WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral medicine

  1. COGNITIVE INTERVENTIONS IN BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANOPPEN, P

    1993-01-01

    In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndr

  2. Behavioral medicine: treatment and organizational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKegney, F P; Schwartz, C E

    1986-09-01

    Behavioral medicine is a newly emerging field dating back to the early 1970s. In this short time, a great deal of controversy and confusion has arisen as to even the definition of the term. Similarly, there are now a variety of different operational applications of this concept in patient care, research, and health care system organizations. It is proposed that the title "behavioral medicine" be used in the most general way, consistent with the definition developed by the Institute of Medicine meeting in 1978. In it, behavioral medicine is a term designating a very large field and is not analogous to a profession, medical specialty, or discipline. This term denotes a body of psychologic and social knowledge and a set of techniques applied to research, prevention, and treatment of medical illness, including psychiatric illness. By this definition, behavioral medicine treatment techniques would include psychotherapy, hypnosis, relaxation, behavior therapy, behavior modification, biofeedback, and pharmacotherapy. One of the cardinal principles of behavioral medicine as a field is that well-defined treatment techniques are used for specific target symptoms or signs of illness. It is proposed that individual behavioral medicine treatment programs be called by the name of either the specific treatment utilized or of the target(s) of the intervention. It is important to ensure collaboration between the variety of treatment and research programs that would fall under this general definition of behavioral medicine, which includes consultation-liaison psychiatry. An organizational model is proposed that would combine all such programs within a multidisciplinary division of a department of psychiatry. This division might be entitled with one or both names, e.g., "consultation-liaison psychiatry and behavioral medicine." Perhaps most importantly, this new field should not promise more than it may be able to provide, particularly in trying to achieve the biopsychosocial model

  3. Behavioral medicine in Teikyo University and Toho University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takeaki; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral medicine has increased in importance to become a promising field in medical education. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health and Toho University School of Medicine were evaluated in terms of their educational emphasis on behavioral medicine. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health has the following five core requirements, as in the global standards: behavioral medicine, biostatistics, epidemiology, occupational health, and health policy management. Behavioral medicine mainly encompasses psychology in normal populations, working as a gateway to the medical world among non-medical professionals who are interested in medicine. The Toho University School of Medicine aims to produce "good clinicians" who have a thorough knowledge, a deep sense of professional ethics, and a profound humanity to contribute to human welfare through medicine. In behavioral medicine here, systematic knowledge based on human behavior in medicine is taught from the first to sixth year. Psychosomatic physicians could be among the most optimal professionals for behavioral medicine because of the similarities between psychosomatic medicine and behavioral medicine. The establishment of a Center of Behavioral Medicine is a potential solution to tackle forthcoming medical problems, such as increasing medical costs and an aging society. We must focus on the importance of behavior change as a way for preventive medicine to connect hospitals and communities in Japan. PMID:26913061

  4. Behavioral medicine in Teikyo University and Toho University

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Takeaki; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral medicine has increased in importance to become a promising field in medical education. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health and Toho University School of Medicine were evaluated in terms of their educational emphasis on behavioral medicine. The Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health has the following five core requirements, as in the global standards: behavioral medicine, biostatistics, epidemiology, occupational health, and health policy management. B...

  5. Psychosocial Factors and Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E.; Trueba, Ana F.; Fritzsche, Anja; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence for psychosocial influences in asthma and behavioral medicine approaches to its treatment. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on psychosocial influences and the evidence for behavioral interventions in asthma with a focus on research in the past 10 years and clinical trials.…

  6. The delivery of behavioral sleep medicine to college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Horsey, Sarah E; Taylor, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    College students are vulnerable to a variety of sleep disorders, which can result in sleep deprivation and a variety of other consequences. The delivery of behavioral sleep medicine is particularly relevant for the college student population, as the early intervention on their sleep problems might prevent lifelong consequences. This article critically reviews the efficacy of relevant behavioral sleep medicine interventions and discusses special considerations for using them with college students who have unique sleep patterns and lifestyles. Recommendations are also given regarding ways to disseminate these empirically supported treatments into this environment. Finally, recommendations regarding future research directions are discussed in the present study. PMID:21575813

  7. A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Community Medicine and Behavioral Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Frederick; Marine, William

    1975-01-01

    Emery School of Medicine's freshman behavioral science course, which includes units on medical care, psychiatry, and epidemiology, is directed toward attitude formation as well as intellectual development. Units and field experiences are described and evaluated and the course impact over a 4-year period found to be positive. (JT)

  8. Behaviors of Providers of Traditional Korean Medicine Therapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Sang Yu; Chun-Bae Kim; Ki-Kyong Kim; Ji-Eun Lee; Min-Young Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide bac...

  9. A systems analysis of psychobiology and behavior therapy. Implications for behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G E

    1981-01-01

    This article examines some basic principles of systems theory and applies them to the integration of psychobiology and behavior therapy in the evolution of behavioral medicine. Using the concepts of whole/part relationships, level and emergent property, and self-regulation and disregulation, it is proposed that all behavioral therapies involve psychobiological processes, and therefore, indirectly impinge on physical health. It is argued that the distinction between behavior and biology is one of level, and, therefore, behavioral therapies are ultimately biobehavioral therapies having biobehavioral consequences. It is proposed that contrary to traditional reductionistic logic, modern advances in biology are providing strong justification for the importance of including psychological methods in treating diseases manifested at the biological level. Various clinical examples are used to demonstrate how systems theory can be applied to differential diagnosis and treatment, computing cost/benefit ratios of different treatments, and conducting comprehensive clinical research and evaluation. Assessing the interaction of biological, psychological, and social treatment modalities becomes the hallmark of responsible patient care. Implications of the systems conception of behavioral medicine for collaboration among health care providers, the training of future clinicians in different disciplines, and policy decisions regarding the larger social consequences of health care are considered.

  10. Some Structural Changes That Might Facilitate the Development of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Considers three types of organizational changes that may facilitate the development of behavioral medicine teaching, practice, and research over the next decade: (1) role of Department of Behavioral Medicine within the medical school; (2) support for development of research collaborations across centers; (3) changes in role and organization of…

  11. Behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M

    2013-04-01

    This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.

  12. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) and public policy advocacy: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul; Pagoto, Sherry; Otten, Jennifer; Pbert, Lori; Stone, Amy; King, Abby; Goggin, Kathy; Emmons, Karen

    2011-09-01

    In 2010, the Society of Behavioral Medicine heightened its priority to take an even more active role in influencing health-related public policy. Here we discuss the importance of behavioral medicine presence in public policy initiatives, review a brief history of SBM's involvement in public policy, describe steps SBM is now taking to increase its involvement in health-related public policy, and finally, put forth a call to action for SBM members to increase their awareness of and become involved in public policy initiatives. PMID:24073068

  13. The Regular Education Initiative: Patent Medicine for Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Sheldon; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Implications of the regular education initiative for behaviorally disordered students are examined in the context of integration and right to treatment. These students are underserved, often cannot be appropriately served in regular classrooms, are not welcomed by most regular classroom teachers, and have treatment rights the initiative does not…

  14. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: interventions in the family medicine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    The practice of family medicine includes the care of many patients with mental health or behavior change needs. Patients in mild to moderate distress may benefit from brief interventions performed in the family physician's office. Patients in more extreme distress may be helped by referral to behavioral health clinicians for short-term or open-ended therapies. Electronic therapy programs and bibliotherapy are also useful resources. The transition to the patient-centered medical home model may allow for more widespread integration of behavioral health care clinicians into primary care, in person and through telemental health care. Integrated care holds the promise of improved access, greater effectiveness of behavioral health service provision, and enhanced efficiency of primary care for patients with behavioral health care needs.

  15. The Impact of Positive Psychology on Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology: A Bibliometric Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.

  16. Society of Behavioral Medicine position statement: elementary school-based physical activity supports academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Davis, Catherine L.; Pate, Russell R.; Wilson, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased gr...

  17. The new open access journal on health psychology and behavioral medicine: why do we need it?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoming; Doyle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    On behalf of the editorial board, it is our pleasure to introduce Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: an Open Access Journal (HPBM), which we hope will become a leading international journal in these areas. HPBM will be interdisciplinary and global in scope, offering studies in a wide range of forms including systematic and critical reviews, meta-analyses, ethnographic and qualitative studies, quantitative studies, program evaluation, policy studies, case studies, and research protocol...

  18. Where are the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Providers and Where are They Needed? A Geographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Arthur; Grandner, Michael; Nowakowski, Sara; Nesom, Genevieve; Corbitt, Charles; Perlis, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that there are not enough clinicians trained in either Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) in general or in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in specific, what is unclear is whether this problem is more acute in some regions relative to others. Accordingly, a geographic approach was taken to assess this issue. Using national directories as well as e-mail listservs (Behavioral Sleep Medicine group and Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia Roster), the present study evaluated geographic patterning of CBSM and BSM providers by city, state, and country. Overall, 88% of 752 BSM providers worldwide live in the United States (n = 659). Of these, 58% reside in 12 states with ≥ 20 providers (CA, NY, PA, IL, MA, TX, FL, OH, MI, MN, WA, and CO), and 19% reside in just 2 states (NY and CA). There were 4 states with no BSM providers (NH, HI, SD, and WY). Of the 167 U.S. cities with a population of > 150,000, 105 cities have no BSM providers. These results clearly suggest that a targeted effort is needed to train individuals in both the unserved and underserved areas. PMID:27159249

  19. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2006-01-01

    : A random sample of schools in Denmark in 2002. Participants: All students in the fifth, seventh and ninth grades in these schools, n = 4824. Measurements: Self-reported medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness within the last month; self-reported experience...... that medicine use can be regarded as part of a cluster of risk behaviors among young people....

  20. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  1. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models. PMID:24261270

  2. Win/win: creating collaborative training opportunities for behavioral health providers within family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Integrating behavioral health into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address health behavior change, and manage behavioral health issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models.

  3. Utilization of Behavioral Medicine Services to Refine Medical Diagnostic Formulation in the Face of Uncertain Symptom Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the ever expanding realm of cancer care, the psychosocial impact of disease and medical treatments has been garnering increased attention. To address these needs, the integration of behavioral medicine services into inpatient and outpatient medical settings has added a unique resource available to oncologists. Psycho-oncologists may assist providers via the provision of psychological assessment and intervention, supplying valuable consultation to members of the medical team and much needed clinical services to patients. The authors present a complex case in which the utilization of behavioral medicine consultation to clarify the diagnostic picture was critical to identifying underlying anatomic disease.

  4. Society of Behavioral Medicine position statement: elementary school-based physical activity supports academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Bustamante, Eduardo E; Davis, Catherine L; Pate, Russell R; Wilson, Dawn K

    2014-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased grade point averages and standardized test scores. Despite the documented relationship between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, few schools have implemented physical activity as a tool to improve academic performance. SBM recommends that elementary schools provide children with the recommended 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during school hours. Further, SBM urges schools to work with the local school districts and state education departments to mandate minimum physical activity time for elementary school physical education. PMID:25584093

  5. Experimental medicine in drug addiction: towards behavioral, cognitive and neurobiological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Stephens, David N

    2011-09-01

    Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to understand putative processes and mechanisms involved in addiction. Whilst these 'theories of addiction' disagree about importance and/or nature of a number of key psychological processes (e.g. the necessity of craving and/or the involvement of drug-value representations), a number of commonalities exist. For instance, it is widely accepted that Pavlovian associations between cues and environmental contexts and the drug effects acquired over the course of addiction play a critical role, especially in relapse vulnerability in detoxified addicts. Additionally, all theories of addiction (explicitly or implicitly) propose that chronic drug exposure produces persistent neuroplastic changes in neurobiological circuitries underlying critical emotional, cognitive and motivational processes, although disagreement exists as to the precise nature of these neurobiological changes and/or their psychological consequences. The present review, rather than limiting itself to any particular theoretical stance, considers various candidate psychological, neurobiological and/or behavioral processes in addiction and outlines conceptual and procedural approaches for the experimental medicine laboratory. The review discusses (1) extinction, renewal and (re)consolidation of learned associations between cues and drugs, (2) the drug reward value, (3) motivational states contributing to drug seeking and (4) reflective (top-down) and sensory (bottom-up) driven decision-making. In evaluating these psychological and/or behavioral processes and their relationship to addiction we make reference to putative underlying brain structures identified by basic animal studies and/or imaging studies with humans.

  6. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND EFFECTIVENESS OF HEART MEDICINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomori Gergo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many research dealing with the food consumer behavior and its relationship with health status of population, thus the demand of pharmaceutical market. It is well known that cardiovascular diseases such as ischaemic heart diseases are the most common cause of the early and suddenly mortality. The higher level of pharmaceutical preventive technologies may result partly that fewer people need to consume heart medicines due to the healthy diet, on the other hand that the therapies can keep low the heart mortality rate inside of all mortality. Effectiveness of medicine treating heart diseases is not same in the examined OECD countries, which can also be traced back to different food consumption due to the same forms of treatment and the risks of the disease between regions. The examined OECD countries were selected based on consumer data availability. The target of analysis is to research the relationship between the „ineffectiveness” of heart medicine consumption (via the heart mortality data and the health awareness in food consumption that also shows the subjective utility of preventive health services. During the examination of preventive services market it could be consider only costumer decisions those motivate effort to realize and maximize health utility that can obtain by reducing the objective likelihood of later illness (prevention defined by the reduction of influenced risk factors. For this it has to be eliminated the impact of all factors in consumption those are not associated with health consciousness – calculation of price and income flexibility serve it. Every nutritional culture considered unhealthy or incorrect, which exceeds the critical values expressed in dietetics recommendations. The data described in a 2 dimensional diagrams, and between diagrams the distances from reference country data to data of another country examine with correlation coefficient. It can conclude there is a strongest connection between the

  7. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: SBM supports retaining healthy school lunch policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Yaroch, Amy L; Hayman, Laura L; Robertson, Trina P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2015-09-01

    Schools are recognized as venues for population-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention initiatives targeting children, and the school food environment is a central component. The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 utilized research-based findings and expert recommendations to significantly improve school lunch standards in the kindergarten to twelfth grade (K-12) setting to enhance the nutritional intake and ultimately the health of children. The new guidelines include increasing the availability of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables; requiring children to select a fruit or vegetable daily; and restricting serving sizes. There is currently no evidence that the revised standards have increased school lunch plate waste. However, there is evidence that children are consuming more healthful foods. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports retaining current school lunch standards set by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. SBM also supports increasing the evidence-based by evaluating the implementation and impact of the school lunch revisions. PMID:26327942

  8. Beneficial behavior of nitric oxide in copper-treated medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanzhi; Ren, Bo; Chen, Qibing; Li, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Tao, Jianjun; Cheng, Qingsu; Ma, Mingdong

    2016-08-15

    Despite numerous reports implicating nitric oxide (NO) in the environmental-stress responses of plants, the specific metabolic and ionic mechanisms of NO-mediated adaptation to metal stress remain unclear. Here, the impacts of copper (Cu) and NO donor (SNP, 50μM) alone or in combination on the well-known medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus L. were investigated. Our results showed that Cu markedly increased Cu(2+) accumulation, decreased NO production, and disrupted mineral equilibrium and proton pumps, thereby stimulating a burst of ROS; in addition, SNP ameliorates the negative toxicity of Cu, and cPTIO reverses this action. Furthermore, the accumulations of ROS and NO resulted in reciprocal changes. Interestingly, nearly all of the investigated amino acids and the total phenolic content in the roots were promoted by the SNP treatment but were depleted by the Cu+SNP treatment, which is consistent with the self-evident increases in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total soluble phenol content induced by SNP. Unexpectedly, leaf vincristine and vinblastine as well as the total alkaloid content (ca. 1.5-fold) were decreased by Cu but markedly increased by SNP (+38% and +49% of the control levels). This study provides the first evidence of the beneficial behavior of NO, rather than other compounds, in depleting Cu toxicity by regulating mineral absorption, reestablishing ATPase activities, and stimulating secondary metabolites. PMID:27131454

  9. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavior about rational use of medicines in second year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita D. Sontakke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the knowledge about various issues concerned with rational use of medicines in second year medical students Methods: This was a survey-based, cross-sectional study in which a self developed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Respondents were 153 students of second year MBBS (beginning of third semester. They were explained about nature and purpose of study and necessary consent obtained. Questions were framed to obtain information about various issues concerned with use of medicines, common beliefs /misconceptions, purchase of medicines, sources of information about medicines etc. Results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Majority of respondents were aware about OTC (54% and generic medicines (96.7%, importance of reading medicine label (58.8%, that medicines are not needed for every illness (86.2%, medicines manufactures by big multinational companies are not always better (67.9%. 75.8% respondents were not influenced by direct to consumer advertising for purchase of medicines and 69.9% opined that medicines obtained from government hospital are not of inferior quality. 83.6% of respondents opined that they never mixed treatment of more than one doctor at a time and 83% always purchased all medicines written in prescription. For 93.4% respondents’ doctors’ advice was the most important factor that influenced medicine purchase. Conclusion: Though majority of respondents were aware about most of the issues addressed in the questionnaire which seems to be a positive finding, those still unaware needs to be educated by adopting suitable interventions. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 617-621

  10. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  11. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Quality of Life in Physicians: A Faculty of Medicine Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Mustafa; Piyal, Birgül; Aycan, Sefer

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the quality of life of research assistants  who work  in a university hospital located in Ankara.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 144 Internal  and Surgical Medicine Sciences’assistants who work in an university hospital. Data was collected by a questionnaire which includes sociodemographic characteristics, healthy lifestyle scale and quality of life sc...

  12. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An american academy of sleep medicine report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd

    2006-11-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard). PMID:17162987

  13. Traditional medicine and childcare in Western Africa: mothers' knowledge, folk illnesses, and patterns of healthcare-seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Towns

    Full Text Available In spite of the strong role of traditional medicine in childcare in the pluralistic healthcare system in Western Africa, little information is known on mothers' domestic plant knowledge. Identifying local perspectives and treatments of children's illnesses, including folk illnesses, is essential to having a comprehensive understanding of how mothers make healthcare treatment decisions. We aimed to identify which infant illnesses Beninese and Gabonese mothers knew to treat with medicinal plants and for which illnesses they sought biomedical care or traditional healers.We conducted 81 questionnaires with mothers in Bénin and Gabon and made 800 botanical specimens of cited medicinal plants. We calculated the number of species cited per illness and the proportion of participants knowledgeable on at least one herbal remedy per illness. Using qualitative data, we described folk illnesses in each country and summarized responses on preferences for each of the three healthcare options.Participants from both countries were most knowledgeable on plants to treat respiratory illnesses, malaria, diarrhea, and intestinal ailments. Mothers also frequently mentioned the use of plants to encourage children to walk early, monitor the closure of fontanels, and apply herbal enemas. Major folk illnesses were atita and ka in Bénin and la rate and fesses rouges in Gabon. Traditional healers were reported to have specialized knowledge of cultural bound illnesses. Malaria was frequently cited as an illness for which mothers would directly seek biomedical treatment.Mothers largely saw the three systems as complementary, seamlessly switching between different healing options until a remedy was found. Folk illnesses were found to give insight into local treatments and may reveal important neglected diseases. Due to high reported levels of knowledge on treating top statistical causes of infant mortality and folk illnesses, mothers' medicinal plant knowledge should be

  14. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  15. A Cross-sectional Study Assessing Predictors of Essential Medicines Prescribing Behavior Based on Information-motivation-behavioral Skills Model among County Hospitals in Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Wu Zhao; Jing-Ya Wu; Heng Wang; Nian-Nian Li; Cheng Bian; Shu-Man Xu; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:The self-consciousness and practicality of preferentially prescribed essential medicines (EMs) are not high enough in county hospitals.The purposes of this study were to use the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to identify the predictors of essential medicines prescribing behavior (EMPB) among doctors and to examine the association between demographic variables,IMB,and EMPB.Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess predictive relationships among demographic variables and IMB model variables using an anonymous questionnaire administered in nine county hospitals of Anhui province.A structural equation model was constructed for the IMB model to test the instruments using analysis of moment structures 17.0.Results:A total of 732 participants completed the survey.The average age of the participants was 37.7 ± 8.9 years old (range:22-67 years old).The correct rate of information was 90.64%.The average scores of the motivation and behavioral skills were 45.46 ± 7.34 (hundred mark system:75.77) and 19.92 ± 3.44 (hundred mark system:79.68),respectively.Approximately half(50.8%) of respondents reported that the proportion of EM prescription was below 60%.The final revised model indicated a good fit to the data (x2/df=4.146,goodness of fit index =0.948,comparative fit index =0.938,root mean square error of approximation =0.066).More work experience (β =0.153,P < 0.001) and behavioral skills (β =0.449,P < 0.001) predicted more EMPB.Higher income predicted less information (β =-0.197,P < 0.001) and motivation (β =-0.204,P < 0.001).Behavioral skills were positively predicted by information (β =0.135,P < 0.001) and motivation (β =0.742,P < 0.001).Conclusion:The present study predicted some factors of EMPB,and specified the relationships among the model variables.The utilization rate of EM was not high enough.Motivation and behavior skills were crucial factors affecting EMPB.The influence of demographic

  16. 中国行为医学教学溯源与发展现状%The development and current situation of behavioral medicine education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白波; 吉峰; 冯学泉; 李诺; 李妮娜; 杨艳杰; 刘新民; 杨志寅

    2016-01-01

    采用问卷调查、电话访谈和网络查询相结合的方式调查31所高等医学院校行为医学教学开展情况.国内行为医学最早在医学院校开设《行为医学》课程的是原湖南医学院(现中南大学湘雅医学院),随后有多所大学相继开设行为医学课程.目前国内开设《行为医学》课程的高等院校有济宁医学院、中南大学湘雅医学院、哈尔滨医科大学等20余所高校.主要为本专科生开设,部分院校为研究生及留学生开课,开课专业主要集中在精神病与精神卫生和心理学两个专业,开课学时数从10学时到60学时不等.除了济宁医学院和湘雅医学院设立行为医学教研室外,大部分院校的《行为医学》课程由心理学教研室或医学心理学教研室承担.《行为医学》课程教学内容存在多样性和不统一性.随着开设行为医学课程的高等院校越来越多,行为医学规划教材和专著也蓬勃发展.目前,国内行为医学教学主要存在着课程定位、课程设置与教学研究、行为医学继续教育和科普工作、行为医学专业人才培养等方面的问题.%Questionnaire surveys,telephone interviews and network research were carried out concerning behavioral medicine education in 31 medical colleges and universities in China.The former Hunan Medical College (now Xiangya School of Medicine,Central South University) was the first to offer behavioral medicine courses,followed by an increasing number of medical intuitions of higher education.Currently,over 20 medical colleges and universities including Jining Medical University,Xiangya School of Medicine of Central South University,Harbin Medical University and so on provide behavioral medicine courses,mostly for undergraduates while some schools also for postgraduates and international students,majoring in psychiatry and mental health and psychology.The curriculum duration ranges from 10 to 60 hours.Behavioral medicine courses

  17. Stress psychobiology in the context of addiction medicine: from drugs of abuse to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process.

