Dankowicz, Harry; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesize that spatiotemporal joint coupling patterns during gait are closely associated with musculoskeletal injury mechanics. Previous studies examining joint coupling, have primarily focused on coupling between single pairs of neighboring body segments or joints; thus falling short of characterizing the full spatiotemporal complexity across the entire gait apparatus. This study proposes the reliance on properties of the temporal cross-correlation of distinct joint variables as a means to characterize and detect differences in multiple segmental coupling pairs and to quantify how these couplings change between different gait conditions or test groups. In particular, for each subject, a characteristic diagram array is obtained whose entries include the maximum values of the cross-correlation between all pairs of joint variables as well as the associated phase shifts at which these maxima are recorded. Paired t-tests are then used to highlight significant differences in the corresponding entries between two gait conditions. In the present study, this technique was applied to angular displacement and velocity histories across 12 lower extremity joint variables, for healthy subjects with and without a brace on the right knee. As expected, the statistical analysis indicated that the temporal cross-correlations associated with the right knee-angle variables differed the most between the two gait conditions. In addition, significant differences (pknee.

  6. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  7. Correlation between distribution and shape of VMS deposits and regional deformation patterns, Skellefte district, northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Tobias E.; Skyttä, Pietari; Hermansson, Tobias; Allen, Rodney L.; Weihed, Pär

    2014-06-01

    The Skellefte district in northern Sweden is host to abundant volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits comprising pyritic, massive, semi-massive and disseminated Zn-Cu-Au ± Pb ores surrounded by disseminated pyrite and with or without stockwork mineralisation. The VMS deposits are associated with Palaeoproterozoic upper crustal extension (D1) that resulted in the development of normal faults and related transfer faults. The VMS ores formed as sub-seafloor replacement in both felsic volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks and partly as exhalative deposits within the uppermost part of the volcanic stratigraphy. Subsequently, the district was subjected to deformation (D2) during crustal shortening. Comparing the distribution of VMS deposits with the regional fault pattern reveals a close spatial relationship of VMS deposits to the faults that formed during crustal extension (D1) utilising the syn-extensional faults as fluid conduits. Analysing the shape and orientation of VMS ore bodies shows how their deformation pattern mimics those of the hosting structures and results from the overprinting D2 deformation. Furthermore, regional structural transitions are imitated in the deformation patterns of the ore bodies. Plotting the aspect ratios of VMS ore bodies and the comparison with undeformed equivalents in the Hokuroko district, Japan allow an estimation of apparent strain and show correlation with the D2 deformation intensity of the certain structural domains. A comparison of the size of VMS deposits with their location shows that the smallest deposits are not related to known high-strain zones and the largest deposits are associated with regional-scale high-strain zones. The comparison of distribution and size with the pattern of high-strain zones provides an important tool for regional-scale mineral exploration in the Skellefte district, whereas the analysis of ore body shape and orientation can aid near-mine exploration activities.

  8. Resistance to Temptation and Moral Judgment: Behavioral Correlates of Kohlberg's Measure of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Edward A.; And Others

    This study was designed to assess and compare the roles of intelligence and moral judgment in relation to patterns of behavior in temptation situations. Six Resistance to Temptation (RTT) tasks were administered to 106 sixth grade students. One year later, four Kohlberg Moral Judgment (MJ) tasks were administered to 100 of the same subjects. IQ…

  9. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  10. Effects of a group rational-emotive behavior therapy program on the Type A behavior pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; Botha, H C

    1996-06-01

    A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.

  11. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  12. STABILITY OF PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR IN THE BUTTERFLY TECHNIQUE OF THE ELITE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Louro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find patterns in the butterfly swimming technique, with an adaptation of the Behavioral Observation System Tech. This, as an instrument for ad-hoc qualitative analysis, enables the study of the stability of the technical implementation. When used in the training of swimmers, analysis can reduce the variability of behavioral tuning swimming technique. Through the analysis of temporal patterns (T-pattern and a sequence of five cycles running at hand maximum speed, the behavior of four technical Portuguese elite swimmers, with a record of 259 alphanumeric codes and a total of 160 configurations, were studied. The structure of the original instrument, based on a mixed system of categories and formats Field, can record technical features, observed during the execution of hand cycles. The validity was ensured through the index of intra-observer reliability (95% and inter-observer accuracy (96%. To detect patterns in each swimmer, the Theme 5.0 software was used, which allowed to identify the stable structures of technical performance within a critical interval of time (p <0.05 - t-patterns. The patterns were different, adjusting to the characteristics of technical implementation of the swimmers. It was found that the swimmer can create settings with different levels of structure complexity, depending on the implementation of changes within the hand cycle. Variations of codes in each configuration obtained using the SOCTM, allowed determining the differences between swimmers. However, the records showed a clear behavioral similarity when comparing the result with a general pattern of the butterfly technique. The potential quality of this instrument seems to be important due to the patterns obtained from a temporal sequence

  13. Social phobia: individual response patterns and the effects of behavioral and cognitive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersch, P P; Emmelkamp, P M; Bögels, S M; van der Sleen, J

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the role of individual response patterns in the treatment of social phobic patients was investigated. Seventy-four patients were diagnosed as social phobics. On the basis of extreme scores on a behavioral test (the Simulated Social Interaction Test) and on a cognitive measure (the Rational Behavior Inventory), the response patterns of 39 patients were analyzed, and the patients themselves were classified as either 'behavioral reactors' or 'cognitive reactors'. Half of the patients with each response pattern received a behavioral focused treatment, i.e. social skills training (SST), while the other half received a cognitive oriented treatment, i.e. rational emotive therapy (RET). Patients received group therapy in eight weekly sessions. Within-group differences showed a considerable improvement in all treatment groups. Between-group differences failed to lend support to the hypothesis that treatment that fits a response pattern (i.e. SST for behavioral reactors and RET for cognitive reactors) will result in a greater improvement than one that does not.

  14. Assessment of speckle-pattern quality in digital image correlation based on gray intensity and speckle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihyuk; Yoon, Sungsik; Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2017-04-01

    In digital image correlation (DIC), speckle patterns are generated on the surface of a specimen to resolve uniqueness issues. Thus, speckle patterns significantly affect the accuracy of image correlation. To assess the quality of speckle patterns, the standard deviation of gray intensities within each speckle (SDGIS) is introduced as a new metric. On the basis of the cumulative distribution of SDGIS, speckle-pattern quality measurement (ρ) is proposed, which integrates the features of gray intensity and speckle morphology. Twelve speckle patterns are generated by changing the spraying time and nozzle sizes of an airbrush because these are associated with the speckle volume fraction and speckle size, respectively. In addition, three displacement fields are used to investigate the effects of speckle patterns on the accuracy of the DIC results. For the 12 speckle images associated with the three displacement fields, the correlation results demonstrate that the proposed speckle-pattern quality measurement is inversely proportional to the averaged error of the subset method. This is statistically confirmed by evaluating the correlation coefficient and p-value. Furthermore, the error of the subset method is more affected by speckle patterns than the subset size when the subset size is sufficiently large.

  15. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  16. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions.

  17. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  18. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroch Amy L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary

  20. Optimization of multichannel parallel joint transform correlator for accelerated pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliya, R; Kamiya, T

    2000-10-10

    The multibeam parallel joint transform correlator for optical pattern recognition, which was recently proposed by the authors [Appl. Opt. 37, 5408 (1998)], can increase parallelism without accumulating zero-order background level at the first Fourier transform plane. To evaluate the throughput capability, an experimental trial was made, achieving a 67-ms recognition rate per face per channel, which is limited by the response of the optically addressed liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. A general design theory is developed for dense packing of the optical channels for a given spatial light modulator resolution, considering the bandwidth requirement of the target image. Then the condition for submillisecond throughput with state-of-the-art device technology is discussed.

  1. Methylation patterns of immunoglobulin genes in lymphoid cells: correlation of expression and differentiation with undermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storb, U; Arp, B

    1983-11-01

    Different states of eukaryotic gene expression are often correlated with different levels of methylation of DNA sequences containing structural genes and their flanking regions. To assess the potential role of DNA methylation in the expression of immunoglobulin genes, which require complex rearrangements prior to expression, methylation patterns were examined in cell lines representing different stages of lymphocyte maturation. Methylation of the second cytosine in the sequence 5' C-C-G-G 3' was determined by using Hpa II/Msp I endonuclease digestion. Four CH genes (C mu, C delta, C gamma 2b, and C alpha), C kappa, V kappa, C lambda, and V lambda genes were analyzed. The results lead to the following conclusions: (i) transcribed immunoglobulin genes are undermethylated; (ii) the C gene allelic to an expressed C gene is always also undermethylated; and (iii) all immunoglobulin loci tend to become increasingly undermethylated as B cells mature.

  2. Measurements of surface roughness: use of a CCD camera to correlate doubly scattered speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basano, Lorenzo; Leporatti, Stefano; Ottonello, Pasquale; Palestini, Valeria; Rolandi, Ranieri

    1995-11-01

    We describe an instrument, built around a commercial CCD camera and some fast image-processing boards, that evaluates roughness height by measuring the average size of doubly scattered speckle patterns. The device is a variant of a recent proposal that was based on the use of a spatial modulator to perform the Fourier transform of a speckle image. In the present setup, the Fourier transform is replaced by the direct evaluation of a second-order correlation function. Strictly speaking, the device proposed in this paper is not a real-time device but its response time (approximately 10 s) is sufficiently short to be of practical value for many applications. Updated CCD cameras that will significantly improve the performance of our prototype are already on the market.

  3. Patterns in clinical students' self-regulated learning behavior: a Q-methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joris J; Teunissen, Pim W; Helmich, Esther; van Exel, Job; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C

    2017-03-01

    Students feel insufficiently supported in clinical environments to engage in active learning and achieve a high level of self-regulation. As a result clinical learning is highly demanding for students. Because of large differences between students, supervisors may not know how to support them in their learning process. We explored patterns in undergraduate students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, to improve tailored supervision, using Q-methodology. Q-methodology uses features of both qualitative and quantitative methods for the systematic investigation of subjective issues by having participants sort statements along a continuum to represent their opinion. We enrolled 74 students between December 2014 and April 2015 and had them characterize their learning behavior by sorting 52 statements about self-regulated learning behavior and explaining their response. The statements used for the sorting were extracted from a previous study. The data was analyzed using by-person factor analysis to identify clusters of individuals with similar sorts of the statements. The resulting factors and qualitative data were used to interpret and describe the patterns that emerged. Five resulting patterns were identified in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment, which we labelled: Engaged, Critically opportunistic, Uncertain, Restrained and Effortful. The five patterns varied mostly regarding goals, metacognition, communication, effort, and dependence on external regulation for learning. These discrete patterns in students' self-regulated learning behavior in the clinical environment are part of a complex interaction between student and learning context. The results suggest that developing self-regulated learning behavior might best be supported regarding individual students' needs.

  4. Correlation between the distribution pattern of virulence genes and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Daling; LI Aihua; WANG Jianguo; LI Ming; CAI Taozhen; HU Jing

    2007-01-01

    Nine strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from diseased fish or soft-shelled tortoise were tested for the presence of three virulence genes including the genes encoding aerolysin,hemolysin,and extracellular serine protease (i.e.,aerA,hlyA,and ahpA,respectively).These genes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with specific primers for each gene.And the pathogenicities to Carrassius auratus ibebio of these strains were also assayed.PCR results demonstrated that the distribution patterns of aerA,hlyA,and ahpA were different in these strains.6/9 of A.hydrophila strains were aer A positive,8/9 of strains hly A positive,7/9 of strains ahp A positive,respectively.However,the assay for pathogenesis showed that two strains (A.hydrophila XS91-4-1 and C2)were strong virulent,two strains (A.hydrophila ST78-3-3 and 58-20-9)avirulent and the rest middle virulent was to the fish.In conclusion,there are significant correlation between the distribution pattern of the three virulence genes and the pathogenicity to Carrassius auratus ibebio.All strong virulent A.hydrophila strains were aerA+hlyA+ahpA+genotype,and all aerA+hlyA+ahpA+strains were virulent.Strains with the genotype of aerA-hlyA-ahpA+have middle pathogenicity.In the present study,we found for the first time that all A.hydrophila isolated from the ahpA positive were virulent to Carrassius auratus ibebio.Additionally,there was a positive correlation between the virulence of A.hydrophila and the presence of aerA and ahpA.

  5. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  6. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, S.; Fischer, A.H.; Hess, U.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results a

  7. A project proposal on Patterns and correlates of physical activity in families on Lolland-Falster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Therese; Jepsen, Randi; Grøntved, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity has become an increasingly important topic in health promotion and health research. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Engaging in physical activity has...... the authorities' recommendation for 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Parents are believed to play an important role in influencing their children’s health behavior. Yet, the results of studies on parent-child physical activity (or inactivity) correlations are mixed. Possible...... children’s physical activity could be important for identifying effective strategies for increasing children’s health and preventing the development of adverse health outcomes. The knowledge gained during this study will help us in the prevention against physical inactivity in the general population....

  8. Transient superdiffusion and long-range correlations in the motility patterns of trypanosomatid flagellate protozoa

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, L G A; Guimarães, R R; Nakamura, C V; Mendes, R S; Ribeiro, H V

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by \\textit{Leishmania amazonensis} and \\textit{Leishmania braziliensis}, African sleeping sickness caused by \\textit{Trypanosoma brucei}, and Chagas disease caused by \\textit{Trypanosoma cruzi}. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persiste...

  9. Echo-Patterns of SmaII HepatoceIlular Carcinoma : A Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gil Hyun; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Yoon Wha [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the relationship of echo-patterns with pathologic findings in small hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Sonographic and pathologic correlation was done retrospectively in l5 cases of small HCC ({<=} 3cm). The echogenecity of the lesion was compared with that of the adjacent normal liver parenchyma and classified into hypoechogenicity, isoechogenicity, and hyperechogenicity. The resected lesions we reanalyzed regarding the presence of coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage, fatty change, interstitial fibrosis, and sinusoidal dilatation. Assuming that those features contributed to the echogenicity of the lesion, we counted the number of the pathologic features that were seen in the resected lesion. Nine lesions classified asisoechoic, four lesions as hypoechoic, and two lesions as hyperechoic. At pathologic examination of the resected lesion, interstitial fibrosis was seen in 5 cases (33%), sinusoidal dilatation in 4(27%), coagulation necrosis in 2(l3%), fatty change in 2(l3%), and hemorrhage in 1(7%). All hypoechoic lesions were composed of purely cellular component without evidence of the pathologic features described above. The average number of the pathologic features was 1 in iso echoic lesion and 2 in hyperechoic lesion. Echo-patterns of small hepatocellular carcinoma are considered to be related with pathologic findings. Coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage, fatty change,interstitial fibrosis, and sinusoidal dilatation contribute to the increased echogenicity of small HCC

  10. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  11. Correlation of patellar tracking pattern with trochlear and retropatellar surface topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A M; Duncan, N A

    2000-12-01

    The study was aimed to test the hypothesis that in the knee extension range 100 to 30 deg, the patellar "out-of-plane" tracking pattern is controlled by the passive restraint provided by the topographic interaction of the patellofemoral contacting surfaces. The out-of-plane tracking pattern, i.e., the pattern of patellar displacements not in the plane of knee extension/flexion, consists of translation in the medial-lateral direction, and rotations about the anterior-posterior axis (spin) and the proximal-distal axis (tilt). Using 15 fresh-frozen knees subjected to extensor moment magnitudes comparable to those in the "static-lifting" activity (foot-ground reaction = 334 N), the patellar displacements were measured using a calibrated six-degree-of-freedom electromechanical goniometer. The topographies of the trochlear and retropatellar surfaces were then measured using a calibrated traveling dial-gage arrangement and the same coordinate system used for the displacement measurements. Three indices were defined to quantify particular natural features of the three-dimensional topographies that are expected to control the patellar displacements. Correlation of the indices with their corresponding displacements showed that topographic interaction was significant in the control of all three displacements. However, for patellar spin, unlike for the other two displacements, the direction of the active quadriceps tension vector was also a significant controlling factor. Patellar medial-lateral translation was found to be controlled dominantly by the trochlear topography, while retropatellar topography also had a significant role in the control of the other two displacements.

  12. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  13. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  14. Correlation patterns of metals in the epiphytic moss Hypnum cupressiforme in Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Dietl, Claudia; Tritschler, Johannes; Peichl, Ludwig

    Since 1981, the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection (LfU) has been operating a bioindication network of epiphytic mosses Hypnum cupressiforme located on a regular grid with distances 16 km, in order to observe immission-derived metal accumulation in plant material. About 300 specimens are collected yearly (since 1991 every second year) at the end of the growth period, and the concentration of trace metals is determined. In order to gain insight into predominant sources of metal pollution in Bavaria, correlation patterns between Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis. Detailed results are presented for the 1984 and 1995 data. At least 80% of the variance can be explained by five components. The following factors are extracted from both data sets by varimax rotation: factor 1 with similar loadings of Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, and As; factor 2 representing Cd and Zn; factor 3 with loadings of Sb, Pb, and Cu; factor 4 representing Mn; factor 5 being nearly identical with the Hg variable. For comparison, published region-specific correlation matrices from the 1991 moss survey performed by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) - observing epigeic mosses Pleurozium schreberi - were submitted to Principal Component Analysis. With respect to the first factor, our 1991 results from Bavaria are similar to those from the Southern former GDR, but different from those from Western Germany (including Bavaria). Possible common and specific sources are discussed.

  15. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  16. Form factor approach to the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in critical models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitanine, N; Maillet, J M; Slavnov, N A; Terras, V

    2011-01-01

    We propose a form factor approach for the computation of the large distance asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in quantum critical (integrable) models. In the large distance regime we reduce the summation over all excited states to one over the particle/hole excitations lying on the Fermi surface in the thermodynamic limit. We compute these sums, over the so-called critical form factors, exactly. Thus we obtain the leading large distance behavior of each oscillating harmonic of the correlation function asymptotic expansion, including the corresponding amplitudes. Our method is applicable to a wide variety of integrable models and yields precisely the results stemming from the Luttinger liquid approach, the conformal field theory predictions and our previous analysis of the correlation functions from their multiple integral representations. We argue that our scheme applies to a general class of non-integrable quantum critical models as well.

  17. Behavioral and Physiological Neural Network Analyses: A Common Pathway toward Pattern Recognition and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Lauter, Judy L.; Coffee, Michael; Clary, Logan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Rumph, Marilyn; Rumph, Robin; Kyle, Betty; Ninness, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 3 diversified datasets, we explored the pattern-recognition ability of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural network as applied to diversified nonlinear data distributions in the areas of behavioral and physiological research. Experiment 1 employed a dataset obtained from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. Data for this study…

  18. Nurses' Behaviors and Visual Scanning Patterns May Reduce Patient Identification Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.; He, Ze; Jo, Junghee; Fisher, Donald L.; Henneman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Patient identification (ID) errors occurring during the medication administration process can be fatal. The aim of this study is to determine whether differences in nurses' behaviors and visual scanning patterns during the medication administration process influence their capacities to identify patient ID errors. Nurse participants (n = 20)…

  19. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S.…

  20. The Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern and Trait Anxiety: Evidence for Discriminant Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Warren R.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1980-01-01

    Supports the discriminant validity of the Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern, as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey, in relation to trait anxiety. Future research should include measures of trait anxiety to collaborate findings in a laboratory setting. (Author/JAC)

  1. Effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, electroencephalogram, behavioral patterns, and epileptic activity of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Ates, N.; Skarsfeldt, T.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    In this study we addressed the effects of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist sertindole in rats. The compound was administered in doses of 0.08, 0.32, and 1.28 mg/kg, whereas a control group received the solvent. The effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, behavioral patterns, and background electroe

  2. Cognitive and behavioral correlates of caudate subregion shape variation in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Daniel X; Kelley, Ryan G; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Raman, Mira; Thompson, Paul M; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired general cognitive abilities, perseverative behaviors, and social difficulties. Neural signals related to these functions are communicated through frontostriatal circuits, which connect with distinct regions of the caudate nucleus (CN). Enlargement of the CN is the most robust and reproduced neuroanatomical abnormality in FXS, but very little is known on how this affects behavioral/cognitive outcomes in this condition. Here, we investigated topography within focal regions of the CN associated with prefrontal circuitry and its link with aberrant behavior and intellect in FXS. Imaging data were acquired from 48 individuals with FXS, 28 IQ-matched controls without FXS (IQ-CTL), and 36 typically developing controls (TD-CTL). Of the total participant count, cognitive and behavioral assessment data were obtained from 44 individuals with FXS and 27 participants in the IQ-CTL group. CN volume and topography were compared between groups. Correlations were performed between CN topography and cognitive as well as behavioral measures within FXS and IQ-CTL groups. As expected, the FXS group had larger CN compared with both IQ-CTL and TD-CTL groups. Correlations between focal CN topography and frontal lobe-associated cognitive and behavioral deficits in the FXS group supported the hypothesis that CN enlargement is related to abnormal orbitofrontal-caudate and dorsolateral-caudate circuitry in FXS. These findings deepen our understanding of neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral problems in FXS and hold promise for informing future behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions targeting specific neural pathways.

  3. [Problematic eating behavior in childhood: do maternal feeding patterns play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicates an association in adults and young people of emotional and contextual factors with a higher risk for the development of eating disorders or obesity. Few studies focus on problematic eating patterns in childhood, especially in association with parental feeding strategies. 482 mothers completed a questionnaire about eating behaviors and the weight status of their 1- to 10-year-old child as well as their own feeding strategies. A classification of the child's eating behavior (food responsiveness, emotional eating, external eating, eating time and meal structure) using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a conspicuous eating pattern (10%) showing above-average values in all eating behaviors. Controlling for weight and demographic variables mothers of children with conspicuous eating patterns were characterized by restrictive strategies and were less likely to encourage or facilitate their child to control his or her eating. Similar problematic eating patterns were also identified in early childhood. The association of maternal feeding strategies--beyond weight control issues--with conspicuous eating patterns in children might indicate a possibility of early prevention through parent training.

  4. Different correlation patterns of cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons with striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital eAdler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is populated by a single projection neuron group, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs, and several groups of interneurons. Two of the electrophysiologically well-characterized striatal interneuron groups are the tonically active neurons (TANs, which are presumably cholinergic interneurons, and the fast spiking interneurons (FSIs, presumably parvalbumin (PV expressing GABAergic interneurons. To better understand striatal processing it is thus crucial to define the functional relationship between MSNs and these interneurons in the awake and behaving animal. We used multiple electrodes and standard physiological methods to simultaneously record MSN spiking activity and the activity of TANs or FSIs from monkeys engaged in a classical conditioning paradigm. All three cell populations were highly responsive to the behavioral task. However, they displayed different average response profiles and a different degree of response synchronization (signal correlation. TANs displayed the most transient and synchronized response, MSNs the most diverse and sustained response and FSIs were in between on both parameters. We did not find evidence for direct monosynaptic connectivity between the MSNs and either the TANs or the FSIs. However, while the cross correlation histograms of TAN to MSN pairs were flat, those of FSI to MSN displayed positive asymmetrical broad peaks. The FSI-MSN correlogram profile implies that the spikes of MSNs follow those of FSIs and both are driven by a common, most likely cortical, input. Thus, the two populations of striatal interneurons are probably driven by different afferents and play complementary functional roles in the physiology of the striatal microcircuit.