  18. Stress psychobiology in the context of addiction medicine: from drugs of abuse to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process. PMID:26806770

  19. EVALUATION OF INTERNAL MEDICINE RESIDENTS AS EXERCISE ROLE MODELS AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH SELF-REPORTED COUNSELING BEHAVIOR, CONFIDENCE, AND PERCEIVED SUCCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Patients perceive physicians who practice healthy personal behaviors as more credible and better able to motivate patients to make healthy lifestyle choices. Purposes: To evaluate internal medicine resident physicians as role models for promoting exercise by an assessment of physician ph...

  20. Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, A G; Ailion, D C

    1999-01-01

    The present article reviews the basic principles of a new approach to the characterization of pulmonary disease. This approach is based on the unique nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the lung and combines experimental measurements (using specially developed NMR techniques) with theoretical simulations. The NMR signal from inflated lungs decays very rapidly compared with the signal from completely collapsed (airless) lungs. This phenomenon is due to the presence of internal magnetic field inhomogeneity produced by the alveolar air-tissue interface (because air and water have different magnetic susceptibilities). The air-tissue interface effects can be detected and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences. Theoretical models developed to explain the internal (tissue-induced) magnetic field inhomogeneity in aerated lungs predict the NMR lung behavior as a function of various technical and physiological factors (e.g., the level of lung inflation) and simulate the effects of various lung disorders (in particular, pulmonary edema) on this behavior. Good agreement has been observed between the predictions obtained from the mathematical models and the results of experimental NMR measurements in normal and diseased lungs. Our theoretical and experimental data have important pathophysiological and clinical implications, especially with respect to the characterization of acute lung disease (e.g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients.

  1. Neuroscience of opiates for addiction medicine: From stress-responsive systems to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Opiate addiction, similarly to addiction to other psychoactive drugs, is chronic relapsing brain disease caused by drug-induced short-term and long-term neuroadaptations at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. Preclinical research in laboratory animals has found important interactions between opiate exposure and stress-responsive systems. In this review, we will discuss the dysregulation of several stress-responsive systems in opiate addiction: vasopressin and its receptor system, endogenous opioid systems (including proopiomelanocortin/mu opioid receptor and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor), orexin and its receptor system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A more complete understanding of how opiates alter these stress systems, through further laboratory-based studies, is required to identify novel and effective pharmacological targets for the long-term treatment of heroin addiction.

  2. The application of observational data in translational medicine: analyzing tobacco-use behaviors of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siciliano Valeria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational Medicine focuses on “bench to bedside”, converting experimental results into clinical use. The “bedside to bench” transition remains challenging, requiring clinicians to define true clinical need for laboratory study. In this study, we show how observational data (an eleven-year data survey program on adolescent smoking behaviours, can identify knowledge gaps and research questions leading directly to clinical implementation and improved health care. We studied gender-specific trends (2000–2010 in Italian students to evaluate the specific impact of various anti-smoking programs, including evaluation of perceptions of access to cigarettes and health risk. Methods The study used, ESPAD-Italia® (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs, is a nationally representative sample of high-school students. The permutation test for joinpoint regression was used to calculate the annual percent change in smoking. Changes in smoking habits by age, perceived availability and risk over a 11-year period were tested using a gender-specific logistic model and a multinomial model. Results Gender-stratified analysis showed 1 decrease of lifetime prevalence, then stabilization (both genders; 2 decrease in last month and occasional use (both genders; 3 reduction of moderate use (females; 4 no significant change in moderate use (males and in heavy use (both genders. Perceived availability positively associates with prevalence, while perceived risk negatively associates, but interact with different effects depending on smoking patterns. In addition, government implementation of public policies concerning access to tobacco products in this age group during this period presented a unique background to examine their specific impact on behaviours. Conclusion Large observational databases are a rich resource in support of translational research. From these observations, key clinically relevant issues can be

  3. An evaluation on levels of knowledge, attitude and behavior of people at 65 years and above about alternative medicine living in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ozlem; Santaş, Fatih; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavioral levels of people at and above 65 years of age, living in Ankara (Turkey) about alternative medicine. The study was carried out between March - April 2010 through survey application of 200 participants by selective random sampling from the population. Data obtained as a result of the survey were analyzed by SPSS program. The study revealed that 83.5% of the participants believed in alternative therapy methods but 16.5% of them did not. It is concluded that herbal therapy methods are the most frequently used methods with a 63% rate among other alternative therapy methods. When status of the participants was analyzed it was found that it was found that 69% received the information about alternative medicines from their family while 53.5% received it from television This study revealed that alternative medicine is profoundly used by people above 65 years of age in Ankara.

  4. Effects of a Web-based Educational Module on Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Youth Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy E. Madsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Youth seen in the emergency department (ED with injuries from youth violence (YV have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. Methods: We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster with information on YV’s public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12–17; identified by E codes 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher’s exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Results: Eighteen (67% of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15–30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims’ re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (p,0.001 and level of confidence speaking with patients about avoiding YV (p¼0.01, df¼2. Almost all (94% said the module would change future management. In pre-intervention visits, 1.6% of patients with YV injuries were discharged with

  5. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  6. Practice of traditional Chinese medicine for psycho-behavioral intervention improves quality of life in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dapeng; Wang, Chunli; Duan, Yangyang; Li, Xiaofen; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Yi; He, Yumin; Wang, Shaowu; Kelley, Keith W.; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer patients suffer from diverse symptoms, including depression, anxiety, pain, and fatigue and lower quality of life (QoL) during disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine psycho-behavioral interventions (TCM PBIs) on improving QoL by meta-analysis. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang) were searched for randomized, controlled trials conducted in China. The primary intervention was TCM PBIs. The main outcome was health-related QoL (HR QoL) post-treatment. We applied standard meta analytic techniques to analyze data from papers that reached acceptable criteria. Results The six TCM PBIs analyzed were acupuncture, Chinese massage, Traditional Chinese Medicine five elements musical intervention (TCM FEMI), Traditional Chinese Medicine dietary supplement (TCM DS), Qigong and Tai Chi. Although both TCM PBIs and non-TCM PBIs reduced functional impairments in cancer patients and led to pain relief, depression remission, reduced time to flatulence following surgery and sleep improvement, TCM PBIs showed more beneficial effects as assessed by reducing both fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. In particular, acupuncture relieved fatigue, reduced diarrhea and decreased time to flatulence after surgery in cancer patients, while therapeutic Chinese massage reduced time to flatulence and time to peristaltic sound. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the efficacy of TCM PBIs in improving QoL in cancer patients and establish that TCM PBIs represent beneficial adjunctive therapies for cancer patients. PMID:26498685

  7. Barriers to integration of behavioral and social sciences in the general medicine curriculum and recommended strategies to overcome them: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    TABATABAEI, ZAHRA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; SADEGHI, RAMIN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The integration of behavioral and social sciences (BSS) into the curriculum of medical students in order to equip them with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes is an essential issue, emphasized in many researches. Our aim is to investigate the barriers to integrate BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the recommended strategies to overcome such barriers through a systematic review of literature. Methods PubMed, ERIC, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and OPENGREY were searched for studies on the barriers to integration of BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the strategies employed to overcome them until August 28, 2015. Results Sixteen relevant studies were included and the related domains were categorized as barriers and some strategies were recommended to overcome them. In addition, the quality of the included studies was assessed. Conclusion Despite the prominent role of BSS in the effectiveness of health care, these sciences have not been included in the curriculum of medical students effectively. The identified barriers and the strategies used to overcome them should be considered for all integration programs. Future studies should focus on the process of BSS integration in the medical curricula and should evaluate the efficacy of this integration in more detail. PMID:27382578

  8. Ain't Necessarily So : Review and Critique of Recent Meta-Analyses of Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Health Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined four meta-analyses of behavioral interventions for adults (Dixon, Keefe, Scipio, Perri, & Abernethy, 2007; Hoffman, Papas, Chatkoff, & Kerns, 2007; Irwin, Cole, & Nicassio, 2006; and Jacobsen, Donovan, Vadaparampil, & Small, 2007) that have appeared in the Evidence Based Treat

  9. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  10. Spore behaviors reveal a category of mating-competent infertile heterokaryons in the offspring of the medicinal fungus Agaricus subrufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Moinard, Magalie; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Strain breeding is much less advanced in the edible and medicinal species Agaricus subrufescens than in Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom. Both species have a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility, a mating type locus tightly linked to a centromere, and basidia producing both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n + n) spores. In A. bisporus, breeding is mainly based on direct selection among the heterokaryotic offspring and on hybridization between homokaryotic offspring. The parental heterozygosity is highly maintained in the heterokaryotic offspring due to suppression of recombination and preferential pairing in the spores of nuclei, each one per second meiotic divisions; such "non-sister nuclei" heterokaryons are fertile. In A. subrufescens, recent studies revealed that recombination is not suppressed and that nuclei from the same second meiotic division can also be paired in a spore that give rise to a "sister nuclei" heterokaryon in which the nuclei bear the same mating type allele. The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential function of the different categories of spores in A. subrufescens and their possible use in a genetic breeding program. Using eight co-dominant molecular markers, we found that half of the offspring of the A. subrufescens strain WC837 were heterokaryotic, one quarter of them being sister nuclei heterokaryons. These heterokaryons were infertile and behaved like homokaryons, being even able to cross between each other. In contrast, non-sister nuclei heterokaryons could fruit but inconsistently due to inbreeding depression. Potential roles of these two categories of heterokaryons in nature and consequences for strain breeding are discussed. PMID:26497018

  11. Adsorption Behavior of Quinine Sulfate onto Medicinal Activated Carbon%药用活性炭对硫酸奎宁吸附性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国家; 郭庆杰

    2011-01-01

    研究了药用活性炭对硫酸奎宁吸附性能的影响,并采用Langmuir和Freundlich 吸附等温线模型拟合了活性炭对硫酸奎宁的吸附行为.结果表明:硫酸奎宁吸附量随药用活性炭用量的增加呈上升趋势,但吸附效率却呈下降趋势.在所研究的条件下,活性炭对硫酸奎宁的吸附量随温度和初始浓度的升高而增大,在313 K吸附值最大为123.457mg·g-1.与Freundlich吸附模型(r2f<0.95)相比,Langmuir吸附等温线拟合较好(r21>0.97),说明Langmuir模型适用于所研究的体系.%In this study, the adsorption effect of medicinal activated carbon for quinine sulfate(QS) removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. The adsorption behavior of QS onto medicinal activated carbon was fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The results showed that an increase the dosage of activated carbon enhanced the adsorption capacity, but failed to increase the QS removal efficiency. In the studied conditions, the adsorption of QS onto activated carbon rised with increasing temperature and the initial QS concentration, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon was 123. 457 mg ? G-1 at 313 K. Compared with Freundlich model (r120. 97).

  12. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: SBM supports increased efforts to integrate community health workers into the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Denise M; Buscemi, Joanna; Quintiliani, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Integrating community health workers (CHWs) into health care systems has been associated with enhanced patient experience, improved population health, and reduced costs and unnecessary utilization of resources. Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), care provided by CHWs is eligible for reimbursement. However, optimal integration of CHWs into health care requires purposeful implementation. This health policy brief is focused on the benefits of integrating CHWs specifically into the patient-centered medical home (PCMH). CHWs in the PCMH can serve as primary providers of culturally relevant information and advocacy, assist providers in understanding the influence of patients' environment on disease management, and enhance motivation for self-care management among patients with chronic diseases. Despite the important role of CHWs, there are some barriers to integration into existing systems of care. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) recommends overcoming these barriers by establishing standards that ensure a skilled CHW workforce, clearly defining roles for CHWs, and expanding the scope of reimbursable prevention and primary care services to include those provided by CHWs. PMID:26622920

  13. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  14. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  15. Medicine Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

    Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

  16. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  17. 平衡记分卡理论与综合性医院行为医学学科建设%The balanced scorecard and behavioral medicine discipline development in general hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天; 马效恩; 王晋; 宋雨潇; 李晓红

    2014-01-01

    This study run through the process of developing behavioral medicine discipline in a general hospital with action research method,based on the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework.The four perspectives of the behavioral medicine BSC covered the main areas in hospital discipline development,including patients and community,healthy financial disciplines,clinical service process and efficiency,and research,innovation and growth.By the implementation of the discipline BSC,this hospital clarified its discipline development strategy,provided a communication platform,determined the objective and monitored the discipline effectively,and provided a mode which can integrate the discipline development and providing clinical services.The hospital set up the first neurology behavioral medicine clinic in Jinan Region though the exploration of the path and methods for developing behavioral medicine discipline,which had practical guiding significance for behavioral medicine development and services.%研究基于平衡记分卡理论,采用行动研究,贯穿一家综合性医院发展行为医学学科的全过程.行为医学学科平衡记分卡的四个层面包括患者与社会,健康的学科财务,临床服务流程与效率,研究、创新与成长,涵盖了医院学科建设的主要关键领域.通过实施学科平衡计分卡,理清了学科发展战略,搭建了学科发展沟通平台,明确了学科发展目标导向,并为学科发展提供有效监控,使学科建设与临床服务融为一体.研究探索综合性医院发展行为医学学科的路径与方法,开设了济南地区第一家神经行为医学门诊,对综合性医院建设行为医学科及开展行为医学服务具有重要指导意义.

  18. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AerobiKa® Cardiology Medications Anticoagulant Medicine Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions COPD Medications Bronchodilators Anti-Inflammatories Antibiotics Managing Your Medications Devices ...

  19. Benjamin Franklin and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, J V

    2005-12-01

    Benjamin Franklin, called Dr. Franklin after receiving an honorary degree in 1759 for his contributions to understanding electricity, was not formally trained as a physician. Nevertheless, he had numerous interests in medicine, including experimentation, shrewd observations about health and disease in himself and others, civic activities, and inventions of medical devices. These achievements show his capacity for detailed, perceptive insights; his fastidiousness in recording his observations; and his thoughtful analyses of scientific phenomena and human conduct. In medicine, perhaps uniquely in his life, his major interests intersected: scientific pursuits, civic activities, amused scrutiny of human behavior, and the desire to improve the lot of his fellow man.

  20. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications.

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of the Expert Committee was to review the technical development and efficacy of nuclear medicine methods and to recommend the best possible means of establishing nuclear medicine services at various levels of medical care in different countries. After reviewing the contributions which nuclear medicine can make, the various types of medical institutions and hospitals in existence, the requirements, organization and funding of nuclear medicine services, and the cost/effectiveness of nuclear medicine, a number of recommendations were made. IAEA and WHO should make information on existing methods of cost/effectiveness analysis widely available; invite governments to include a description of such analysis methods in training programmes of their health officers; assist in the acquisition of the necessary data; and encourage and eventually support actual applications of such analyses to carefully selected nuclear medicine procedures in varying medicosocial environments. They were further recommended to study possible ways of improving reliability and ease of servicing nuclear medicine equipment, and extent of possible local construction; the possibility of making available supplies of matched characterized reagents for radioimmunoassay and related techniques; and to study the advantages of establishing a network of collaborating centres on an international basis

  2. Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CLPPP CAP Healthy Homes Assessment Tools Lead Health Literacy Initiative Refugee Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and ... As blood lead levels increase, so does lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines ...

  3. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  4. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  6. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  9. 地方高校医学专业教师职业倦怠与应付行为研究%Investigation of job burnout of teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities and coping behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松泉; 王光丽; 黄阳生; 丁明星; 王志平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of job burnout of professional teachers of medicine in local colleges and universities,coping behavior and their mutual relationship.Methods The thesis investigates and analyzes 347 teachers of medicine of 4 local colleges and universities in Zhejiang Province by adopting revised edition of the MBI-GS and "Coping Behavior Questionnaire" written by XIAO Ji-hua.Results The job burnout of teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities is of moderate level.There exists a significant difference of three dimensions including emotional exhaustion,depersonalization and lower level of the sense of achievement among teachers of different ages,positions,titles and years spent in teaching.Teachers of medicine of colleges and universities of different features of demography are significantly different in coping behaviors and the coping behaviors are related to three dimensions of job burnout.Conclusions The phenomenon of job burnout of professional teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities is widespread and the intensity of job burnout is related to features of demography such as age,position,title,years spent in teaching.Job burnout is related to coping behaviors and examining and dealing in advance with the negative coping behaviors can improve the intervention effects of job burnout.%目的 研究地方高校医学专业教师的职业倦怠现状和应付行为及其相互关系.方法 采用Maslach职业倦怠量表(MBI-GS)修改版和肖计划编制的“应付行为问卷”,对浙江省4所地方高校医学专业347名教师进行调查和分析.结果 地方高校医学专业教师的职业倦怠处于中等程度,不同性别、岗位、职称和教龄的教师在情绪衰竭、去人性化和低成就感三个维度的差异均有统计学意义;不同人口统计学特征的高校医学专业教师在应付行为因子上的差异具有统计学意义,且与职业倦怠

  10. The Effect Analysis Based on the Students’ Health Behavior Intervention in Preventive Medicine Teaching%基于预防医学教学开展大学生健康行为干预的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查临床医学大学生的健康行为情况,在开展预防医学教学的同时实施干预后进行效果评价,为开展大学生健康行为培养工作提供参考。方法对某医专2014级528名临床大学生用自行设计的健康行为问卷进行调查,在开展预防医学教学的同时实施综合性健康行为干预措施1年后进行效果评价。结果干预后临床大学生的有益健康行为发生率提高,常吃早餐发生率由59.7%升至78.5%,经常运动发生率由21.0%升至39.3%,锻炼减肥发生率由13.5%升至47.0%,安全性行为发生率由28.1%升至64.8%;而有害健康行为发生率下降,偏食发生率由52.4%降至20.8%,节食减肥发生率由20.6%降至10.5%,看电视发生率由63.1%降至22.3%,看色情资料发生率由28.2%降至13.2%;干预前后差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论在开展预防医学教学的同时实施健康行为干预对在校大学生的健康行为培养是有效的,应高度重视和加强大学生的健康行为培养工作。%Objective Investigating the behavior of clinical college students in the preventive medicine teaching and evaluating the effect after the intervention in the preventive medicine teaching ,To pro‐vide the reference for cultivating college students’ health behaviors work .Methods Health behavior surveyed in 528 clinical college students at a medical college level 2014 in preventive medicine teaching and implement comprehensive health behavior intervention effect evaluation by year’ s end . Results The incidence rate of college students’ healthy behavior is rises after the clinical intervention .Eating breakfast rate rise to 59 .7% from 78 .5% ,often movement rate rise to 21 .0% from 39 .3% ,rise to 13 .5% from 47 .0% incidence of exercise to lose weight ,safe sex rate rise to 28 .1% from 64 .8% . And harmful behavior incidence decreased

  11. The meaning of behavioral medicine in the public health field-a review of documents related to medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    International standardization of medical education requires Japanese medical schools to restructure their curricula to include "behavioral science." Two influential documents for Japanese medical education, the "Model Core Curriculum for Medical Education in Japan" and the "Scope of the Japanese National Examination for Medical Doctors" include some key terms regarding behavioral science. However, they are not systematic and the phrase "behavioral science" itself could not be found in these documents. The new global standards for medical education, the "Basic Medical Education WFME Global Standards," require medical schools to include behavioral science in their curricula. The definition of "behavioral science" in the global standards emphasizes social aspects and determinants of health, which is also a key concept of public health. From the view point of public health, it is hoped that the systematic introduction of behavioral science into Japanese medical education will strengthen the public health mindset of medical doctors, which in turn will support the healthcare system in communities.

  12. The meaning of behavioral medicine in the public health field—a review of documents related to medical education in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    International standardization of medical education requires Japanese medical schools to restructure their curricula to include “behavioral science.” Two influential documents for Japanese medical education, the “Model Core Curriculum for Medical Education in Japan” and the “Scope of the Japanese National Examination for Medical Doctors” include some key terms regarding behavioral science. However, they are not systematic and the phrase “behavioral science” itself could not be found in these d...

  13. Mesopotamian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

  14. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  15. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  16. Medicines out of use and waste of medicines in a northern city of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Isabel C.; Nascimento, Luís; Guilherme, M.; Magalhães, A; Santos, E.; Vasques, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it’s important to understand waste of medicines, destination of medicines out of use and knowledge that people have about it, since the lack of information can lead to serious consequences for public health and environment. This study aims to determine the proportion of waste of medicines in population of a northern city of Portugal and related factors and verify the knowledge and behavior about the destination of medicines out of use, like the Valormed. This cross-sectional a...