  5. Epistemic Beliefs, Online Search Strategies, and Behavioral Patterns While Exploring Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    Online information searching tasks are usually implemented in a technology-enhanced science curriculum or merged in an inquiry-based science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the role students' different levels of scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs) play in their online information searching strategies and behaviors. Based on the measurement of an SEB survey, 42 undergraduate and graduate students in Taiwan were recruited from a pool of 240 students and were divided into sophisticated and naïve SEB groups. The students' self-perceived online searching strategies were evaluated by the Online Information Searching Strategies Inventory, and their search behaviors were recorded by screen-capture videos. A sequential analysis was further used to analyze the students' searching behavioral patterns. The results showed that those students with more sophisticated SEBs tended to employ more advanced online searching strategies and to demonstrate a more metacognitive searching pattern.

  6. Correlations between proton-efflux patterns and growth patterns during geotropism and phototropism in maize and sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, T J; Kuzmanoff, K M; Evans, M L

    1981-07-01

    By placing seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) or maize (Zea mays L.) on agar plates containing a pH indicator dye it is possible to observe surface pH patterns along the growing seedling by observing color changes of the indicator dye. Using this method we find that in geotropically stimulated sunflower hypocotyls or maize coleoptiles there is enhanced proton efflux on the lower surface of the organ prior to the initiation of curvature. As curvature develops the pattern of differential acid efflux becomes more intense. A similar phenomenon is observed when these organs are exposed to unilateral illumination, i.e. enhanced acid efflux occurs on the dark side of the organ prior to the initiation of phototropic curvature and the pattern of differential acid efflux intensifies as phototropic curvature develops. These observations indicate that differential acid efflux occurs in response to tropistic stimuli and that the acid efflux pattern may mediate the development of tropistic curvatures.

  7. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  8. Structural and functional analysis of single neurons to correlate synaptic connectivity with grooming behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Ibrahim; Cvetkovska, Vedrana; Chen, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol to image the complex axonal branching structure of identified mechanosensory neurons in Drosophila, combined with a behavioral assay to evaluate the functional output of the neuron. The stimulation of identified mechanosensory neurons in live animals produces a stereotyped grooming reflex. The mechanosensory axonal arbor within the CNS is subsequently labeled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye and imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The behavioral output can therefore be correlated to the axonal morphology of the stimulated neuron in the same animal. Combining this protocol with genetic analysis provides a powerful tool for identifying the roles of molecules involved in different aspects of hard-wired neural circuit formation underlying an innate behavior. From behavioral analysis to axonal imaging, the protocol takes 4 d.

  9. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.

  10. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  11. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen, E-mail: caoj@bjfu.edu.cn; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood by wetting models. • We found lower wetting speed of water droplets on thermally modified wood surface. • Dynamic wetting behavior and surface chemical components show a strong correlation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C{sub 1}/C{sub 2} ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  12. Controlled buckling behavior of patterned oxide structures on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejitual, T.S.; Morris, N.J.; Cairns, D.R.; Sierros, K.A., E-mail: kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

    2013-12-31

    There is currently a great interest to design and fabricate novel flexible devices for solar cell, solid-state lighting, biomedical and energy harvesting applications. Such devices require the use of electrode components. Desired electrodes must exhibit structural integrity, low electrical resistivity and, in most cases, high optical transparency in the visible range. Despite growing efforts to replace them, transparent conducting oxide layers deposited on polymer substrates are still enjoying a dominant role as the electrode component. This is because of their excellent combination of electrical and optical properties. However, their performance when they are subjected to externally-applied mechanical stresses is limited. Such performance has been extensively investigated for the case of continuous brittle oxide films on polymer substrates. However, there is relatively little work reported to date on the mechanical behavior of patterned conducting layers on compliant substrates. In this study we report on the mechanical behavior of various patterned indium tin oxide shapes and sizes on polyethylene terephthalate. Micron-sized shapes include squares, circles, and zigzag-based structures. Controlled buckling experiments are performed in-situ using an optical microscope in order to monitor critical strains and potential failure mechanisms. In addition, ITO electrical resistance changes are continuously monitored during deformation. Furthermore, ex-situ characterization of the tested surfaces using scanning electron microscopy is conducted. Higher crack onset values are observed for the smaller size patterns. Also, square-shaped patterns are found to exhibit the lowest crack onset values. SEM observations suggest cracking-driven and buckling-driven delamination during ITO tensile and compressive buckling mode respectively. In both cases, failure is observed to initiate from the pattern edges. - Highlights: • In-situ experimental analysis of various patterned shapes

  13. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Biking Behavior by Analyzing Massive Bike Sharing Data in Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhou

    Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.

  14. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings.

  15. Relation between type A behavior pattern and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Washio, Masakazu; Tokunaga, Shoji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Liu, Ying; Kodama, Hiroko; Arai, Hidekazu; Koyanagi, Samon; Hiyamuta, Koji; Doi, Yoshitaka; Kawano, Tomoki; Nakagaki, Osamu; Takada, Kazuyuki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Nii, Takanobu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Ideishi, Munehito; Arakawa, Kikuo; Mohri, Masahiro; Takeshita, Akira

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation of Type A behavior pattern and its components to angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis in 198 Japanese women. A questionnaire-based interview elicited psychosocial and other factors. Type A behavior pattern was measured by 12 questions. Significant coronary stenosis was defined when a 75% or greater luminal narrowing occurred at one or more major coronary arteries or 50% or greater narrowing occurred at the left main artery. Gensini's score also was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for traditional coronary risk factors and the presence of a job. Global Type A behavior pattern showed no material association with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by both Gensini's score and the presence of significant coronary stenosis. However, its subcomponents, enthusiasm and competitiveness, were positively related to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas self-confidence and perfectionism were negatively related. These findings suggest overall a null association between global Type A and coronary atherosclerosis as well as the presence of toxic or beneficial components of Type A behaviors in Japanese women.

  16. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enhancement patterns of pancreatic adenocarcinoma on conventional dynamic multi-detector row CT: Correlation with angiogenesis and fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuki Hattori; Toshifumi Gabata; Osamu Matsui; Kentaro Mochizuki; Hirohisa Kitagawa; Masato Kayahara; Tetsuo Ohta; Yasuni Nakanuma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate retrospectively the correlation between enhancement patterns on dynamic computed tomography (CT) and angiogenesis and fibrosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent dynamic CT and tumor resection. In addition to the absolute and relative enhanced value that was calculated by subtracting the attenuation value on pre-contrast from those on contrast-enhanced CT in each phase, we defined one parameter, "tumor-aorta enhancement ratio", which was calculated by dividing enhancement of pancreatic cancer by enhancement of abdominal aorta in each phase. These enhancement patterns were correlated with the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (MVD), and extent of fibrosis.RESULTS: The absolute enhanced value in the arterial phase correlated with the level of VEGF and MVD (P = 0.047, P = 0.001). The relative enhanced value in arterial phase and tumor-aorta enhancement ratio (arterial) correlated with MVD (P = 0.003, P = 0.022). Tumor-aorta enhancement ratio (arterial) correlated negatively with the extent of fibrosis (P = 0.004). The tumors with greater MVD and higher expression of VEGF tended to show high enhancement in the arterial dominant phase. On the other hand, the tumors with a larger amount of fibrosis showed a negative correlation with the grade of enhancement during the arterial phase.CONCLUSION: Enhancement patterns on dynamic CT correlated with angiogenesis and may be modified by the extent of fibrosis.

  18. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior.

  19. Analysis of behavioral and EEG correlatives of attention in the dynamics of recovery of consciousness following severe brain injury

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    E. V. Sharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the behavioral manifestations and electroencephalographic correlates of modality-nonspecific attention using a clinical model of severe brain injury (SBI.Patients and methods. 35 patients with SBI in the dynamics of post-coma recovery of mental activity (a study group and 23 healthy subjects (a control group were examined. The behavioral manifestations of NSA from coma to clear consciousness were analyzed in the patients. Changes in the pattern of EEG and in the indices of its coherence in the presence and activation of different forms of attention (an orienting response to the sound and eye opening; involuntary and voluntary visual forms, by applying specially developed computerized techniques, were investigated. The features of associated with attention changes in interhemispheric EEG coherence (IHC with the data of 3T diffusion tensor tractography of the corpus callosum (CC were compared.Results. Attention disorders were shown to be essential and an «axial disorder» in patients with SBI. There were statistically confirmed qualitative and quantitative differences attention-associated changes in the EEG pattern and IHC in reversible and chronic unconsciousness. The important favorable prognostic sign proved to be reactive changes in interhemispheric EEG relations, including frontal ones characterized by the absence of clear external manifestations of consciousness in the very earliest stages. There was a significant correlation between the preservation of CC tracts (primarily, the rostrum, anterior portion, and splenium and attention-related reactivity of IHC, which reflects the specific, though nonrigid, structural determinacy of the latter.

  20. Exploring Learners' Sequential Behavioral Patterns, Flow Experience, and Learning Performance in an Anti-Phishing Educational Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Cian-Yu; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lin, Yu-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to provide a game-based anti-phishing lesson to 110 elementary school students in Taiwan, explore their learning behavioral patterns, and investigate the effects of the flow states on their learning behavioral patterns and learning achievement. The study recorded behaviour logs, and applied a pre- and post-test on…

  1. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of domestic violence in selected Igbo communities of Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okemgbo, Christian Ndugasa; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kebinde; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2002-08-01

    Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever been battered by their male counterparts, out of which 58.9% reported battery during pregnancy, while 21.3% reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. The study further revealed that the practice of female circumcision is still common among this Igbo population, and 52.6% were of the view that it should be continued. Multivariate logistic regression identified the correlates of these forms of violence such as age, place of residence, age at first marriage, type of marital union, level of income of women, and level of education of husband against women in Imo State. While wife battery is more pronounced in the urban area, forced sexual relationship and female genital mutilation are more pronounced in the rural areas. We recommend education of women and integration of services in reproductive health care service delivery as appropriate measures to eradicate these practice.

  2. Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery

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    Hege Gade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Design: The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558. Subjects: A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men with a mean (SD age of 42.6 (9.8 years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4 kg/m2 participated. Measurements: Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness, the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE, uncontrolled eating (UE and cognitive restraint of eating (CR and the HADS (anxiety and depression. Results: The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour.

  3. Developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity.

  4. Behavior patterns of cold-resistant golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, A

    1991-09-01

    Nesting behavior and food storage were studied in a cold-resistant (CR) population of the golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus, in Southern Sinai at an altitude of 1600 m. CR-mice, in contrast to cold-sensitive (CS) ones, built nests in which they stored food. Such mice were found to be winter-solitary. These results show that food supply is an essential parameter for the survival of CR-mice during winter. Therefore, it is suggested that food supply rather than energy conservation was the main driving force in the selection of a solitary behavior pattern of CR-mice.

  5. Correlation of exon 3 β-catenin mutations with glutamine synthetase staining patterns in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Gillian; Liu, Xinxin; Hu, Junjie; Xu, Zhong; Che, Li; Solomon, David; Tsokos, Christos; Shafizadeh, Nafis; Chen, Xin; Gill, Ryan; Kakar, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The current clinical practice is based on the assumption of strong correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase expression and β-catenin activation in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. This high correlation is based on limited data and may represent an oversimplification as glutamine synthetase staining patterns show wide variability in clinical practice. Standardized criteria for interpreting diverse glutamine synthetase patterns, and the association between each pattern and β-catenin mutations is not clearly established. This study examines the correlation between glutamine synthetase staining patterns and β-catenin mutations in 15 typical hepatocellular adenomas, 5 atypical hepatocellular neoplasms and 60 hepatocellular carcinomas. Glutamine synthetase staining was classified into one of the three patterns: (a) diffuse homogeneous: moderate-to-strong cytoplasmic staining in >90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, (b) diffuse heterogeneous: moderate-to-strong staining in 50-90% of lesional cells, without a map-like pattern, and (c) patchy: moderate-to-strong staining in glutamine synthetase staining (homogeneous or heterogeneous), an exon 3 β-catenin mutation was detected in 33% (2/6) of typical hepatocellular adenoma, 75% (3/4) of atypical hepatocellular neoplasm and 17% (8/47) of hepatocellular carcinomas. An exon 3 mutation was also observed in 15% (2/13) of hepatocellular carcinomas with patchy glutamine synthetase staining. The results show a modest correlation between diffuse glutamine synthetase immunostaining and exon 3 β-catenin mutations in hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma with discrepancy rates >50% in both hepatocellular adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. The interpretation of β-catenin activation based on glutamine synthetase staining should be performed with caution, and the undetermined significance of various glutamine synthetase patterns should be highlighted in pathology reports.

  6. The pattern and correlates of intimate partner violence among women in Kano, Nigeria

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    Tanko S. Tanimu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV has been increasingly recognised as a major public health and human rights problem that cuts across all populations, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural groups.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, pattern and correlates of IPV among women attending the General Out Patient Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. It was also designed to determine the pattern of health complications associated with IPV as well as the perception of women on intimate partner violence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Three hundred and ninety-three women aged 15–49 years who were in or had ever been in an intimate relationship were recruited. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about their socio-demographic characteristics while information on IPV was obtained using the Composite Abuse Scale. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 16.0.Results: The prevalence of IPV within the previous year was 42.0%. Of all the 393 participants recruited in the study, 46.6% had experienced emotional/psychological violence, harassment/controlling behaviour was present in 43.3%, physical violence was reported in 29.0%, sexual violence was present in 21.9% and 37.9% of the participants had experienced severe combined abuse. Being married (χ2 = 24.726, p = 0.000 and pregnancy reduced the risk of IPV (χ2= 6.690, p = 0.030, while polygamous family setting (χ2 = 9.734, p = 0.008 and an extended family type (χ2 = 9.593, p = 0.023 were associated with an increased risk of IPV. Alcohol consumption by the partner (p = 0.000, OR 2.335, CI 1.151–3.230 was found to be a positive correlate as well as a complication of IPV. Other patterns of health complications that were significantly associated with IPV were depression (p = 0.000, OR 3.517, CI 4.061–22.306, miscarriage

  7. Problematic Internet and Cell-Phone Use: Psychological, Behavioral, and Health Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Jenaro Río, Cristina; Flores Robaina, Noelia; Gómez Vela, María; González Gil, Francisca; Caballo Escribano, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    [EN]This study aimed to assess pathological Internet and cell-phone use in college students, and to identify psychological, health, and behavioral correlates. A cross-sectional design was utilized to gather data from 337 students. We developed two measures, termed the Internet Over-use Scale (IOS), and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS). Additional measures utilized were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Results provide suppor...

  8. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.

  9. Overview of metrics and their correlation patterns for multiple-metric topology analysis on heterogeneous graph ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounova, Gergana; de Weck, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study is an overview of network topology metrics and a computational approach to analyzing graph topology via multiple-metric analysis on graph ensembles. The paper cautions against studying single metrics or combining disparate graph ensembles from different domains to extract global patterns. This is because there often exists considerable diversity among graphs that share any given topology metric, patterns vary depending on the underlying graph construction model, and many real data sets are not actual statistical ensembles. As real data examples, we present five airline ensembles, comprising temporal snapshots of networks of similar topology. Wikipedia language networks are shown as an example of a nontemporal ensemble. General patterns in metric correlations, as well as exceptions, are discussed by representing the data sets via hierarchically clustered correlation heat maps. Most topology metrics are not independent and their correlation patterns vary across ensembles. In general, density-related metrics and graph distance-based metrics cluster and the two groups are orthogonal to each other. Metrics based on degree-degree correlations have the highest variance across ensembles and cluster the different data sets on par with principal component analysis. Namely, the degree correlation, the s metric, their elasticities, and the rich club moments appear to be most useful in distinguishing topologies.

  10. “Rational” or “Intuitive”: Are Behavioral Biases Correlated Across Stock Market Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human judgments are systematically affected by various biases and distortions. The main goal of our study is to analyze the effects of five well-documented behavioral biases—namely, the disposition effect, herd behavior, availability heuristic, gambler’s fallacy and hot hand fallacy—on the mechanisms of stock market decision making and, in particular, the correlations between the magnitudes of the biases in the cross-section of market investors. Employing an extensive online survey, we demonstrate that, on average, active capital market investors exhibit moderate degrees of behavioral biases. We then calculate the cross-sectional correlation coefficients between the biases and find that all of them are positive and highly significant for both professional and non-professional investors and for all categories of investors, as classified by their experience levels, genders, and ages. This finding suggests that an investor who is more inclined to employ a certain intuitive decision-making technique will most likely accept other techniques as well. Furthermore, we determine that the correlation coefficients between the biases are higher for more experienced investors and male investors, indicating that these categories of investors are likely to behave more consistently, or, in other words, are more likely to decide for themselves whether to rely on simplifying decision-making techniques in general or to reject all of them. Alternatively, this finding may suggest that these investors develop more sophisticated “adaptive toolboxes”, or collections of heuristics, and apply them more systematically.

  11. Correlations for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test in a forensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan; Farnill, Douglas

    2003-04-01

    People with an intellectual disability are over-represented in the criminal justice system in many western countries. Identifying accused persons with intellectual disability is important if they are to receive protections available under the law. Accurate diagnosis is also relevant for correctional administrators, probation and parole services, and community services. Diagnosis of intellectual disability must be made on the basis of both cognitive skills (intelligence) and adaptive behavior. In this study, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test assessed intelligence, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales assessed adaptive behavior, through self-report. Tests were administered to 150 offenders, ranging in age from 13 to 53 years, in Australian prisons, juvenile detention centers, legal aid offices, and probation services. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients calculated among all subtests and between total scores were significant. ROC curve analyses demonstrated that performance on each effectively predicted a standard score of less than 70 on the other one.

  12. Behavioral Correlates of Primates Conservation Status: Intrinsic Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Threats.

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    Amélie Christelle Lootvoet

    Full Text Available Behavioral traits are likely to influence species vulnerability to anthropogenic threats and in consequence, their risk of extinction. Several studies have addressed this question and have highlighted a correlation between reproductive strategies and different viability proxies, such as introduction success and local extinction risk. Yet, very few studies have investigated the effective impact of social behaviour, and evidence regarding global extinction risk remains scant. Here we examined the effects of three main behavioral factors: the group size, the social and reproductive system, and the strength of sexual selection on global extinction risk. Using Primates as biological model, we performed comparative analysis on 93 species. The conservation status as described by the IUCN Red List was considered as a proxy for extinction risk. In addition, we added previously identified intrinsic factors of vulnerability to extinction, and a measure of the strength of the human impact for each species, described by the human footprint. Our analysis highlighted a significant effect of two of the three studied behavioral traits, group size and social and reproductive system. Extinction risk is negatively correlated with mean group size, which may be due to an Allee effect resulting from the difficulties for solitary and monogamous species to find a partner at low densities. Our results also indicate that species with a flexible mating system are less vulnerable. Taking into account these behavioral variables is thus of high importance when establishing conservation plans, particularly when assessing species relative vulnerability.

  13. A Naturalistic Examination of the Temporal Patterns of Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. Conclusion The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. PMID:26282336

  14. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

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    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  15. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with str...

  16. Personalized Behavior Pattern Recognition and Unusual Event Detection for Mobile Users

    OpenAIRE

    Junho Ahn; Richard Han

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones have become widely used for obtaining help in emergencies, such as accidents, crimes, or health emergencies. The smartphone is an essential device that can record emergency situations, which can be used for clues or evidence, or as an alert system in such situations. In this paper, we focus on mobile-based identification of potentially unusual, or abnormal events, occurring in a mobile user's daily behavior patterns. For purposes of this research, we have classified events as “u...

  17. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  18. Detection and Selection of Behavioral Patterns Using Theme: A Concrete Example in Grassroots Soccer

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    Mario Amatria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Observational methodology provides a rigorous yet flexible framework for capturing behaviors over time to allow for the performance of subsequent diachronic analyses of the data captured. Theme is a specialized software program that detects hidden temporal behavioral patterns (T-patterns within data sets. It is increasingly being used to analyze performance in soccer and other sports. The aim of this study was to show how to select and interpret T-patterns generated by the application of three “quantitative” sort options in Theme and three “qualitative” filters established by the researchers. These will be used to investigate whether 7-a-side (F7 or 8-a-side (F8 soccer is best suited to the learning and skills development needs of 7- and 8-year-old male soccer players. The information contained in the T-patterns generated allowed us to characterize patterns of play in children in this age group. For both formats, we detected technical-tactical behaviors showing that children of this age have difficulty with first-touch actions and controlling the ball after a throw-in. We also found that ball control followed by a pass or a shot at the goal are common in the central corridor of the pitch. Further, depth of play is achieved by ball control, followed by dribbling and a pass or shot. In F8, we saw that depth of play was achieved through ball control, followed by dribbling and passing of one or more opponents leading to a pass or shot. However, in F7, we saw that players succeeded in advancing from their goal area to the rival goal area through a sequence of actions.

  19. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs.