  17. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  18. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  19. [Osteopathic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P; Lepers, Y; Salem, W

    2011-09-01

    Osteopathy is originated in the 19th century in the United States. Andrew Taylor Still seek for an alternative medical system to the orthodox medicine largely empirical and advocating bloodletting, calomel, etc., all of which was resumed with terms like" heroic medicine". Osteopathy as other alternative medical practices (homeopathy, eclecticism, etc.) based on rational and metaphysical postulates as vitalism or the fact that man is a divinely ordained machine. Still's approach was essentially manual and based on manipulation of the joints. Today osteopaths challenge these dogmas and seek to agree their practice within scientific biomedical standards. Even if strong randomized clinical trials are lacking, several surveys report how osteopathy gained public notoriety. Several recent meta-analyses pinpoint the benefit of the spinal manipulative treatment and even if there is no evidence that such an approach is superior to other advocated therapies there is no evidence that these therapies are more effective than the first one. The major indications for such a treatment are cervical and low back pain, either chronic or acute. The quality of the relationship between the practitioner and patient together with the placebo effect are important components of a treatment effect. Osteopathic education is an important aspect and only higher education institutions, i.e. universities can achieve and maintain adequate standards. Materia medica and surgery represent the two major therapeutic mainstreams in medicine; osteopathy considered as manual medicine could be the third one. PMID:22034767

  20. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  1. Statistical Analysis on Medicine Purchasing Behavior Pattern of Rural Residents%基于统计分析的农村人员购药行为模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉; 陈俊意

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨影响农村人员购药行为模式的相关因素,以期为政府医保政策制定提供参考.方法 以重庆30个区县农村人员为研究对象,采用随机抽样的办法选取82份有效问卷进行分析.从家庭经济条件、年龄、性别、文化水平、距离正规医疗购药地点路程、个体对自己病情的研判和是否参加医保7个相关因素进行分析.结果 (1)通过相关和通径分析,结果表明,农村人员购药行为模式与家庭经济条件和距离正规医疗机构的路程2个因素的相关系数有统计学意义(P<0.01),与是否参加医保的相关系数亦有统计学意义(P<0.05);距离正规医疗机构的路程对农村人员购药行为模式的正向直接作用最大,通径系数为0.4454;其次是家庭经济条件,其通径系数为0.4091;其他因素的直接作用大小依次为是否参加医保(0.2602)、文化水平(0.1015)、年龄(0.0362).性别具有直接负向作用(-0.0201).被调查人自己对病情的研判对农村人员购药行为模式几乎无直接或间接影响.(2)通过主成分分析,结果表明,前5个主成分累计百分率为86.0553%,可以用来表述农村人员购药行为模式的全部信息,主成分1为农村人员购药行为模式的经济基础因子,主成分2为农村人员购药行为模式的年龄因子,主成分3为农村人员购药行为模式的经济和文化双重因子,主成分4为农村人员购药行为模式的性别因子,主成分5为农村人员购药行为模式的文化水平因子.结论 家庭经济条件和距离正规医疗购药地点的路程为影响农村人员购药行为模式的主要因素,是否参加医保位列第三.因此政府需要加大医保报销比例,建立健全农村医疗卫生机构,合理布置药物销售网点.%Objective To investigate the factors affecting the medicine purchasing behavior pattern of rural residents, so as to provide reference for medical insurance policy - making of the

  2. 医学大学生生命质量与日常行为关系的研究%Study of the relationship between quality of life and general behaviors of medicine college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柯帆; 朱燕波; 赵琼姝; 焦楠; 白俊杰; 田京实; 郭婉丽; 王蓥

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨医学大学生生命质量与日常行为的关系,为改善和提高医学大学生生命质量提供参考.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,使用中文版简明健康状况调查问卷(MOS SF-36)和日常行为调查问卷,对北京中医药大学8个学院的206名大学生进行测试和分析.结果 医学大学生总体生命质量、生理和心理领域生命质量的得分分别为:(71.24±16.47)分、(75.97±17.59)分和(66.39±18.05)分.多元逐步回归分析显示:吃零食、缺乏锻炼、考前"开夜车"、上网和深夜娱乐活动5种日常行为进入总体生命质量和心理领域生命质量两个多元逐步回归方程(R2=0.201,0.150,P<0.01);吃零食、入睡时间、缺乏锻炼、考前"开夜车"和上网5日常种行为进入生理领域生命质量的多元逐步回归方程(R2=0.214,P<0.01).结论 影响医学大学生生命质量的主要日常行为有上网、考前"开夜车"、吃零食、缺乏锻炼、深夜娱乐活动和入睡时间.%Objective To explore the relation between general behaviors of medicine college students and quality of life (QOL),so as to provide the references for improving and enhancing their quality of life.Methods Through cross-sectional survey method,206 college students from 8 schools and departments of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were measured and assessed by the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (MOS SF-36) and General Behaviors Questionnaire.Results The scores of overall,physical component summary (PCS),mental component summary (MCS) of QOL of medicine college students were 71.24±16.47,75.97±17.59 and 66.39±18.05 respectively.Especially the score of MCS of QOL was obviously lower.The analysis of multiple stepwise regression indicates:Five general behaviors with eating snack,lack of exercises,sitting up late cramming,surfing web and nightlife entered two multiple stepwise regression models in overall and MCS of QOL

  3. Pregnancy and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  5. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  6. Personcentreret medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Personcentreret medicin tager udgangspunkt i den person, lægen møder, hvad enten vedkommende er rask eller syg, og bygger på værdier som fortrolighed, kontinuitet, nærvær, tillid og tilgængelighed. Det er patientens dagsorden, der gælder, og lægen kan i fællesskab med patienten (baseret på en...

  7. Medicine partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Partial medication compliance, where patients do not take enough of their prescribed medicine to achieve adequate outcomes, is common. Research using electronic monitoring to assess compliance has shown that people take approximately 75% of doses as prescribed, irrespective of the condition being treated or its severity. Erratic compliance often leads to discontinuation of therapy, as treatment is perceived to be ineffective. Compliance decreases as frequency of dosing increases. Inadequate c...

  8. Increasing US health plan coverage for exercise programming in community mental health settings for people with serious mental illness: a position statement from the Society of Behavior Medicine and the American College of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah I; Jerome, Gerald J; Schneider, Kristin L; Craft, Lynette L; Buman, Matthew P; Stoutenberg, Mark; Daumit, Gail L; Bartels, Stephen J; Goodrich, David E

    2016-09-01

    Adults with serious mental illness die more than 10 years earlier than the average American. Premature mortality is due to the high prevalence of preventable diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor lifestyle behaviors including lack of exercise and physical inactivity contribute to the epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease observed among adults with serious mental illness. Not surprisingly, people with serious mental illness are among the most costly consumers of health services due to increased visits for poorly managed mental and physical health. Recent studies have demonstrated that exercise interventions based on community mental health settings can significantly improve physical and mental health in people with serious mental illness. However, current funding regulations limit the ability of community mental health settings to offer exercise programming services to people with serious mental illness. Policy efforts are needed to improve the dissemination and sustainability of exercise programs for people with serious mental illness.

  9. Haptic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions. PMID:19745495

  10. 某医学院3年级临床专业本科生循证医学知识、态度、行为情况调查%Investigation into the Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviors of Evidence-Based Medicine among Grade 3 Students of Clinical Medicine Major at a Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏飞; 姜红英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the basic conditions of knowledge,attitude and behaviors of evidence-based medicine among Grade 3 students of clinical medicine major at a medical university,discuss the influencing factors and provide the scientific basis for evidence-based medicine teaching reform.Methods All the Grade 3 students of clinical medicine major at a medical university were required to complete questionnaires by themselves.Results About 10% students knew evidence-based medicine,and less than 20% students could answer 4 or more questions of the 7 epidemiology and statistics related questions; about 20% of the students thought journal articles were faithful and true,about 80% of the students considered that clinical experience was the most important,the patients' will should be followed,and many measures were lack of strong evidence; about 90% of the students did not take evidence-based medicine related courses,about 90% of the students never searched by PubMed,and when meeting problems in practical about 70% of the students tended to check textbooks and consult teachers.Conclusions About 90% of the students lack of evidence-based medicine knowledge and information retrieval skills,and about 80% of the students lack of evidence-based concept,systemative,effective evidence-based medical education is imperative.%目的 了解某医学院临床专业本科生循证医学相关知识、态度、循证行为的基本情况,探讨其影响因素,为循证医学教学改革提供科学依据.方法 对某医学院3年级临床专业本科生以自填调查问卷的方式进行普查.结果 10%左右的同学知道循证医学,7个流行病学及卫生统计学相关题目答对4个及以上的不到20%;约20%的同学认为杂志文章都真实可信,约80%的同学认为临床经验最重要、应该遵循患者意愿、许多治疗措施缺乏有力证据;约90%的同学没选修过循证医学相关课程,约90%的同学没检索过PubMed

  11. 中医医院护士组织公民行为与组织公平感相关性研究%The relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational justice among nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋茹; 郭玲玉; 刘根莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior among clinical nurses. Methods: A total of 316 nurses from 4 large traditional Chinese medicine hospitals were investigated by Organizational Justice Questionnaire and Chinese Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. Results:There was a positive relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors among clinical nurse after controlling their demographic variables. Conclusion:This study confirms that organizational justice can significantly predict organizational citizenship behaviors. Nursing managers must attach more importance to organizational justice to eliminate nurse's unfair feeling which could negatively impact the nurses' working enthusiasm.%目的:通过实证研究验证中医医院临床护士的组织公平感与组织公民行为的关系.方法:采用横断面问卷调查法对来自4 家大型中医医院的316 名护士进行组织公平感和组织公民行为的测量.结果:在控制了人口统计学变量后,组织公平感与中医护士的组织公民行为显著相关.结论:中医医院护士的组织公平感会对其组织公民行为具有积极的正向影响,所以护理管理者必须给予高度重视,尽力消除不公平感对护士工作积极性的消极影响.

  12. Evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B

    2004-04-01

    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  13. GENOMIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  14. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  15. Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  16. Narrativ medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte; Getz, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Dagens allmänmedicin påverkas av ett växande managementtänkandetillsammans med fragmenterande ekonomiska incitament.Vårdens kvaliteter evalueras med nya metoder som ”värdebaseradvård” där värde räknas i kronor och ören. Produktion går före etik,och det intersubjektiva mötet mellan patient och läk...... läkare håller påatt nedvärderas. Perspektiven från narrativ medicin kan bidra tillatt visa vad som står på spel. Vilken blir annars berättelsen omallmänmedicinen?...

  17. Defensive medicine practices among gastroenterologists in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Hiyama; Masaharu Yoshihara; Shinji Tanaka; Yuji Urabe; Yoshihiko Ikegami; Tatsuma Fukuhara; Kazuaki Chayama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the prevalence of defensive medicine and the specific defensive medicine practices among gastroenterologists in Japan.METHODS: A survey of gastroenterologists in Hiroshima, Japan, was conducted by mail in March 2006. The number of gastroenterologists reporting defensive medicine behaviors or changes in their scope of practice and the reported defensive medicine practices, i.e., assurance and avoidance behaviors, were examined.RESULTS: A total of 131 (77%) out of 171 gastroenterologists completed the survey. Three (2%) respondents were sued, and most respondents (96%) had liability insurance. Nearly all respondents (98%) reported practieing defensive medicine. Avoidance behaviors, such as avoiding certain procedures or interventions and avoiding caring for high-risk patients, were very common (96%).Seventy-five percent of respondents reported often avoiding certain procedures or interventions. However,seasoned gastroenterologists (those in practice for more than 20 years) adopted avoidance behaviors significantly less often than those in practice for less than 10 years.Assurance behaviors, i.e., supplying additional services of marginal or no medical value, were also widespread (91%). Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported that they sometimes or often referred patients to other specialists unnecessarily.CONCLUSION: Defensive medicine may be highly prevalent among gastroenterologists throughout Japan, with potentially serious implications regarding costs, access,and both technical and interpersonal quality of care.

  18. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  19. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you ... during sex. Return to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites ...

  20. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  1. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  2. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Search the NIGMS Website Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  3. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that is used to diagnose and treat diseases in a safe and painless way. Nuclear medicine procedures permit the determination of medical information ...

  4. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  5. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  6. An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat-Zinn, J

    1982-04-01

    The practice of mindfulness meditation was used in a 10-week Stress Reduction and Relaxation Program to train chronic pain patients in self-regulation. The meditation facilitates an attentional stance towards proprioception known as detached observation. This appears to cause an "uncoupling " of the sensory dimension of the pain experience from the affective/evaluative alarm reaction and reduce the experience of suffering via cognitive reappraisal. Data are presented on 51 chronic pain patients who had not improved with traditional medical care. The dominant pain categories were low back, neck and shoulder, and headache. Facial pain, angina pectoris, noncoronary chest pain, and GI pain were also represented. At 10 weeks, 65% of the patients showed a reduction of greater than or equal to 33% in the mean total Pain Rating Index (Melzack) and 50% showed a reduction of greater than or equal to 50%. Similar decreases were recorded on other pain indices and in the number of medical symptoms reported. Large and significant reductions in mood disturbance and psychiatric symptomatology accompanied these changes and were relatively stable on follow-up. These improvements were independent of the pain category. We conclude that this form of meditation can be used as the basis for an effective behavioral program in self-regulation for chronic pain patients. Key features of the program structure, and the limitations of the present uncontrolled study are discussed.

  7. [Disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  8. The Influence of Event Marketing Activity of Medicine and Health Products on Purcha-sing Behavior among Residents%活动营销对居民购买医药保健品行为影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那军; 李爽; 礼彦侠; 穆慧娟; 马尉瑶; 刘莉

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the characteristic and the influence factors of joining in the event marketing ac-tivity and purchasing medicine and health care products among residents in Liaoning province.Methods 2 901 sub-jects were randomly selected from 1 1 cities (area under administration)by stratified multi-stage sampling meth-od.Results Among the interviewees,1 1.62% had joined in event marketing activity,among whom 48.97% had pur-chased medicine and health care products.Persons above 60 years older who paid attention to health information, trusted in advertisement and joined in the event marking activity would tend to purchase products mostly,and joining marketing event activity was the most important influence factor(OR =6.60,95%CI =4.67 ~9.33).Conclusions The event marketing is an important marketing approach of medicine and health products,also is the most direct and significant influence factor of the purchasing behavior of residents.It is need right now to describe and master the quality,true and false of the medicine and health care products,and relevant department of government should en-force the approval process,supervise and penalties of advertisement and marketing active,in order to avoid the resi-dent being cheated and hazarded.%目的:了解掌握居民参加医药保健品活动营销和购买医药保健品的特征和影响因素,以及参加活动营销对购买医药保健产品的影响。方法采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,对辽宁省11市2901名居民进行入户问卷调查。结果受访者中参加活动营销的占11.62%,其中48.97%的人购买过医药保健产品,城市中关注信息、相信广告、参加活动营销的老年人更易购买医药保健品,其中参加医药保健品活动营销是最重要、最直接的影响因素(OR=6.60,95%CI =4.67~9.33)。结论活动营销是医药保健产品非常重要的营销方式,也是对居民购买医药保健品行为影响最大的因素,目前急需了解掌握活动

  9. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  10. Impact of medicine-related information on medicine purchase and use by literate consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Thawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To measure impact of information, education, and communication intervention (IEC on rational medicine use, purchase, and stocking behavior. Materials and Methods: This was a pre- and post-design, interventional study. Base data were collected in first visit, using pre tested questionnaire from 500 respondents, who were of either gender, English speaking, at least graduates, permanent residents, and willing to participate. IEC was framed based on problems identified from this data. First intervention was handouts distributed in the second visit, containing information on cost saving in medicine purchase. Second intervention was a lecture session on medicine prices, rational use of medicines, and tips on saving on medicine purchase. Five articles about medicine use and price differences were published in the local newspaper, over 10 days, formed third intervention. After 1 month, post-intervention data was collected using same instrument with some additional questions. Results were analyzed by Chi-square test using Graph Pad prism Version 3.0. Results: Awareness about price variation, self-medication, expiry period, generic and brand quality increased post-intervention. Attitudes toward new, costly, brands, injections, sharing and reusing old prescriptions changed post-intervention. Behavioral changes in stocking habits, adherence to doctors′ advice, getting cash memo, comparing prices, reading labels, were seen post-intervention. Conclusion: People carry false notions about medicines which influence their use and habits. This intervention successfully changed behavior and could bring awareness on many aspects of medicine use.

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  12. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.;

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...... that Laboratory Medicine should play a key role to support the implementation of Personalized Medicine in the clinical settings, the participants of this survey think that the current organization of the Laboratory Medicine needs additional/relevant implementations such as: 1. New technological Facilities...

  13. Sleep Medicine Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Claudio; Dogas, Zoran; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sleep Medicine Textbook provides comprehensive, all-in-one educational material (550 pages) structured around the Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine (Penzel et al. 2014, Journal of Sleep Research). Written by experts in the field and published by the ESRS, it provides an European approach to sleep medicine education, and represents the knowledge-base for the ESRS-endorsed sleep medicine examinations.The book is available at http://www.esrs.eu/esrs/sleep-medicine-textbook...

  14. 西昌市药品广告对购药行为影响的调查%Investigation and study on the influence of pharmaceutical advertisement on residents behavior of buying medicines in Xichang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭林; 周永红; 马双; 石国露; 胡言会

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨药品广告在居民接受健康信息、获取健康知识中的作用及对其购药行为的影响。方法本文采用抽样调查的方法,调查西昌市城区及乡镇民众对12种常见药品广告的认知情况、获取途径、信任度及药品广告对民众自我药疗行为的影响,分析其中的问题。结果55.5%的西昌基层民众通过电视获取医药知识,电视广告是最主要途径;23.8%的民众选购药品时首先考虑品牌和知名度;80.0%的民众认为药品广告增加了健康知识;82.5%的民众依据药品广告传播的健康知识进行日常疾病的自我药疗。结论药品广告对西昌基层健康知识传播起到了不可替代的作用,需要不断完善药品广告的健康信息传播方式,提高健康知识的准确性、通俗性。同时警惕虚假药品广告,重视公益医药广告的宣传力度,着力打造基层卫生服务机构医药知识宣传的主体地位。%Objective To explore the influence of pharmaceutical advertisement on residents accepting health informa-tion, acquiring health knowledge and behavior of buying medicines. Methods Sampling survey method was adopted to investigate the awareness, acquiring way, credibility and the influence of pharmaceutical advertisement on residents self-medication behavior of 12 kinds of common pharmaceutical advertisements among residents from urban and rural area of Xichang City, then analyzed the problems. Results In Xichang City 55.5% of residents acquiring medical knowledge from television, television advertisement was the most important method. 23.8%of residents chosen medicine considering the brand and prestige firstly. 80.0% of residents though pharmaceutical advertising increased their health knowledge. 82.5% of residents taken self-medication for dally disease on the basis of health knowledge get from drug advertisement. Conclusion Advertisement of pharmaceutical has an irreplaceable role for health

  15. Stress and eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Achim; Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

  16. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective: To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods: Training included didactics (six sessions/year, distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results: A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01. Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76% compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11. Conclusion: Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits.

  17. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  18. Residents' Expectation of Family Medicine-Specific Training Program and Its Current State

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong Jun; Park, Eal Whan; Cheong, Yoo Seock; Choi, Eun Young; Baek, Kuk Hyun; Sung, Hwa Yoen; Lee, Hong-Yeon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Background The family medicine residency program consists mainly of clinical rotations in other specialties and the family medicine-specific training. We conducted this study to investigate how family medicine residents evaluated their training program that include family-oriented medicine, clinical preventive medicine, behavioral science and research in primary care. Methods In 2009, third-year residents of 129 training hospitals in Korea were surveyed to investigate the current state and th...

  19. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  20. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  1. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Learn more Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  2. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  3. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  4. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  5. Future of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. The Future of Personalized Medicine, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... five priorities for NIH is to advance personalized medicine. What does this mean for the average American? ...

  6. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.)

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  8. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A Text Size ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  10. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is approximately $75 billion spent annually on prescription medicine. All too often, however, we overlook the vital ... between prescription and over-the-counter remedies. Prescription medicine is prescribed by a doctor for a specific ...

  11. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  12. Performing Narrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  13. Medicines to Treat Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it costs. Ask if they have a drug discount program that can help you pay less for your medicine. Buy your medicine from the pharmacy that gives you the cheapest price.  Sign up for patient assistance programs: Most companies that make medicines have programs that help people ...

  14. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  15. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  16. The Genomic Medicine Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Elvis; de Andrés-Galiana, Enrique J; Benitez, Sonia; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo H

    2016-01-01

    With advancements in genomics technology, health care has been improving and new paradigms of medicine such as genomic medicine have evolved. The education of clinicians, researchers and students to face the challenges posed by these new approaches, however, has been often lagging behind. From this the Genomic Medicine Game, an educational tool, was created for the purpose of conceptualizing the key components of Genomic Medicine. A number of phenotype-genotype associations were found through a literature review, which was used to be a base for the concepts the Genomic Medicine Game would focus on. Built in Java, the game was successfully tested with promising results. PMID:27577486

  17. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  18. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    This guidebook for clinical nuclear medicine is written as a description of how nuclear medicine procedures should be used by clinicians in evaluating their patients. It is designed to assist medical students and physicians in becoming acquainted with nuclear medicine techniques for detecting and evaluating most common disorders. The material provides an introduction to, not a textbook of, nuclear medicine. Each chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or topic relevant to the risks and benefits involved in nuclear medicine studies. The emphasis is on presenting the rationales for ordering the various clinical imaging procedures performed in most nuclear medicine departments. Where appropriate, alternative imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography imaging, and radiographic special procedures are discussed. Comparative data between nuclear medicine imaging and other modalities are presented to help guide the practicing clinician in the selection of the most appropriate procedure for a given problem.

  19. [Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, J C

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint administration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

  20. Genetics in psychosomatic medicine : research designs and statistical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Snieder, Harold; Dong, Yanbin; de Geus, Eco

    2007-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that genetic factors influence many of the behaviors and disease endpoints of interest to psychosomatic medicine researchers. There has been increasing interest in incorporating genetic variation markers into psychosomatic research. In this Statistical Corner article

  1. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  2. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  3. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with basic science and statistics relevant to nuclear medicine, and specific organ systems are addressed in separate chapters. A section of the text also covers imaging of groups of disease processes (eg, trauma, cancer). The authors present a comparison between nuclear medicine techniques and other diagnostic imaging studies. A table is given which comments on sensitivities and specificities of common nuclear medicine studies. The sensitivities and specificities are categorized as very high, high, moderate, and so forth.

  4. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  5. Music and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Lippi; Paolo Roberti di Sarsina; John Patrick D’Elios

    2010-01-01

    Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative po...

  6. [Theory and model in psychosomatic medicine--a historical sketch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, G

    1991-02-01

    Starting with "personal medicine" as it was formed by Ludolf von Krehl in the frame of a medical clinic at a university, psychosomatic medicine, in its narrow sense, is described in its historical development. Differences to the conception of behavioral medicine are noted. Some theoretical models following the conversion model of Freud like stress concept, life-event or coping are historically explained. Actual research such as change of paradigm towards a systemic approach describes the actual situation, the conception of the "Gestaltkreis" completes this. Practice of today's psychosomatic medicine can be outlined by the concepts of simultaneous diagnostic and simultaneous therapy.

  7. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  8. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  9. Glimpses of Islamic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    1997-07-01

    The fall of the Roman Empire during the fifth century A.D. Ushered in the beginning of the Dark Ages. After this, in Europe further progress of Greco-Roman medicine originated from Hippocrates was halted. The ideas about medicine and hygiene were kept alive in monasteries only. The Arabs made advances in medicine at a time when the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages. Islamic system or the rulers of the day actively encouraged scholarship and growth of knowledge. The Islamic gift of the day to the world of medicine was simply unique. PMID:12572570

  10. Translational Medicine - doing it backwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schechter Alan N

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years the concept of "translational medicine" has been advanced in an attempt to catalyze the medical applications of basic biomedical research. However, there has been little discussion about the readiness of scientists themselves to respond to what we believe is a required new approach to scientific discovery if this new concept is to bear fruit. The present paradigm of hypothesis-driven research poorly suits the needs of biomedical research unless efforts are spent in identifying clinically relevant hypotheses. The dominant funding system favors hypotheses born from model systems and not humans, bypassing the Baconian principle of relevant observations and experimentation before hypotheses. Here, we argue that that this attitude has born two unfortunate results: lack of sufficient rigor in selecting hypotheses relevant to human disease and limitations of most clinical studies to certain outcome parameters rather than expanding knowledge of human pathophysiology; an illogical approach to translational medicine. If we wish to remain true to our responsibility and duty of performing research relevant to human disease, we must begin to think about fundamental new approaches. NIH is the nation's medical research agency - making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives. NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability 1.

  11. Teaching evidence based medicine in family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Vrdoljak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of evidence based medicine (EBM as the integrationof clinical expertise, patient values and the best evidence was introduced by David Sackett in the 1980’s. Scientific literature in medicine is often marked by expansion, acummulation and quick expiration. Reading all important articles to keep in touch with relevant information is impossible. Finding the best evidence that answers a clinical question in general practice (GP in a short time is not easy. Five useful steps are described –represented by the acronym “5A+E”: assess, ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate.The habit of conducting an evidence search “on the spot’’ is proposed. Although students of medicine at University of Split School of Medicine are taught EBM from the first day of their study and in all courses, their experience of evidence-searching and critical appraisal of the evidence, in real time with real patient is inadequate. Teaching the final-year students the practical use of EBM in a GP’s office is different and can have an important role in their professional development. It can positively impact on quality of their future work in family practice (or some other medical specialty by acquiring this habit of constant evidence-checking to ensure that best practice becomes a mechanism for life-long learning. Conclusion. EBM is a foundation stone of every branch of medicine and important part of Family Medicine as scientific and professional discipline. To have an EB answer resulting from GP’s everyday work is becoming a part of everyday practice.

  12. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents.

  13. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents. PMID:26477900

  14. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  15. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kafadar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protection Center, the center service delivery and forensic medicine approach.

  16. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V V; R S Pal; R N Mishra

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments.

  17. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  18. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-01

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients. PMID:2142351

  19. Children's Knowledge about Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarsdottir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined knowledge about medicines and perceived benefit among 101 children, ages 7 and 10. Found that medicine knowledge was explained using age, educational environment, and degree of internal locus of control as significant predictors. The negative effect of internal locus of control predicted perceived benefit. Retention of drug advertising…

  20. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

  1. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.

  2. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gesundheit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed.

  3. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    OpenAIRE

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments.

  4. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  5. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  6. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  7. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... AAOM offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  9. An evaluation of consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in penang, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Shyong, Tai Lee; Hin, Tan Keat; Cien, Chong Soon; Bin, Lim Soo; Anantham, Shamini Chanmal; Kirubakaran, Ranita; Ping, Sia Bee; Kirubakaran, Ranita; Chuen, Chiew Shoen; Singh, Jaswinder Kaur Sohan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumers' perceptions regarding "modern medicines" in Penang, Malaysia. To conduct this exploratory study, qualitative techniques were used. Consumers more than 19 years of age and could speak English, who had visited a pharmacy in the last 30 days, were included from the four major areas of Penang. Eighteen interviews were conducted until the point of saturation. The interviews were audio-taped and then transcribed verbatim for thematic content analysis. Many consumers correctly identified the major characteristics and properties of modern medicines; however, others raised doubts regarding the safety, quality and efficacy of "modern medicines". There were many misconceptions such as "all modern medicines can cause dependence", traditional medicines are completely "free of side-effects" and "Western medicines cure while Chinese medicines don't". Color was also considered a strong determinant of the safety and characteristics of a medicine. Regarding consumers' "medicine information seeking behavior", many consumers would seek information from doctors and pharmacists; however, there were others, who would look for books, or get it from the internet and friends. Of concern many consumers emphasized that while "self-searching for drug information" they would only look for side-effects. Misconceptions regarding medicine-taking behavior, medicine use and compliance were also identified. Though several consumers complied with the medicine-taking instructions, many reported that they would stop taking medicines, once they feel better. Though many consumers correctly identified the characteristics of "modern medicines", misconceptions regarding "medicine information sources and "medicine-taking behavior" were rampant. The situation demands corrective actions including community-oriented educational campaigns to improve "medicine use" in the society.

  10. Practical nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmell, Howard G; Sharp, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in patient care, and this book is an essential guide for all practitioners to the many techniques that inform clinical management. The first part covers the scientific basis of nuclear medicine, the rest of the book deals with clinical applications. Diagnostic imaging has an increasingly important role in patient management and, despite advances in other modalities (functional MRI and spiral CT), nuclear medicine continues to make its unique contribution by its ability to demonstrate physiological function. This book is also expanded by covering areas of d

  11. Molecular medicine: a path towards a personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Debora Marques de; Mamede, Marcelo; Souza, Bruno Rezende de; Almeida Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de; Magno, Luiz Alexandre; Alvim-Soares Jr, Antônio; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Castro Jr, Célio José de; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Marco, Luiz Armando De; Correa, Humberto; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders are among the most common human illnesses; still, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their complex pathophysiology remain to be fully elucidated. Over the past 10 years, our group has been investigating the molecular abnormalities in major signaling pathways involved in psychiatric disorders. Recent evidences obtained by the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Medicina Molecular (National Institute of Science and Technology - Molecular Medicine, INCT-MM) and others using behavioral analysis of animal models provided valuable insights into the underlying molecular alterations responsible for many complex neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting that "defects" in critical intracellular signaling pathways have an important role in regulating neurodevelopment, as well as in pathophysiology and treatment efficacy. Resources from the INCT have allowed us to start doing research in the field of molecular imaging. Molecular imaging is a research discipline that visualizes, characterizes, and quantifies the biologic processes taking place at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems through the results of image within the reality of the physiological environment. In order to recognize targets, molecular imaging applies specific instruments (e.g., PET) that enable visualization and quantification in space and in real-time of signals from molecular imaging agents. The objective of molecular medicine is to individualize treatment and improve patient care. Thus, molecular imaging is an additional tool to achieve our ultimate goal.

  12. [Overdiagnosis and defensive medicine in occupational medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berral, Alessandro; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio

    2014-01-01

    In clinical medicine since some years overdiagnosis is giving rise to growing attention and concern. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of a "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. It is a side effect of testing for early forms of disease which may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm. Overdiagnosis occurs when a disease is diagnosed correctly, but the diagnosis is irrelevant. A correct diagnosis may be irrelevant because treatment for the disease is not available, not needed, or not wanted. Four drivers engender overdiagnosis: 1) screening in non symptomatic subjects; 2) raised sensitivity of diagnostic tests; 3) incidental overdiagnosis; 4) broadening of diagnostic criteria for diseases. "Defensive medicine" can play a role. It begs the question of whether even in the context of Occupational Medicine overdiagnosis is possible. In relation to the double diagnostic evaluation peculiar to Occupational Medicine, the clinical and the causal, a dual phenomenon is possible: that of overdiagnosis properly said and what we could define the overattribution, in relation to the assessment of a causal relationship with work. Examples of occupational "diseases" that can represent cases of overdiagnosis, with the possible consequences of overtreatment, consisting of unnecessary and socially harmful limitations to fitness for work, are taken into consideration: pleural plaques, alterations of the intervertebral discs, "small airways disease", sub-clinical hearing impairment. In Italy the National Insurance for occupational diseases (INAIL) regularly recognizes less than 50% of the notified diseases; this might suggest overdiagnosis and possibly overattribution in reporting. Physicians dealing with the diagnosis of occupational diseases are obviously requested to perform a careful, up-to-date and active investigation. When applying to the diagnosis of occupational diseases, proper

  13. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce ... manufacturers are now making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/ ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities ... and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically ...

  16. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... take medicine safely, people can vastly lower the quality of their lives and in some extreme cases, ... the other one standing on my head, you know, it really gets to be difficult. Announcer: Some ...

  17. Terpenoids for medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischedick, Justin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerns research on monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids with medicinal properties. Terpenoids from commond herbs as well as Cannabis sativa, Inula britannica, Tanacetum parthenium, and Salvia officinalis were investigated

  18. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  19. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer in your child’s body will lose its radioactivity over time. In many cases, the radioactivity will ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  2. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the United States, most of us, our culture, is that we take antibiotics for seven to ... I take it and for how long? What foods, drinks, other medicines or activities should I avoid ...

  3. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after the procedure? Except for intravenous injections, most nuclear medicine procedures are painless and are rarely associated with significant discomfort or side effects. If the radiotracer is given intravenously, your child ...

  5. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the bacteria, but it might not completely give what they call a "bactericidal effect." That means taking ... be sure to ask the following six questions-- What is the name of the medicine? What is ...

  6. Storing your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your carry-on luggage. To help with security at the airport: Keep medicine in the original ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  7. Emergency medicine in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations ... diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Risks Because the doses of radiotracer administered are small, ...

  9. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... means taking the bacteria completely out of the system. It might be just putting it to rest ... if they occur? And, is there any written information available about the medicine? There are many reasons ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leaving the nuclear medicine facility. Through the natural process of radioactive decay, the small amount of radiotracer ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  11. [Homeopathic medicine and magic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angutek, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The article compares homeopathic medicine and primitive magic. The author realises formal similarities beetwen these two fields of knowledge. The primitive homeopathic magic characterised by J. G. Frazer in his The Golden Bought announces that "similar courses similar". M. Mauss and H. Hubert added to this "low" an another formula: "similar acts on similar that courses a contrary phenomenon". The last formula is an identic one with the "low" of homeopathic medicine. Moreover there is a similarity between pantheistic religion of Hahnemann and magician beliefs in the power named mana in Melanesia and Polinesia or orenda, wakan, manitou and so on, by the Indians from The North America. The amazing thing is that homeopathic chemists belive that kinetic power transforms itself into esoteric one, during preparation of homeopathic medicines.In the end of this article the author ascertains that homeopathic medicine and magic has certain paradigm in common what is opposit to racionalism of official European paradigm of thinking. PMID:19244731

  12. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nearly 2/3 of all visits to the doctor's office end with a prescription for medication. There ... counter remedies. Prescription medicine is prescribed by a doctor for a specific ailment, using his or her ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  14. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... annually on prescription medicine. All too often, however, we overlook the vital role medication plays in our ... have switched to the non-prescription status so we have a lot of potent medications available for ...

  15. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Recent studies show that nearly 2/3 of all visits to the doctor's office end with a prescription for medication. There is approximately $75 billion spent annually on prescription medicine. ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine the severity of or ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not experience any discomfort. When swallowed, the radiotracer has little or no taste. If inhaled, your child ... after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child has been sedated, you will receive specific instructions to ...

  18. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.

  19. Darwin, medicine and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, A D; Sullivan, R

    2010-02-01

    'Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'! So said Theodore Dobzhansky. It is extraordinary how little Darwinism and post-Darwinian evolutionary science has penetrated medicine despite the fact that all biology is built upon its foundations. Randy Nesse, one of the fathers of Darwinian medicine, recently observed that doctors 'know the facts but not the origins'. Clearly, then, in this auspicious year-200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the first edition of the Origin of Species-it is time to reconsider Darwin's legacy to medicine and to invite evolution back into the biomedical fold. Here, we consider the legacy of Darwin and the contribution of the other great evolutionists such as Ernst Mayr to cancer and medicine.

  20. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines safely.

  1. Folk medicine and horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The article discusses the uses of marine organisms in folk medicine and in horticulture in the Philippines. Commonly used marine organisms are the different varieties of seaweeds, sea urchin, sea cucumber, turtle, crocodile and fishes such as grouper and rabbitfish.

  2. OTC Medicines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other active ingredients, such as decongestants or antihistamines. Drug Recall Information View information on recent drug ... in nursing babies. Limit long-term use of antihistamines. Just like other medicines you take, antihistamines will ...

  3. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or eating breakfast. By communicating with our health care providers and by accepting a greater responsibility in our own health care, we can learn to take our medicines ...

  4. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I take it and for how long? What foods, drinks, other medicines or activities should I avoid ... twice a day and one of them with food and the other one standing on my head, ...

  5. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if they occur? And, is there any written information available about the medicine? There are many reasons ... seven days of the week. Announcer: Regardless of age or economic status, taking medication can be as ...

  6. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine will interpret the images and forward a report to your referring physician. top of page What ... by: Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  8. Nanotechnology: The future medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an exciting new area in science, with many possible applications in medicine. This article seeks to outline the role of different areas such as diagnosis of diseases, drug delivery, imaging, and so on.

  9. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  10. MANAGING THE MEDICINES IN SOCIETY- A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gyanendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern at the amount and cost of prescribed medicines that are unused and then have to be disposed off. Our studies have used health promotion and Dispose Unwanted Medicines Properly campaigns targeted at the patient to describe and quantify the annual cost of waste. The reasons patients return unused drugs to pharmacies have also been explored. The Study focuses on patient explanations for not needing medication categorized as, over-collection in the past, self-management strategies, changes in medical condition, other changes in patient circumstances or the repeat medicines policy at the surgery.The aim of the original study was to make a measurable change in prescribed medicines with a reduction in medicines wastage, whilst at the same time achieving improved standards of pharmaceutical care. Information on patient needs and behavior came from consultation in the pharmacy monitoring forms and interview. The study was based on two medical practices areas in Jhansi and Orai, comparing an outer city and an inner city population. The participants were general practitioners and pharmacists. The outcome was that 67% of the prescription sale was found over the 33% OTC product of the medications that would be expected to be regularly supplied were collected. The study suggests that closer professional management at the point of dispensing and an understanding of patient experiences can help reduce the amount of unwanted medication collected by patients.

  11. Nuclear tele medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  12. Complementary medicine: common misconceptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E

    1995-01-01

    Complementary medicine (CM), defined as health care which lies for the most part outside the mainstream of conventional medicine, is gaining popularity in Britain and elsewhere. In the UK the most prevalent therapies are manipulation (used by 36% of the population), herbalism (24%) homoeopathy (16%) and acupuncture (16%). Due to the heterogeneity of CM, it is often problematic to generalize. The debate about the usefulness of CM is often regrettably emotional, and thus unproductive. In the pu...

  13. The family medicine cabinet *

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, G. P. L.

    1982-01-01

    Medicine selection and storage was examined in 130 families. Over 50 per cent were found to be less than adequate. Health education advice helped half the inadequate group to change to adequate. Age and social class were not related to hoarding of prescribed drugs, to initial standards of storage or selection, nor to the likelihood of a response to advice. Those who hoarded medicines but stored them well were highly likely to change. Those who stored and selected poorly were unlikely to make ...

  14. Robotics in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  15. Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and modern medicine promotes the unification of human medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are two mutually supportive systems in medical profession: modern medicines and traditional medicine. The current status is that although the modern medicine occupies the major position in healthcare system, the therapeutic effect of traditional medicines should not be omitted. If all of them merged and unified as one, it will be beneficial to the development of human medicine. In this paper, the integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and modern medicine was exemplified to elucidate the mutual complements, mutual benefits of traditional medicines and modern medicine to maintain the unification of human medicine via the development of molecular biology, cytology etc. We believed that TCM theory may share the same mechanism with western medicine at some extent which need to be explored in the future research. In our point of view, although the road may twist and turn, the results are promising.

  16. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a varie...

  17. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  18. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Aarti; Gauld, Robin; Norris, Pauline;

    2012-01-01

    Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines...

  19. Nuclear medicine resources manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade many IAEA programmes have significantly enhanced the capabilities of numerous Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Functional imaging using nuclear medicine procedures has become an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, treatment planning and management of patients. However, due to the heterogeneous growth and development of nuclear medicine in the IAEA's Member States, the operating standards of practice vary considerably from country to country and region to region. This publication is the result of the work of over 30 international professionals who have assisted the IAEA in the process of standardization and harmonization. This manual sets out the prerequisites for the establishment of a nuclear medicine service, including basic infrastructure, suitable premises, reliable supply of electricity, maintenance of a steady temperature, dust exclusion for gamma cameras and radiopharmacy dispensaries. It offers clear guidance on human resources and training needs for medical doctors, technologists, radiopharmaceutical scientists, physicists and specialist nurses in the practice of nuclear medicine. The manual describes the requirements for safe preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, it contains essential requirements for maintenance of facilities and instruments, for radiation hygiene and for optimization of nuclear medicine operational performance with the use of working clinical protocols. The result is a comprehensive guide at an international level that contains practical suggestions based on the experience of professionals around the globe. This publication will be of interest to nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, medical educationalists, diagnostic centre managers, medical physicists, medical technologists, radiopharmacists, specialist nurses, clinical scientists and those engaged in quality assurance and control systems in public health in both developed and developing countries

  20. Medicinal plants of Kermanshah province

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Nemati Paykani; Nastaran Jalilian

    2012-01-01

    In order to collect and determine medicinal plants of Kermanshah province, at first a list of medicinal plants and their localities was prepared based on the floristic list of the Kermanshah province mentioned as medicinal plants in the related references. Then, stands of the mentioned medicinal plants were referred according to the topographic maps and the extracted localities and after collecting medicinal plant specimens, herbarium specimens were prepared based on the traditional taxonomic...

  1. Imaging and development of medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last developments in medical imaging allow visualization of medicines in organism. Today, these techniques: positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) play an essential role in the production and the development of new medicines. The medicinal substances labelled with radioisotopes permit to improve the understanding of medicines' action mode. The spectacular advances were observed in the field of medicines acting on the brain (F.M.)

  2. Genomic medicine, precision medicine, personalized medicine: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, D M; Tyndale, R F

    2013-08-01

    This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics is devoted to genomic medicine, and a reader may reasonably ask what we mean when we use those words. In the initial issue of the journal Genomics in 1987, McKusick and Ruddle pointed out that the descriptor "genome" had been coined in 1920 as a hybrid of "gene" and "chromosome," and that their new journal would focus on the "newly-developing discipline of mapping/sequencing (including analysis of the information)." A key milestone in the field was the generation of the first draft of a human genome in 2000, but this success really represents only one of many milestones in the journey from Mendel to MiSeq.

  3. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. PMID:26866600

  4. Why Behavior Change is Difficult to Sustain

    OpenAIRE

    Bouton, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioni...

  5. Transmitting Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864

  6. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  7. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, B.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Div., Gaithersburg MD (United States); Judge, St. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient. (authors)

  8. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  9. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  10. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  11. Nuclear medicine tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Workshop was to discuss and promote future nuclear medicine applications. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is determined to assist in this role. A major aim of this gathering was to form an interface that was meaningful, representative of the two entities, and above all, on-going. In the opening address, given by Mr. J. Donnelly, President of AECL, this strong commitment was emphasized. In the individual sessions, AECL participants outlined R and D programs and unique expertise that promised to be of interest to members of the nuclear medicine community. The latter group, in turn, described what they saw as some problems and needs of nuclear medicine, especially in the near future. These Proceedings comprise the record of the formal presentations. Additionally, a system of reporting by rapporteurs insured a summary of informal discussions at the sessions and brought to focus pertinent conclusions of the workshop attendees

  12. Traceability in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Brian E.; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    Accurate, reproducible measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine applications is vital to ensure the safety and effectiveness of disease diagnosis and treatment using unsealed radioactive sources. The need to maintain a high degree of confidence in those measurements requires that they be carried out so as to be traceable to national and international standards. In addition, measurement traceability for radioactivity in medicine helps ensure international consistency in measurement at all levels of practice (national measurement laboratories, research institutions, isotope producers, radiopharmaceutical manufacturers and clinics). This paper explores the importance of radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine and demonstrates how traceability can be extended from international standards to the quantity of the drug administered to the patient.