  20. Patterns and correlates of illicit drug selling among youth in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedani B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael G Vaughn1, Jeffrey J Shook2, Brian E Perron3, Arnelyn Abdon4, Brian Ahmedani51School of Social Work, School of Public Health and Department of Public Policy Studies, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA; 4School of Economics, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 5Henry Ford Health System, Detroit MI, USAPurpose: Despite the high rates of drug selling among youth in juvenile justice and youth residing in disadvantage neighborhoods, relatively little is known about the patterns of illicit drug selling among youth in the general population.Methods: Using the public-use data file from the adolescent sample (N = 17 842 in the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, this study employed multiple logistic regression to compare the behavioral, parental involvement, and prevention experiences of youth who sold and did not sell illicit drugs in the past year.Results: Findings from a series of logistic regression models indicated youth who sold drugs were far more likely to use a wide variety of drugs and engage in delinquent acts. Drug-selling youth were significantly less likely to report having a parent involved in their life and have someone to talk to about serious problems but were more likely to report exposure to drug prevention programming.Conclusion: Selling of drugs by youth appears to be a byproduct of substance abuse and deviance proneness, and the prevention programs these youth experience are likely a result of mandated exposure derived from contact with the criminal justice system. Assuming no major drug supply side reductions, policies, and practices associated with increasing drug abuse treatment, parental involvement and supervision, and school engagement are suggested.Keywords: drug distribution, prevention, adolescent risk, youth experiences, parental

  1. Cephalometric Pattern and Nasal Patency in Children with Primary Snoring: The Evidence of a Direct Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Anna Maria; Duse, Marzia; Occasi, Francesca; Luzzi, Valeria; Ortolani, Emanuela; Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Bertin, Serena; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers. Objective To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS), without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and Methods Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males) aged 4–8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years) were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies. Results In our sample 10 children (33%) had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37%) 4–6 nights/week and 9 (30%) every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3%) were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH), 4 (13.3%) by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) and 13 (43.3%) by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT) in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4–6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032). Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base), NS∧Ar (growth predictor), sumangle, FMA (total divergence), SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence), BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern), Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space), AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra). Conclusion The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations. PMID:25360610

  2. BACTERIAL PATTERN OF APPENDIX IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC APPENDICITIS WITH ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION

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    Surajit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute appendicitis is a common, sometimes confusing and often treacherous cause of acute abdomen at all ages. The only way to reduce morbidity and to prevent mortality is to perform appendicectomy before perforation or gangrene occurs. As appendicectomy is a very common practice, it is essential to know in detail the various etiological factors that precipitate appendicitis. Bacterial invasion being a very common cause makes it imperative that we have a clear picture of the bacterial pattern of appendix in acute and recurrent appendicitis and to correlate this with clinical findings. A proper idea of bacterial flora of appendix thus helps us not only to prevent postoperative complication, but also to impart effective conservative treatment by pinpointing sensitive drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Knowledge of bacterial flora of appendix also has socio-economic benefits through low rates of post-operative complications, reduced hospital stay and also reduced indiscriminate use of multiple costly drugs. The aim of this study is to establish the bacterial profile in acute as well as recurrent appendicitis and to correlate the findings with the severity of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted on 90 patients irrespective of age and sex who attended the emergency and OPD during the course of the work with symptoms suggestive of appendicitis. Following appendicectomy, each of the specimens was cut into two pieces. One was sent for histopathological examination and other was sent for bacterial culture. RESULT The commonest bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli in 67.78% cases, which is a facultative anaerobe and it was closely accompanied by Klebsiella species in 47.78% cases. Other isolates that were recorded included Staphylococcus aureus in 3.33% cases with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus species in 2.22% cases each. Mixed infections were seen in phlegmonous, gangrenous and perforative appendicitis. Bacteroides

  3. Cephalometric pattern and nasal patency in children with primary snoring: the evidence of a direct correlation.

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    Anna Maria Zicari

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing (SDB might affect craniofacial growth and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome present an increase in total and lower anterior heights of the face and a more anterior and inferior position of the hyoid bone when compared to nasal breathers.To investigate the correlation between rhinomanometric and cephalometric parameters in children with primary snoring (PS, without apnea or gas exchange abnormalities.Thirty children with habitual snoring (16 females and 14 males aged 4-8 years (mean age 6.85±1.51 years were selected by a SDB validate questionnaire. All subjects underwent lateral cephalometric, panoramic radiographies.In our sample 10 children (33% had snoring 3 nights/week, 11 (37% 4-6 nights/week and 9 (30% every night/week. Overall 7 patients (23.3% were affected by adenoid hypertrophy (AH, 4 (13.3% by tonsillar hypertrophy (TH and 13 (43.3% by AH and TH. We found a more vertical position of the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H⊥VT in patients with a higher frequency (7.3±2.7 vs 7.6±3.7 vs 10.9±2.5 in children snoring 3 nights/week, 4-6 nights/week and every night/week respectively; p = 0.032. Concerning nasal patency significant correlations were found with ANB (maxillary and jaw position with respect to the cranial base, NS∧Ar (growth predictor, sumangle, FMA (total divergence, SnaSnp∧GoMe (inferior divergence, BaN∧PtGn (facial growth pattern, Phw1_PsP (posterosuperior airway space, AHC3H (the horizontal distance between the most anterosuperior point of the hyoid bone and the third cervical vertebra.The present study supports the relationship between nasal obstruction and specific craniofacial characteristics in children with primary snoring and lead us to hypothesize that nasal obstruction might explain the indirect link between snoring and cephalometric alterations.

  4. Study of type a and b behavior patterns in patients with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

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    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: People with type A behavior pattern are reported to have more stress, nervousness, and anxiety. In this study, MS patients had more characteristics of type A than type B behavior. This behavior was increased in individuals with EDSS score >4.5.

  5. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  6. Momentary patterns of covariation between specific affects and interpersonal behavior: Linking relationship science and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jaclyn M; Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Scott, Lori N; Hallquist, Michael N; Lazarus, Sophie A; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Relationships are among the most salient factors affecting happiness and wellbeing for individuals and families. Relationship science has identified the study of dyadic behavioral patterns between couple members during conflict as an important window in to relational functioning with both short-term and long-term consequences. Several methods have been developed for the momentary assessment of behavior during interpersonal transactions. Among these, the most popular is the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF), which organizes social behavior into a set of discrete behavioral constructs. This study examines the interpersonal meaning of the SPAFF codes through the lens of interpersonal theory, which uses the fundamental dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation to organize interpersonal behavior. A sample of 67 couples completed a conflict task, which was video recorded and coded using SPAFF and a method for rating momentary interpersonal behavior, the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID). Actor partner interdependence models in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework were used to study the covariation of SPAFF codes and CAID ratings. Results showed that a number of SPAFF codes had clear interpersonal signatures, but many did not. Additionally, actor and partner effects for the same codes were strongly consistent with interpersonal theory's principle of complementarity. Thus, findings reveal points of convergence and divergence in the 2 systems and provide support for central tenets of interpersonal theory. Future directions based on these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  8. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  9. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global NDVI Trends: Correlations with Climate and Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Y.; Li, S.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Changes in vegetation activity are driven by multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, which can be reflected by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from satellite. In this paper, NDVI trends from 1982 to 2012 are first estimated by the Theil-Sen median slope method to explore their spatial and temporal patterns. Then the impact of climate variables and human activity on the observed NDVI trends is analyzed. Our results show on average NDVI increased by 0.46×10-3 per year from 1982 to 2012 globally with decadal variations. For most regions of the world, a greening (increasing) - browning(decreasing) - greening (G-B-G) trend is observed over the periods 1982-2004, 1995-2004, and 2005-2012, respectively. A positive partial correlation of NDVI and temperature is observed in the first period but it decreases and occasionally becomes negative in the following periods, especially in the Humid Temperate and Dry Domain Regions. This suggests a weakened effect of temperature on vegetation growth. Precipitation, on the other hand, is found to have a positive impact on the NDVI trend. This effect becomes stronger in the third period of 1995-2004, especially in the Dry Domain Region. Anthropogenic effects and human activities, derived here from the Human Footprint Dataset and the associated Human Influence Index (HII), have varied impacts on the magnitude (absolute value) of the NDVI trends across continents. Significant positive effects are found in Asia, Africa, and Europe, suggesting that intensive human activity could accelerate the change in NDVI and vegetation. A more accurate attribution of vegetation change to specific climatic and anthropogenic factors is instrumental to understand vegetation dynamics and requires further research.

  11. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  12. Evolution of the binge drinking pattern in college students: neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition.

  13. Pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oladele David Ayoola; Ohwodo Harry; Odubela Oluwatosin; Odunukwe Nkiru Nonyelum; David Nkiruka; Ezechi Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor Chidinma Victoria; Oke Bamidele; Kalejaiye Olufunto Olufela; Somefun Esther Oluwatosin; Ezeobi Paschal Mbaneifo; Gbajabiamila Titilola; Adu Rosemary Adagu; Onwujekwe Dan Ifeanyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern, challenges and correlates of condom use among Nigerians living with HIV Infection. Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire study among HIV positive adults attending an HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Data entry and analysis were done with Epi-info version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of respondents was 35 (SD=7.7; range: 17-58 years) and mean age at sexual debut was 20 years old (range: 7-37 years). Majority were women (66.6%), had at least secondary school education(91.1%), married (68.2%) , on ART (50.7%) and knew their partners HIV status(60.9%). The rate of condom use at last sex act was 65.9%, but only 48.8% used condom consistently. Factors associated with condom use were male gender (OR=2.43, CI=1.35-4.33, P=0.002), less than secondary school education (OR=3.12, CI=1.04-9.28, P=0.05) and Not knowing partner’s HIV status (OR=1.90, CI=1.04-3.80, P=0.04). Refusal to use condom (28.4%) were as a result of pregnancy intention, undesirability of condom in marriage and decreased sexual pleasure.Conclusion:There is low consistent condom use rate of 48.8% among this cohort despite their exposure to behavioural change messages. A review of the present counselling strategy and combination prevention is therefore advocated.

  14. A phenotypic structure and neural correlates of compulsive behaviors in adolescents.

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    Chantale Montigny

    Full Text Available A compulsivity spectrum has been hypothesized to exist across Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD, Eating Disorders (ED, substance abuse (SA and binge-drinking (BD. The objective was to examine the validity of this compulsivity spectrum, and differentiate it from an externalizing behaviors dimension, but also to look at hypothesized personality and neural correlates.A community-sample of adolescents (N=1938; mean age 14.5 years, and their parents were recruited via high-schools in 8 European study sites. Data on adolescents' psychiatric symptoms, DSM diagnoses (DAWBA and substance use behaviors (AUDIT and ESPAD were collected through adolescent- and parent-reported questionnaires and interviews. The phenotypic structure of compulsive behaviors was then tested using structural equation modeling. The model was validated using personality variables (NEO-FFI and TCI, and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analysis.Compulsivity symptoms best fit a higher-order two factor model, with ED and OCD loading onto a compulsivity factor, and BD and SA loading onto an externalizing factor, composed also of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms. The compulsivity construct correlated with neuroticism (r=0.638; p ≤ 0.001, conscientiousness (r=0.171; p ≤ 0.001, and brain gray matter volume in left and right orbitofrontal cortex, right ventral striatum and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The externalizing factor correlated with extraversion (r=0.201; p ≤ 0.001, novelty-seeking (r=0.451; p ≤ 0.001, and negatively with gray matter volume in the left inferior and middle frontal gyri.Results suggest that a compulsivity spectrum exists in an adolescent, preclinical sample and accounts for variance in both OCD and ED, but not substance-related behaviors, and can be differentiated from an externalizing spectrum.

  15. The heritability and genetic correlates of mobile phone use: a twin study of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Zhu, Gu; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-02-01

    There has been almost no overlap between behavior genetics and consumer behavior research, despite each field's importance in understanding society. In particular, both have neglected to study genetic influences on consumer adoption and usage of new technologies -- even technologies as important as the mobile phone, now used by 5.8 out of 7.0 billion people on earth. To start filling this gap, we analyzed self-reported mobile phone use, intelligence, and personality traits in two samples of Australian teenaged twins (mean ages 14.2 and 15.6 years), totaling 1,036 individuals. ACE modeling using Mx software showed substantial heritabilities for how often teens make voice calls (.60 and .34 in samples 1 and 2, respectively) and for how often they send text messages (.53 and. 50). Shared family environment - including neighborhood, social class, parental education, and parental income (i.e., the generosity of calling plans that parents can afford for their teens) -- had much weaker effects. Multivariate modeling based on cross-twin, cross-trait correlations showed negative genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and intelligence (around -.17), and positive genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and extraversion (about .20 to .40). Our results have implications for assessing the risks of mobile phone use such as radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and driving accidents, for studying adoption and use of other emerging technologies, for understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive and personality traits that predict consumer behavior, and for challenging the common assumption that consumer behavior is shaped entirely by culture, media, and family environment.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

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    Chi Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students

  17. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women.

  18. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

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    Shahar Arzy

    Full Text Available A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  19. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

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    Richard Lowry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA and participation in daily PA (DPA, vigorous PA (VPA, muscle-strengthening activity (MSA, viewing television (TV, and using computers or video games (C/VG. A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors.

  20. Correlation dimension of collective versus individual pedestrian movement patterns in crowd-quakes: A case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Liping; Song, Weiguo; Ma, Jian; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Video recording right before the Love Parade, Duisburg (Germany) crowd-quake, occurred on 24 July 2010, has been analysed in order to investigate the spatial properties of the crowd (collective case) and those of the single pedestrians in the crowd (individual case). The Grassberger-Procaccia correlation dimension, well known to be able to distinguish patterns in spatial point processes, was used. Our results for this case-study reveal that crowd and single pedestrians are characterized by different spatial behaviour: the whole crowd behaves as a quasi-homogeneous spatial point process through time, with an averaged correlation dimension of about 1.92; while the single pedestrians show a quite large variation of correlation dimensions indicating different spatial patterns, ranging from clustered to quasi-homogeneous.

  1. Efficient face recognition using local derivative pattern and shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bikram K.; Alam, Mohammad S.; Chowdhury, Suparna

    2016-04-01

    An improved shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation technique is proposed in this paper for face recognition which can accommodate the detrimental effects of noise, illumination, and other 3D distortions such as expression and rotation variations. This technique utilizes a third order local derivative pattern operator (LDP3) followed by a shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (SPFJTC) operation. The local derivative pattern operator ensures better facial feature extraction in a variable environment while the SPFJTC yields robust correlation output for the desired signals. The performance of the proposed method is determined by using the Yale Face Database, Yale Face Database B, and Georgia Institute of Technology Face Database. This technique has been found to yield better face recognition rate compared to alternate JTC based techniques.

  2. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    The learned helplessness paradigm has been repeatedly shown to correlate with neurobiological aspects of depression in humans. In this model, rodents are exposed inescapable foot-shock in order to reveal susceptibility to escape deficit, defined as 'learned helplessness' (LH). Few methods are available to probe the neurobiological aspects underlying the differences in susceptibility in the living animal, thus far being limited to studies examining regional neurochemical changes with microdialysis. With the widespread implementation of small animal neuroimaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), it is now possible to explore the living brain on a systems level to define regional changes that may correlate with vulnerability to stress. In this study, 12 wild type Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 40 minutes of inescapable foot-shock followed by metabolic imaging using 2-deoxy-2[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) 1 hour later. The escape test was performed on these rats 48 hours later (to accommodate radiotracer decay), where they were given the opportunity to press a lever to shut off the shock. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to investigate potential correlations (Pearson Regression Coefficients) between regional 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock and subsequent learned helpless behavior (time to finish the test; number of successful lever presses within 20 seconds of shock onset). ROI analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between time to finish and 18-FDG uptake, and a negative correlation between lever presses and uptake, in the medial thalamic area (p=0.033, p=0.036). This ROI included the paraventricular thalamus, mediodorsal thalamus, and the habenula. In an effort to account for possible spillover artifact, the posterior thalamic area (including ventral medial and lateral portions) was also evaluated but did not reveal significant correlations (p=0.870, p=0.897). No other significant

  3. Reproductive behavior in the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia: ethogram of reproductive body patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Troy M; Havenhand, Jon N

    2003-06-01

    Squids use a diverse range of body patterns for communication. Each pattern consists of a series of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components that are under neural control and can change within fractions of a second. Here we describe an ethogram of 48 body pattern components from in situ observations of reproductively active Sepioteuthis australis. In addition, we identify the total time and average duration that each component is shown, to a resolution of 1 s. Our results suggest that only a few components (e.g., "Golden epaulettes," "Stitchwork fins," and "Rigid arms") are temporally common, that is, shown for more than 80% of the time. In contrast to the component classification reported for other species of squid, for this species we suggest a classification system consisting of "short acute" (lasting for 60 s). Several body patterning components were previously unreported, as were some of the combinations observed. The significance of these patterning components is discussed within the context of the associated behaviors of the squid on the spawning grounds.

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Field Enhancement Behavior of ZnO Nanorods Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Tang; Lin Du; Wen-hui Pang; Jing-jing Zheng; Xiao-chun Tian; Jin-liang Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    We provide a new way to prepare ZnO nanorods pattern from the solution composed of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and Zn(NO3)2.The substrate is ITO substrate covered by well ordered Au islands.Since Au and the underneath ITO substrate have two different nucleation rates in the initial stage of heterogeneous nucleation process,the subsequent ZnO growth on the quick nucleating area takes place under diffusion control and is able to confine the synthesis of ZnO nanorods to specific locations.The concentrations of zinc nitrate and HMT are well adjusted to show the possibility of the new route for the patterning of the ZnO nanorods.Furthermore,the nanorods pattern was characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence and the performance of field emission property from ZnO nanorod patterns was investigated.The ZnO nanorods pattern with a good alignment also shows a good field enhancement behavior with a high value of the field enhancement factor.

  5. Smile analysis in different facial patterns and its correlation with underlying hard tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Neha; Kapoor, DN; Verma, Santosh; Bharadwaj, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background The subject’s inherent growth pattern can be an effective factor in characteristics of smile. More vertical growth in the posterior maxilla than in the anterior maxilla could result in a changed relationship between the occlusal plane and the curvature of the lower lip upon smile. In order to broaden the understanding of how smile gets affected by growth pattern and the underlying hard tissues, the present study was undertaken to compare smile in various growth patterns, to determi...

  6. Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Michelle E; Logsdon, Miles L; Loughlin, Thomas R; Van Blaricom, Glenn R

    2011-04-01

    Fractal geometry and other multi-scale analyses have become popular tools for investigating spatial patterns of animal distributions in heterogeneous environments. In theory, changes in patterns of animal distributions with changes in scale reflect transitions between the controlling influences of one environmental factor or process over another. In an effort to find linkages between Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their environment, the objective of this study was to determine if the spatial distribution of Steller sea lions at sea displayed similar scaling properties to the variation of two environmental features, including bathymetry and sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, distributions of Steller sea lion point patterns were examined with respect to measurements of bathymetric complexity. From February 2000 to May 2004, satellite transmitters were deployed on 10 groups of juvenile Steller sea lions (n=52) at eight different locations within the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Indices of fractal dimension were calculated for each group of sea lions using a unit square box-counting method, whereas indices of bathymetry and SST patchiness were derived by conducting a variance ratio analysis over the same scales. Distributions of Steller sea lions at sea displayed self-similar fractal patterns, suggesting that individuals were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clumps within clumps across scales, and foraging behavior was likely influenced by a scale invariant mechanism. Patterns of bathymetric variability also were self-similar, whereas patterns of SST variability were scale dependent and failed to retain self-similar spatial structure at larger scales. These results indicate that the distributions of Steller sea lions at sea were more influenced by bathymetry than SST at the scales examined, but scale-dependent patterns in the distribution of Steller sea lions at sea or linkages with SST may have been apparent if analyses

  7. Mixture of Switching Linear Dynamics to Discover Behavior Patterns in Object Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Julian F P; Englebienne, Gwenn; Gavrila, Dariu M

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel non-parametric Bayesian model to jointly discover the dynamics of low-level actions and high-level behaviors of tracked objects. In our approach, actions capture both linear, low-level object dynamics, and an additional spatial distribution on where the dynamic occurs. Furthermore, behavior classes capture high-level temporal motion dependencies in Markov chains of actions, thus each learned behavior is a switching linear dynamical system. The number of actions and behaviors is discovered from the data itself using Dirichlet Processes. We are especially interested in cases where tracks can exhibit large kinematic and spatial variations, e.g. person tracks in open environments, as found in the visual surveillance and intelligent vehicle domains. The model handles real-valued features directly, so no information is lost by quantizing measurements into 'visual words', and variations in standing, walking and running can be discovered without discrete thresholds. We describe inference using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling and validate our approach on several artificial and real-world pedestrian track datasets from the surveillance and intelligent vehicle domain. We show that our model can distinguish between relevant behavior patterns that an existing state-of-the-art hierarchical model for clustering and simpler model variants cannot. The software and the artificial and surveillance datasets are made publicly available for benchmarking purposes.

  8. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms.

  9. The effects of regional angling effort, angler behavior, and harvesting efficiency on landscape patterns of overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Len M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Lester, Nigel; Kushneriuk, Rob

    2011-10-01

    We used a coupled social-ecological model to study the landscape-scale patterns emerging from a mobile population of anglers exploiting a spatially structured walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery. We systematically examined how variations in angler behaviors (i.e., relative importance of walleye catch rate in guiding fishing site choices), harvesting efficiency (as implied by varying degrees of inverse density-dependent catchability of walleye), and angler population size affected the depletion of walleye stocks across 157 lakes located near Thunder Bay (Ontario, Canada). Walleye production biology was calibrated using lake-specific morphometric and edaphic features, and angler fishing site choices were modeled using an empirically grounded multi-attribute utility function. We found support for the hypothesis of sequential collapses of walleye stocks across the landscape in inverse proportionality of travel cost from the urban residence of anglers. This pattern was less pronounced when the regional angler population was low, density-dependent catchability was absent or low, and angler choices of lakes in the landscape were strongly determined by catch rather than non-catch-related attributes. Thus, our study revealed a systematic pattern of high catch importance reducing overfishing potential at low and aggravating overfishing potential at high angler population sizes. The analyses also suggested that density-dependent catchability might have more serious consequences for regional overfishing states than variations in angler behavior. We found little support for the hypotheses of systematic overexploitation of the most productive walleye stocks and homogenized catch-related qualities among lakes sharing similar access costs to anglers. Therefore, one should not expect anglers to systematically exploit the most productive fisheries or to equalize catch rates among lakes through their mobility and other behaviors. This study underscores that understanding landscape

  10. Behavioral and neurobiological correlates of childhood apraxia of speech in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Lorenzini, Irene; Fiori, Simona; Graziosi, Valentina; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pasquariello, Rosa; Cipriani, Paola; Cioni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a neurogenic Speech Sound Disorder whose etiology and neurobiological correlates are still unclear. In the present study, 32 Italian children with idiopathic CAS underwent a comprehensive speech and language, genetic and neuroradiological investigation aimed to gather information on the possible behavioral and neurobiological markers of the disorder. The results revealed four main aggregations of behavioral symptoms that indicate a multi-deficit disorder involving both motor-speech and language competence. Six children presented with chromosomal alterations. The familial aggregation rate for speech and language difficulties and the male to female ratio were both very high in the whole sample, supporting the hypothesis that genetic factors make substantial contribution to the risk of CAS. As expected in accordance with the diagnosis of idiopathic CAS, conventional MRI did not reveal macrostructural pathogenic neuroanatomical abnormalities, suggesting that CAS may be due to brain microstructural alterations.

  11. Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of polyolefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers' optimizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.

  12. Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero- geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of poly- olefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers’ op- timizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.

  13. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators.

  14. Clustering of Slow Learners Behavior for Discovery of Optimal Patterns of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakaa Z. Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available with the increased rates of the slow learners (SL enrolled in schools nowadays; the schools realized that the traditional academic curriculum is inadequate. Some schools have developed a special curricula that are particularly suited a slow learner while others are focusing their efforts on the devising of better and more effective methods and techniques in teaching. In the other hand, knowledge discovery and data mining techniques certainly can help to understand more about these students and their educational behaviors. This paper discusses the clustering of elementary school slow learner students behavior for the discovery of optimal learning patterns that enhance their learning capabilities. The development stages of an integrated E-Learning and mining system are briefed. The results show that after applying the clustering algorithms Expectation maximization and K-Mean on the slow learner’s data, a reduced set of five optimal patterns list (RSWG, RWSG, RWGS, GRSW, and SGWR is reached. Actually, the students followed these five patterns reached grads higher than 75%. Therefore, the proposed system is significant for slow learners, teachers and schools.

  15. Cerebral correlates of depressed behavior in rats, visualized using /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldecott-Hazard, S.; Mazziotta, J.; Phelps, M.

    1988-06-01

    /sup 14/C-2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was used to investigate changes in the rate of cerebral metabolism in 3 rat models of depressed behavior. The models had already been established in the literature and were induced by injections of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, withdrawal from chronic amphetamine, or stress. We verified that exploratory behaviors were depressed in each model and that an antidepressant drug, tranylcypromine, prevented the depressed behavior in each model. 2DG studies revealed that the rate of regional glucose metabolism was elevated bilaterally in the lateral habenula of each of the 3 models. Regional metabolic rates were reduced in each model in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus, and inferior colliculus. Forebrain global metabolic rates were also reduced in each of the models. Tranylcypromine prevented the elevated rate of lateral habenula metabolism seen in each of the models alone but did not significantly affect the rates of global metabolism. Our findings of identical metabolic changes in each of the models indicate that these changes are not idiosyncratic to a particular model; rather, they correlate with a generalizable state of depressed exploratory behavior in rats.