  13. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient's unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Personalized medicine in psychiatry...... is challenged by the current taxonomy, where the diagnostic categories are broad and great biological heterogeneity exists within each category. There is, thus, a gap between the current advanced research prospects and clinical practice, and the current taxonomy is, thus, a poor basis for biological research...

  14. Hvad er evidensbaseret medicin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.; Gluud, Christian Nyfeldt; Gøtzsche, Peter C.;

    2001-01-01

    of a diagnostic method is a randomised trial. Evidence-based medicine will provide the best basis for evaluations of which interventions should be abandoned and which are effective and economically feasible. The use of evidence-based clinical guidelines will lead to more cost-effective treatments. It should......Evidence-based medicine is based on the best results from clinical and epidemiological research, which is combined with clinical experience and patient preferences. Questions of prognosis and harm are often best elucidated in large cohort studies. For other clinical questions the best evidence...... be a national strategy that health care should be evidence-based....

  15. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99mTc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  16. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. PMID:27020147

  17. Physics in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Simon R; Phelps, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging.

  18. BHASMA AND NANO MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Santosh S.

    2013-01-01

    The Metals and Minerals are heavy, nonabsorbable and toxic substances. Metals are used as medicines in Ayurveda since from Samhita period in the fine powder form named as ‘Ayaskriti’1. Latter with the development of ‘Marana’ technique (7th Cent AD) the Metals and Minerals are converted in to very very fine and absorbable, therapeutically most effective and least or Nontoxic form of Medicines known as ‘Bhasma’2. According to Ayurvedic concept the change in the qualities is due to ‘Samskara’ do...

  19. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Adolescent Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine — giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs — is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity — through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents — all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused

  20. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Minich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one’s genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual’s health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient’s health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health.

  1. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  2. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and I'm taking one of them four times a day and one of them three times a day and one of them twice a ... January." It's easy to remember-- write down the time you take your medicine and as you take ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  4. Against narrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    This essay aims to provoke debate on how and what the medical humanities should teach. It argues that the field has been dominated (to its detriment) by two misguided movements, postmodernism and narrative medicine, and that it should be redirected from utilitarian aims towards the goal of exposing medical students to a climate of thought and reflection. PMID:24769751

  5. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and mi

  6. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  7. Music and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; D'Elios, John Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship. PMID:21197362

  8. Nuclear medicine - no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin contains seven articles relating to the isotopic applications in medicine. Their subject matter ranges from the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals through their application in scintiscanning to computer codes for evaluation of the results. The individual articles have been indexed separately

  9. Tablet Use within Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  10. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  11. Immunoinformatics in personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulukota, Kamalakar

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of human disease has been undergoing steady improvement over the past few centuries. Many ailments that were once considered a single entity have been classified into finer categories on the basis of response to therapy (e.g. type I and type II diabetes), inheritance (e.g. familial and non-familial polyposis coli), histology (e.g. small cell and adenocarcinoma of lung) and most recently transcriptional profiling (e.g. leukaemia, lymphoma). The next dimension in this finer categorization appears to be the typing of the patient rather than the disease i.e. disease X in person of type Y. The problem of personalized medicine is to devise tests which predict the type of individual, especially where the type is correlated with response to therapy. Immunology has been at the forefront of personalized medicine for quite a while, even though the term is not often used in this connection. Blood grouping and cross-matching (for blood transfusion), and anaphylaxis test (for penicillin) are just two examples. In this paper I will argue that immunological tests have an important place in the future of personalized medicine. I will describe methods we developed for personalizing vaccines based on MHC allele frequencies in human populations and methods for predicting peptide binding to class I MHC molecules. In conclusion, I will argue that immunological tests, and consequently immunoinformatics, will play a big role in making personalized medicine a reality. PMID:14712931

  12. [Epistemology and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Holguín, H D

    1998-01-01

    Within a conceptualization concerning the health-disease process as a whole (which systematically correlates its biological, psychological, social and historical aspects), it becomes very difficult to find something in the universe involving humankind, without any direct or indirect relationship with that vital process. This fact had expanded medicine toward a very extensive and complex field of knowledge and practices. Just considering it from the scientific perspective, different and opposing acquaintances and research methods vie with each other, equally claiming their own worth and stature within science. Because of all this and from its origin, allopathic medicine has required the assistance and support of philosophy and, in particular, from one specific branch: epidemiology. Nevertheless, since Bacon's empiricism (17th century) and, above all, since Comte's positivism (19th century), there had predominated until now (Piaget) a scientific current which was the enemy of philosophical thinking. In spite of the fact that it constituted, in itself, an epistemological position, being generalized also among biomedical scientists, there is in medicine at least disdain against the philosophy of science. Nevertheless, it is objectively indispensable. So, the present essay is presented in this sense, through the analytic characterization of the prototypic epistemologies and their relationships with medicine throughout history. PMID:9618998

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnoses. In addition, manufacturers are now making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce special views, a practice known as image fusion or co-registration. These views allow the information ...

  15. Rational use of medicines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holloway, K.; Dijk, L. van

    2011-01-01

    1. Irrational use of medicines is an extremely serious global problem that is wasteful and harmful. In developing and transitional countries, in primary care less than 40% of patients in the public sector and 30% of patients in the private sector are treated in accordance with standard treatment gui

  16. Personalized medicine and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    An entire series could be dedicated to the topic of ethics in personalized medicine. Due to the advancements in NGS and genetic testing, personalized medicine is no longer something that will occur in the future, the reality is upon us now. Sequencing an individual's genome can have a substantial impact on the patient's treatment and overall quality of life. However, this can open "Pandora's box" especially if an individual does not want to know the information obtained. In addition, will insurance companies require genetic testing in order to pay for a targeted treatment? If the patient refuses to have the genetic testing, will they have to pay for their treatment out of pocket? In the human interest story presented, the researcher and his team discovered over activity of the FTL3 protein through RNA sequencing which resulted in rapid proliferation of his leukemic cells. He identified a drug marketed for advanced kidney cancer which was a FTL3 inhibitor. However, his insurance company refused to pay for the drug because it was not a known treatment for his condition of ALL. He incurred numerous out of pocket expenses in order to go into remission. Was it unethical for the insurance company to not pay for a treatment that ultimately worked but was not marketed or FDA cleared for his type of leukemia? There are so many questions and concerns when personalized medicine is implemented. Only time will tell the effects next generation sequencing and its role in personalized medicine will have in the future. PMID:25219077

  17. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  18. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species. PMID:27279440

  19. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Monti

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press) and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.....

  20. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.....

  1. The medicine from behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, Van Tinde; Onselen, Van Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Purgative enemas form an integral part of African traditional medicine. Besides possible benefits, serious health risks of rectal herbal therapy have been described in literature. To design appropriate health education programs, it is essential to understand traditi

  2. Technology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C

    1985-05-22

    Technology, which is older than science, has been of vital importance in the development of modern medicine. Even so, there are voices of dissent to be heard. The disenchantment with technology expressed by Aldous Huxley in Brave new world has been echoed by contemporary writers on the technology of modern medicine. Medicine is seen by some to have been dehumanized by technology, and techniques that are expensive are thought to be consuming a greater proportion of health resources than they deserve. The practice of medicine has, nevertheless, been transformed by modern technology and diagnostic techniques and therapeutic measures undreamed of a few short decades ago are now commonplace. There is no reason why these developments should be any more dehumanizing than the use of similar techniques in modern transportation or communication, nor is their expense out of proportion when compared with other demands on the nation's purse. British workers have been at the forefront of many recent advances. Yet, even though the National Health Service provides a ready market for the products of British medical technology, the nation depends to an inordinate degree on imported products. In the development of appropriate medical technology there is an urgent need for better communication between inventors, scientists, industrialists and the National Health Service. At the same time there is an equal need for improved evaluation of untried techniques. The pressure for a central integrating body to coordinate resources could well be supported by the establishment of evaluation units in the different health authorities in this country. PMID:2862631

  3. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. PMID:27136524

  4. Perspectives for Globalized Natural Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas EFFERTH

    2011-01-01

    Natural medicines provide valuable resources to meet the requirements for global health care at affordable prices.Therefore, safety and efficacy need to be proven in a comparable manner to conventional drugs. Evidence-based natural and western medicine may merge to a "one-world medicine" for the sake of all patients in industrialized and developing countries. In the present review, we discuss strategies for(1)preservation of traditional knowledge on natural medicines,(2)sustainability of medicinal herbs and natural products, and(3)standardization and quality control. Novel technologies will impact research on natural medicines in the years to come, e.g. remote sensing to map medicinal plant locations, DNA barcoding for plant authentication, hollow fiber extraction,high-end techniques for chemo-profiling of plant constituents in medicinal products and blood serum of patients as well as systems biological approaches.

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  6. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... of self-treatment with medicinal plants, is however scarce. Thus, this thesis contributes to understanding the extent of traditional medicine use as well as why people use it in rural areas in developing countries. This is important for the formulation of inclusive health care policies which can address...... care and medicinal plants as well as in livelihoods and ethnicities of the populations. The three papers in this thesis address traditional medicine within the pluralistic medical fields of Nepal from different levels of analysis. The first paper consider the various treatment opportunities available...

  7. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ...

  8. Essential medicines: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world′s poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers.

  9. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo. ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ...

  10. Menopause: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Name Product Type Prometrium Micronized Progesterone Pill Provera Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Pill Progestin-Only Medicines Women who still have ... Patch Combipatch Estradiol/ Norethindrone Acetate Patch Femhrt Norethindrone ... Medroxyprogesterone Pill Combination Estrogen and Progestin Medicines Do not ...

  11. 高校学生药品知识与用药行为调查%A SURVEY ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOR OF MEDICINE USING AMONG THE STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚清; 胡凤君

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解高校学生用药知识与行为现状,为进行有针对性的健康教育提供依据. [方法]采用自行设计的问卷,抽取非医学类在校大学生对用药知识与用药行为状况进行调查. [结果]高校学生对药物的合理应用认识不足,用药知识正确率61.6%,不良用药行为率52.9%. [结论]在高校学生中必须加强药物基本知识教育,改变大学生的不良用药习惯,保证其身心健康.%[Objective] To understand the status of medication knowledge and behavior of students, for the purpose of providing targeted basis of health education. [Methods] The questionnaire was designed to investigate non-medical college students on medication knowledge and medication behavior. [ Results] College students lacked awareness of rational use of drugs, the correct rate of medication knowledge was 61.6%. The bad rate of drug taking behavior was 52.9%. [Conclusion] In college students, the basic knowledge of drug education must be strengthened to change the bad drug habin students to ensure their physical and mental health.

  12. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  13. Laboratory medicine education in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Bartlingas, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    In Lithuania there are two types of specialists working in medical laboratories and having a university degree: laboratory medicine physicians and medical biologists. Both types of specialists are officially being recognized and regulated by the Ministry of Health of Lithuania. Laboratory medicine physicians become specialists in laboratory medicine after an accredited 4-year multidisciplinary residency study program in Laboratory Medicine. The residency program curriculum for laboratory m...

  14. MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey Govind

    2011-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs) are now used for the prevention and...

  15. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  16. Energy Medicine for the Internist

    OpenAIRE

    Benor, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    Energy medicine includes a broad variety of complementary/ alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, such as acupuncture, kinesiology, and spiritual healing. The term "energy medicine" derives from the perceptions and beliefs of therapists and patients that there are subtle, biological energies that surround and permeate the body. Recent research is confirming that these therapies can be helpful in treating many problems for which conventional medicine may have no cures. Growing numbers of doctor...

  17. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. PMID:26900122

  18. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  19. Medicines to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it costs. Ask if they have a drug discount program that can help you pay less for your medicine. Buy your medicine from the pharmacy that gives you the cheapest price.  Sign up for patient assistance programs: Most companies that make medicines have programs that help people ...

  20. Medicines to Treat Migraine Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it costs. Ask if they have a drug discount program that can help you pay less for your medicine. Buy your medicine from the pharmacy that gives you the cheapest price.  Sign up for patient assistance programs: Most companies that make medicines have programs that help people ...

  1. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed.

  2. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists. PMID:25093888

  3. Interprofessional Integrative Medicine Training for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Virginia S; Thomas, Pauline A; Gould-Fogerite, Susan E; Passannante, Marian R; Mahon, Gwendolyn M

    2015-11-01

    Integrative medicine training was incorporated into the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Preventive Medicine residency at the Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences Newark Campus as a collaboration between the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School and the School of Health Related Professions. Beginning in 2012, an interdisciplinary faculty team organized an Integrative Medicine program in a Preventive Medicine residency that leveraged existing resources across Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences. The overarching aim of the programs was to introduce residents and faculty to the scope and practice of integrative medicine in the surrounding Newark community and explore evidence-based research on integrative medicine. The faculty team tapped into an interprofessional network of healthcare providers to organize rotations for the preventive medicine residents that reflected the unique nature of integrative medicine in the greater Newark area. Residents provided direct care as part of interdisciplinary teams at clinical affiliates and shadowed health professionals from diverse disciplines as they filled different roles in providing patient care. The residents also participated in research projects. A combination of formal and informal programs on integrative medicine topics was offered to residents and faculty. The Integrative Medicine program, which ran from 2013 through 2014, was successful in exposing residents and faculty to the unique nature of integrative medicine across professions in the community served by Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences.

  4. Resources of medicinal plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guan-Fu He

    1991-01-01

    Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.

  5. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Liu; Zhigang Jiang; Hongxia Fang; Chunwang Li; Aizi Mi; Jing Chen; Xiaowei Zhang; Shaopeng Cui; Daiqiang Chen; Xiaoge Ping; Feng Li; Chunlin Li; Songhua Tang; Zhenhua Luo; Yan Zeng

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior ar...

  6. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming. PMID:27289479

  7. Future of transplantation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Organ transplantation has become very successful method of treatment of end stage organ disease. However the waiting lists of patients aiming such treatment are exponentially growing due to insufficient organ supply. Prognosis of the future for transplantation medicine is truly difficult. Prospects from past years, that "soon induction of tolerance will become possible"(1975), wide xenogenic transplant utilization (in 2000), fetal brain cell transplantation to treat some neurologic disease and transplantation of isolated cells instead of whole organs (1998) proved wrong. The research in the nearest future will be focused on tolerance induction, inhibition of alloreaction in blood-group discordant transplants (in immunized patients) and xenografts. In parallel, studies on hybrid and totally artificial, implantable devices (artificial pancreas and liver) will be carried on. 21st century will belong to regeneration medicine, with therapeutic applications of stem cells.

  8. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  9. Complementary medicine for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Karen; Rampes, Hagen; Richardson, Janet

    2006-11-01

    Surveys have demonstrated that complementary medicine use for depression is widespread, although patterns of use vary. A series of systematic reviews provide a summary of the current evidence for acupuncture, aromatherapy and massage, homeopathy, meditation, reflexology, herbal medicine, yoga, and several dietary supplements and relaxation techniques. The quantity and quality of individual studies vary widely, but research interest in complementary therapies is increasing, particularly in herbal and nutritional products. Major questions are still to be answered with respect to the effectiveness and appropriate role of these therapies in the management of depression. Areas for further research and some of the potential challenges to research design are discussed. Finally, several ongoing developments in information provision on this topic are highlighted. PMID:17144787

  10. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  11. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  12. Future of palliative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Bhatnagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A ′need-supply′ and ′requirement-distribution mismatch′ along with a continuingneed explosion are the biggest hurdles faced by palliative medicine today. It is the need of the hour to provide an unbiased, equitable and evidence-based palliative care to those in need irrespective of the diagnosis, prognosis, social and economic status or geographical location. Palliative care as a fundamental human right, ensuring provision throughout the illness spectrum, global as well as region-specific capacity building, uniform availability of essential drugs at an affordable price, a multidisciplinary team approachand caregiver-support are some of the achievable goals for the future. This supplanted with a strong political commitment, professional dedication and ′public-private partnerships′ are necessaryto tackle the existing hurdles and the exponentially increasing future need. For effectively going ahead it is of utmost importance to integrate palliative medicine into medical education, healthcare system and societal framework.

  13. Prospects in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear medicine, a sequence of revolutioning research up to the simple and efficient application in routine has always then taken place when in an interdisciplinary teamwork new radiochemical tracers and/or new instrumentation had become available. At present we are at the beginning of a phase that means to be in-vivo-biochemistry, the targets of which are molecular interactions in the form of enzymatic reactions, ligand-receptor interactions or immunological reactions. The possibility to use positron-emitting radionuclides of bioelements in biomolecules or drugs to measure their distribution in the living organism by positron-emission tomography (PET) is gaining admittance into the pretentious themes of main directions of medical research. Diagnostic routine application of biochemically oriented nuclear medicine methods are predominantly expected from the transmission of knowledge in PET research to the larger appliable emission tomography with gamma-emitting tracers (SPECT). (author)

  14. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  15. Frontiers in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimenez, F; Luna-Jimenez, M A; Polanczyk, C A; Rohde, L E; Rivera-Moscoso, R; Reza-Albarran, A A; Macias-Hernandez, A E; Obrador, G T; Levey, A S; Mora, R

    1997-01-01

    Clinical research in Internal Medicine has provided many scientific advances during the past few years. However, the newly generated information overrides the time available to read all of the medical literature regarding advances in Internal Medicine. The goal of this review is to summarize some of the most relevant improvements in clinical practice published over the last few years. From Cardiology to Pulmonology, the authors of this review expose in a succinct way what they and many of their peers consider to be the most transcendental information gathered from thousands of publications. The authors of this review article have attempted to avoid sensationalism by including facts instead of just simply optimistic preliminary findings that can mislead clinicians' decision making. The review is focused on information obtained through well-designed, prospective clinical trials and cohorts where the effectiveness of medical interventions and diagnostic procedures were tested. PMID:9428570

  16. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  17. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  18. Wittgenstein, medicine and neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Silva, Guilherme Ghizoni; Munhoz, Renato P

    2011-08-01

    A historical review is presented of the link between Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered the most important philosopher of the 20th century, and medicine, particularly neurology and psychiatry. Wittgenstein worked as a porter at Guy's Hospital in London, and then as a technician at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle. He wrote about his important insights into language, and neuroscience. It has been suggested that he had Asperger syndrome and a possible movement disorder (mannerisms).

  19. Metabolomics in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical investigations on the regulatory mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) metabolism have fostered a century of advances in the field of transfusion medicine. Owing to these advances, storage of RBCs and PLT concentrates has become a lifesaving practice in clinical and military settings. There, however, remains room for improvement, especially with regard to the introduction of novel storage and/or rejuvenation solutions, alternative cell processing strategies (e.g., pathogen inactivation technologies), and quality testing (e.g., evaluation of novel containers with alternative plasticizers). Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and systems biology, the bioinformatics integration of omics data, promise to speed up the design and testing of innovative storage strategies developed to improve the quality, safety, and effectiveness of blood products. Here we review the currently available metabolomics technologies and briefly describe the routine workflow for transfusion medicine-relevant studies. The goal is to provide transfusion medicine experts with adequate tools to navigate through the otherwise overwhelming amount of metabolomics data burgeoning in the field during the past few years. Descriptive metabolomics data have represented the first step omics researchers have taken into the field of transfusion medicine. However, to up the ante, clinical and omics experts will need to merge their expertise to investigate correlative and mechanistic relationships among metabolic variables and transfusion-relevant variables, such as 24-hour in vivo recovery for transfused RBCs. Integration with systems biology models will potentially allow for in silico prediction of metabolic phenotypes, thus streamlining the design and testing of alternative storage strategies and/or solutions.

  20. Recombinant DNA in Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Fareed, George C.; Lovett, Michael A.; Shapiro, Larry J.

    1984-01-01

    Studies in bacteria and bacterial viruses have led to methods to manipulate and recombine DNA in unique and reproducible ways and to amplify these recombined molecules millions of times. Once properly identified, the recombinant DNA molecules can be used in various ways useful in medicine and human biology. There are many applications for recombinant DNA technology. Cloned complementary DNA has been used to produce various human proteins in microorganisms. Insulin and growth hormone have been...

  1. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D.; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five ma...

  2. Medicinal properties of macrofungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hilszczańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the importance to people of some types of wild fungi considered in the context of non-wood forest products. Macrofungi are used both for food and medicine proposes. Substances isolated from the higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms express promising immune modulating, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties. They have been, and are presently, used against cancer in some countries in Far East as well as in the United States of America...

  3. Training in oral medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewska, J M

    2001-01-01

    88 members of the UK specialty society of oral medicine were asked about career satisfaction and their views on training programmes. 70% responded (79% of consultants and all accredited trainees). Men work longer hours than women, report less control over their work and experience more stress. Although high work satisfaction is reported, nearly one-third regret their choice of specialty. Men more than women do locum work while training. Most respondents would welcome flexible training, job sh...

  4. Musik som medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2005-01-01

    Den første bog, der beskriver bredden inden for området MusikMedicin, starter helt ved begyndelsen, ved ”cellernes sang”, og går derefter videre til at berette om et utal af undersøgelser og teorier om, hvordan musik påvirker både foster og mor, planter og dyr, krop og følelser, immunsystem og...

  5. Medicine an evolving profession

    OpenAIRE

    Moyez Jiwa

    2013-01-01

    The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is als...