  16. Breast-feeding behavioral patterns among La Leche League mothers: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A

    1984-06-01

    Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.

  17. Control of traveling-wave oscillations and bifurcation behavior in central pattern generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Alexandra S.; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Understanding synchronous and traveling-wave oscillations, particularly as they relate to transitions between different types of behavior, is a central problem in modeling biological systems. Here, we address this problem in the context of central pattern generators (CPGs). We use contraction theory to establish the global stability of a traveling-wave or synchronous oscillation, determined by the type of coupling. This opens the door to better design of coupling architectures to create the desired type of stable oscillations. We then use coupling that is both amplitude and phase dependent to create either globally stable synchronous or traveling-wave solutions. Using the CPG motor neuron network of a leech as an example, we show that while both traveling and synchronous oscillations can be achieved by several types of coupling, the transition between different types of behavior is dictated by a specific coupling architecture. In particular, it is only the “repulsive” but not the commonly used phase or rotational coupling that can explain the transition to high-frequency synchronous oscillations that have been observed in the heartbeat pattern generator of a leech. This shows that the overall dynamics of a CPG can be highly sensitive to the type of coupling used, even for coupling architectures that are widely believed to produce the same qualitative behavior.

  18. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. Results The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009). Conclusion Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. PMID:28182139

  19. Personalized Behavior Pattern Recognition and Unusual Event Detection for Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have become widely used for obtaining help in emergencies, such as accidents, crimes, or health emergencies. The smartphone is an essential device that can record emergency situations, which can be used for clues or evidence, or as an alert system in such situations. In this paper, we focus on mobile-based identification of potentially unusual, or abnormal events, occurring in a mobile user's daily behavior patterns. For purposes of this research, we have classified events as “unusual” for a mobile user when an event is an infrequently occurring one from the user's normal behavior patterns–all of which are collected and recorded on a user's mobile phone. We build a general unusual event classification model to be automated on the smartphone for use by any mobile phone users. To classify both normal and unusual events, we analyzed the activity, location, and audio sensor data collected from 20 mobile phone users to identify these users' personalized normal daily behavior patterns and any unusual events occurring in their daily activity. We used binary fusion classification algorithms on the subjects' recorded experimental data and ultimately identified the most accurately performing fusion algorithm for unusual event detection.

  20. A Buffer Model Account of Behavioral and ERP Patterns in the Von Restorff Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri-Maria Kamp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined a mechanistic model of episodic encoding with theories on the functional significance of two event-related potential (ERP components to develop an integrated account for the Von Restorff effect, which refers to the enhanced recall probability for an item that deviates in some feature from other items in its study list. The buffer model of Lehman and Malmberg (2009, 2013 can account for this effect such that items encountered during encoding enter an episodic buffer where they are actively rehearsed. When a deviant item is encountered, in order to re-allocate encoding resources towards this item the buffer is emptied from its prior content, a process labeled “compartmentalization”. Based on theories on their functional significance, the P300 component of the ERP may co-occur with this hypothesized compartmentalization process, while the frontal slow wave may index rehearsal. We derived predictions from this integrated model for output patterns in free recall, systematic variance in ERP components, as well as associations between the two types of measures in a dataset of 45 participants who studied and freely recalled lists of the Von Restorff type. Our major predictions were confirmed and the behavioral and physiological results were consistent with the predictions derived from the model. These findings demonstrate that constraining mechanistic models of episodic memory with brain activity patterns and generating predictions for relationships between brain activity and behavior can lead to novel insights into the relationship between the brain, the mind, and behavior.

  1. Combining point correlation maps with self-organising maps to compare observed and simulated atmospheric teleconnection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freja K. Hunt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We use a new method based on point correlation maps and self-organising maps (SOMs to identify teleconnection patterns in 60 yr of National Centres for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR sea level pressure (SLP re-analysis data. The most prevalent patterns are the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM. Asymmetries are found between base points in opposite centres of action of the NAO and the Pacific North America pattern (PNA. The SOM-based method is a powerful tool that allows us to efficiently assess how realistically teleconnections are reproduced in any climate model. The degree of agreement between modelled and re-analysis-based teleconnections (or between different models can be summarised in a single plot. Here, we illustrate this by assessing the skill of the medium complexity climate model FORTE (Fast Ocean Rapid Troposphere Experiment. FORTE reproduces some realistic teleconnections, such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO, the NAO, the PNA, the SAM, the African Monsoon and ENSO, along with several other teleconnections, which resemble to varying degrees the corresponding NCEP patterns. However, FORTE tends to underestimate the strength of the correlation patterns and the patterns tend to be slightly too zonal. The accuracy of frequency of occurrence is variable between patterns. The Indian Ocean is a region where FORTE performs poorly, as it does not reproduce the teleconnection patterns linked to the Indian Monsoon. In contrast, the North and equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic are reasonably well reproduced.

  2. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  3. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: Behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eWieber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention-behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!. It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Martin K K; El-Bassel, Nabila; Adam, Philippe C G; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; West, Brooke S; Bazazi, Alexander R; De Wit, John B F; Ismail, Rusli; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Fishermen in Southeast Asia have been found to be highly vulnerable to HIV, with research evidence highlighting the role of sexual risk behaviors. This study aims to estimate the rate of HIV as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Malaysian fishermen, and the risky sexual and injection drug use behaviors that may contribute to these infections. The study also includes an assessment of socio-demographic, occupational and behavioral correlates of testing positive for HIV or HCV, and socio-demographic and occupational correlates of risk behaviors. The study had a cross-sectional design and recruited 406 fishermen through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants self-completed a questionnaire and provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing. We conducted and compared results of analyses of both unweighted data and data weighted with the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Of the participating fishermen, 12.4% were HIV positive and 48.6% had HCV infection. Contrary to expectations and findings from previous research, most fishermen (77.1%) were not sexually active. More than a third had a history of injection drug use, which often occurred during fishing trips on commercial vessels and during longer stays at sea. Of the fishermen who injected drugs, 42.5% reported unsafe injection practices in the past month. Reporting a history of injection drug use increased the odds of testing HIV positive by more than 6 times (AOR = 6.22, 95% CIs [2.74, 14.13]). Most fishermen who injected drugs tested positive for HCV. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use, being older than 25 years, working on a commercial vessel and spending four or more days at sea per fishing trip. There is an urgent need to strengthen current harm reduction and drug treatment programs for Malaysian fishermen who inject drugs, especially among fishermen who work on commercial vessels and engage in deep-sea fishing.

  5. Predicting the Failure Behavior of Textile Composite Laminates by Using a Multi-Scale Correlating Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Xiuhua; Wang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the elastic and failure behavior of textile composite laminates by using an analytical multi-scale correlating approach. The analyses are performed under the four scale levels, i.e. the laminate scale, representative unit cell (RUC) scale, tow architecture scale and fiber/matrix scale levels. The correlation between different scales is derived based on the continuum mechanics and homogenization method from which the stress and strain fields in multiple scales can be obtained concurrently. Effective modulus and ultimate failure strengths of different textile composite (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave) laminates are predicted solely from the corresponding constituent properties, braid geometrical parameters and lay-up. The damage and failure mechanisms at the constituent level are also determined by the micromechanical failure criteria. All the predicted results compare favorably with available experimental data. Parametric studies are also performed to examine the effect of various mechanical and geometrical parameters on the resulting mechanical properties.

  6. [Emotion regulation and pain : Behavioral and neuronal correlates: a transdiagnostic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konietzny, K; Suchan, B; Kreddig, N; Hasenbring, M I; Chehadi, O

    2016-10-01

    Emotions and emotion regulation are of special importance in the perception and modulation of pain but the mechanisms underlying this reciprocal relationship remain unclear. The transdiagnostic model provides an approach to explain the link between pain and emotion regarding cognitive and neuronal mechanisms and aims to identify mutual processes, which are relevant for both. Structural and functional imaging studies of pain indicate the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures, which also play an important role in emotion regulation. While numerous studies have investigated emotion regulation and their correlates in the central nervous system in pathological states, the research on emotion regulation in pain is still young. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of experimental and clinical studies of neuronal and behavioral correlates of pain-related emotion regulation. The current transdiagnostic approach may be able to enhance pain relief in the future.

  7. ANALYSIS CORRELATION OF 'UKBM' USING ON HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBER IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristrini Ristrini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The government effort to continuously increase the empowerment of community was held with the using of posyandu, namely posyandu revitalization. That strategy is hoped to increase knowledge of community on health efforts that has promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative nature. The knowledge and positive behavior from community member on any health efforts that have been done by government and community in using posyandu/poskesdes can be influenced by factors namely individual characteristic, environment and active role of community figure in the health sector. Methods: Analysis scope that has been done was in the border of data in Riskesdas 2007 and the re-interview did not held to deeply review the variables in the Riskesdes 2007. Further have been done the analysis of correlation between that variables to know the using of posyandu/poskesdes with hygienic behavior. Results: Further analysis result about correlation between the using of posyandu/poskesdes on hygienic behavior of household member in Indonesia, there were 27.36% of household that using the service in posyandu/poskesdes. There were 62.5% household asserted that they did not need any service of posyandu/poskesdes, because such as there were not any household member who is sick, pregnantor have not any baby/children under five years old. The main reasons (outside there were not any person who need the service to not using posyandu/poskesdes service was household characteristic. According to the area type, in the big city the reason "incompleteness of posyandu/poskesdes service in was more dominated, while in the village the main reason was the distance of service location. The not existence of posyandu/poskesdes was asserted as the reason to not using the service of posyandu/poskesdes with similar percentage between big city and village area. In overall the percentage of population above 10 years old who have proper behavior in the matter of BAB (Defecation

  8. Pattern discrimination of joint transform correlator based on wavelet subband filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chien; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2004-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a Gabor wavelet prefiltering prior to classical and binarized joint transform correlator implementation to enhance texture features of fingerprints. The frequency- and orientation-selective properties of the wavelet subband filter are utilized to extract important textural features for optimal correlation recognition. A selection criterion for wavelet subbands is derived, and it is shown that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio of the correlator is achieved by optimizing the threshold level. Simulation results show that the proposed method increases the discrimination power of the correlator, especially under noisy environments.

  9. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Heart Period in Infancy as Correlates of Later Oppositional Defiant and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Propper, Cathi; Rehder, Peter; Gueron-Sela, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors in childhood and adolescence are associated with distinct patterns of psychophysiological functioning, and that individual differences in these patterns have implications for developmental pathways to disorder. Very little is known about the…

  10. Early in vitro differentiation of mouse definitive endoderm is not correlated with progressive maturation of nuclear DNA methylation patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tajbakhsh

    Full Text Available The genome organization in pluripotent cells undergoing the first steps of differentiation is highly relevant to the reprogramming process in differentiation. Considering this fact, chromatin texture patterns that identify cells at the very early stage of lineage commitment could serve as valuable tools in the selection of optimal cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine applications. Here we report on the first-time use of high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence imaging and comprehensive topological cell-by-cell analyses with a novel image-cytometrical approach towards the identification of in situ global nuclear DNA methylation patterns in early endodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells (up to day 6, and the correlations of these patterns with a set of putative markers for pluripotency and endodermal commitment, and the epithelial and mesenchymal character of cells. Utilizing this in vitro cell system as a model for assessing the relationship between differentiation and nuclear DNA methylation patterns, we found that differentiating cell populations display an increasing number of cells with a gain in DNA methylation load: first within their euchromatin, then extending into heterochromatic areas of the nucleus, which also results in significant changes of methylcytosine/global DNA codistribution patterns. We were also able to co-visualize and quantify the concomitant stochastic marker expression on a per-cell basis, for which we did not measure any correlation to methylcytosine loads or distribution patterns. We observe that the progression of global DNA methylation is not correlated with the standard transcription factors associated with endodermal development. Further studies are needed to determine whether the progression of global methylation could represent a useful signature of cellular differentiation. This concept of tracking epigenetic progression may prove useful in the selection of cell phenotypes for future regenerative

  11. An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the biomedically and commercially valuable squid Loligo pealei off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, R T; Maxwell, M R; Shashar, N; Loew, E R; Boyle, K L

    1999-08-01

    Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system. Because a thorough knowledge of body patterns is fundamental to an understanding of squid behavior, we have compiled and described an ethogram (a catalog of body patterns and associated behaviors) for Loligo pealei. Observations of this species were made over a period of three years (> or = 440 h) and under a variety of behavioral circumstances. The natural behavior of the squid was filmed on spawning grounds off Cape Cod (northwestern Atlantic), and behavioral trials in the laboratory were run in large tanks. The body pattern components--34 chromatic (including 4 polarization components), 5 postural, and 12 locomotor--are each described in detail. Eleven of the most common body patterns are also described. Four of them are chronic, or long-lasting, patterns for crypsis; an example is Banded Bottom Sitting, which produces disruptive coloration against the substrate. The remaining seven patterns are acute; they are mostly used in intraspecific communication among spawning squids. Two of these acute patterns--Lateral Display and Mate Guarding Pattern--are used during agonistic bouts and mate guarding; they are visually bright and conspicuous, which may subject the squids to predation; but we hypothesize that schooling and diurnal activity may offset the disadvantage presented by increased visibility to predators. The rapid changeability and the diversity of body patterns used for crypsis and communication are discussed in the context of the behavioral ecology of this species.

  12. Gender Differences in Communication Behaviors, Spatial Proximity Patterns, and Mobility Habits

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Dong; Dong, Yuxiao; Striegel, Aaron D; Hachen, David; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    The existence of gender differences in the structure and composition of social networks is a well established finding in the social and behavioral sciences, but researchers continue to debate whether structural, dispositional, or life course factors are the primary driver of these differences. In this paper we extend work on gender differences in social networks to patterns of interaction, propinquity, and connectivity captured via a social sensing platform comprised of an ensemble of individuals' phone calls, text messaging, face-to-face interactions, and traces of their mobility activities. We attempt to isolate dispositional from other factors by focusing on a relatively homogeneous population on a relatively closed setting at the same stage in the life course. Analysis across three different networks along with mobility data reveals systematic gender differences in terms of communicative, distributional, mobility, and spatial proximity tendencies. Most importantly, some patterns observed in the communicat...

  13. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  14. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  15. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

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    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  16. Assessing behavioral patterns of Internet addiction and drug abuse among high school students

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    Nemati Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior

  17. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2016-11-27

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat’ swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼ 65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾ 0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼ 50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 hour prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼ 20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a “rise and sink” pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 hour before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and

  18. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2017-02-01

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a Norwegian fjord (150 m) with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat' swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 h prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a "rise and sink" pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 h before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and negative

  19. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommuri Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  20. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence: an event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Arad, Hen; Zysberg, Leehu

    2013-08-14

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by comparing ERPs elicited in trials using pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. The effects of these emotion-inducing pictures were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. Behavioral results revealed a significant valence×EI group interaction effect since valence ratings were lower for unpleasant pictures and higher for pleasant pictures in the high EI group compared with the low EI group. The groups did not differ with respect to neutral picture ratings. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P2 (200-300ms post-stimulus) and P3 (310-450ms post-stimulus) ERP components in response to emotional and neutral pictures, at posterior-parietal as well as at frontal scalp locations. This may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional stimuli at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study also underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI.

  1. The impact of spatial and temporal patterns on multi-cellular behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Djordje L.

    What makes a fruit fly a fruit fly? Essentially this question stems from one of the most fascinating problems in biology: how a single cell (fertilized egg) can give rise to a fully grown animal. To be able to answer this question, the importance to how spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression influence the development of an organism must be understood. After all, fruit fly larvae are segmented, while fertilized eggs are not. Pattern formation is fundamental to establishing this organization of the developing embryo with the ultimate goal being the precise arrangements of specialized cells and tissues within each organ in an adult organism. The research presented here showcases the examples of studies that assess the impact spatial and temporal protein patterns have on the behavior of a collection of cells. By introducing new experimental, non-traditional techniques we developed model systems that allowed us to examine the dependence of the strength of adhesion of cells on the protein organization on sub-cellular, micron length scales, and to investigate how epithelial cell sheets coordinate their migration incorporating individual cell locomotion, molecular signal propagation and different boundary conditions. The first part of this dissertation presents a photolithography-based silanization patterning technique that allowed us to homogeneously pattern large areas with high precision. This method is then applied to organizing cell adhesion-promoting proteins on surfaces for the purposes of studying and manipulating cell behavior. We show how the strength of adhesion is dependent on high local density of an adhesive extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The varied appeal of this technique is exhibited by showing its applicability to pattern stretched DNA, too. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the impact of spatial and temporal propagation of a molecular signal (ERK 1/2 MAPK) in migrating epithelial sheets during wound healing

  2. Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control during low and moderate intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ryan L; Chang, Yu-Kai; Brush, Christopher J; Kwok, Andrea N; Gordon, Valentina X; Alderman, Brandon L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of cognitive control elicited by a modified flanker task while exercising at low and moderate intensities. A secondary aim was to examine cognitive control processes at several time points during an acute bout of exercise to determine whether cognition is selectively influenced by the duration of exercise. Twenty-seven healthy participants completed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while exercising on a cycle ergometer at 40% and 60% VO2 peak and during a no-exercise seated control across three separate days. During task performance, continuous EEG was collected to assess neurocognitive function using the N2 and P3 event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Neurocognitive performance was assessed at 5, 15, and 25min time points during steady-state exercise. Regardless of intensity, behavioral findings revealed impaired accuracy during both exercise conditions for the flanker task trials that require greater cognitive control. However, faster reaction times were found during moderate-intensity exercise. Neuroelectric measures revealed increased N2 and P3 amplitudes during both exercise conditions relative to rest. Together, these findings suggest divergent effects of exercise on behavioral performance measures accompanied by an upregulation of cognitive control during aerobic exercise. These impairments are discussed in terms of dual-task paradigms and the transient hypofrontality theory.

  3. Correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Jinzhen; Sun, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the dynamic wetting behavior of thermally modified wood, Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) samples were thermally modified in an oven at 160, 180, 200, 220 or 240 °C for 4 h in this study. The dynamic contact angles and droplet volumes of water droplets on modified and unmodified wood surfaces were measured by sessile drop method, and their changing rates (expression index: K value and wetting slope) calculated by wetting models were illustrated for mapping the dynamic wetting process. The surface chemical components were also measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS), thus the relationship between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood were determined. The results indicated that thermal modification was capable of decreasing the dynamic wettability of wood, expressed in lowing spread and penetration speed of water droplets on wood surfaces. This change was more obvious with the increased heating temperature. The K values varied linearly with the chemical components parameter (mass loss, O/C ratio, and C1/C2 ratio), indicating a strong correlation between dynamic wetting behavior and chemical components of thermally modified wood.

  4. Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study

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    Lang Delia L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of correlation between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and aerosols over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    An accurate knowledge is needed on the complex relation between atmospheric trace gasses and aerosol variability and their sources to explain trace gases-aerosols-climate interaction and next-generation modeling of climate change and air quality. In this regard, we have used tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom Exponent (AE) obtained from satellite-based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/Aura and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua over South Asia. NO2-AOD correlation with coefficient r = 0.49 is determined over the landmass of South Asia during 2005-2015. Yearly mean NO2-AOD correlation over South Asia shows large variations ranging from r = 0.32 to 0.86 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The highest correlation (r = 0.66) is seen over eastern regions of Bangladesh and India, as well as adjoining areas of western Myanmar mostly linked to anthropogenic activities. A significant correlation (r = 0.59) associated with natural causes is found over some parts of Sistan region, located at the borders of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and adjoining territory. We find significant positive correlations for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons with r = 0.50 and r = 0.61, respectively. A linear regression on the annual correlation coefficients data suggests that NO2-AOD correlation is strengthening with an increase of 12.9% over South Asia during the study period. The spatial distribution of data slopes reveals positive trends in NO2-AOD correlation over megacities Lahore, Dhaka, Mumbai and Kolkata linked to growing anthropogenic activities. Singrauli city (India) has the highest correlation (r = 0.62) and 35% increase in correlation coefficient value per year. A negative correlation is observed for megacity Karachi (r = -0.37) suggesting the non-commonality of NO2 and aerosols emission sources. AE has also been used to discuss its correlation with NO2 over the areas with dominance of fine-mode aerosols.

  6. Is there a correlation between structural alterations and retinal sensitivity in morphological patterns of diabetic macular edema?

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    Abhishek R Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT enables enhanced visualization of retinal layers and delineation of structural alterations in diabetic macular edema (DME. Microperimetry (MP is a new technique that allows fundus-related testing of local retinal sensitivity. Combination of these two techniques would enable a structure-function correlation with insights into pathomechanism of vision loss in DME. To correlate retinal structural derangement with retinal sensitivity alterations in cases with diabetic macular edema, using SDOCT and MP. Prospective study of 34 eyes of 30 patients with DME. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, microperimetry and SDOCT. Four distinct morphological patterns of DME were identified- diffuse retinal thickening (DRT, cystoid macular edema (CME, schitic retinal thickening (SRT and neourosensory detachment (NSD of fovea. Some retinal loci presented with a mixture of above patterns There was significant difference in retinal thickness between groups (P<0.001. Focal retinal sensitivity measurement revealed relatively preserved retinal sensitivity in areas with DRT (13.8 dB, moderately reduced sensitivity (7.9 dB in areas with CME, and gross retinal sensitivity loss in areas with SRT (1.2 dB and NSD (4.7 dB (P<0.001. Analysis of regional scotoma depth demonstrated similar pattern. Retinal sensitivity showed better correlation to OCT pattern (r=-0.68, P<0.001 than retinal thickness (r=-0.44, P<0.001. Structure-function correlation allows better understanding of the pathophysiology of visual loss in different morphological types of DME. Classification of macular edema into these categories has implications on the prognosis and predictive value of treatment.

  7. Clinical and imaging correlates of EEG patterns in hospitalized patients with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Raoul; Stevens, Robert D; Kaplan, Peter W

    2013-04-01

    To identify the relationship between pathologic electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns, clinical and neuroradiological abnormalities, and outcome in hospitalized patients with acute encephalopathy. This 5-year cohort study was performed at an academic tertiary care center. EEGs in 154 patients with altered mental status were classified according to five predefined patterns: Isolated continuous slowing of background activity (theta, theta/delta, and delta activity) and patterns with slowing background activity with episodic transients [i.e., triphasic waves (TWs) or frontal intermittent delta activity (FIRDA)]. Clinical characteristics, blood tests and neuroimaging were compared among groups. Associations between EEG patterns and structural and non-structural abnormalities were calculated. Glasgow Outcome Score >3 at discharge was defined as favorable and 1-3 as unfavorable outcome. In multivariable analyses, theta was associated with brain atrophy (OR 2.6, p = 0.020), theta/delta with intracerebral hemorrhages (OR 6.8, p = 0.005), FIRDA with past cerebrovascular accidents (OR 2.7, p = 0.004), TWs with liver or multi-organ failure (OR 6, p = 0.004; OR 4, p = 0.039), and delta activity with alcohol/drug abuse with or without intoxication, and HIV infection (OR 3.8, p = 0.003; OR 9, p = 0.004). TWs were associated with death (OR 4.5, p = 0.005); theta/delta with unfavorable outcomes (OR 2.5, p = 0.033), while patients with FIRDA had favorable outcomes (OR 4.8, p = 0.004). In encephalopathic patients, well-defined EEG patterns are associated with specific pathological conditions and outcomes, suggesting that mechanistic hypotheses underlie these abnormal EEG patterns. To clarify the respective contributions of non-structural and structural abnormalities to encephalopathy reflected in specific EEG patterns, prospective studies using continuous EEG monitoring during the acute onset of encephalopathy are needed.