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  7. The profession of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Calman, K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of medicine is to serve the community by continually improving health, health care and the quality of life for the individual. Population health is improved by health promotion, prevention of illness, treatment and care and the effective use of resources, all within the context of a team approach. Thus doctors have three broad roles: to provide high quality care, to be concerned with regard to community needs and manage resources effectively.

  8. Emporiatrics: The Travellers Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sushma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Travel broadens the mind" and people have been extolling the merits of travel for a very long time .The general belief is that travel is good for travelers mentally and physically. But while travel can indeed be interesting and exciting, and good for mental and physical wellbeing, all too often it can be harmful to a traveler's health (1 .The increase in numbers of travellers and the speed at which they travel has not only had economic, cultural, and social repercussions, but medical, epidemiological, and medico-legal consequences as well. Travel medicine or Emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers (2. The art of travel medicine is selecting the necessary prevention strategy without unnecessary adverse events, cost or inconvenience" (3. Travel health advice is primarily aimed at prevention, and is therefore offered before travel. It includes steps taken before travel like Medical examinations and screening, Psychological preparation, Provision of a medical kit, First aid training, Preventive measures for prevention of thermal injury, Insure and plan for aeromedical evacuation and repatriation, Advice regarding accidents and related hazards, Special provisions for specific travel hazards and Protection against tropical diseases. There is also an aspect of travel health which is provided after return from travel, which is usually diagnostic (4,5. Giving adequate advice on travel health requires a good knowledge about local health hazards overseas, public health measures, and the effectiveness of immunization and prophylaxis. In summary, travel medicine will be established as an interdisciplinary special discipline in the next years and will be characterized by new risks and on the other hand by new methods of therapy and prophylaxis.

  9. Complementary medicine in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, P.; Ward, A.

    1994-01-01

    Complementary or unconventional treatments are used by many doctors and other therapists throughout Europe. The major forms are acupuncture, homoeopathy, manual therapy or manipulation, and phytotherapy or herbal medicine. The relative popularity of therapies differs between countries, but public demand is strong and growing. Regulation of practitioners varies widely: in most countries only registered health professionals may practice, but in the United Kingdom practice is virtually unregulat...

  10. BHASMA AND NANO MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh S. Kulkarni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Metals and Minerals are heavy, nonabsorbable and toxic substances. Metals are used as medicines in Ayurveda since from Samhita period in the fine powder form named as ‘Ayaskriti’1. Latter with the development of ‘Marana’ technique (7th Cent AD the Metals and Minerals are converted in to very very fine and absorbable, therapeutically most effective and least or Nontoxic form of Medicines known as ‘Bhasma’2. According to Ayurvedic concept the change in the qualities is due to ‘Samskara’ done through Shodhana, Bhavana, Putapaka procedures by which particle size of Metals and Minerals are reduced to finer and finer form of Bhasma.The Bhasma particles when analyzed microscopically through SEM and TEM fall under the range of Nanoparticles of contemporary science.Nano technology based on Nano science is the technology of 21st century due to its wide range of application in Medicines, Automobiles, Computers, Clothes, communications, cosmetics, sports goods etc. In nano science the materials of very small dimension in the range of 1 to 100nm are studied. When atleast one of the dimensions of any type of materials is reduced below 100nm it’s mechanical, thermal, optical, magnetic and other properties change at some size characteristic of that material. In this paper I have explained basic principle of change of properties of substances at their Nano level. The Mukta shukti bhasma & Swarna Bhasma when analysed through SEM they are in Nano particle size. Thus bhasma can be considered as Nano Medicine of Ayurveda. It is an attempt to understand and apply basics of Nanotechnology in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics.

  11. Wittgenstein, medicine and neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A historical review is presented of the link between Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered the most important philosopher of the 20th century, and medicine, particularly neurology and psychiatry. Wittgenstein worked as a porter at Guy's Hospital in London, and then as a technician at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle. He wrote about his important insights into language, and neuroscience. It has been suggested that he had Asperger syndrome and a possible movement disorder (mannerisms.

  12. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  13. Modern technologies in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    B.E. Shakhov; E.D. Bozhkova

    2009-01-01

    A development of practical public health in all the times wasn’t possible and full-blooded without a parallel development of medical science. The applied and scientific research constituents of medicine are mutually supplementing ones: the actual questions of clinical picture frequently initiate investigations in the corresponding direction; sometimes the scientific achievements permit to optimize the used methods or create the new ones of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the different...

  14. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  15. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  16. Personalized Medicine and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and more than 1.5 million new cases and more than 0.5 million deaths were reported during 2010 in the United States alone. Following completion of the sequencing of the human genome, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the human epigenome, proteome, and metabolome; a better understanding of pharmacogenomics has been developed, and the potential for customizing health care for the individual has grown tremendously. Recently, personalized medicine has mainly involved the systematic use of genetic or other information about an individual patient to select or optimize that patient’s preventative and therapeutic care. Molecular profiling in healthy and cancer patient samples may allow for a greater degree of personalized medicine than is currently available. Information about a patient’s proteinaceous, genetic, and metabolic profile could be used to tailor medical care to that individual’s needs. A key attribute of this medical model is the development of companion diagnostics, whereby molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations are used to provide a specific therapy for an individual’s condition by stratifying disease status, selecting the proper medication, and tailoring dosages to that patient’s specific needs. Additionally, such methods can be used to assess a patient’s risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative treatments. Recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives of personalized medicine in cancer are discussed.

  17. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion. PMID:25115059

  18. [Laboratory medicine in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J S

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory medicine and hospital central laboratory system were adopted in Taiwan after World War II. In medical schools, laboratory medicine or clinical pathology teaching is allocated to junior students. Three years of clinical pathology or four years of anatomical pathology training is required for pathology resident. Recent trend indicates that both the hospitals and the young doctors favor the five years combined C.P. (two-years) and A.P. (three years) training program. At present, 75 clinical pathologists and 213 anatomical pathologists are qualified. Approximately 70% of them work in medical centers and medical schools. Consequently, the medium and small size hospitals suffer from serious shortage of pathologist. Studies during the part 50 years indicate substantial difference in the improvement of laboratory medicine and central laboratory before and after 1975. Significant improvement in the working space, facility, equipment, staff, quality control and productivity was evident after 1975. The three health care policies contributing to the overall improvement are: 1. hospital accreditation project, 2. medical care network plan, and 3. medical specialist system.

  19. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  20. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  1. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  2. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice.

  3. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: maiavanel@yahoo.fr [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  4. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all

  5. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  6. Establishing a Professionalism Score in an Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T

    2016-02-01

    As osteopathic medical education shifts to competency-based learning, course curriculums must adapt to measure behavioral milestones in addition to traditional knowledge and technical skills. Of the core competencies, medical professionalism or lack thereof has been shown to correlate with future state disciplinary board action; therefore, early identification of poor professionalism and intervention is imperative. However, performance indicators, such as humanistic behavior and primacy of patient need, are difficult to measure in most first- and second-year medical school courses. Therefore, A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine developed a rubric to objectively measure professionalism within the first- and second-year osteopathic manipulative medicine curriculum. The rubric assesses such measures as timeliness and professional appearance. In the present article, the author describes the grading rubric and the methods for implementing a professionalism score within an osteopathic manipulative medicine curriculum. PMID:26830527

  7. 计划行为理论及其在医学中的研究应用%Study on the theory of planned behavior and its application in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉; 彭杨灵; 曲波; 刘洁; 张阳

    2015-01-01

    计划行为理论(theory of planned behavior,TPB)是在理性行为理论的基础上发展与延伸出来的一种社会认知理论.近来该理论广受社会行为研究者的青睐,已成功的在多个行为领域中应用.本文主要介绍计划行为理论的起源与发展、主要内容以及医学中的应用现状,并分析其应用前景.

  8. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes. SUPPL-507

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report lists: reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Contents include the following: Life sciences (general), aerospace medicine, behavioral sciences, man/system technology and life support, and exobioligy.

  9. A Novel Approach to Medicine Training for Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, John; Hales, Robert; McCarron, Robert; Han, Jaesu; Pitman, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A unique rotation was developed to address limited outpatient internal medicine training in psychiatric residency by the University of California, Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, which provides medical care to patients with mental illness. Methods: The number of patients seen by the service and the number of…

  10. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  11. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 474

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports, articles and other documents recently introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information database. Subject coverage includes: Aerospace medicine and psychology, life support systems and controlled environments, safety equipment, exobiology and extraterrestrial life and flightcrew behavior and performance.

  12. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  13. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Kafadar

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protect...

  14. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-en HUANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical field. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research.Evidence-based medicine (EBM refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and combination of the clinician’s professional skills and abundant clinical experience to consider the patients willing and value, consequently making the best diagnostic regimens for patients. Recently, some scholars have begun to question why the patients with the same diagnosis, course of disease and pathological condition have different efficacies and prognosis after treatment with the same drug. So far, an accurate answer cannot be given based on the research data of EBM to implement translational medicine. The concept of precision medicine is accepted gradually with the development of disease management model. In this study, practice and enlightenment of translational medicine, effect of EBM on translational medicine, EBM limitations as well as emergence and development trend of precision medicine were all reviewed in order to investigate the relationship among translational medicine, EBM and precision medicine.

  15. Relationship among Translational Medicine, Evidence-Based Medicine and Precision Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2016-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in international medical ifeld. It integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Based on people’s higher demand for medicine and health, appearance of translational medicine changes the mode of medical research. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to cautious and accurate application of the current best research evidence and combination of the clinician’s professional skills and abundant clinical experience to consider the patients willing and value, consequently making the best diagnostic regimens for patients. Recently, some scholars have begun to question why the patients with the same diagnosis, course of disease and pathological condition have different efifcacies and prognosis after treatment with the same drug. So far, an accurate answer cannot be given based on the research data of EBM to implement translational medicine. The concept of precision medicine is accepted gradually with the development of disease management model. In this study, practice and enlightenment of translational medicine, effect of EBM on translational medicine, EBM limitations as well as emergence and development trend of precision medicine were all reviewed in order to investigate the relationship among translational medicine, EBM and precision medicine.

  16. Is laboratory medicine ready for the era of personalized medicine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Mancini, Irene; Brandslund, Ivan;

    2015-01-01

    Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT). The answers of the participating laboratory medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that personalized medicine can represent a new and promising health model, and that laboratory medicine should play a key role in supporting...... the implementation of personalized medicine in the clinical setting. Participants think that the current organization of laboratory medicine needs additional/relevant implementations such as (i) new technological facilities in -omics; (ii) additional training for the current personnel focused on the new...... methodologies; (iii) incorporation in the laboratory of new competencies in data interpretation and counseling; and (iv) cooperation and collaboration among professionals of different disciplines to integrate information according to a personalized medicine approach....

  17. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  18. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Asa Auta; Simeon Omale; Nwamaka C. Anukam; Comfort N. Sariem.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs) clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use be...

  19. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Lima, Joao Jose [Servico de Biofisica/Biomatematica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-11-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in medicine for diagnosis, either in vivo or in vitro, for therapeutics and also for investigation purposes. Nuclear medicine (Nm) studies in vivo are used to detect minimal amounts of radiopharmaceuticals in organs (the morphology) and their course over time (the function), resulting from physico-chemical interactions of the tracers within the body, in the sequence of specific physiological processes. In vitro applications of radioisotopes have become a most important tool in biochemical analysis. Therapeutic uses of radioisotopes cover from external gamma-ray sources in teleradiotherapy to direct cell irradiation in metabolic therapy. The information, which is conveyed by NM, is essentially metabolic and differs from that supplied by the other imaging techniques, which is basically structural. This quality is important in early detection and diagnosis. Efforts have steadily been made to bring NM imaging as close as possible to an ideal medical diagnostic tool: non-invasive and allowing studies yielding functional, morphological, three-dimensional and quantitative information simultaneously. Of the two tomographic techniques available in NM, positron emission tomography (PET) is probably closer to this goal than single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). High-contrast functional images of the dynamics of labelled molecules (native or functionally similar) that are metabolized by the organs under investigation, are obtained with these techniques. Nuclear medicine has progressed as a result of advances in four strategic areas: the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the technology and reliability of detectors, the capacity for modelling the metabolic fate of the inputs in the biological systems, and finally the ability to extract and process data. (author)

  20. Magnetism in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing

  1. Integrative medicine, or not integrative medicine: that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taw, Malcolm B

    2015-11-01

    On September 26-27, 2015, the 8th European Congress for Integrative Medicine convened the Global Summit on Integrative Medicine and Healthcare in Greater Copenhagen and Helsingør, Denmark at the Culture Yard just across from Kronborg Castle, which is home to William Shakespeare's Hamlet. This article is a summary of the author's presentation about integrative medicine within the Nordic region, driving factors that determine value in healthcare, key tenets of integrative medicine that lead to healthcare cost savings and the potential for a Nordic healthcare renaissance. PMID:26559358

  2. The taste sensory evaluation of medicinal plants and Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Masumi; Tokuyama, Emi; Miyanaga, Yohko; Uchida, Takahiro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the artificial taste sensor in the evaluation of 11 medicinal plants and 10 Chinese medicines with bitter and/or astringent tastes, and to assess the possible application of the sensor in the evaluation of taste and quality control of medicinal products. Aqueous extracts of the six bitter medicinal plants could be classified into three types, and those of the five astringent medicinal plants into two types, on the basis of sensor output pattern profiles. These differences seem to derive from the different structures of the main components. In the principal component analysis of the taste sensor output of 10 Chinese medicines, a new measure developed, the 'Euclidean distance', defined as the distance between a control and the targeted substance on the principal component map. This measure offers a possibility for indicating the different tastes of Chinese medicines. Lastly, we confirmed that berberine adsorption on the surface of the artificial membrane of the taste sensor was of the Langmuir type. The berberine content in extracts of medicinal plants could be evaluated by the taste sensor, and it was shown to be possible to use the taste sensor for the quality control of medicinal plants.

  3. Role of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱平; 吕维柏; 吕青平

    2004-01-01

    @@ Complementary & alternative medicine (CAM) is getting more and more important in improving human health. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with her thousands of years history and contributions to the health of Chinese people, definitely is vital in CAM in China. Medical sciences including CAM and mainstream medicine, with unified specific aim, could be integrated and become integrative medicine. During the integration, TCM would contribute much more in the progress with her cultural background and clinical efficacy. This paper will discuss how TCM takes part in the inte gration via her function in clinical practice.

  4. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  5. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  6. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  7. Gender in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A broad range of socio-cultural issues have been recognized as determinants for health and disease. A notion of gender neutrality is still alive in the medical culture, suggesting that gender issues are not relevant within this field. Methods: We have explored the claim that doctors encounter...... are regarded as normal to the extent that female values disappear or need to be blatantly highlighted in order to be recognized. We have applied this frame of reference to understand how the idea of gender neutrality has been established in medicine. The average medical practitioner, teacher, or researcher...

  8. VLSI in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1989-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 17: VLSI in Medicine deals with the more important applications of VLSI in medical devices and instruments.This volume is comprised of 11 chapters. It begins with an article about medical electronics. The following three chapters cover diagnostic imaging, focusing on such medical devices as magnetic resonance imaging, neurometric analyzer, and ultrasound. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the impact of VLSI in cardiology. The electrocardiograph, implantable cardiac pacemaker, and the use of VLSI in Holter monitoring are detailed in these chapters. The

  9. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  10. Effective organizational control: implications for academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Michael S; Srinivasan, Malathi; Flamholtz, Eric

    2005-11-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding the nature, role, functioning, design, and effects of organizational oversight systems. Using a case study with elements recognizable to an academic audience, the authors explore how a dean of a fictitious School of Medicine might use organizational control structures to develop effective solutions to global disarray within the academic medical center. Organizational control systems are intended to help influence the behavior of people as members of a formal organization. They are necessary to motivate people toward organizational goals, to coordinate diverse efforts, and to provide feedback about problems. The authors present a model of control to make this process more visible within organizations. They explore the overlap among academic medical centers and large businesses-for instance, each is a billion-dollar enterprise with complex internal and external demands and multiple audiences. The authors identify and describe how to use the key components of an organization's control system: environment, culture, structure, and core control system. Elements of the core control system are identified, described, and explored. These closely articulating elements include planning, operations, measurement, evaluation, and feedback systems. Use of control portfolios is explored to achieve goal-outcome congruence. Additionally, the authors describe how the components of the control system can be used synergistically by academic leadership to create organizational change, congruent with larger organizational goals. The enterprise of medicine is quickly learning from the enterprise of business. Achieving goal-action congruence will better position academic medicine to meet its multiple missions.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Different Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi P; Parameswari CS

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the resource of new drug. Most of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. Medicinal plants are the important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. In developing countries, herbal medicines are considered to be readily available, accessible, affordab...

  12. Evolution and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a new field whose goal is to incorporate an evolutionary perspective into medical education, research, and practice. Evolutionary biologists and physicians have traditionally been concerned with different problems and have developed different ways of approaching and understanding biological phenomena. Evolutionary biologists analyze the properties of populations and the ways in which populations change over time, while physicians focus on the care of their individual patients. Evolutionists are concerned with the ultimate causes of biological phenomena, causes that operated during the phylogenetic history of a species, while physicians and biomedical scientists have been more interested in proximate causes, causes that operate during the ontogeny and life of an individual. Evolutionary medicine is based on the belief that an integration of these complementary views of biological phenomena will improve our understanding of health and disease. This essay reviews the theory of evolution by natural selection, as it was developed by Darwin and as it is now understood by evolutionary biologists. It emphasizes the importance of variation and selection, points out the differences between evolutionary fitness and health, and discusses some of the reasons why our evolutionary heritage has left us vulnerable to disease.

  13. Medicine an evolving profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is also changing with more women entering the workforce and a greater acceptance of parttime working arrangements. In some countries doctors have relinquished the responsibility for emergency out of hours care in general practice and personal continuity of care is no longer on offer. The profession is also challenged by policy makers’ enthusiasm for guidelines while the focus on multidisciplinary teamwork makes it more likely that patients will routinely be able to consult professionals other than medical practitioners. At the same time the internet has changed patient expectations so that health care providers will be expected to deploy information technology to satisfy patients. Medicine still has a great deal to offer. Information may be readily available on the internet, but it is not an independently sufficient, prerequisite for people to contend with the physical and psychological distress associated with disease and disability. We need to understand and promote the crucial role doctors play in society at a time of tremendous change in the attitudes to, and within, the profession.

  14. Esophagus and regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Londono; Blair A Jobe; Toshitaka Hoppo; Stephen F Badylak

    2012-01-01

    In addition to squamous cell carcinoma,the incidence of Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing worldwide.Unfortunately,the current standard of care for esophageal pathology involves resection of the affected tissue,sometimes involving radical esophagectomy.Without exception,these procedures are associated with a high morbidity,compromised quality of life,and unacceptable mortality rates.Regenerative medicine approaches to functional tissue replacement include the use of biological and synthetic scaffolds to promote tissue remodeling and growth.In the case of esophageal repair,extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds have proven to be effective for the reconstruction of small patch defects,anastomosis reinforcement,and the prevention of stricture formation after endomucosal resection (EMR).More so,esophageal cancer patients treated with ECM scaffolds have shown complete restoration of a normal,functional,and disease-free epithelium after EMR.These studies provide evidence that a regenerative medicine approach may enable aggressive resection of neoplastic tissue without the need for radical esophagectomy and its associated complications.

  15. Medicine an evolving profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez

    2013-01-01

    The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is also changing with more women entering the workforce and a greater acceptance of parttime working arrangements. In some countries doctors have relinquished the responsibility for emergency out of hours care in general practice and personal continuity of care is no longer on offer. The profession is also challenged by policy makers' enthusiasm for guidelines while the focus on multidisciplinary teamwork makes it more likely that patients will routinely be able to consult professionals other than medical practitioners. At the same time the internet has changed patient expectations so that health care providers will be expected to deploy information technology to satisfy patients. Medicine still has a great deal to offer. Information may be readily available on the internet, but it is not an independently sufficient, prerequisite for people to contend with the physical and psychological distress associated with disease and disability. We need to understand and promote the crucial role doctors play in society at a time of tremendous change in the attitudes to, and within, the profession. PMID:23671466

  16. Nanotechnology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Dwaine F; Thanos, Christopher G

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology, or systems/device manufacture at the molecular level, is a multidisciplinary scientific field undergoing explosive development. The genesis of nanotechnology can be traced to the promise of revolutionary advances across medicine, communications, genomics and robotics. On the surface, miniaturisation provides cost effective and more rapidly functioning mechanical, chemical and biological components. Less obvious though is the fact that nanometre sized objects also possess remarkable self-ordering and assembly behaviours under the control of forces quite different from macro objects. These unique behaviours are what make nanotechnology possible, and by increasing our understanding of these processes, new approaches to enhancing the quality of human life will surely be developed. A complete list of the potential applications of nanotechnology is too vast and diverse to discuss in detail, but without doubt one of the greatest values of nanotechnology will be in the development of new and effective medical treatments (i.e., nanomedicine). This review focuses on the potential of nanotechnology in medicine, including the development of nanoparticles for diagnostic and screening purposes, artificial receptors, DNA sequencing using nanopores, manufacture of unique drug delivery systems, gene therapy applications and the enablement of tissue engineering. PMID:12831370

  17. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task. PMID:26021823

  18. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  19. Nuclear medicine and AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its associated illnesses in a relatively young population of patients provides an expanding role for nuclear medicine. The disease enforces a review of each department's infection control procedures. It has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients presenting with diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma etc. which prior to the HIV epidemic were extremely rare. Thus in high risk patients the interpretation of abnormalities in nuclear medicine scans needs to include the spectrum of opportunistic infections and unusual tumours. The presence of opportunistic infections in the severely immunocompromised patient has led to the development of techniques not normally used, i.e. lung 99Tcm-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) transfer/clearance, donor leukocyte scanning to allow rapid diagnosis of an abnormality. Radionuclide techniques are also used to monitor the effect of therapy directed at the HIV itself or against opportunistic infections. This review covers aspects of infection control as well as the use of radionuclides to investigate specific problems related to HIV infection and therapy of the associated disease processes. (author)

  20. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  1. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  2. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  3. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  4. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  5. OAK GALLS: THE MEDICINAL BALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Imtiyaz; S Javed Ali; Mohd. Tariq,; Shahid S Chaudhary; Mohd Aslam

    2013-01-01

    From centuries ago man has been using herbs for medicinal purposes, in traditional system of medicine like Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine number of herbs and drugs of plant origin are found to be useful in curing of various ailments. Oak galls (Mazu) is an out growths formed on the young twigs of the dyer's oak, Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), as a result of the deposition of the eggs of the gall-wasp Adleria gallae-tinctoriae Olivier, this is used for medicinal purposes before escape of in...

  6. White paper of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims at proposing a synthetic presentation of nuclear medicine in France (definition, strengths and weaknesses, key figures about practices and the profession, stakes for years to come), a description of the corresponding education (speciality definition, abilities and responsibilities, diploma content, proposition by the European Society of Radiology and by the CNIPI, demography of the profession), and an overview of characteristics of nuclear medicine (radio-pharmacy, medical physics, paramedical personnel in nuclear medicine, hybrid imagery, therapy, relationships with industries of nuclear medicine, relationships with health authorities)

  7. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  8. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

  9. [Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

    2013-11-01

    The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions

  10. [Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

    2013-11-01

    The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions

  11. Computational Mathematics in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AI requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-
    Monotonic Logic, and so on [2]. Among the things that AI needs to represent are Categories, Objects, Properties, Relations between objects, Situations, States, Time, Events, Causes and effects, Knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in AI can be classified in two general types
    [3, 4], Search Problems and Representation Problem. There exist different ways to reach this objective. So, we have [3] Logics, Rules, Frames, Associative Nets, Scripts, and so on, many times interconnect. Also it will be very useful, in the treatment of the problems of uncertainty and causality, the introduction of Bayesian Networks and particularly, a principal tool as the Essential Graph. We attempt here to show the scope of application of such versatile methods, currently fundamental in Medicine.

  12. Exercise as medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. The effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis and symptoms are given and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. We have interpreted the scientific......); metabolic diseases (obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and claudication intermittent); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary......This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...

  13. [Valeology and biophysical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    We analysed the official statistical data about the morbidity in different Ukrainian regions, its copulas over is brought with the ecological features in the environmental contamination of age-old features of development pathologies, which result in the loss of capacity and country's depopylation. Cited data about the medicinally conditioned diseases and by-reactions after drugs introduction. The own material contains the clinical supervisions results after additional application the instrumental oroterapy procedure--the drived gas environment with lowered oxygen partial pressure in co-operating with the traditional treatment for the patients suffering with the child's cerebral paralysis. The positive instrumental oroterapy effects was shown on the motive functions state, electroencephalography dates, about the main brain complex activity from 53 childrens with pulsy. Drawn conclusion about the appropriateness of including the natural or instrumental oroterapy in the children's rehabilitation programs or for physiology regeneration in youth and adults. PMID:20799627

  14. Nuclear medicine in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfeld, B. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following main headings: crystal scintillation counting; liquid scintillation counting; activation analysis; the in vitro nuclear medicine laboratory; blood volume in clinical practice B/sub 12/ and folate deficiency; radionuclide studies associated with abnormalities of iron; basic principles of competitive radioassay; plasma cortisol; radioimmunoassays for T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/; radioimmunoassay of estrogens; determination of androgens in biological fluids; radioimmunoassay of digitalis glycosides; growth hormone; thyrotropin; gonadotropins; radioimmunoassay of gastrin; glucagon; radioisotopic measurements of insulin; radioimmunoassay of the calcium-regulating hormones; the renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone; tumor antigens; fat absorption; protein-losing enteropathy; Australia antigen; bacteriologic cultures and sensitivities; and future pathways. (ERB)

  15. Physics technologies in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Kreis, Roland; Wildermuth, Simon; Buck, Alfred; Von Schulthess, Gustav K

    2002-01-01

    Modern medicine is a large consumer of physics technologies. The series of lectures covers medical imaging starting with an overview and the history of medical imaging. Then follows four lectures covering x-ray imaging positron emission tomography imaging blood flow by ultrasound magnetic resonance 10 June 2002 100 Years of Medical Imaging Pr. Gustav K. von Schulthess MD, PhD, University of Zurich History and overview of Medical Imaging 11 June 2002 X-rays: still going strong Dr. Simon Wildermuth, MD, University Hospital Zurich Multidetector computed tomography: New developments and applications Since its introduction in 1992, spiral computed tomography (CT) scanners constructed with a single row of detectors have revolutionized imaging of thoracic and abdominal diseases. Current state-of-the-art models use up to 16 detectors and are capable of acquiring 16 contiguous slices of data with each gantry rotation; systems with 32 data acquisition units (and more) are currently in development. The principal advan...

  16. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  17. Race concepts in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  18. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81

  19. 临床医学专业学位硕士研究生临床指导教师有效带教行为的质性研究%Qualitative research on effective teaching behavior of clinical instructors for postgraduates of clinical medicine professional degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰刚; 杜敢琴; 焦丹丹; 穆恺; 高社干

    2015-01-01

    目的 明确临床医学专业学位硕士研究生临床指导教师的有效带教行为,为提高临床带教质量提供依据.方法 以半结构式访谈法采访了临床轮转中的13名研究生,同时收集了31名研究生临床轮转后的感想,就上述资料中与指导教师带教行为相关的描述进行了质性归纳性分析.结果 研究生指导教师有效带教行为包括:①信赖关系的建立,即和蔼可亲的态度、关心与照顾;②职业教师行为的展示,即知识技能的传授、争取体验机会、职业道德的传授、失败时的援助;③职业医师行为的展示,即认真负责的工作态度、关爱体贴的医疗行为、心平气和的沟通交流、精湛的医术、不断探索的学术态度.结论 指导教师实施有效带教行为,可以为研究生成长提供高品质的临床学习环境.有必要建立指导教师研修制度,以保障研究生培养水平.%Objective This study aims to define the effective teaching behavior of clinical teachers for postgraduates of clinical medicine professional degree, designed to provide the basis for improving the clinical teaching quality.Methods The 13 postgraduate students with clinical rotation had interviewed with semi-structured interviews, and thoughts of 31 students were collected.Data were analyzed using grounded theory approach.Results Three aspects of effective teaching behavior of clinical instructors for postgraduate students were concluded: ①the establishment of the trust relationship: amiable attitude, concern and care;②professional teachers behavior show: knowledge and skills delivery, the chance gain experience, ethics education, aid in case of failure;③occupational physician behavior show: serious working attitude, caring and considerate medical behavior, good communication, consummate medical skill, keep improving academic attitude.Conclusions Clinical instructors' effective teaching behaviors can provide high quality clinical learning

  20. Lasers in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Qian [Department of Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway); Chen Jiyao [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Svaasand, Lars O [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, O.S. Bragstads Plass 2A, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Warloe, Trond; Giercksky, Karl-Erik [Department of Surgical Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, University of Oslo, Montebello, 0310 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Qian.Peng@rr-research.no

    2008-05-15

    It is hard to imagine that a narrow, one-way, coherent, moving, amplified beam of light fired by excited atoms is powerful enough to slice through steel. In 1917, Albert Einstein speculated that under certain conditions atoms could absorb light and be stimulated to shed their borrowed energy. Charles Townes coined the term laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) in 1951. Theodore Maiman investigated the glare of a flash lamp in a rod of synthetic ruby, creating the first human-made laser in 1960. The laser involves exciting atoms and passing them through a medium such as crystal, gas or liquid. As the cascade of photon energy sweeps through the medium, bouncing off mirrors, it is reflected back and forth, and gains energy to produce a high wattage beam of light. Although lasers are today used by a large variety of professions, one of the most meaningful applications of laser technology has been through its use in medicine. Being faster and less invasive with a high precision, lasers have penetrated into most medical disciplines during the last half century including dermatology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, gastroenterology, urology, gynaecology, cardiology, neurosurgery and orthopaedics. In many ways the laser has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of a disease. As a surgical tool the laser is capable of three basic functions. When focused on a point it can cauterize deeply as it cuts, reducing the surgical trauma caused by a knife. It can vaporize the surface of a tissue. Or, through optical fibres, it can permit a doctor to see inside the body. Lasers have also become an indispensable tool in biological applications from high-resolution microscopy to subcellular nanosurgery. Indeed, medical lasers are a prime example of how the movement of an idea can truly change the medical world. This review will survey various applications of lasers in medicine including four major categories: types of lasers, laser

  1. Family Medicine's Waltz with Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Family Medicine first formally confronted systems thinking with the adoption of the biopsychosocial model for understanding disease in a holistic manner; this is a description of a natural system. More recently, Family Medicine has been consciously engaged in developing itself as a system for delivering health care, an artificial system. We make…

  2. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  3. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king. PMID:27172734

  4. Superior efficacy of new medicines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijn, J.C.F. van; Gribnau, F.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide an overview of and discuss newly authorised medicines with an improved efficacy. METHODS: This analysis focussed on new medicines with an improved efficacy based on the results of randomised active control trials. Information on comparative efficacy was obtained from the European

  5. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  6. Computational intelligence in tropical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The application of computational technology for medical purpose is a very interesting topic. Knowledge content development and new technology search using computational technology becomes the newest approach in medicine. With advanced computational technology, several omics sciences are available for clarification and prediction in medicine. The computational intelligence is an important application that should be mentioned. Here, the author details and discusses on computational intelligence...

  7. Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P Price

    2004-01-01

    @@ Whilst there have been several definitions of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), the one given by David Sackett is probably the most accurate and well accepted; he stated that "evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients"[1].

  8. [Nuclear medicine in Europe: education].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, D.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Franzius, C.; Krause, T.; Garai, I.; Biermann, M.; Gruning, T.; Leitha, T.; Gotthardt, M.

    2012-01-01

    The technical developments that have taken place in the preceding years (PET, hybrid imaging) have changed nuclear medicine. The future cooperation with radiologists will be challenging as well as positioning nuclear medicine in an European context. It can also be expected that education in nuclear

  9. The Promise of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dr. Zerhouni's own experiences and hopes for the future of medicine. Klose: What motivated you to become a doctor? ... does this new need for communication affect the future of health literacy? Dr. Zerhouni : We are in a revolutionary period of medicine that I call the four Ps: predictive, personalized, ...

  10. Applications of electrochemistry in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2013-01-01

    Medical Applications of Electrochemistry, a volume of the series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of modern science by indicating the many current issues in medicine that are susceptible to solution by electrochemical methods. This book also suggests how personalized medicine can develop.

  11. American College of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain Dates: 30 May – 03 Jun, 2017 Denver, Colorado » More Events This short video dramatically conveys the purpose and vision of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and features the essence, role and ...

  12. Comments on China's Tibetan Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jürgen C. Aschoff; ZHEN Yan; CAI Jing-feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the field of studies of Tibetan medicine, a voluminous work of 361 pages has been published on nearly all aspects in 2005.No other book or publication can provide such a tremendous amount of information on Tibetan medicine. It has its English edition and other Western language editions.

  13. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  14. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king.

  15. The Development of Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…

  16. 居民对营销活动的态度对购买医药保健产品的影响的研究%The effects of attitude to markting campaign on the purchasing behavior of medicine and health care products in residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那军; 李爽; 杨晓丽; 于丽娅; 张蕊; 刘莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:评估居民对营销活动的态度对其购买医药保健产品行为的影响。方法采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,对辽宁省11市2901名居民进行入户问卷调查。结果受访者中相信媒体广告、参加活动营销和购买医药保健产品的比例分别为11.74%、11.62和11.35%,城市居民、60岁以上老人和健康状况差的人购买产品的几率增加2-3倍,参加活动营销并相信广告的人(O R=25.44,95%CI=15.89-40.74)购买产品的几率大幅增加25倍。结论居民对医药保健产品两种主要的营销方式(广告营销和活动营销)的态度对其购买医药保健产品的影响很大,为避免居民购买到虚假产品医药保健品产品而损害身心健康,政府相关部门急需强化对此类宣传和推广活动的审批、监管和惩治力度,规范企业宣传推广行为。%Objective To describe the effect of the attitude to markting campaign on purchasing behavior of medicine and health care products among the residents in Liaoning province. Methods 2901 subjects were randomly selected from 11 cities (area under administration) by stratified multi-stage sampling method to inquire the attitude to health information from traditional media and care-seeking behavior.Results Among the interviewees,11.74 % trust the advertisement, 11.62% have joined in the business promotions,and 11.35% have bought these products(such as health care product,drug,medical device and so on),in the city residents,persons above 60 years older,people with bad physical condition was twice as likel y to buy the medicine and health care products relative to rural residents,persons under 59 years old,people good physical condition. People participated in the activmarketing and believe in advertisment significantl y increass 25 times more likely to purchase products.Conclusions To avoid that the resident has been cheat and hazarded,the relevant department of goverment should be badly in

  17. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  18. OAK GALLS: THE MEDICINAL BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Shaikh Imtiyaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From centuries ago man has been using herbs for medicinal purposes, in traditional system of medicine like Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine number of herbs and drugs of plant origin are found to be useful in curing of various ailments. Oak galls (Mazu is an out growths formed on the young twigs of the dyer's oak, Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae, as a result of the deposition of the eggs of the gall-wasp Adleria gallae-tinctoriae Olivier, this is used for medicinal purposes before escape of insects in dried form as described by classical Unani literature. Keeping in view of it this literature is reviewed about medicinal properties of Mazu described by ancient Unani scholars along with latest research on it this review paper is formulated and an attempt is made to correlate properties of Mazu with latest scientific research.

  19. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  20. Medicine as business and profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, G J

    1990-12-01

    This paper analyzes one dimension of the frequently alleged contradiction between treating medicine as a business and as a profession, namely the incompatibility between viewing the physician patient relationship in economic and moral terms. The paper explores the utilitarian foundations of economics and the deontological foundations of professional medical ethics as one source for the business/medicine conflict that influences beliefs about the proper understanding of the therapeutic relationship. It then, focuses on the contrast and distinction between medicine as business and profession by critically analyzing the classic economic view of the moral status of medicine articulated by Kenneth Arrow. The paper concludes with a discussion of some advantages associated with regarding medicine as a business.

  1. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  2. Access to palliative medicine training for Canadian family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneschuk, D; Bruera, E

    1998-01-01

    The authors conducted a nine-item mail questionnaire of the 16 Canadian family medicine teaching programme directors to determine the accessibility and operation of palliative care education for their respective family medicine residents. All 16 faculties of medicine responded (100%). The survey revealed that while all universities offer elective time in palliative care only five out of 16 (31%) have a mandatory rotation. The median durations of the mandatory and elective rotations are limited to two and three-and-a-half weeks, respectively. The majority of the universities offer formal lectures in palliative care (12/16, 75%) and educational reading material (13/16, 81%), with the main format in 14/16 (87%) of the sites being case-based learning. The two most common sites for teaching to occur for the residents are the community/outpatient environment and an acute palliative care unit. Fifty-six per cent (9/16) of the universities have designated faculty positions for palliative medicine with a median number of two positions per site. Only one centre offers a specific palliative medicine examination during the rotation. Feedback from the residents regarding their respective palliative medicine programmes were positive overall. Findings from our survey indicate an ongoing need for improved education in palliative medicine at the postgraduate level. PMID:9616456

  3. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  4. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies. PMID:19745007

  5. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  6. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  7. When you feel like changing your medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000616.htm When you feel like changing your medicine To use the sharing features on this page, ... well with your medicines. Common Reasons for Changing Medicine You may think about stopping or changing your ...

  8. Drawing medicine out of a vial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000530.htm Drawing medicine out of a vial To use the sharing ... a clean area. Wash your hands. Check Your Medicine Carefully check your medicine: Check the label. Make ...

  9. Depression--Medicines To Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Depression--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... medicines for depression. Important Warnings about Medicines for Depression Children and teens who take antidepressants may be ...

  10. What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your ... and teens. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialists Have? Pediatric sports medicine specialists are ...

  11. Medicines Prices and Malaysia-Untangling the Medicines Web

    OpenAIRE

    Zaheer Ud Din Babar; Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim; Harpal Singh; Nadeem Irfan Bukahri; Andrew Creese

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The World Health Organization has said that one-third of the people of the world cannot access the medicines they need. An important reason for this problem is that prices are often too high for people or government-funded health systems to afford. In developing countries, most people who need medicines have to pay for them out of their own pockets. Where the cost of drugs is covered by health systems, spending on medicines is a major part of the total healthcare ...

  12. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  13. A reappraisal of herbal medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah; Da-Costa-Rocha, Ines; Lawrence, M Jayne; Cable, Colin; Heinrich, Michael

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular, and encompasses a number of systems and therapies based on diverse theories and practices, such as homoeopathy, traditional herbalism, reiki, ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. While many are based on metaphysical concepts for which there is no sound evidence, for herbal medicines there is a rational, scientific basis and increasing clinical evidence. This article suggests herbal medicines should no longer be considered part of CAM, but instead sit alongside conventional medicines. PMID:23155905

  14. Strategic business planning for internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, F R

    1996-07-01

    The internal medicine generalist is at market risk with expansion of managed care. The cottage industry of Academic Departments of internal medicine should apply more business tools to the internal medicine business problem. A strength, weakness, opportunity, threat (SWOT) analysis demonstrates high vulnerability to the internal medicine generalist initiative. Recommitment to the professional values of internal medicine and enhanced focus on the master clinician as the competitive core competency of internal medicine will be necessary to retain image and market share.

  15. NON-BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Kadian Renu; Kaura Sushila

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our p...

  16. Pharmacogenetics: implementing personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, Enrico; Nobili, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have been widely recognized as fundamental steps toward personalized medicine. They deal with genetically determined variants in how individuals respond to drugs, and hold the promise to revolutionize drug therapy by tailoring it according to individual genotypes.The clinical need for novel approaches to improve drug therapy derives from the high rate of adverse reactions to drugs and their lack of efficacy in many individuals that may be predicted by pharmacogenetic testing.Significant advances in pharmacogenetic research have been made since inherited differences in response to drugs such as isoniazid and succinylcholine were explored in the 1950s. The clinical utility and applications of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are at present particularly evident in some therapeutic areas (anticancer, psycotrophic, and anticoagulant drugs).Recent evidence derived from several studies includes screening for thiopurine methyl transferase or uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 gene polymorphisms to prevent mercaptopurine and azathioprine or irinotecan induced myelosuppression, respectively. Also there is a large body of information concerning cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and their relationship to drug toxicity and response. Further examples include screening the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele to prevent the hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir and the assessment of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) expression for trastuzumab therapy of breast cancer or that of KRAS mutation status for cetuximab or panitumumab therapy in colorectal cancer.Moreover, the application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to therapies used in the treatment of osteoarticular diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis) holds great promise for tailoring therapy with clinically relevant drugs (e.g. disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, vitamin D, and estrogens). Although the classical candidate gene

  17. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  18. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies. PMID:24533810

  19. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  20. Conditions that influence the impact of malpractice litigation risk on physicians' behavior regarding patient safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Erik; Broekhuis, Manda; Ahaus, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Practicing safe behavior regarding patients is an intrinsic part of a physician's ethical and professional standards. Despite this, physicians practice behaviors that run counter to patient safety, including practicing defensive medicine, failing to report incidents, and hesitating to di

  1. Genomic and darwinian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic and darwinian medicine deal with the application of hereditary and evolutionary principles for the understanding of health and disease. The progress in molecular and bioinformatic knowledge is making possible through a holistic approach to biological phenomena and one aspect of it, host-pathogen coevolution, is discussed with examples of research performed by our group. The search for the etiology of genetic diseases can focus on simple traits with mendelian inheritance or in more complex multifactorial characteristics, as well as in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA genes. Also important is the investigation of genetically conditioned variation in response to drugs (pharmacogenomics and unorthodox environmental effects (epigenetics. Every day the genome of a given cell receives one million lesions which should be repaired. Defects in repair mechanisms can lead to diseases, one important category of them being neurological disorders. The association between intronic inversions which lead to severe hemophilia A and the prevalence of Factor VIII inhibitors in these patients was also considered using information obtained by the Porto Alegre group and those of colleagues living in other cities. The fi nal message emphasizes the need for an evolutionary approach to fully understand pathologic processes and their management.

  2. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  3. Family medicine in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemañy Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, the Cuban health system has been developing a roster of programs to ensure its social mission: to achieve a health status of the population consistent with the priority established by the highest authorities of the country. In response to the call of the Commander in Chief, Fidel Castro Ruz, to create a different doctor and a new specialist that would take into account the needs of the Cuban population; the family doctor model was implemented. Thus, in the decade of the eighties, the “Family Doctor and Nurse Working Program” was established, together with the corresponding polyclinic and hospital. At the same time, comprehensive general medicine as a medical specialty was created to serve the primary health care services. Both actions constituted a vital component in the development of Cuban public health services in recent decades. This article presents an account of the unique characteristics of these processes, while highlighting their impact on health indicators, as well as the participation of this specialty in the training of human resources for the health system.