  8. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  9. Correlations of theory of mind deficits with clinical patterns and quality of life in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eUrbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the existence of theory of mind (ToM impairments in patients with schizophrenia. The clinical consequences of these impairments are currently under debate. Accumulated evidence suggests that ToM deficits are linked to negative and disorganization symptoms, but direct correlations are lacking. Moreover, it is unclear whether ToM deficits are related to reduced quality of life (QoL. Methods: To extend the understanding of objective (i.e., clinical symptoms and subjective (QoL correlates of impaired ToM, we assessed 206 patients with schizophrenia based on performance of an ecological task (Versailles-Situational Intention Reading, V-SIR, a Communication Disorders Scale (SCD, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Clinical Global Impression rating, and a QoL questionnaire (S-QoL. Statistical inferences were drawn from correlations analyses considering both factors/subscales aggregates and single items.Results: ToM performance was negatively correlated to disorganization and negative PANSS factors. Poor V-SIR performance was correlated with conceptual disorganization, difficulties in abstract thinking and apathy/social withdrawal. The SCD was correlated with negative, disorganization, and anxiety/depression PANSS factors. The S-QoL total score was not significantly correlated with ToM performance. Only the item difficulties in expressing feelings was significantly correlated with poorer V-SIR performance. Conclusions: We discuss the intriguing paucity of the results and what they reveal about the difficulties faced by psychiatrists with patients not expressing complaints about lack of social skills.

  10. Superplastic behavior of silica nanowires obtained by direct patterning of silsesquioxane-based precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mustafa; Wollschläger, Nicole; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Erdem Alaca, B.

    2017-03-01

    Silica nanowires spanning 10 μm-deep trenches are fabricated from different types of silsesquioxane-based precursors by direct e-beam patterning on silicon followed by release through deep reactive ion etching. Nanowire aspect ratios as large as 150 are achieved with a critical dimension of about 50 nm and nearly rectangular cross-sections. In situ bending tests are carried out inside a scanning electron microscope, where the etch depth of 10 μ {{m}} provides sufficient space for deformation. Silica NWs are indeed observed to exhibit superplastic behavior without fracture with deflections reaching the full etch depth, about two orders of magnitude larger than the nanowire thickness. A large-deformation elastic bending model is utilized for predicting the deviation from the elastic behavior. The results of forty different tests indicate a critical stress level of 0.1–0.4 GPa for the onset of plasticity. The study hints at the possibility of fabricating silica nanowires in a monolithic fashion through direct e-beam patterning of silsesquioxane-based resins. The fabrication technology is compatible with semiconductor manufacturing and provides silica nanowires with a very good structural integrity.

  11. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and élévation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % ± 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m± 39 m

  12. Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

  13. Biogeographic distribution patterns and their correlates in the diverse frog fauna of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF, yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical

  14. RXTE Observations of 1A 1744-361: Correlated Spectral and Timing Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Swank, J H; Markwardt, C B; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Swank, Jean H.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the transient low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system 1A 1744-361. We explore the X-ray intensity and spectral evolution of the source, perform timing analysis, and find that 1A 1744-361 shows `atoll' behavior during the outbursts. The color-color diagram indicates that this LMXB was observed in a low intensity spectrally hard (low-hard) state and in a high intensity `banana' state. The low-hard state shows a horizontal pattern in the color-color diagram, and the previously reported `dipper QPO' appears only during this state. We also perform energy spectral analyses, and report the first detection of broad iron emission line and iron absorption edge from 1A 1744-361.

  15. Meta-analysis of genome-wide expression patterns associated with behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey Bruce R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The information from multiple microarray experiments can be integrated in an objective manner via meta-analysis. However, multiple meta-analysis approaches are available and their relative strengths have not been directly compared using experimental data in the context of different gene expression scenarios and studies with different degrees of relationship. This study investigates the complementary advantages of meta-analysis approaches to integrate information across studies, and further mine the transcriptome for genes that are associated with complex processes such as behavioral maturation in honey bees. Behavioral maturation and division of labor in honey bees are related to changes in the expression of hundreds of genes in the brain. The information from various microarray studies comparing the expression of genes at different maturation stages in honey bee brains was integrated using complementary meta-analysis approaches. Results Comparison of lists of genes with significant differential expression across studies failed to identify genes with consistent patterns of expression that were below the selected significance threshold, or identified genes with significant yet inconsistent patterns. The meta-analytical framework supported the identification of genes with consistent overall expression patterns and eliminated genes that exhibited contradictory expression patterns across studies. Sample-level meta-analysis of normalized gene-expression can detect more differentially expressed genes than the study-level meta-analysis of estimates for genes that were well described by similar model parameter estimates across studies and had small variation across studies. Furthermore, study-level meta-analysis was well suited for genes that exhibit consistent patterns across studies, genes that had substantial variation across studies, and genes that did not conform to the assumptions of the sample-level meta-analysis. Meta

  16. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hisatomi

    Full Text Available In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  17. Correlation Between Executive Function Behaviors and Educational Achievement of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Developmental cordination disorder (DCD is a serious deficit in development of motor coordination, which affects educational achievements and daily life activities to a considerable extent. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate correlations between components of executive function and spelling and math performance of 7 - 11-year-old children with DCD. Materials and Methods A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 53 primary school children with DCD. Persian version of motor observation questionnaire for teachers (PMOQ-T was used to detect DCD. Executive functions and educational achievements of these children were evaluated using behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF and a researcher-made test, respectively. Results were analyzed through SPSS software (v. 21 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The findings showed that components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, working memory (r = -0.44, P < 0.01 and organization of material (r = -0.28, P < 0.05 were significantly correlated with the spelling test. And components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, shift (r = -0.38, P < 0. 01, working memory (r = -0.28, P < 0.05, and planning (r = -.29, P<0.05 were correlated with math test. Conclusions The results may help clinicians for early intervention and focus on related components of executive function to improve the educational performance of DCD children. Knowing that executive function skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potentiality of targeted math and spelling interventions for DCD children.

  18. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  19. Correlating Teenage Exposure to Rock/Rap Themes with Associated Behaviors and Thought Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Eva

    A concern to many interested in the development and growth of teenagers is a serious deterioration in the messages of some rock music. Rock music is considered a regenerative and revolutionary act by artists in the music industry--the energy center of a new culture. The psychological impact and meaning of rock music for adolescents is addressed as…

  20. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  1. Functional Behavior Pattern for Data Mart Based on the Attribute Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Paulraj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for huge volume of data in enterprise and corporate environment, fuel the demand of data warehousing. Data warehousing collects the data at different levels (i.e., departmental, operational, functional and stored as a collective data repository with better storage efficiency. Various data warehousing models concentrate on storing the data more efficiently and quickly. In addition accessibility of data from the warehouse needs better understanding of the structure in which the data layers are stored in the repository. However function requirements of users are not easily understood by the data warehouse model. It needs efficient decision support system to extract the required user demanded data from data warehouse. To handle the issue of functional decision support system to extract user relevant data, data marts are introduced. Data marts built separate functional data repository layers based on the departmental decision support requirements in the enterprise and corporate data applications. In our research work, we plan to built a Functional Layer Interfaced Data Mart Architecture (FLIDMA to provide a better decision support system for larger corporate and enterprise data applications. In this work, the functional behavior of the corporate system is analyzed, based on its operational goal to build layers of data storage repositories with relevant data attributes using functional behavior pattern (FBP. An experimental evaluation is conducted with benchmark datasets from UCI repository data sets and compared with existing multi-functional data warehousing model in terms of number of functional data attributes, attribute relativity, analysis of functional behavior.

  2. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  3. Dimensions, Patterns, and Personality Correlates of Drug Abuse in an Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Terrill R.

    1978-01-01

    Drug abuse scores from prisoners resulted in two factors describing lifetime use of cannabis versus opiates. Analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles versus drug abuse patterns indicated moderate, unidimensional relationship between variables. MMPI profiles of opiate users were similar to those identified in research…

  4. Patterns of dupuytren disease in fingers : studying correlations with a multivariate ordinal logit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Rosanne M.D.; Nooraee, Nazanin; Werker, Paul M.N.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dupuytren disease affects fingers in a variable fashion. Knowledge about specific disease patterns (phenotype) based on location and severity of the disease is lacking. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 344 primary affected hands with Dupuytren disease were physically examined. The

  5. Distance measurements by speckle correlation of objective speckle patterns, structured by the illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Objective speckles produced by two beams overlapping and interfering on a rough object surface contain information about the angle of incidence of the two beams, and how well they overlap. We obtain the autocovariance function for such a speckle pattern, and demonstrate how the information carrie...

  6. Towards an ethnographic understanding of the European Marriage Pattern: Global correlates and links with female status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.; van Zanden, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution compares the EMP, and the associated Western European family system (inheritance practices, intergenerational co-residence and exogamy), with what is known about family systems and marriage patterns in the rest of the world, with a special focus on the consequences of these family

  7. Maize Leaf Epiphytic Bacteria Diversity Patterns Are Genetically Correlated with Resistance to Fungal Pathogen Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant leaves host a specific set of microbial epiphytes. These phyllosphere organisms form a large community, with annual crops alone covering millions of hectares each year. Host plant genetic factors and abiotic stresses such as UV-B are key in shaping patterns of epiphyte diversity; we analyzed...

  8. [Geographic patterns and ecological factors correlates of snake species richness in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bo; Huang, Yong; Chen, Yue-Ying; Hu, Jun-Hua; Guo, Xian-Guang; Wang, Yue-Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Understanding large-scale geographic patterns of species richness as well its underlying mechanisms are among the most significant objectives of macroecology and biogeography. The ecological hypothesis is one of the most accepted explanations of this mechanism. Here, we studied the geographic patterns of snakes and investigated the relationships between species richness and ecological factors in China at a spatial resolution of 100 km×100 km. We obtained the eigenvector-based spatial filters by Principal Coordinates Neighbor Matrices, and then analyzed ecological factors by multiple regression analysis. The results indicated several things: (1) species richness of snakes showed multi-peak patterns along both the latitudinal and longitudinal gradient. The areas of highest richness of snake are tropics and subtropical areas of Oriental realm in China while the areas of lowest richness are Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the grasslands and deserts in northern China, Yangtze-Huai Plain, Two-lake Plain, and the Poyang-lake Plain; (2) results of multiple regression analysis explained a total of 56.5% variance in snake richness. Among ecological factors used to explore the species richness patterns, we found the best factors were the normalized difference vegetation index, precipitation in the coldest quarter and temperature annual range ; (3) our results indicated that the model based on the significant variables that (Phuman activities.

  9. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  10. Linear methods for input scenes restoration from signals of optical-digital pattern recognition correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikov, Sergey N.; Konnik, Mikhail V.; Manykin, Edward A.; Rodin, Vladislav G.

    2009-04-01

    Linear methods of restoration of input scene's images in optical-digital correlators are described. Relatively low signal to noise ratio of a camera's photo sensor and extensional PSF's size are special features of considered optical-digital correlator. RAW-files of real correlation signals obtained by digital photo sensor were used for input scene's images restoration. It is shown that modified evolution method, which employs regularization by Tikhonov, is better among linear deconvolution methods. As a regularization term, an inverse signal to noise ratio as a function of spatial frequencies was used. For additional improvement of restoration's quality, noise analysis of boundary areas of the image to be reconstructed was performed. Experimental results on digital restoration of input scene's images are presented.

  11. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  12. Behavioral and neural correlates of increased self-control in the absence of increased willpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Eran; Kim, Bokyung; Dweck, Carol S; Gross, James J; McClure, Samuel M

    2014-07-01

    People often exert willpower to choose a more valuable delayed reward over a less valuable immediate reward, but using willpower is taxing and frequently fails. In this research, we demonstrate the ability to enhance self-control (i.e., forgoing smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards) without exerting additional willpower. Using behavioral and neuroimaging data, we show that a reframing of rewards (i) reduced the subjective value of smaller immediate rewards relative to larger delayed rewards, (ii) increased the likelihood of choosing the larger delayed rewards when choosing between two real monetary rewards, (iii) reduced the brain reward responses to immediate rewards in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and (iv) reduced brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a correlate of willpower) when participants chose the same larger later rewards across the two choice frames. We conclude that reframing can promote self-control while avoiding the need for additional willpower expenditure.

  13. Correlation Analysis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Persona lity%OCB 与人格的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾本君

    2013-01-01

    The study is to explain the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB ) and personality.900 employees were surveyed by means of OCB Scale and Big Five Scale .The results showed that the Big Five personality dimen -sions exhibited with composite OCB , respectively.OCB facets were also differentially associated with the Big Five dimensions. The differential prediction of facet-level OCB by Openness, Extraversion, and Emotional Stability.OCB is separate but relat-ed to different patterns of correlates.%  旨在探讨组织公民行为(OCB)与人格之间的关系。用OCB量表和大五人格量表对900名企业员工进行了调查,结果表明:大五人格与OCB整体差异显著,与OCB呈显著正相关;大五人格各因素与OCB各个方面也存在差异,外向性、开放性和情绪稳定性对OCB各方面呈现很大程度的相关。

  14. Effect of anomalous pulse timing on call discrimination by females of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): behavioral correlates of neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joshua J; Huth, Kenneth; Hunce, Raymond; Lentine, Brandon

    2010-06-15

    Research has demonstrated that certain midbrain neurons of anurans 'count' interpulse intervals (IPIs). Some neurons fire after exposure to fewer intervals than do others. Counting can be reset to zero if an IPI falls outside the cell's tolerance range. We tested female gray treefrogs for behavioral correlates of these neural response patterns using phonotaxis tests in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanistic bases of female responses to calls. For example, previous work demonstrated females often prefer longer to shorter pulsed advertisement calls, even when the former occur at lower rates. Call attractiveness can also be reduced when pulse duration and timing have been manipulated experimentally or disrupted by acoustic interference. In this study, female responses were consistent with neural data, emphasizing the importance of IPIs. Females discriminated in favor of calls with normal interpulse timing relative to those in which a single IPI was too long or too short. Our data suggest that neural resetting of interval counting by inappropriate intervals may more strongly influence females than reduced firing in response to such intervals on an individual basis. Data also suggest a transition point between 125 ms and 175 ms at which an interval between pulse strings is treated as an interval between calls.

  15. Patterns and Correlates of Tic Disorder Diagnoses in Privately and Publicly Insured Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Huang, Cecilia; Walkup, James T.; Scahill, Lawrence; Walkup, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence and demographic and clinical correlates of children diagnosed with Tourette disorder, chronic motor or vocal tic disorder, and other tic disorders in public and private insurance plans over the course of a 1-year period. Method: Claims were reviewed of Medicaid (n = 10,247,827) and privately (n =…

  16. Relationship between Parental Rearing Patterns and Adolescent Aggressive Behaviors%父母教养方式与青少年攻击行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏富宗; 罗贵明

    2011-01-01

    为了探讨父母教养方式对青少年攻击行为的影响,采用父母教养方式量表和攻击性问卷,对482名青少年施测.结果显示:青少年总攻击和敌意指标存在性别和年级差异,身体攻击和愤怒指标存在性别差异.相关分析显示,父母教养方式与攻击行为存在不同程度的相关性;回归分析表明,父亲不良的教养方式是青少年攻击行为发生的重要影响因素.由此得出父母教养方式对青少年的攻击行为有一定的预测作用.%In order to study the influence of parental rearing patterns on adolescent aggressive behaviors,this paper implements tests on 482 adolescents with EMBU and the Aggression Questionnaire.Results show that gender and grade differences exist in general aggression and hostility indexes,and gender differences exist in physical aggression and anger indexes.Correlation analysis shows that correlation exists at different degrees between parental rearing patterns and aggressive behaviors.Regression analysis shows that father's undesirable parenting style is an important influencing factor of adolescent aggressive behaviors.From all above it concludes that parental rearing patterns have certain predictive effects on adolescent aggressive behaviors.

  17. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema att...

  18. On the correlation between the electroanalytical behavior and crystallographic features of Li-intercalation electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M. D.; Levi, E.; Aurbach, D.; Schmidt, M.; Oesten, R.; Heider, U.

    The electroanalytical behavior of Li xNiO 2 and Li xCo 0.2Ni 0.8O 2 was studied by simultaneous application of slow-scan rate cyclic voltammetry (SSCV), potentiostatic and galvanostatic intermittent titration (PITT and GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Application of a finite-space diffusion model for treating the results obtained by these techniques allowed us to calculate the diffusion coefficient of Li ions ( D) and the differential (incremental) capacity ( Cint) as functions of the electrode's potential. Our final purpose was to compare D versus E and Cint versus E plots for both the electrodes, in order to correlate the observed difference in their electroanalytical behavior with the clear distinction in the related Li-insertion mechanisms deduced from XRD studies. While Li insertion into Li xCo 0.2Ni 0.8O 2 exhibits a single-phase reaction upon charge in the 3.0-4.08 V (versus Li/Li +) range, Li intercalation into Li xNiO 2 undergoes two-phase transitions in the same potential range. The shape of both plots, D versus E and Cint versus E for these electrodes, is discussed in the framework of a finite-space diffusion model and Li-insertion processes that can be described by Frumkin-type intercalation isotherms with short-range attraction interactions among intercalation sites.

  19. Personality dimensions and their behavioral correlates in wild Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Winnie; Steklis, H Dieter; Steklis, Netzin G; Fletcher, Alison W; Stoinski, Tara S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Studies of animal personality improve our understanding of individual variation in measures of life history and fitness, such as health and reproductive success. Using a 54 trait personality questionnaire developed for studying great apes and other nonhuman primates, we obtained ratings on 116 wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. There were 8 raters who each had more than 1.5 years of working experience with the subjects. Principal component analyses identified 4 personality dimensions with high interrater reliabilities-Dominance, Openness, Sociability, and Proto-Agreeableness-that reflected personality features unique to gorillas and personality features shared with other hominoids. We next examined the associations of these dimensions with independently collected behavioral measures derived from long-term records. Predicted correlations were found between the personality dimensions and corresponding behaviors. For example, Dominance, Openness, Sociability, and Proto-Agreeableness were related to gorilla dominance strength, time spent playing, rates of approaches, and rates of interventions in intragroup conflicts, respectively. These findings enrich the comparative-evolutionary study of personality and provide insights into how species differences in personality are related to ecology, social systems, and life history.

  20. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073

  1. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation.We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable.There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05; reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001; and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence.Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered.

  2. Quantitative Neuropeptidome Analysis Reveals Neuropeptides Are Correlated with Social Behavior Regulation of the Honeybee Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Hu, Han; Qi, Yuping; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptides play vital roles in orchestrating neural communication and physiological modulation in organisms, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. The highly evolved social structure of honeybees is a good system for understanding how neuropeptides regulate social behaviors; however, much knowledge on neuropeptidomic variation in the age-related division of labor remains unknown. An in-depth comparison of the brain neuropeptidomic dynamics over four time points of age-related polyethism was performed on two strains of honeybees, the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica, ITb) and the high royal jelly producing bee (RJb, selected for increasing royal jelly production for almost four decades from the ITb in China). Among the 158 identified nonredundant neuropeptides, 77 were previously unreported, significantly expanding the coverage of the honeybee neuropeptidome. The fact that 14 identical neuropeptide precursors changed their expression levels during the division of labor in both the ITb and RJb indicates they are highly related to task transition of honeybee workers. These observations further suggest the two lines of bees employ a similar neuropeptidome modification to tune their respective physiology of age polyethism via regulating excretory system, circadian clock system, and so forth. Noticeably, the enhanced level of neuropeptides implicated in regulating water homeostasis, brood pheromone recognition, foraging capacity, and pollen collection in RJb signify the fact that neuropeptides are also involved in the regulation of RJ secretion. These findings gain novel understanding of honeybee neuropeptidome correlated with social behavior regulation, which is potentially important in neurobiology for honeybees and other insects.

  3. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  4. Gadolinium enhancement patterns of tumefactive demyelinating lesions: correlations with brain biopsy findings and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Yuko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-10-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) can mimic brain tumors on radiological images. TDLs are often referred to as tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TMS), but the heterogeneous nature and monophasic course of TDLs do not fulfill clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria for multiple sclerosis. Redefining TDLs, TMS and other inflammatory brain lesions is essential for the accurate clinical diagnosis of extensive demyelinating brain lesions. We retrospectively analyzed MRI from nine TDL cases that underwent brain biopsy. Patterns of gadolinium enhancement on MRI were categorized as homogenous, inhomogeneous, patchy and diffuse, open ring or irregular rim, and were compared with pathological hallmarks including demyelination, central necrosis, macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis and perivascular lymphocytic cuffing. All cases had coexistence of demyelinating features and axonal loss. Open-ring and irregular rim patterns of gadolinium enhancement were associated with macrophage infiltrations and angiogenesis at the inflammatory border. An inhomogeneous pattern of gadolinium enhancement was associated with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing. Central necrosis was seen in cases of severe multiple sclerosis and hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy. These results suggest that the radiological features of TDLs may be related to different pathological processes, and indicate that MRI may be useful in understanding their pathophysiology. Further investigation is needed to determine the precise disease entity of these inflammatory demyelinating brain lesions.

  5. Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress related to examination performance in college chemistry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, M; Koone, T; Mewaldt, S; O'Connor, K

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to assess physiological and behavioral correlates of academic stress during a college course in organic chemistry in the USA. Participants (45 females, 46 males, mean age 19.88 years) were screened for their basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity using saliva samples collected at the beginning of the course and after each major test. Displacement activities (DAs) were observed during each test by videotaping students' behavior when they were taking the tests. These variables were then used as predictors of the students' achievement as measured by their grade point average (GPA) scores, American College Testing (ACT) scores, and their final grade in the class. Ninety-one students, enrolled in Organic Chemistry I at Marshall University during the summer of 2009, were recruited for this study. It was found that individual differences in the physiological stress responses are a factor in predicting the students' ability to pass a challenging class. A logistic model built on GPA, DAs during stress, and salivary hormone (cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone) concentrations was able to correctly classify almost 90% of the students passing the class. The same model was not nearly as successful in determining the possible factors behind failing the class, because the classification success was just 52%, a figure close to chance. We conclude that a clear set of characteristics related to the students' ability and resilience to psychological stress are necessary to succeed in a challenging class. The reason behind dropping or failing a class could be less defined. These data indicated that investigating the physiological and behavioral propensities associated with psychological stress can help us better understand an individual's coping responses to a long-term challenging situation.

  6. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  7. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Benjamin, Christopher; Kenyon, Arnold; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables) with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  8. Correlated evolution of life-history with size at maturity in Daphnia pulicaria: patterns within and between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Charles F; Lynch, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Explaining the repeated evolution of similar sets of traits under similar environmental conditions is an important issue in evolutionary biology. The extreme alternative classes of explanations for correlated suites of traits are optimal adaptation and genetic constraint resulting from pleiotropy. Adaptive explanations presume that individual traits are free to evolve to their local optima and that convergent evolution represents particularly adaptive combinations of traits. Alternatively, if pleiotropy is strong and difficult to break, strong selection on one or a few particularly important characters would be expected to result in consistent correlated evolution of associated traits. If pleiotropy is common, we predict that the pattern of divergence among populations will consistently reflect the within-population genetic architecture. To test the idea that the multivariate life-history phenotype is largely a byproduct of strong selection on body size, we imposed divergent artificial selection on size at maturity upon two populations of the cladoceran Daphnia pulicaria, chosen on the basis of their extreme divergence in body size. Overall, the trajectory of divergence between the two natural populations did not differ from that predicted by the genetic architecture within each population. However, the pattern of correlated responses suggested the presence of strong pleiotropic constraints only for adult body size and not for other life-history traits. One trait, offspring size, appears to have evolved in a way different from that expected from the within-population genetic architecture and may be under stabilizing selection.

  9. Comparision of methods for combination of multiple classifiers that predict behavior patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja V. Deshpande

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Predictive analysis include techniques fromdata mining that analyze current and historical data and make predictions about the future. Predictive analytics is used in actuarial science, financial services, retail, travel, healthcare, insurance, pharmaceuticals, marketing, telecommunications and other fields.Predicting patterns can be considered as a classification problem and combining the different classifiers gives better results. We will study and compare three methods used to combine multiple classifiers. Bayesian networks perform classification based on conditional probability. It is ineffective and easy to interpret as it assumes that the predictors are independent. Tree augmented naïve Bayes (TAN constructs a maximum weighted spanning tree that maximizes the likelihood of the training data, to perform classification.This tree structure eliminates the independent attribute assumption of naïve Bayesian networks. Behavior-knowledge space method works in two phases and can provide very good performances if large and representative data sets are available.

  10. Correlation between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows fed diets containing sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the correlations between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows. The cows had an average of 100 days of lactation and a production were arranged in two 4 x 4 Latin squares conpound of the four periods, four diets and four animals. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous with roughage: concentrate ratio of approximately 55:45. As forage, were evaluate four silages sugar cane: without additive (control, with 1% urea, with 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO and with 1% CaO. The experimental period lasted 60 days divided into four periods of 15 days. Feeding behavior was assessed on the 13 day of each experimental period, for 24 hours, every five minutes. From the data 24 behavioral variables were determined, which were correlated with the data of production and milk composition. The behavioral variable eating and ruminating, DM intake in grams/day, rumination efficiencies in grams of DM and neutral detergent fiber were positively correlated (P<0.05 with milk production in kg/day and the production corrected for 4% fat. However, there was a negative correlation between feeding time and the milk fat percentage. Despite the low values of the correlations can be inferred from the results, the data can be used to develop models to predictyield and composition of milk from the feeding behavior variables.

  11. A participatory assessment of dietary patterns and food behavior in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Allison; Englberger, Lois; Flores, Rafael; Lorens, Adelino; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2008-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are escalating rapidly within the Pacific region, including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. A shift in dietary patterns from indigenous, high fiber, healthy local food to energy-dense, imported food with low nutritional value, and increased sedentary lifestyles are expediting this process. Essential to counteract this trend is an understanding of how people make food decisions. This participatory assessment utilized a quantitative and qualitative approach to capture diet patterns and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of food consumption. A structured 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to quantify the diets of 293 adult Pohnpeian women attending an island-wide education/disability screening program. An ethnographic approach, including in-depth interviews, informal focus groups and observations documented food behavior practices and contributed to the design of the FFQ. Of those responding to the FFQ, 96% reported eating rice frequently (3-7 days/week) whereas 75% reported eating locally grown carbohydrate foods frequently. Factors associated with culture change, including availability, affordability, convenience, and status of food items were found to determine food decisions. Food-based, culturally sensitive and innovative strategies that utilize existing resources are required to promote local food production and consumption. Prevention programs with an information, education and communication (IEC) approach are needed to provide accurate and available health and nutrition knowledge and to increase the demand for local foods. Behavior modification requires the continued collaboration of the national, state, and community organizations that partnered on this research to strategize programs in order to target individual food choices and to transform the environment to support these decisions.

  12. Evaluation of sexual behavior of housed male camels (Camelus dromedarius) through female parades: correlation with climatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    Camels are seasonal breeders, and their sexual behavior is influenced by environmental conditions, but the relationship between climatic factors and sexual behavior has been poorly described in the available literature. Nowadays, the male camel living habit is shifting towards captivity; thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the sexual behavior of housed male dromedary camel through female's parades and to correlate it with climatic parameters. Four housed sires, reared for semen collection, and one dam were used and the trial lasted 8 weeks, considering the first week as control. Six days per week and during evenings, the female was brought near each males' boxes, while two observers filled a behavioral sampling ethogram and scored the male sexual behavior. After this parade, blood samples were taken from the female to evaluate the estradiol concentration. In addition, the following meteorological parameters were recorded, everyday, at 9:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m.: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, and H-index. The correlation between sexual behavioral score and female estradiol concentration and climate parameters was analyzed. All the behavioral parameters showed a significant upward trend; female estradiol concentration varied during the period and picked at week 5. Male sexual behavior was negatively correlated with morning H-index, wind, and temperature, and positively correlated with pressure and evening humidity, whereas it was not correlated with estrogen. In conclusion, female parade was a successful method to evaluate and stimulate the occurrence of housed male dromedary camel sexual activity that resulted to be negatively affected by hot temperature, warm wind, and lack of rain.

  13. Tree growth rates in an Amazonian evergreen forest: seasonal patterns and correlations with leaf phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Silva Campos, K.; Prohaska, N.; Ferreira, M. L.; Nelson, B. W.; Saleska, S. R.; da Silva, R.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolism and phenology of tropical forests significantly influence global dynamics of climate, carbon and water. However, there is still lack of mechanistic understanding of the controls on tropical forest metabolism, particularly at individual tree level. In this study, we are interested in investigating (1) what is the seasonal pattern of woody growth for tropical trees and (2) what is the mechanistic controls onwoody growth at individual level?To explore the above questions,we use two data sources from an evergreen tropical forest KM67 site (near Santarem, Brazil). They are: (1) image time series from a tower mounted RGB imaging system, with images recordedin10 minutes interval since October 2013.Images near local noon homogeneous diffuse lighting were selectedfor leaf phenologymonitoring; (2) ground based bi-weekly biometry survey (via dendrometry band technique) for 25 trees from random sampling since September 2013. 12 among 25 trees are within the tower mounted camera image view. Our preliminary resultsdemonstrate that 20 trees among 25 trees surveyed significantly increase woody growth (or "green up") in dry season. Our results also find thatamong those 20 trees, 12 trees reaches the maximum woody increment rate in late dry season with a mean DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) around 30 cm,while 8 trees reaching the maximum in the middle of wet season, with a mean DBH around 90 cm. This study,though limited in the sample size, mightprovide another line of evidence that Amazon rainforests "green up" in dry season. As for mechanistic controls on tropical tree woody control, we hypothesize both climate and leaf phenology control individual woody growth. We would like to link both camera based leaf phenology and climate data in the next to explorethe reason as to the pattern found in this study that bigger trees might have different seasonal growth pattern as smaller trees.

  14. On the Correlation Between the Self-Organized Island Pattern and Substrate Elastic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    energy field Estr on the surface of substrates Iso 001, GaAs 001, GaAs 111, and GaAs 113 due to a buried island is plotted. Furthermore, Fig. 1...distribution where the height is proportional to the number of adatoms per unit area: on the surface of GaAs with strain energy Estr of Iso 001 a, with...anisotropic strain energy Estr of GaAs 001 b, GaAs 111 c, and GaAs 113 d. Different island orderings and patterns red dashed lines

  15. Regulation of cell behavior and tissue patterning by bioelectrical signals: challenges and opportunities for biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael; Stevenson, Claire G

    2012-01-01

    Achieving control over cell behavior and pattern formation requires molecular-level understanding of regulatory mechanisms. Alongside transcriptional networks and biochemical gradients, there functions an important system of cellular communication and control: transmembrane voltage gradients (V(mem)). Bioelectrical signals encoded in spatiotemporal changes of V(mem) control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, endogenous bioelectrical gradients serve as instructive cues mediating anatomical polarity and other organ-level aspects of morphogenesis. In the past decade, significant advances in molecular physiology have enabled the development of new genetic and biophysical tools for the investigation and functional manipulation of bioelectric cues. Recent data implicate V(mem) as a crucial epigenetic regulator of patterning events in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer. We review new conceptual and methodological developments in this fascinating field. Bioelectricity offers a novel way of quantitatively understanding regulation of growth and form in vivo, and it reveals tractable, powerful control points that will enable truly transformative applications in bioengineering, regenerative medicine, and synthetic biology.

  16. Interfacial behavior and film patterning of redox-active cationic copper(II)-containing surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeffery A; Allard, Marco M; Wu, Libo; Heeg, Mary Jane; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Verani, Cláudio N

    2008-01-01

    Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of single-tail amphiphiles LPyCn (Py=pyridine, Cn=C18, C16, C14, C10) and their copper(II)-containing complexes, which are of relevance for patterned films. The N-(pyridine-2-ylmethyl)alkyl-1-amine ligands and their complexes [CuIICl2(LPyC18)] (1), [CuIICl2(LPyC16)] (2), [CuIICl2(LPyC14)] (3), [CuIIBr2(LPyC18)] (4), [CuIIBr2(LPyC16)] (5), and [CuIIBr2(LPyC10)] (6) were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by means of mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. Complexes 1, 2, 3, and 6 had their molecular structure solved by X-ray diffraction methods, which showed that the local geometry around the metal center is distorted square planar. With the aim of using these species as precursors for redox-responsive films, an assessment of their electrochemical properties involved cyclic voltammetry in different solvents, with different supporting electrolytes and scan rates. Density functional theory calculations of relevant species in bulk and at interfaces were used to evaluate their electronic structure and dipole moments. The morphology and order of the resulting films at the air/water interface were studied by isothermal compression and Brewster angle microscopy. Biphasic patterned Langmuir films were observed for all complexes except 3 and 6, and dependence on the chain length and the nature of the halogen coligand determine the characteristics of the isotherms and their intricate topology. Complexes 3 and 6, which have shorter chain lengths, failed to exhibit organization. These results exemplify the first comprehensive study of the behavior of single-tail metallosurfactants, which are likely to lead to high-end technological applications based on their patterned films.

  17. Copulatory pattern and behavior in a semi-captive population of Eld's deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigao ZENG; Yan-Ling SONG; Qiong ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Male copulatory patterns, female multiple copulation and male post-copulatory guarding were studied in Eld's deer Cervus eldi in Datian National Nature Reserve, China. Mating behavior in 18 females and 11 males from a group of 61 semi-captive Eld's deer were observed. The majority (55.8%) of copulations occurred between 15:00-19:00 h. The ejaculatory mount was preceded by an average of 5.1 prior mounts. Successful copulation consisted of a single thrust with ejaculation during one intromission, with no lock. This copulatory pattern is classified as pattern No. 15 (no lock, no intravaginal thrusting, single intromission, and multiple ejaculation) and No. 16 (no lock, no intravaginal thrusting, single intromission, and single ejaculation) under Dewsbury's scheme (1972) and as No. 16 (no lock, no thrusting, single and brief intromission) under Dixson's classification (1998). Copulation frequency was 1.5 0.9 times for males/ females with the same female/male per day. The duration of the final mount, which included ejaculation, was brief (3.4±1.3 s), and ejaculation usually terminated copulation. Eleven females copulated more than once in this study: three of them copulated with several males (multi-male copulations) and the remainder copulated with a single male (repeated copulations). Our results indicate that some female Eld's deer may seek multiple copulations to be a strategy to improve the genetic quality of their offspring or to avoid harassment. Post-copulatory guarding of females by males followed all copulations, with dominant males guarding for significantly longer than subordinate males. Dominant males appear to be more effective at post-copulatory guarding than subordinate males. Subordinate males engaged in a quicker pre-copulatory phase to improve their chances of finishing copulation before being forced to accede to dominant males.

  18. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeedkutty, Nizar A.; Khairulanuar, Nor A.B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian

  19. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar A Majeedkutty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe

  20. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as “increased”, “stable”, or “decreased”. The dietary patterns, termed “healthy intake”, “animal food intake”, and “snack intake”, were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the “stable” group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern. PMID:28025537

  1. Classification of correlated patterns with a configurable analog VLSI neural network of spiking neurons and self-regulating plastic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulioni, Massimilian; Pannunzi, Mario; Badoni, Davide; Dante, Vittorio; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2009-11-01

    We describe the implementation and illustrate the learning performance of an analog VLSI network of 32 integrate-and-fire neurons with spike-frequency adaptation and 2016 Hebbian bistable spike-driven stochastic synapses, endowed with a self-regulating plasticity mechanism, which avoids unnecessary synaptic changes. The synaptic matrix can be flexibly configured and provides both recurrent and external connectivity with address-event representation compliant devices. We demonstrate a marked improvement in the efficiency of the network in classifying correlated patterns, owing to the self-regulating mechanism.

  2. ANALYSIS OF UNCONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR PATTERNS OF FOSTER MOTHERS IN FOSTER FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the unconscious patterns of an adoptive mother’s behavior in foster families. It considers unconscious purposes of a mother, causing certain coping strategies and leading defense mechanisms of adoptive mothers influencing the success of family socialization of foster children. It describes the conflict of the image I mother of the adopted child and the controversy caused by the incompatibility of the requirements of the society to foster mother to be an Ideal Mother, her own model of a Good mother and the opinion of the society about the adoptive mother as inherently Bad. The requirements of the society to the mother, including those to the foster one, the image of the mother of Slavic culture, the unconscious creation by the woman of the image of a good mother and a bad one by the Mother archetype that lead to unconscious desire to preserve the integrity of the personality through switching on psychological defense mechanisms are analyzed. Different styles of interaction and the psychological types of mothers that serve as the basis for the formation of neuroses. The empirical study of a woman’s self-assessment as a mothers is described through the modified technique of S. Budassi; the way of behavior in stressful situations - through projective techniques "Man in the Rain"; psychological defense mechanism – by the procedure of R. Plutchik "Diagnosis of typologies of psychological defense." It describes the results of techniques of a group of women with problematic selfassessment of themselves as the mother in a situation of emotional stability and their response characteristics in stressful situations. The author analyzes the major psychological defense mechanisms of adoptive mothers, their possible reactions in the process of upbringing adopted children. A typology of behavioral reactions of mothers caused by their existing psychological characteristics is proposed

  3. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.

  4. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  5. Monoaminergic tone supports conductance correlations and stabilizes activity features in pattern generating neurons of the lobster, Panulirus interruptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter C. Krenz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and computational studies demonstrate that different sets of intrinsic and synaptic conductances can give rise to equivalent activity patterns. This is because the balance of conductances, not their absolute values, defines a given activity feature. Activity-dependent feedback mechanisms maintain neuronal conductance correlations and their corresponding activity features. This study demonstrates that tonic nM concentrations of monoamines enable slow, activity-dependent processes that can maintain a correlation between the transient potassium current (IA and the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih over the long-term (i.e., regulatory change persists for hours after removal of modulator. Tonic 5nM DA acted through an RNA interference silencing complex (RISC- and RNA polymerase II-dependent mechanism to maintain a long-term positive correlation between IA and Ih in the lateral pyloric neuron (LP but not in the pyloric dilator neuron (PD. In contrast, tonic 5nM 5HT maintained a RISC-dependent positive correlation between IA and Ih in PD but not LP over the long-term. Tonic 5nM OCT maintained a long-term negative correlation between IA and Ih in PD but not LP; however, it was only revealed when RISC was inhibited. This study also demonstrated that monoaminergic tone can also preserve activity features over the long-term: The timing of LP activity, LP duty cycle and LP spike number per burst were maintained by tonic 5nM DA. The data suggest that low-level monoaminergic tone acts through multiple slow processes to permit cell-specific, activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances to maintain conductance correlations and their corresponding activity features over the long-term.

  6. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  7. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  8. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2016-12-06

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.217.

  9. On the Behavioral Patterns of the Crime of Money Laundering%洗钱罪行为方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2012-01-01

    本文在回顾我国洗钱罪行为方式演变历程的基础上,着重对洗钱罪行为方式规定不完备的问题进行分析,并从洗钱罪的阶段特征、国际公约对洗钱罪定义等方面进行总结,从而提出了完善我国洗钱罪行为方式定义的建议。%The paper reviews the evolution of behavioral patterns of the crime of money laundering in China, analyzes the prob lem that the regulation for behavioral patterns of the crime of money laundering is imperfect, describes the characteristic and definition of the crime of money laundering. Finally, the paper proposes suggestion on perfecting the definition of behavioral patterns of the crime of money laundering.

  10. Correlation of dental health behavior with health awareness and subjective symptoms in a rural population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenqun; Tamaki, Yoh; Arakawa, Yuki; Ogino, Daisuke; Aoki, Kunie; Ohyama, Masakazu; He, Dawei; Osawa, Taeko; Ohsawa, Kazuo; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Arakawa, Hirohisa

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of dental health behavior with health awareness, oral condition, and subjective symptoms in Japan. The present study included 1699 individuals who underwent dental checkups at the public health center of Miura City. All those who underwent dental checkups were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The correlation between having a regular dentist and each of the other items was analyzed. Undergoing regular checkups was significantly related to having a regular dentist. To analyze the correlation of dental health behavior with Subjective symptoms and Health awareness, structured equation modeling was performed following factor analysis. As a result, only the regression weight between dental health behavior and health awareness was found to be statistically significant. The present survey indicates that dental health behavior was significantly related to Health awareness but not to Subjective symptoms.

  11. Asymmetry of righting reflexes in sea turtles and its behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashichev, Yegor

    2016-04-01

    The righting responses, when the animal rights itself over one side of the body after been overturned on the back, are one of the simplest ways to test for laterality, especially in lower vertebrates. In anuran amphibians unilateral preferences in righting responses correlated to the degree of the use of alternating-limb (asynchronous) movements during locomotion. Turtles is one of the underrepresented vertebrate groups in the studies of laterality, while possess also different types of locomotion (with synchronous or asynchronous use of the contralateral limbs), which allows testing the hypothesis on functional relationship between the mode of locomotion and the strength of laterality. We studied two species of sea turtles, Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and Olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), which differ from the majority of other representatives of the order in that they mostly utilize synchronous locomotion, when all four limbs move simultaneously in strokes (scratching). In righting response tests turtles demonstrated individual and weak population level laterality, which differed in strength. The Green turtle was less lateralized with the majority of individuals being ambipreferent. The Olive Ridley turtle had a greater number of lateralized individuals and a greater average strength of laterality. Interspecies comparison to land tortoises, which use only asynchronous (alternating-limb) walking (crawling), confirmed the rule found in amphibians: the more asynchronous locomotion is used, the greater is the strength of laterality in righting. Hence, data from turtles and amphibians may represent a phenomenon common for all quadruped vertebrates. We also discuss possible biomechanical and neurological correlates of this evolutionary change in locomotory patterns and lateralization in sea turtles when adapting to sea life.

  12. Correlation between microstructural and mechanical behavior of nanostructured MgH{sub 2} upon hydrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachev, S. [CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Rango, P. de, E-mail: patricia.derango@neel.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Fruchart, D. [CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Skryabina, N. [Perm State University, 15 Bukireva st., Perm 614990 (Russian Federation); Marty, Ph. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LEGI Laboratory, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Irreversible swelling of ball-milled MgH{sub 2} is quantified by dilatometry measurements. • The mechanical behavior is strongly dependent of the additive used for ball-milling. • Ball-milled powders evolve from a bi-modal distribution to mono-disperse agglomerates. • The swelling is explained by the lower compacity of the mono-disperse agglomerates. - Abstract: Highly reactive nanostructured powders are produced on a large scale by co-milling of MgH{sub 2} with transition metals. Composite materials with high thermal conductivity are produced by uniaxial compaction of these powders with expanded graphite. However, upon cycling, the MgH{sub 2} grains tend to recrystallize and a progressive swelling of the composites is observed. The purpose of this study is to understand this irreversible phenomenon, through correlations with microstructural evolutions. In-situ dilatometry measurements were performed on samples prepared with 2 different additives (pure vanadium or Ti–V–Cr alloy). We systematically observe a stabilization of the irreversible expansion after about 50 cycles. A bi-modal distribution of the as-milled powders is observed by granulometry measurements. Upon cycling, the coalescence of the “small” MgH{sub 2} particles tends to create large agglomerates and results in mono-disperse powders. This behavior induces an increase in porosity, which explain the progressive swelling of the composites. The maximum of deformation strongly depends on the additive and is lower with vanadium addition than with Ti–V–Cr alloy.

  13. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students' attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China.

  14. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. PMID:27790184

  15. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingaggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation.

  16. Physical, physiological, and behavioral correlates of musth in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, Andre; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although musth in male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is known to be associated with increased aggressiveness, urine dribbling (UD), temporal gland secretion (TGS), and elevated androgens, the temporal relationship between these changes has not been examined. Here, we describe the pattern of musth-related characteristics in 14 captive elephant bulls by combining long-term observations of physical and behavioral changes with physiological data on testicular and adrenal function. The length of musth periods was highly variable but according to our data set not related to age. Our data also confirm that musth is associated with elevated androgens and, in this respect, show that TGS and UD are downstream effects of this elevation, with TGS responding earlier and to lower androgen levels than UD. Because the majority of musth periods were associated with a decrease in glucocorticoid levels, our data also indicate that musth does not represent a physiological stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the occurrence of musth is associated with increased aggression and that this is presumably androgen mediated because aggressive males had higher androgen levels. Collectively, the information generated contributes to a better understanding of what characterizes and initiates musth in captive African elephants and provides a basis for further studies designed to examine in more detail the factors regulating the intensity and duration of musth.

  17. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  18. Alterations in penicillin binding protein gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and their correlation with susceptibility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Tachibana, Mineji; Nakanishi, Kyoko; Nakao, Shoko; Saito, Kumiko; Toyoshima, Eri; Sato, Maki; Takahashi, Toru; Osanai, Shinobu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2003-08-01

    Penicillin binding protein (pbp) gene alterations of 328 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for a correlation with their antibiotic-resistance. The frequency of penicillin G (PEN-G) resistance was determined to clarify susceptibility to several antibiotics, namely PEN-G, ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, cefozopram, panipenem (PAPM), clarithromycin (CLR), azithromycin (AZM) and levofloxacin (LVX). Oligonucleotide primers for three pbp genes (pbp1a, pbp2x and pbp2b) were used to detect mutations in pbp. Of the strains, 25.9% were classified as Pen-Gs, 68.0% as Pen-Gir and 6.1% as Pen-Gr. The polymerase chain reaction product for wild-type pbp1a was found in 185 isolates, that for wild-type pbp2x was found in 66 isolates and that for wild-type pbp2b was found in 213 isolates. None of these three genes was detectable in 100 isolates while all of them were detected in 64 isolates (1aw/2xw/2bw). Of those 64 isolates with 1aw/2xw/2bw, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PEN-G was or =4.0 mg/l included one Pen-Gs and two Pen-Gir isolates. The MICs of CLR correlated significantly with those of AZM. The MIC of CLR was > or =1 mg/l for 216 isolates, and the MIC of AZM was > or =1 mg/l for 244 of them. These data suggested that PAPM may be effective against S. pneumoniae infection, although acquisition of resistance should be considered. LVX also seemed to be effective against S. pneumoniae.

  19. Tailoring the correlation and anti-correlation behavior of path-entangled photons in Glauber-Fock oscillator lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that single-photon as well as biphoton revivals are possible in a new class of dynamic optical systems-the so-called Glauber-Fock oscillator lattices. In these arrays, both Bloch-like oscillations and dynamic delocalization can occur which can be described in closed form. The bunching and anti-bunching response of path-entangled photons can be pre-engineered in such coupled optical arrangements and the possibility of emulating Fermionic behavior in this family of lattices is also considered. We elucidate these effects via pertinent examples and we discuss the prospect of experimentally observing these quantum interactions.

  20. Correlation for fitting multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibria data and prediction of azeotropic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Farhod Chasib Al-Jiboury

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation equations for expressing the boiling temperature as direct function of liquid composition have been tested successfully and applied for predicting azeotropic behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the kind of azeotrope (minimum, maximum and saddle type using modified correlation of Gibbs-Konovalov theorem. Also, the binary and ternary azeotropic point have been detected experimentally using graphical determination on the basis of experimental binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium data.In this study, isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium for two ternary systems: “1-Propanol – Hexane – Benzene” and its binaries “1-Propanol – Hexane, Hexane – Benzene and 1-Propanol – Benzene” and the other ternary system is “Toluene – Cyclohexane – iso-Octane (2,2,4-Trimethyl-Pentane” and its binaries “Toluene – Cyclohexane, Cyclohexane – iso-Octane and Toluene – iso-Octane” have been measured at 101.325 KPa. The measurements were made in recirculating equilibrium still with circulation of both the vapor and liquid phases. The ternary system “1-Propanol – Hexane – Benzene” which contains polar compound (1-Propanol and the two binary systems “1-Propanol – Hexane and 1-Propanol – Benzene” form a minimum azeotrope, the other ternary system and the other binary systems do not form azeotrope.All the data passed successfully the test for thermodynamic consistency using McDermott-Ellis test method (McDermott and Ellis, 1965.The maximum likelihood principle is developed for the determination of correlations parameters from binary and ternary vapor-liquid experimental data which provides a mathematical and computational guarantee of global optimality in parameters estimation for the case where all the measured variables are subject to errors and the non ideality of both vapor and liquid phases for the experimental data for the ternary and binary systems have been accounted.The agreement between prediction and experimental data is

  1. DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Correlation of Differential Methylation Patterns with Gene Expression in Human Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Fu, Xinwei; Peng, Xi; Xiao, Zheng; Li, Zhonggui; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating gene expression and has been reported to be related with epilepsy. This study aimed to define differential DNA methylation patterns in drug-refractory epilepsy patients and to investigate the role of DNA methylation in human epilepsy. We performed DNA methylation profiling in brain tissues from epileptic and control patients via methylated-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation microarray chip. Differentially methylated loci were validated by bisulfite sequencing PCR, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of candidate genes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR. We found 224 genes that showed differential DNA methylation between epileptic patients and controls. Among the seven candidate genes, three genes (TUBB2B, ATPGD1, and HTR6) showed relative transcriptional regulation by DNA methylation. TUBB2B and ATPGD1 exhibited hypermethylation and decreased mRNA levels, whereas HTR6 displayed hypomethylation and increased mRNA levels in the epileptic samples. Our findings suggest that certain genes become differentially regulated by DNA methylation in human epilepsy.

  2. Patterns of spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus in cerebellar infarction: imaging correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Young Eun; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-12-01

    Horizontal head-shaking may induce nystagmus in peripheral as well as central vestibular lesions. While the patterns and mechanism of head-shaking nystagmus are well established in peripheral vestibulopathy, they require further exploration in central vestibular disorders. To define the characteristics and mechanism of head-shaking nystagmus in central vestibulopathies, we investigated spontaneous nystagmus and head-shaking nystagmus in 72 patients with isolated cerebellar infarction. Spontaneous nystagmus was observed in 28 (39%) patients, and was mostly ipsilesional when observed in unilateral infarction (15/18, 83%). Head-shaking nystagmus developed in 37 (51%) patients, and the horizontal component of head-shaking nystagmus was uniformly ipsilesional when induced in patients with unilateral infarction. Perverted head-shaking nystagmus occurred in 23 (23/37, 62%) patients and was mostly downbeat (22/23, 96%). Lesion subtraction analyses revealed that damage to the uvula, nodulus and inferior tonsil was mostly responsible for generation of head-shaking nystagmus in patients with unilateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction. Ipsilesional head-shaking nystagmus in patients with unilateral cerebellar infarction may be explained by unilateral disruption of uvulonodular inhibition over the velocity storage. Perverted (downbeat) head-shaking nystagmus may be ascribed to impaired control over the spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex due to uvulonodular lesions or a build-up of vertical vestibular asymmetry favouring upward bias due to lesions involving the inferior tonsil.

  3. Image correlation based method for the analysis of collagen fibers patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ramon G. T.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The collagen fibers are one of the most important structural proteins in skin, being responsible for its strength and flexibility. It is known that their properties, like fibers density, ordination and mean diameter can be affected by several skin conditions, what makes these properties a good parameter to be used on the diagnosis and evaluation of skin aging, cancer, healing, among other conditions. There is, however, a need for methods capable of analyzing quantitatively the organization patterns of these fibers. To address this need, we developed a method based on the autocorrelation function of the images that allows the construction of vector field plots of the fibers directions and does not require any kind of curve fitting or optimization. The analyzed images were obtained through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Microscopy. This paper presents a concise review on the autocorrelation function and some of its applications to image processing, details the developed method and the results obtained through the analysis of hystopathological slides of landrace porcine skin. The method has high accuracy on the determination of the fibers direction and presents high performance. We look forward to perform further studies keeping track of different skin conditions over time.

  4. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone.

  5. Facial patterns in a tropical social wasp correlate with colony membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchi, David; Turillazzi, Stefano; Chittka, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Social insects excel in discriminating nestmates from intruders, typically relying on colony odours. Remarkably, some wasp species achieve such discrimination using visual information. However, while it is universally accepted that odours mediate a group level recognition, the ability to recognise colony members visually has been considered possible only via individual recognition by which wasps discriminate `friends' and `foes'. Using geometric morphometric analysis, which is a technique based on a rigorous statistical theory of shape allowing quantitative multivariate analyses on structure shapes, we first quantified facial marking variation of Liostenogaster flavolineata wasps. We then compared this facial variation with that of chemical profiles (generated by cuticular hydrocarbons) within and between colonies. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis applied to sets of variables containing pure shape information showed that despite appreciable intra-colony variation, the faces of females belonging to the same colony resemble one another more than those of outsiders. This colony-specific variation in facial patterns was on a par with that observed for odours. While the occurrence of face discrimination at the colony level remains to be tested by behavioural experiments, overall our results suggest that, in this species, wasp faces display adequate information that might be potentially perceived and used by wasps for colony level recognition.

  6. MicroRNA expression patterns in adrenocortical carcinoma variants and clinical pathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duregon, Eleonora; Rapa, Ida; Votta, Arianna; Giorcelli, Jessica; Daffara, Fulvia; Terzolo, Massimo; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be deregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) as compared with adenoma, but a detailed assessment of their expression in its histologic variants and correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been performed, so far. Our aim was to assess the expression of 5 selected miRNAs (IGF2 gene-related miR-483-3p and 5p and hypoxia-induced miR-210, miR-195, and miR-1974) in a series of 51 ACCs (35 classical, 6 myxoid, and 10 oncocytic) as compared with clinical and pathologic features and immunohistochemical expression of prognostic markers, including steroidogenic factor 1, p53, β-catenin, and glucose transporter 1. Oncocytic carcinomas had a reduced expression of miR-483-3p (P = .0325), miR-483-5p (P = .0175), and miR-210 (P = .0366), as compared with other histotypes. Overexpression of miR-210 was associated with the presence of necrosis (P = .0035), high Ki-67 index (P = .0013), and high glucose transporter 1 expression (P = .0043), whereas an inverse correlation with mitotic rate was observed in cases with high miR-493-3p (P = .0191) and miR-1974 (P = .0017) expression. High miR-1974 was also associated with low Ki-67 (P = .0312) and European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors stage (P = .0082) and negative p53 (P = .0013). At univariate analysis myxoid/classic histotype (P = .026), high miR-210 (P = .0465), high steroidogenic factor 1 protein (P = .0017), high Ki-67 (P = .0066), and high mitotic index (P = .0006) were significantly associated the shorter overall survival, the latter being the sole independent prognostic factor at multivariate analysis (P = .017). In conclusion, (a) miR-483-3p, miR-483-5p, and miR-210 are differentially expressed in ACC variants, and (b) high miR-210 is associated with clinicopathologic parameters of aggressiveness and a poor prognosis.

  7. Chloroplast movement behavior varies widely among species and does not correlate with high light stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königer, Martina; Bollinger, Nicole

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that chloroplasts move in response to changes in blue light intensity in order to optimize light interception, however, little is known about interspecific variation and the relative importance of this mechanism for the high light stress tolerance of plants. We characterized chloroplast movement behavior as changes in light transmission through a leaf in a variety of species ranging from ferns to monocots and eudicots and found a wide spectrum of responses. Most species exhibited a distinct accumulation response compared to the dark positioning, and all species showed a distinct avoidance response. The speed with which transmission values changed during the avoidance response was consistently faster than that during the accumulation response and speeds varied greatly between species. Plants thriving in higher growth light intensities showed greater degrees of accumulation responses and faster changes in transmission than those that prefer lower light intensities. In some species, the chloroplasts on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces changed their positioning in response to light, while in other species only the chloroplasts on one leaf side responded. No correlation was found between high light stress tolerance and the speed or degree of transmission changes, indicating that plants can compensate for slow and limited transmission changes using other photoprotective mechanisms.

  8. Behavioural and psychosocial correlates of nondipping blood pressure pattern among middle-aged men and women at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clays, E; Van Herck, K; De Buyzere, M; Kornitzer, M; Kittel, F; De Backer, G; De Bacquer, D

    2012-06-01

    The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of nondipping blood pressure (BP) pattern are not completely understood. Especially the role of psychosocial correlates remains unclear. The aim was to assess the association between nondipping BP pattern, behavioural and psychosocial factors in a sample of working men and women. The study sample included 167 working men and women aged 40-64 years from the BELSTRESS cohort. Socio-demographic, behavioural and psychosocial factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Participants were medically examined and underwent an ambulatory BP monitoring during 24 h. Nondipping was defined when the average nocturnal decline in BP was <10%. The prevalence of nondipping for both systolic and diastolic BP was 7.8%. Nondipping was not significantly related to smoking, alcohol consumption and leisure time physical activity. A crude significant association was observed between nondipping and sleep problems. After adjusting for gender, education and body mass index, the risk for nondipping was associated with job strain, living alone, being unsatisfied about the contact with one's children, depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion. Nondipping BP pattern was consistently related to psychosocial factors in this study: positive associations were observed with measures of job strain, poor private life support (living alone and being unsatisfied about the contact with one's children) and mental health problems (depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion).

  9. Investigation of Rock Failure Pattern in Creep by Digital Speckle Correlation Method

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    Yunliang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the mechanical characteristics from creep deformation to failure of rock, the tests of uniaxial compression and pushing steel-plate anchored in rock were performed, by using RLJW-2000 servo test synchronizing with Digital Speckle Correlation Method (DSCM. The investigations showed that for a uniaxial compressive specimen, when load arrived at 0.5σc, displacement clusters orderly formed, which was ahead of the macrocreep strain occurring in a slight jump mode when load arrived at 0.7σc. When the load level arrived at 0.8σc, displacement clusters gathered to be a narrow band. After that, the specimen abruptly fractured in a shear mode. In the creep pushing steel-plate test, when pushing force arrived at 25 kN, crack began to occur, the horizontal displacement field as well as shear strain field concentrated continuously along the interface between steel-plate and rock, and a new narrow concentrating band gathered in the upper layer. When pushing force arrived at 27.5 kN, another new narrow shear deformation band formed in the lower layer. Then, the steel-plate was pushed out quickly accompanying strong creep deformation.

  10. Zonal Differences in Correlation Patterns Between Soil Organic Carbon and Climate Factors at Multi-extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Falyu; SHI Xuezheng; XU Shengxiang; YU Dongsheng; WANG Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Studying the relationship between climate factors and soil organic carbon (SOC) is vitally important.However,how SOC responses to climate (temperature and precipitation) at cohesive extents is poorly studied.Two transects of approximately the same length (transect P and transect T) were selected to examine the variation of SOC content in relation to mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP).The coefficients of partial correlation between SOC density and MAT (Rt) and MAP (Rp) were determined to quantify the relationships between SOC density and the two climate factors.The results indicated that for transect T,Rt was statistically significant once the extent level was greater than or equal to two fundamental extent units,while for transect P,Rp showed statistical significance only at extent levels which were greater than two fundamental extent units.At the same extent levels but in different transects,Rts exhibited no zonal difference,but Rps did once the extent level was greater than two fundamental extent units.Therefore,to study the relationship between SOC density and different climate factors,different minimum extent levels should be examined.The results of this paper could deepen the understanding of the impacts that SOC pool has on terrestrial ecosystem and global carbon cycling.

  11. Geometric correlation of cultural landscape patterns and Prunus domestica L. species leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the basics for more detailed research on the structures of bionic forms of different plant species and their application in the domain of landscape planning. The aim of this type of research is to expand knowledge of landscape planning with a deeper understanding of different geometric relations present in the existing natural forms. The correlation between structures in nature and structures that are present in contemporary landscape architecture could be established by the congruence with the geometric models from landscape. This paper is focused solely on the geometry of natural forms. The Voronoi diagram was used in order to examine the similarities and to perform a comparative analysis of the Prunus domestica L. leaf geometry and the geometry of cultural landscapes of Central Serbia. The resulting Voronoi diagram shows the similarity based on closed fields, Voronoi cells, which correspond to the nervation of Prunus domestica L. leaf by form. Using the comparative analysis, the geometric interpretation of cultural landscape examples could be linked to the geometric structure of the most frequent fruit tree species.

  12. Long-range Correlations and Patterns of Recurrence in Children and Adults’ Attention to Hierarchical Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon D. Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to make sense of a scene, a person must pay attention to several levels of nested order, ranging from the most differentiated details of the display to the integrated whole. In adults, research shows that the processes of integration and differentiation have the signature of self-organization. Does the same hold for children? The current study addresses this question with children between 6 and 9 years of age, using two tasks that require attention to hierarchical displays. A group of adults were tested as well, for control purposes. To get at the question of self-organization, reaction time data were submitted to a detrended fluctuation analysis and a recurrence quantification analysis. Hurst exponents shows a long-range correlations (1/f noise, and recurrence measures (percent determinism, maximum line, entropy, and trend, show a deterministic structure of variability being characteristic of self-organizing systems. Findings are discussed in terms of organism-environment coupling that gives rise to fluid attention to hierarchical displays.

  13. Heterogeneous pattern of bone disease in adult type 1 Gaucher disease: clinical and pathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dussen, L; Lips, P; van Essen, H W; Hollak, C E M; Bravenboer, N

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages, so-called Gaucher cells, as a result of a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Bone complications are an important cause of morbidity of GD and are thought to result from imbalance in bone remodeling. Bone manifestations among GD patients demonstrate a large variation including increased osteoclastic bone resorption, low bone formation and osteonecrosis. The purpose of the current case series is to describe the histological features observed in undecalcified bone samples, obtained from three GD patients, and evaluate the relationship with clinical features in these patients. Bone fragments were obtained from three adult type 1 GD patients with variable degrees of bone disease during orthopedic surgery. Specimens were embedded without prior decalcification in methylmethacrylate and prepared for histology according to standardized laboratory procedures. Histology revealed a heterogeneous pattern of bone involvement. High cellularity of bone marrow, abundant presence of Gaucher cells (GCs) and high turnover were observed in a patient with a history of multiple bone complications, while minimal bone turnover and few GCs were detected in the mildest affected patient in this series. An intermediate picture with relatively low bone turnover and a substantial amount of Gaucher cells was demonstrated in the third, moderately affected patient. No gross abnormalities in three biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide) were noted. Plastic embedding and subsequent Goldner and TRAP staining offered a unique possibility to study bone histological findings in GD. Our data show that bone manifestations in GD may vary both clinically as well as histologically and bone disease in GD will likely require a personalized approach.

  14. Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Mahdi Najafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD has been the subject of recent studies. We studied a group of Iranian CAD patients to analyze any relationship between diet and CAD risk factors based on gender. Methods: In this study, 461 consecutive patients were assessed before their planned isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They were interviewed to obtain the quantity and components of nutrients and micronutrients based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet scores were calculated in each dietary group and the total score was reported as the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (Med-DQI. Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Functional class, EuroSCORE and the frequency of the known risk factors in the men and women were recorded as well. Results: The women were more likely than the men to present with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension (all Ps < 0.001. Also, the women had higher functional class and mean of EuroSCORE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03. Only six women (5.7% reported to have regular physical activity. In addition, Women’s energy intake was more likely to be supplied through fat. Cereals, fruit, and vegetable consumption in both genders was within the safe recommended range, while olive and fish consumption was low in both sexes. MedDQI score was different between men and women with hypertension (P = 0.018 and obesity (P = 0.048. Conclusions: Modifiable classical risk factors for CAD, except for smoking, were more prevalent in women and were associated with their diet. Therefore, women probably need to maintain low calorie intake while improving physical activity and dietary patterns to decrease the frequency and severity of modifiable cardiac risk factors.

  15. Immobility behavior during the forced swim test correlates with BNDF levels in the frontal cortex, but not with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila Boque; Viana, Alice Fialho; Nardin, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2015-03-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is widely used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of compounds and is sensitive to stimuli that cause depression-like behaviors in rodents. The immobility behavior observed during the test has been considered to represent behavioral despair. In addition, some studies suggest that the FST impairs rats' performance on cognitive tests, but these findings have rarely been explored. Thus, we investigated the effects of the FST on behavioral tests related to neuropsychiatric diseases that involve different cognitive components: novel object recognition (NOR), the object location test (OLT) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. The rats were forced to swim twice (15-min session followed by a 5-min session 24h later) and underwent cognitive tests 24h after the last swimming exposure. The FST impaired the rats' performance on the OLT and reduced the PPI and acoustic startle responses, whereas the NOR was not affected. The cognitive impairments were not correlated with an immobility behavior profile, but a significant negative correlation between the frontal BDNF levels and immobility behavior was identified. These findings suggest a protective role of BDNF against behavioral despair and demonstrate a deleterious effect of the FST on spatial memory and pre-attentive processes, which point to the FST as a tool to induce cognitive impairments analogous to those observed in depression and in other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

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    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  18. Patterns of anogenital swelling size and their endocrine correlates during ovulatory cycles and early pregnancy in free-ranging barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhle, U; Heistermann, M; Dittami, J; Reinberg, V; Wallner, B; Hodges, J K

    2005-08-01

    . This is the first study to characterize swelling patterns and their endocrine correlates during ovarian cycles and early pregnancy in naturally reproducing female Barbary macaques. The data provide a solid basis for further studies to explore sociosexual behavioral patterns and the functional significance of AS in this species.

  19. Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W

    2012-08-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 and 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems.

  20. Correlates of tobacco-use pattern amongst adolescents in two schools of New Delhi, India

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    Kotwal A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As adolescent tobacco use has been found to be a major predictor of future use, preventive efforts need to be focused on this section of population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of knowledge regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitude, peers, and other influencers on tobacco and areca nut use, amongst adolescents. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A school-based cross-sectional study covering two schools. Students of classes IX and XI, of selected schools, participated in the study (n = 596. METHODS: A pretested and validated, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic factors, awareness regarding tobacco, risk-taking attitudes, role of peers and other influencers, and tobacco, areca nut and alcohol use, were studied. Statistical analysis: 0 Point estimates, 98% Confidence Intervals, tests of significance, bivariate and multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost 42% of tobacco users started before the age of 12 years. Peer pressure, general stress, and media were important influencers. Logistic regression analysis showed that students in public school were using more tobacco [Odds ratio (OR = 1.85, P = 0.174] and tobacco/areca nut (OR = 1.14, P = 0.02. The difference in use between the genders and class in which studying was statistically not significant. Lesser proportion of those possessing adequate knowledge regarding tobacco used it as compared to those without adequate knowledge (OR = 0.13, P < 0.001 however, possession of adequate knowledge was not a good predictor of areca nut consumption (OR = 0.86, P = 0.585. The most important correlate for tobacco use (OR = 6.41, P < 0.001 and areca nut use (OR = 11.17, P < 0.001 was risk-taking attitude. CONCLUSION: Multipronged and concerted efforts targeting children at an early age are required to prevent tobacco and areca nut use among adolescents.

  1. Correlating microbial diversity patterns with geochemistry in an extreme and heterogeneous environment of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Li, Sheng-Jin; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Nan

    2014-06-01

    Recent molecular surveys have advanced our understanding of the forces shaping the large-scale ecological distribution of microbes in Earth's extreme habitats, such as hot springs and acid mine drainage. However, few investigations have attempted dense spatial analyses of specific sites to resolve the local diversity of these extraordinary organisms and how communities are shaped by the harsh environmental conditions found there. We have applied a 16S rRNA gene-targeted 454 pyrosequencing approach to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 90 microbial communities from a massive copper tailing impoundment generating acidic drainage and coupled these variations in community composition with geochemical parameters to reveal ecological interactions in this extreme environment. Our data showed that the overall microbial diversity estimates and relative abundances of most of the dominant lineages were significantly correlated with pH, with the simplest assemblages occurring under extremely acidic conditions and more diverse assemblages associated with neutral pHs. The consistent shifts in community composition along the pH gradient indicated that different taxa were involved in the different acidification stages of the mine tailings. Moreover, the effect of pH in shaping phylogenetic structure within specific lineages was also clearly evident, although the phylogenetic differentiations within the Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes were attributed to variations in ferric and ferrous iron concentrations. Application of the microbial assemblage prediction model further supported pH as the major factor driving community structure and demonstrated that several of the major lineages are readily predictable. Together, these results suggest that pH is primarily responsible for structuring whole communities in the extreme and heterogeneous mine tailings, although the diverse microbial taxa may respond differently to various environmental conditions.

  2. The Interplay among Acorn Abundance and Rodent Behavior Drives the Spatial Pattern of Seedling Recruitment in Mature Mediterranean Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Sunyer

    Full Text Available The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars, and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean mixed-oak forest. In a spatially explicit design, we monitored intensively all environmental and behavioral variables in fixed points at a small spatial scale from autumn to spring, as well as seedling emergence and survival. Our results revealed that the spatial patterns of seedling emergence were strongly related to acorn availability on the ground, but not by a facilitation effect of vegetation cover. Rodents changed seed shadows generated by mother trees by dispersing most seeds from shrubby to open areas, but the spatial patterns of acorn dispersal/predation had no direct effect on recruitment. By contrast, rodents had a strong impact on recruitment as pilferers of cached seeds. Rooting by wild boars also reduced recruitment by reducing seed abundance, but also by changing rodent's behavior towards higher consumption of acorns in situ. Hence, seed abundance and the foraging behavior of scatter-hoarding rodents and wild boars are driving the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in this mature oak forest, rather than vegetation features. The contribution of vegetation to seedling recruitment (e.g. facilitation by shrubs may be context dependent, having a little role in closed forests, or being overridden by directed seed dispersal from shrubby to open areas. We warn about the need of using broad approaches that consider the combined action of environment and behavior to improve our knowledge on the dynamics of natural

  3. Dual burden of underweight and overweight among women in Bangladesh: patterns, prevalence, and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (poverweight (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.19) over normal weight. The urban women, compared to their rural counterparts, were significantly (poverweight (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.51) than normal weight. The other socioeconomic grades that were most marked to be underweight and overweight are age, women's education, marital status, age at first childbirth, parity, number of children aged ≤ 5 years at the household, and food security. The findings confirm the dual burden of both under- and overweight. Systematic and regular monitoring and surveillance of the social trajectory of nutritional status of women and men in Bangladesh is crucial to develop opposite strategy that addresses the persistent and

  4. Uncertainty of the Numerical Solution of a Nonlinear System's Long-term Behavior and Global Convergence of the Numerical Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡淑娟; 丑纪范

    2004-01-01

    The computational uncertainty principle in nonlinear ordinary differential equations makes the numerical solution of the long-term behavior of nonlinear atmospheric equations have no meaning. The main reason is that, in the error analysis theory of present-day computational mathematics, the non-linear process between truncation error and rounding erroris treated as a linear operation. In this paper, based on the operator equations of large-scale atmospheric movement, the above limitation is overcome by using the notion of cell mapping. Through studying the global asymptotic characteristics of the numerical pattern of the large-scale atmospheric equations, the definitions of the global convergence and an appropriate discrete algorithm of the numerical pattern are put forward. Three determinant theorems about the global convergence of the numerical pattern are presented, which provide the theoretical basis for constructing the globally convergent numerical pattern. Further, it is pointed out that only a globally convergent numerical pattern can improve the veracity of climatic prediction.

  5. Assessment of Dietary Intake Patterns among University Students in Lebanon: a focus on gender differences and overweight correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale eSalameh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Unhealthy dietary habits are a major risk factor for chronic diseases, particularly if adopted during early adulthood. In a study conducted on a large sample of university students from both public and private universities in Lebanon, we observed differences in obesity prevalence between males and females. Given this difference, the objective of this analysis was to define the different dietary patterns among university students, focusing on correlation with gender and body mass index (BMI. Methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3384 students, using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students from both public and private universities. Results : Three dietary patterns were identified among university youth namely, vegetarian/low calorie diet (mainly plant food while avoiding ‘western’ food, composite dishes, and bread; mixed diet (high consumption of plant food, followed by composite dishes, bread, and a low consumption of western type food, and finally the westernized diet (high consumption of white bread and western food, and a strong avoidance of plant food and composite dishes. We observed significant differences between males and females in terms of their reported food intake and dietary patterns. Females were particularly more prone to adopt the vegetarian/low calorie diet than males (ORa=1.69; p<0.001, while males were more likely to adopt a westernized diet (ORa=1.51; p<0.001, seemingly in private universities (p=0.053. Students with high income and obese students (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were more likely to consume vegetarian/low calorie diets (P<0.05. Conclusion: Male university students, despite having a higher BMI, reported a higher consumption of food according to a westernized dietary pattern as compared to female university students in Lebanon, while the latter reported a higher adoption of a vegetarian diet. Health promotion programs are needed among university youth in Lebanon to address their

  6. Multiple Informants in the Assessment of Psychological, Behavioral, and Academic Correlates of Bullying and Victimization in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke Totura, Christine M.; Green, Amy E.; Karver, Marc S.; Gesten, Ellis L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed agreement between student self-report and teacher ratings of bullying and victimization relative to psychological, behavioral, and academic correlates. Middle school students (N=1442) and teachers completed surveys evaluating peer relationships and psychosocial adjustment. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions…

  7. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between feather pecking behavior, stress response, immune reponse, and egg quality traits in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Wissink, P.H.; Visscher, J.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feather pecking (FP) behavior and stress response, immune response, and egg quality parameters. These traits have been measured in an F-2 cross, coming from a cross between a high and a low FP line of laying

  8. Breast Lesions: Correlation of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Patterns on MR images with Tumor Angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeifangLiu; RunxianBao; YunNiu; YongYu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features of the early -phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal-intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. METHODS Sixty patients with breast lesions, detected with physical examination or conventional mammography, were examined pre-operatively with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from December 1998 to June 2000. Of these 60 patients, histopathological correlation was available in 38. These 38 patients(aged 29-73 years) formed the basis of this study. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-Sl curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5rain.), type Ⅱ (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type Ⅲ (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). The mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immunohistochemical staining methods in all the pathologic specimens by a pathologist without knowledge of the results of the MR examination. Care was taken to ensure identical location in the plane of the MR image and pathologic specimens. The relationships among dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. RESULTS Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 21 malignant lesions were significantly higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for the 17 benign lesions (P60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type Ⅱ or Ⅲ showed a significant association with MVD and VEGF expression. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance (P 0

  9. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seong Eun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32{approx}79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95{+-}4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9{+-}0.69 in ulcer, 3.08{+-}1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2{+-}1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous

  10. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. de Jong; A. Korosi; B.N. Harris; J.P. Perea-Rodriguez; W. Saltzman

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might b

  11. Electronic speckle-pattern interferometry (ESPI) applied to the study of mechanical behavior of human jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan F.; Moreno de las Cuevas, Vincente; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Suarez, David; Fernandez, Paula; Gallas, Mercedes; Blanchard, Alain

    1996-01-01

    The study of the mechanical behavior of the human jaw during chewing is helpful in several specific medical fields that cover the maxillo-facial area. In this work, electronic speckle pattern interferometry has been applied to study dead jaw bones under external stress which simulates the deformations induced during chewing. Fringes obtained after subtraction of two images of the jaw, the image of the relaxed jaw and that of the jaw under stress, give us information about the most stressed zones. The interferometric analysis proposed here is attractive as it can be done in real time with the jaw under progressive stress. Image processing can be applied for improving the quality of fringes. This research can be of help in orthognathic surgery, for example in diagnosis and treatment of fractured jaws, in oral surgery, and in orthodontics because it would help us to know the stress dispersion when we insert an osseointegrated implant or place an orthodontic appliance, respectively. Studying fragments of human jaw some results about its elasticity and flexibility were obtained.

  12. Behavioral pattern of a monopolar passive direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Bae, Byungchan; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cho, EunAe; Ha, Heung Yong

    A passive, air-breathing, monopolar, liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack consisting of six unit cells with no external pump, fan or auxiliary devices to feed the reactants has been designed and fabricated for its possible employment as a portable power source. The configurations of the stack of monopolar passive feed DMFCs are different from those of bipolar active feed DMFCs and therefore its operational characteristics completely vary from the active ones. Our present investigation primarily focuses on understanding the unique behavioral patterns of monopolar stack under the influence of certain operating conditions, such as temperature, methanol concentration and reactants feeding methods. With passive reactants supply, the temperature of the stack and open circuit voltage (OCV) undergo changes over time due to a decrease in concentration of methanol in the reservoir as the reaction proceeds. Variations in performance and temperature of the stack are mainly influenced by the concentration of methanol. Continuous operation of the passive stack is influenced by the supply of methanol rather than air supply or water accumulation at the cathode. The monopolar stack made up of six unit cells exhibits a total power of 1000 mW (37 mW cm -2) with 4 M methanol under ambient conditions.

  13. Structure, scattering patterns and phase behavior of polymer nanocomposites with nonspherical fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Lisa M [ORNL; Schweizer, Kenneth S [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites made with carbon nanotubes, clay platelets, laponite disks and other novel nonspherical fillers have been the focus of many recent experiments. However, the effects of nanoparticle shape on statistical structure, polymer-mediated effective interactions, scattering patterns, and phase diagrams are not well understood. We extend and apply the polymer reference interaction site model liquid state theory to study the equilibrium properties of pseudo one-, two- and threedimensional particles (rod, disk, cube) of modest steric anisotropy and fixed space-filling volume in a dense adsorbing homopolymer melt up to relatively high volume fractions. The second virial coefficient, nanoparticle potential-of-mean force, osmotic compressibilities, and isotropic spinodal demixing boundaries have been determined. The entropic depletion attraction between nanoparticles is dominant for weakly adsorbing polymer, while strongly adsorbing chains induce a bridging attraction. Intermediate interfacial cohesion results in the formation of a steric stabilizing adsorbed polymer layer around each nanoparticle, which can partially damp inter-filler collective order on various length scales and increase order on an averaged length scale. The details of depletion, stabilization, or bridging behavior are shape-dependent and often, but not always, trends are monotonic with increasing filler dimensionality. Distinctive nanoparticle shape-dependent low angle features are predicted for the collective polymer structure factor associated with competing macrophase fluctuations and microphase-like ordering. The influence of nonzero mixture compressibility on the scattering profiles is established.

  14. The Parents' Parenting Patterns, Education, Jobs, and Assistance to Their Children in Watching Television, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…

  15. On Behavior Patterns of College Students'Application to English Learning%大学生行为模式在英语学习中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵科研

    2012-01-01

    Studying the distinguish between quantitative and qualitative approaches to English learning, this article discusses the principal learning theories and their application to English learning of specific behavior patterns.

  16. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms Correlate with Domains of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ru Zhang; Jing Chen; Zi-Jiao Yang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Yun-Ting Fu; Yun Shen; Pei-Cheng He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).However, little is known regarding the relation between the severity of RBD and the different domains of cognitive impairment.The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the domains of cognitive impairment in patients with PD and RBD, and (2) to explore risk factors for PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and the relationship between RBD severity and impairment in different cognitive domains in PD.Methods: The participants were grouped as follows: PD without RBD (PD-RBD;n =42), PD with RBD (PD + RBD;n =32), idiopathic RBD (iRBD;n =15), and healthy controls (HCs;n =36).All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological assessment of attention and working memory, executive function, language, memory, and visuospatial function.The information of basic demographics, diseases and medication history, and motor and nonmotor manifestations was obtained and compared between PD-RBD and PD + RBD groups.Particular attention was paid to the severity of RBD assessed by the RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ), then we further examined associations between the severity of RBD symptoms and cognitive levels via correlation analysis.Results: Compared to PD-RBD subjects, PD + RBD patients were more likely to have olfactory dysfunction and their Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were higher (P < 0.05).During neuropsychological testing, PD + RBD patients performed worse than PD-RBD patients, including delayed memory function, especially.The MCI rates were 33%, 63%, 33%, and 8% for PD-RBD, PD + RBD, iRBD, and HC groups, respectively.RBD was an important factor for the PD-MCI variance (odds ratio =5.204, P =0.018).During correlation analysis, higher RBDSQ and RBDQ-HK scores were significantly associated with poorer performance on the Trail Making Test-B (errors) and

  17. Correlation analyses of covering and righting behaviors to fitness related traits of the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis in different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Lisheng; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-11-01

    Complex marine benthic environments shape a number of ecologically important behaviors in sea urchins, including covering and righting behaviors. The present study correlated covering and righting behaviors to a series of fitness-related traits in sea urchins. Righting response time of Glyptocidaris crenularis was significantly positively correlated with body size, but significantly negatively correlated with food consumption. Covering behavior was not significantly correlated with test diameter, test height or body weight, but covering response time was negatively correlated with body weight. A significantly negative correlation was found between righting response time and covering response time. Glyptocidaris crenularis showed a significantly positive correlation in covering response time with and without exposure to poured sand, but no significance in covering ability (number of shells used to cover). The present study provides new insight into internal mechanisms and evolutionary drives of covering and righting behaviors of sea urchins.

  18. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  19. Correlating Whole Brain Neural Activity with Behavior in Head-Fixed Larval Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol to combine behavioral recording and imaging using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy in head-fixed larval zebrafish that express a genetically encoded calcium indicator. The steps involve restraining the larva in agarose, setting up optics that allow projection of a visual stimulus and infrared illumination to monitor behavior, and analysis of the neuronal and behavioral data.

  20. Different patterns of boys' externalizing behavior and their relation to risk factors: a longitudinal study of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, M; Lösel, F

    2010-01-01

    Childrens' externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and impulsivity are serious problems in many societies. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems (anxiety, depression etc.). The present study addressed these two groups in a prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the previous descriptive findings remained stable over time and, in particular, whether the two types differed in important risk factors for antisocial behavior. The sample consisted of 198 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study. The first assessment took place in kindergarten and the second 3.4 years later in elementary school. The behavior problems were assessed by ratings of kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers using the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ). The risk factors were low socio-economic status of the family, birth complications, physical punishment in parenting behavior, difficult temperament, low intelligence, and aggression-prone social information processing of the child. Approximately 15% of the boys revealed externalizing behavior problems. A variable-oriented analysis showed significant stability over time. In a person-oriented Configural Frequency Analysis the 'externalizing only' and the 'combined externalizing and internalizing' pattern could be replicated. For five of the six risk factors we found significant differences between the boys with behavior problems and a non-deviant group. However, the two different patterns of externalizing problems differed only in intelligence (lower for the group with combined problems). The results confirm models of cumulative biological, psychological and social risks for antisocial behavior over time. Furthermore, specified analyses of the two types and their relation to proactive and reactive

  1. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundas George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior. Results Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003, income level (p = .013, and body mass index (BMI (p = .020 were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p β = .18, p = .029 being independent correlates. For intention, 38.3% of the variance was explained by the TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p β = .30, p Conclusion The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population.

  2. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.

  3. Bystanders' Behavior in Cyberbullying Episodes: Active and Passive Patterns in the Context of Personal-Socio-Emotional Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored bystanders' behavior in cyberbullying (CB) episodes among children and youth, focusing on active and passive behavior patterns. The study examined prevalence and characteristics of bystanders' behavior following CB episodes, and their active-passive intervention patterns in relation to personal (age, gender) and socio-emotional (self-efficacy, social support, sense of loneliness) factors. Of the 1,094 participants (ages 9-18), 497 (46.4%) reported they were bystanders to CB episodes. Of the bystanders, 55.4% were identified as having a passive pattern of behavior-they did not provide any help to cyber-victims, whereas 44.6% were identified as having an active pattern-helping the cyber-victim. In line with the "bystanders' effect," only 35.6% of the bystanders offered direct help to cyber-victims after witnessing CB. When studying the personal-socio-emotional differences between active and passive bystanders, it was found that the "active bystanders" are more often girls, older, have more social support from significant others, and have lower levels of emotional loneliness than bystanders in the passive group. Differences within the passive and active patterns were studied as well. A logistic regression revealed the unique contribution of each predictor to the probability of being an active bystander. It was found that gender and age predicted the probability of being an active bystander: Girls are more likely than boys, and older bystanders are more likely than younger ones, to choose an active pattern and provide help to cyber-victims. In addition, implications for CB prevention and intervention involvement programs to encourage bystanders to help cyber-victims are discussed.

  4. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 {approx} 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 {+-} 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 {+-} 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 {+-} 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 {+-} 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( {rho} =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern

  5. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, implies the importance of the female and male behavior pattern in understanding demographic structures, processes and phenomena. The theoretical foundation was found in the anthropological character of contemporary demography which focuses on the individual’s behavior in the context of interactive relations with the concrete environment. In the context of a complex deterministic basis and interactive connection of various factors, gender roles and gender relations represent a relative segment of social dimension of various demographic issues. Feminization of the middle-aged and older population emphasizes the importance of female perspective, taking into consideration space diversity. Feminization is most intensive in Belgrade. Among the middle-aged women there is a higher proportion of tertiary educated and divorced, and less share of the economically independent, in relation to the remaining region of Central Serbia. As regards older women, irrespective of spatial distribution, widowhood, unfavorable education characteristics, lower economic activity and greater economic dependency are important matters. The issue of retirement has specific importance, and should be solved in the context of educated and socio-professional characteristics of women, in order to promote their social position and gender equality. A shorter life span of the male population requires recognizing specific mortality factors of the middle-aged and older males, in order to eliminate the

  6. Neuroendocrinology of a Male-Specific Pattern for Depression Linked to Alcohol Use Disorder and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Rice, Timothy; Kufert, Yael; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression. Low circulating levels of sex steroids seem to increase the vulnerability for male depression, while concomitant high levels of glucocorticoids further intensify this vulnerability. Interactions of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-related hormones seem to be highly relevant for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. Moreover, genetic variants and the epigenetic profiles of the androgen receptor gene, well-known depression related genes, and HPA axis-related genes were shown to further interact with men’s steroid secretion and thus may further contribute to the proposed male-specific pattern for depression. This mini-review points out the multilevel interactions between the HPG and HPA axis for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. An integration of multilevel interactions within the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience concludes the review. PMID:28096796

  7. Correlation between theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage and lymphoscintigraphy findings during sentinel node detection in head and neck melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Monica; Ruiz, Diana Milena [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Paredes, Pilar; Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Torres, Ferran [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Statistical of Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    In the diagnosis of head and neck melanoma, lymphatic drainage is complex and highly variable. As regional lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors, lymphoscintigraphy can help map individual drainage patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the results of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection with theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage based on the location of the primary tumour lesion in patients with head and neck melanoma. We also determined the percentage of discrepancies between our lymphoscintigraphy and the theoretical location of nodal drainage predicted by a large lymphoscintigraphic database, in order to explain recurrence and false-negative SLN biopsies. In this retrospective study of 152 patients with head and neck melanoma, the locations of the SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy and detected intraoperatively were compared with the lymphatic drainage predicted by on-line software based on a large melanoma database. All patients showed lymphatic drainage and in all patients at least one SLN was identified by lymphoscintigraphy. Of the 152 patients, 4 had a primary lesion in areas that were not described in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database, so agreement could only be evaluated in 148 patients. Agreement between lymphoscintigraphic findings and the theoretical lymphatic drainage predicted by the software was completely concordant in 119 of the 148 patients (80.4 %, 95 % CI 73.3 - 86 %). However, this concordance was partial (some concordant nodes and others not) in 18 patients (12.2 %, 95 % CI 7.8 - 18.4 %). Discordance was complete in 11 patients (7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.2 - 12.8 %). In melanoma of the head and neck there is a high correlation between lymphatic drainage found by lymphoscintigraphy and the predicted drainage pattern and basins provided by a large reference database. Due to unpredictable drainage, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is essential to accurately detect the SLNs in head and

  8. Patterns of treatment seeking behavior for mental illnesses in Southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based study

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    Tesfaye Markos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers

  9. Correlation of cognitive decline and behavioral changes in patients with presenile and senile onset Alzheimer’s disease

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most prevalent dementia, is characterized not only by cognitive but also behavioral changes that pose the heaviest burden to caregivers. Differences in the clinical picture depending on the time of disease onset have been observed. We correlated cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with presenile- and senile-onset AD to explore the differences. We tested 60 AD patients, 19 male and 41 female, mean age 65.2 years with the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale (DBD and a standard neuropsychological battery. The patients were divided according to their DBD score into two groups: group I - score 0-2 (n=24; 40%, group II - score 3≥ (n=36; 60%, comparable in disease duration and neurological findings. The cognitive scores were significantly higher in the group with less behavioral changes than in the group with more behavioral changes: Mini Mental State Examination score (p=0.0015, serial subtraction (p=0.0009, block design (p=0.0049, copy of complex figure (p=0.0125, complex visual organization (p=0.0099, divided attention, visual memory and speech comprehension. A significantly higher frequency of behavioral disturbances was registered in patients with senile onset than in the presenile-onset group (p<0.005. There were no sex differences. Our data show a correlation between cognitive decline and behavioral changes in late onset AD patients, indicating that more behavioral disturbances were associated with a more severe degree of cognitive decline, especially in non-verbal functions and attention deficits, compared to early onset patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  10. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

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    T.L. Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment or as typical writers and readers (controls. The dysgraphia group (n = 14 and dyslexia group (n = 17 were each compared to the control group (n = 9 and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher. For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity, correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  11. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  12. Morbidity pattern and health seeking behavior in elderly population of Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

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    Md. Alam Naushad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological transition across globe is considered as the net result of the demographic transition. The shape of the population pyramid is gradually changing from a wide-based and narrow topped form to a barrel-shaped form in recent future (1. Aims & Objectives: 1. To determine morbidity pattern in elderly population, 2. To assess their health care seeking behavior. Material & Methods: Study design- A Community based cross sectional observational study. Study setting - Pt J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Study Duration: July 2013 to June 2014. Sampling method: - Multi stage simple random sampling. Sample size: 640. Sample Size were calculated by using statistical formula, n= Z21-α/2 P(1-P/d. Study tool: Pre-designed, Pre-tested Performa. Ethical consideration-Written document from institutional ethical Committee and Informed Consent from subject. Inclusion criteria: 1. All elderly persons in the age group of 60 years and above who were residing in the study area for at least one year, and willing to Participate in study without compulsion. Exclusion Criteria: 1. Those who were not willing to participate in study. Results & Conclusions: Prevalence of morbidity was 95.31%. Morbidity was positively associated with advancement of age and predominant in females (98.92% and those belong to slum (98.43% and lower (98.14% socio-economic status while inversely associated with Physical activity. Out of total morbid population 70.49% had chronic illness. Most common system involvement was Gastro intestinal system (82.62%. Perception about illness was increased with advancement of age. Majority were seeking therapy from private registered practitioner (35.52%.

  13. Examining Early Behavioral Persistence as a Dynamic Process: Correlates and Consequences Spanning Ages 3-10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L

    2016-05-01

    We investigated systematic changes in 3-year-olds' effortful persistence in a dyadic problem-solving context and explored their correlates (i.e., parenting behavior and demographic characteristics at 3 years) and consequences (i.e., child externalizing behavior at 3, 6, and 10 years) within a sample of 241 middle-income families (118 girls). Results indicated that children may be grouped into three classes based on their behavioral profiles of persistence. Children who were highly persistent over the course of the task were more likely to have higher levels of IQ and mothers who were observed to be more behaviorally responsive than those who showed consistently low levels of task-related behavior. Additionally, children who demonstrated stably low levels of persistence were rated by teachers to display more externalizing behavior at 6 and 10 years than those in the other groups. Profiles of persistence did not predict concurrent levels of child externalizing behavior at the age of 3 years. The findings are discussed with respect to expanding the scope of research on child self-regulation by defining it as a time based construct and tracking its dynamic changes.

  14. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  15. Spatial and polarization entanglement of lasing patterns and related dynamic behaviors in laser-diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K; Chu, S-C; Lin, C-C; Tokunaga, K; Ohtomo, T

    2009-11-23

    To provide the underlying physical mechanism for formations of spatial- and polarization-entangled lasing patterns (namely, SPEPs), we performed experiments using a c-cut Nd:GdVO(4) microchip laser with off-axis laser-diode pumping. This extends recent work on entangled lasing pattern generation from an isotropic laser, where such a pattern was explained only in terms of generalized coherent states (GCSs) formed by mathematical manipulation. Here, we show that polarization-resolved transverse patterns can be well explained by the transverse mode-locking of distinct orthogonal linearly polarized Ince-Gauss (IG) mode pairs rather than GCSs. Dynamic properties of SPEPs were experimentally examined in both free-running and modulated conditions to identify long-term correlations of IG mode pairs over time. The complete chaos synchronization among IG mode pairs subjected to external perturbation is also demonstrated.

  16. A review of family and environmental correlates of health behaviors