  4. Future of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When it comes to setting up nuclear medicine in a developing country, there is a group of people, who feel that such high technology has no place in a developing country. RIA is likely to remain the method of choice for the research laboratory. The use of radioisotopic label has many advantages compared to the use of an enzyme marker. Generally, iodination is simpler than the preparation of an enzyme labelled substance, especially since there has been no agreement as to which enzyme is best for substances as small as steroids or a large as viruses. In addition, there may be some change in the configuration of the enzyme or the substance to be labelled during the conjugation procedure. Monoclonal antibodies can provide virtually unlimited amounts of homogenous antibodies against a specific antigenic site. The heterogeneous antibodies are more likely to provide more sensitive assays than the monoclonal antibodies, although assays employing the latter are likely to be more specific. The optimal choice of the antiserum may depend on whether sensitivity or specificity is required for the assays

  5. Laser in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser is used in medicine using its multiple effects. the interaction of the laser light with the biological tissue starts by absorbing that light. The absorbed photons, in the photochemical process, cause the destruction of the nocent cells. The choice lasers are used to correct myopia and astragmatism and to clear the obstructive artery. The photosensesor HPD is used in experimental treatment of different malignant tumors. Photodynamic treating has shown efficient in many types of cancer like that of lung, nose, throat and vesica. The method is used also in treating superficial tumors in skin . The Fluore scence property of some photosensesors and the auto fluorescence of some tissue pigments are used to detect some micro tumors. The illumination of tissue by pulsed laser for short duration is a new developed method in radiography, especially in mammography. The applications of laser are multiple in industry, such as uranium enrichment, thermonuclear fusion, are metal treatment. The effects of laser are not without risk. this is why exposure limits have been determined and the manufacturing or the use of these instruments are regulated by a group of parameters. (author). 22 refs. 5 figs

  6. NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is shrinking quantity wise, increasing quality wise at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level — at the nanoscale. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and treat and prevent diseases. NANOMEDICINE: Is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science. NANOBOTS: Smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots. NANOCOMPUTERS: To direct nanobots in their work, there are special computers. NANOTWEEZERS: devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes. NANOCHIP: Is an integrated circuit that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles

  7. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is increasingly prevalent in our society. There is a life-time risk that 1 in 3 Australian men and 1 in 4 Australian women will get cancer before the age of 75 years. Overall, 27% of the deaths in NSW are currently related to cancer. The common cancers for men are prostate, lung, melanoma, colon, rectum and bladder. For women the common cancers are breast, colon, melanoma, lung and unknown primary. However, overall lung cancer remains the major cause of cancer deaths (20%) followed by colorectal (13%), unknown site (8%), breast and prostate. Breast and lung cancer are the major causes of death in women. Recent information on 5 year survivals reveal good 5 year survival rates for breast (78.6%), prostate (72.4%) and melanoma (92%), while some tumours such as lung cancer (10.7%) have poor survival. Colon cancer has intermediate survival (57.1%). Projections for cancer incidence suggests rates of cancer will increase for colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer in females but decrease for breast, lung in males and prostate cancer. Major strategic directions in cancer research are understanding carcinogenesis, identification of high risk groups, screening and early detection, chemo-prevention, new cancer therapies, combined modality therapy and quality of life issues. Nuclear medicine will play an important part in many of these areas

  8. [The Essenes and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years.

  9. Ayurvedic medicine and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer L Pradhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal medicines has increased dramatically over the past few years. The United States alone noted a 380% increase in the consumption of these products. Although the common practice of taking over-the-counter herbal soups, herbal teas and other such prepacked preparations was not associated with adverse events at large, still, some herbs are known to cause problems, especially when large doses are taken. The American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA has taken a conservative stance and recommended that it is prudent to stop these products at least 2-3 weeks prior to anaesthesia and surgery. This advice may be difficult to implement as most preoperative evaluations occur only a few days prior to surgery. Some of the Ayurvedic preparations have shown to improve the patient outcome when taken during the perioperative period. Hence, the conservative stance by ASA may not always benefit the patient. More scientific studies are needed to have more targeted recommendations. This article puts forward the facts that need to be addressed by researchers in the future.

  10. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  11. Raising awareness about terror medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A

    2011-01-01

    Terror medicine, which is related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on the constellation of medical issues uniquely related to terrorist attacks. It ranges from recognizing features of biologic and chemical agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and sarin to the treatment of multi-injury victims of suicide bombings. Medical personnel will be involved in rescue, diagnosis, treatment and recovery from a terrorist attack. Dermatologists could play a central role in diagnosis and treatment in the event of a biologic or chemical attack. The more that individuals and institutions become familiar with the issues concerning terror medicine, the greater the protection they can provide themselves and others. PMID:21146738

  12. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Chen; Juan Dong; Xin Cui; Wei Wang; Afshan Yasmeen; Yun Deng; Xiaomao Zeng; Zhuo Tang

    2012-01-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well re...

  13. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use behaviour. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 to generate descriptive statistics which were represented in percentages. RESULTS: The results showed that majority of the respondents (91.7% visited the PMVs for self-medication with the common classes of medicines procured by PMVs clients including analgesics (38.4%, antimalarials (22.2% and nutrition/blood preparations (14.1%. About 78.5% of the medicines sold to PMVs clients were in their original package and only 45.9% of clients reported checking the expiry date of their procured medicine prior to use. Medication sharing behaviour was common (60.2% among respondents. Although most respondents (70.2% said they had read a medicine information leaflet in the past, majority of them depended on unreliable sources such as friends/relatives (23.2%, media (10.8% and the internet (9.9% for medicine information. CONCLUSION: The study therefore demonstrated that PMV clients are those on self-medication practices and medication sharing behaviour is high among them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 681-686

  14. Islamic medicine and evolutionary medicine: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The advent of evolutionary medicine in the last two decades has provided new insights into the causes of human disease and possible preventative strategies. One of the strengths of evolutionary medicine is that it follows a multi-disciplinary approach. Such an approach is vital to future biomedicine as it enables for the infiltration of new ideas. Although evolutionary medicine uses Darwinian evolution as a heuristic for understanding human beings' susceptibility to disease, this is not necessarily in conflict with Islamic medicine. It should be noted that current evolutionary theory was first expounded by various Muslim scientists such as al-Jāḥiẓ, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Ibn Maskawayh centuries before Darwin and Wallace. In this way, evolution should not be viewed as being totally antithetical to Islam. This article provides a comparative overview of Islamic medicine and Evolutionary medicine as well as drawing points of comparison between the two approaches which enables their possible future integration.

  15. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  16. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges. PMID:15886748

  17. Medicines to Treat Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other medicines, such as a diuretic or a beta blocker. Side effects. ACE inhibitors don’t usually cause ... and tell you exactly how to take it. Beta Blockers Beta blockers are a group of drugs that ...

  18. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh......%. The national screen-positive rate increased from 3.6% in 2008 to 4.7% in 2012. The national detection rate of trisomy 21 was reported to be between 82 and 90% in the 5-year period. CONCLUSION: A national fetal medicine database has been successfully established in Denmark. Results from the database have shown...

  19. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...... with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician......’s empiric knowledge in combination with a narrative approach to the patient permits the contribution from family medicine not only with regard to diagnosis and treatment, but also relating to actions targeted to optimize the patient’s future accommodation at work as well as to protect other similarly...

  20. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  2. Doctor of medicine profession (MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who was one of the greatest professors of medicine in modern history. He worked at McGill University in Canada, ... have recently been fueled by issues related to modern health care ... diagnosis, treatment, correction, advisement, or prescription ...

  3. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    ’s empiric knowledge in combination with a narrative approach to the patient permits the contribution from family medicine not only with regard to diagnosis and treatment, but also relating to actions targeted to optimize the patient’s future accommodation at work as well as to protect other similarly......In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...... with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician...

  4. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many of the products of enzymatic breakdown, or metabolites, are less chemically active than the original molecule. ... in this series: Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work Computation Aids Drug ...

  5. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer Other names for these ... inflammation, or cancer. Use of monoclonal antibodies in nuclear scans A special type of antibody made in ...

  6. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  7. Alternative medicine among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  8. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before abnormalities can be detected with other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures use small amounts of radioactive materials – called radiotracers – that are typically injected into the ...

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007134 Clinical study on "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. LUO Wenzheng(罗文政), et al. Coll Acupunct & Massage, Guangzhou TCM Univ, Guangzhou 510405. Chin J Integr Trad & West Med 2007;27(3):201-203. Objective To study the clinical effect of "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with generalized anxiety were randomly assigned to two groups equally. the medication group treated with anti-anxiety drugs and the acupuncture group with "Jin′s three-needling". The treatment course was 6 weeks. The clinical effects were evaluated with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), clinical global impression (CGI), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of 2nd, 4th, 6th week of the treatment course. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in platelet, and plasma levels of corticosterone (CS) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) method before and after treatment. Results The clinical effects in the two groups were equivalent, while the adverse reaction found in the acupuncture group was less than that in the medication group (P<0.05). The platelet concentration of 5-HT and plasma ACTH level decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with insignificant difference between the group (P<0.05). The plasma CS level had no obvious change in the two groups after treatment as compared with that before treatment.Conclusion "Jin′s three-needling" shows similar curative effect on generalized anxiety to routine Western medicine but with less adverse reaction, which may be realized through regulating the platelet 5-HT concentration and plasma ACTH level.

  10. Family Medicine: A Resident's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bipin

    2012-01-01

    Though family medicine has existed as a qualification for more than a decade in India, structured residency based training is a recent phenomenon. A growing number of young physicians are opting for this challenging and exciting new speciality as post graduate qualification through NBE (National Board of Examination) affiliated three year DNB (Diplomate of National Board) training program. MD family medicine is also in offing as Medical Council of India (MCI) has recently notified curriculum ...

  11. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  12. Complementary medicine in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    F. Atzeni; P Sarzi- Puttini; Lubrano, E

    2011-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for chronic conditions has increased in recent years. CAM is immensely popular for musculoskeletal conditions and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) frequently try CAM. This review summarises the trial data for or against CAM as a symptomatic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Collectively the evidence demonstrates that some CAM modalities show significant promise, e.g. acupuncture, diets, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, massag...

  13. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  14. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  15. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  16. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  17. Systems Medicine: Sketching the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Marc

    2016-01-01

    To understand the meaning of the term Systems Medicine and to distinguish it from seemingly related other expressions currently in use, such as precision, personalized, -omics, or big data medicine, its underlying history and development into present time needs to be highlighted. Having this development in mind, it becomes evident that Systems Medicine is a genuine concept as well as a novel way of tackling the manifold complexity that occurs in nowadays clinical medicine-and not just a rebranding of what has previously been done in the past. So looking back it seems clear to many in the field that Systems Medicine has its origin in an integrative method to unravel biocomplexity, namely, Systems Biology. Here scientist by now gained useful experience that is on the verge toward implementation in clinical research and practice.Systems Medicine and Systems Biology have the same underlying theoretical principle in systems-based thinking-a methodology to understand complexity that can be traced back to ancient Greece. During the last decade, however, and due to a rapid methodological development in the life sciences and computing/IT technologies, Systems Biology has evolved from a scientific concept into an independent discipline most competent to tackle key questions of biocomplexity-with the potential to transform medicine and how it will be practiced in the future. To understand this process in more detail, the following section will thus give a short summary of the foundation of systems-based thinking and the different developmental stages including systems theory, the development of modern Systems Biology, and its transition into clinical practice. These are the components to pave the way toward Systems Medicine. PMID:26677176

  18. Nuclear power in human medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public widely associate nuclear power with the megawatt dimensions of nuclear power plants in which nuclear power is released and used for electricity production. While this use of nuclear power for electricity generation is rejected by part of the population adopting the polemic attitude of ''opting out of nuclear,'' the application of nuclear power in medicine is generally accepted. The appreciative, positive term used in this case is nuclear medicine. Both areas, nuclear medicine and environmentally friendly nuclear electricity production, can be traced back to one common origin, i.e. the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech by U.S. President Eisenhower to the U.N. Plenary Assembly on December 8, 1953. The methods of examination and treatment in nuclear medicine are illustrated in a few examples from the perspective of a nuclear engineer. Nuclear medicine is a medical discipline dealing with the use of radionuclides in humans for medical purposes. This is based on 2 principles, namely that the human organism is unable to distinguish among different isotopes in metabolic processes, and the radioactive substances are employed in amounts so small that metabolic processes will not be influenced. As in classical medicine, the application of these principles serves two complementary purposes: diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  19. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozić, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  20. MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C, etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc., antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.

  1. Pharmacokinetics Applications of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Ju Li; Ai-Hua Zhang; Hui Sun; Xi-Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many oriental countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. It is a very complex mixture containing hundreds or thousands of different components. Pharmacokinetic study on active constituents in TCM preparations is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of TCM. In the drug discovery phases, pharmacokinetics is a key to guide medicinal chemists in the optimization process of a chemical series and to assist pharmacologists to design in vivo studies. To explore the potentially bioactive components in TCM, it is necessary to further study the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of multiple absorbed components and find out the optical time-course behavior to providing more substantial research for new leads in drug discovery. Pharmacokinetics screening method could provide a reliable means of prospecting natural products in the search for new leads in drug discovery. This review summarizes the research progress of PK on TCM in the search for suitable lead compounds in recent years.

  2. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines. PMID:27301588

  3. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  4. Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

  5. A second career in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D E

    1984-03-01

    Career changes in all vocations are relatively common in the forties age group due to a variety of factors which include a crisis period caused by polarities of Generativity versus Stagnation as conceptualized by Erik H. Erikson. Generativity is served not only by procreativity but also by guiding the next generation through teaching. The result can be the strength of Care. Stagnation can result in unhappiness, irrational and destructive behavior, or withdrawal. Concepts of young, old and mortality also come into focus. A successful career change from private practice to academic medicine depends upon a combination of power, opportunity, and character. To be successful, the change should be made for positive reasons and be based upon youthful concepts in the cold reality of the financial and intellectual challenges of a new and competitive career. If properly done, both the personal rewards and the contribution to future medical care can be quite positive. PMID:6706448

  6. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostinis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  7. Instruction to Authors of Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Herbal Medicines, an international journal sponsored by the Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Develop-ment. The Journal s purpose is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, traditional medicines, and natural products.

  8. Thinking and practice of accelerating transformation of traditional Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Yanhong; Hu, Jingqing; He, Liyun; Zhou, Xuezhong

    2011-06-01

    The gradual development of Chinese medicine is based on constant accumulation and summary of experience in clinical practice, but without the benefit of undergoing the experimental medicine stage. Although Chinese medicine has formed a systematic and unique theory system through thousands of years, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the bondage of the research methods of experience medicine to Chinese medicine is appearing. The rapid transition and transformation from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine have become important content in the development of Chinese medicine. According to the features of Chinese medicine, we propose the research idea of "taking two ways simultaneously," which is the study both in the ideal condition and in the real world. Analyzing and constructing the theoretical basis and methodology of clinical research in the real world, and building the stage for research technique is key to the effective clinical research of Chinese medicine. Only by gradually maturing and completing the clinical research methods of the real world could we realize "taking two ways simultaneously" and complementing each other, continuously produce scientific and reliable evidence of Chinese medicine, as well as transform and develop Chinese medicine from experience medicine to evidence-based medicine. PMID:21695621

  9. Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Roth, Alicia; Vatthauer, Karlyn; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-02-01

    Chronic insomnia (symptoms for ≥ 6 months) is the most common sleep disorder, affecting 6% to 10% of adults in the general population, with even higher rates in patients with comorbid conditions (eg, hypertension, 44%; cardiac disease, 44.1%; breathing problems, 41.5%). Traditionally, chronic insomnia occurring with another condition has been considered secondary and rarely received direct treatment because treatment of the primary condition was expected to improve the insomnia. However, this approach often failed because chronic insomnia is maintained by behaviors, cognitions, and associations that patients adopt as they attempt to cope with poor sleep but that end up backfiring (eg, increasing caffeine, spending more time in bed, trying harder to sleep). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTi) targets those behaviors, cognitions, and associations and is effective across a variety of populations, including those with medical and psychologic comorbidities. Thus, in 2005, a National Institutes of Health expert consensus panel on chronic insomnia recommended dropping the term "secondary insomnia" in favor of the term "comorbid insomnia." Because CBTi does not carry the risks associated with some sleep medications (eg, dependency, polypharmacy, cognitive and psychomotor impairment), it is an attractive option for patients with other conditions. Through the Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (www.behavioralsleep.org) and the American Board of Sleep Medicine (www.absm.org), it is possible to find practitioners with expertise in CBTi (as well as other aspects of behavioral sleep medicine) and other behavioral sleep resources. Given the currently limited number of trained practitioners, exploration of alternative delivery methods (eg, briefer protocols, self-help, Internet) to improve access to this highly effective treatment and expanded training in these treatments are warranted. PMID:23381322

  10. The role of psychoneuroimmunology in personalized and systems medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) may provide the scientific basis for personalized and systems medicine. The exploration of the extensive interactions among psychological and behavioral factors, the nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system may help understand the mechanisms underlying health, wellness, and diseases. PNI theories based on systems biology methodologies may contribute to the identification of patient patterns for establishing psychological and physiological profiles for personalized medicine. A biopsychosocial model will help elucidate the systemic interrelationships between psychosocial and bio-physiological factors for the development of systems medicine. Many evidences have supported the close relationships between stress, depression, inflammation, and disorders including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, skin diseases, infectious diseases, and sleep disorders. As inflammation is a critical connection among different diseases, the elucidation of the associations may contribute to the findings of systemic therapeutic targets. With the understanding of the translational implications of PNI, integrative interventions in multiple dimensions can be applied to modulate stress responses and promote healthier behaviors. These interventions include combination drug therapies, diets, nutritional supplements, meditation, and other behavioral and mind-body strategies.

  11. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  12. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Keihanidoust

    2006-01-01

    Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures) and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron d...

  13. Medicine as task--Karl E. Rothschuh's philosophy of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergenthaler, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Karl E. Rothschuh is one of the most important, but, on an international scale, relatively unknown representatives of German philosophy of medicine in the 20th century. This paper presents and discusses his central concepts systematically, especially those of anthropology, theories of health and disease. Rothschuh distinguishes two methodological approaches to anthropology: a causal analysis that considers human organism as complex causal systems, and a so-called bionomical investigation that clarifies the meaning or function of single processes in respect to the whole organism. These two perspectives complement each other. From a naturalistic point of view, Rothschuh conceptualises diseases as disorganisatorial or disbionomic processes; nevertheless, he stresses the cultural interweavement, and, hence, the normative foundation of diseases. 'Disease' is both a relational and a gradual term: It can be experienced and conceptualised subjectively by patients (aegritudo), clinically by physicians (nosos, pathos) and by society (insalubritas). Further, Rothschuh differentiates between the very definition, a notion and a concept of disease. Because of the normative character of disease, medicine cannot be a science striving for pure theoretical knowledge like physics or chemistry. Medicine is a practical science, oriented towards its goals of healing. Because of the societal position of medicine, Rothschuh describes it as task (Aufgabe). With regard to modern developments in philosophy of medicine, this paper discusses Rothschuh's theories critically and offers some starting points for necessary enhancements. PMID:15679017

  14. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  15. From Hippocrates to modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, C E

    2007-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first to introduce the concept of 'physis' and to transform hieratic or theocratic medicine into rational medicine. The overall construction of the Asclepieion on Kos clearly indicates that he and his school followed a holistic concept, combining scientific thought with drug therapy, diet schedules, and physical and mental exercise, also asking for God's help. Hippocrates also formulated the first standards and ethical rules to be followed in medical profession, which are still valid today. The knowledge of Graeco-Roman medicine has been transferred by Arab scholars into the West, whereas renaissance, urbanization, and industrialisation have changed its face over the centuries. With the entrance of molecular technology and economy, modern medicine now faces the risk of becoming itself industrialized. Correct use of new scientific knowledge, individualized management with a Hippocratic holistic approach and compassionate sympathy for the patient who suffers, should be considered in the years to come for maintaining the level of medical profession. The venue of our European Congress in Rhodes is very close to Kos, another historic Aegean island, the place where Hippocrates has given the first professional standards in European medicine and in medicine in general. They were established 2600 years ago and are still valid today.(1,2) If one draws a red line and marks some cornerstones of the evolution that has taken place in medicine over the past centuries, it is evident that these first rules formulated by Hippocrates and his school also reveal the future responsibilities for our profession and make them better recognizable and more conclusive. PMID:17567335

  16. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  17. Moral imperatives for academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J N

    1997-12-01

    As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.

  18. Unique aspect of Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakpa, Tenzing

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan medicine is known as the knowledge of healing in the Four Tantras, the main medical text studied by Tibetan doctors. In the 8th century, King Trisong Deutsen (718-785 CE) invited eminent physicians from India, China, Persia, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Nepal for the First International Medical Symposium in Samye, Tibet and ordered his personal physician Elder Yuthog Yonten Gonpo (708-833 CE), who lived 125 years, and participated in this conference to summarize. By combining all the information available and presented during this symposium, he compiled the Four Tantras. He established the Tanadug medical school at Menlung in Kongpo, Southern Tibet in 763 CE, and worked for the propagation of Tibetan medicine. He is considered an emanation of Medicine Buddha, who is a symbol of mental and physical well being. In his left hand, the Medicine Buddha clasps a begging bowl with long-life nectar, signifying immortality, and in his right, the Chebulic myrobalan (Haritaki), a symbol of good health. Chebulic myrobalan, Belleric myrobalan, and Emblic myrobalan are together called the "3 Fruits" and are common ingredients in Tibetan medicines. Prof. Omura, Y of NY Medical College evaluated these "3 Fruits" and found that one of them available as a "Haritaki," had the highest normal cell telomere increasing effect by optimal dose, with improvement of circulation all over the body, which in turn inhibits cancer activity. He considered Tibetan medicine to be the most advanced medicine in the world before the 19th Century with its well-organized systematic method as described by colorful Tibetan medical paintings by Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705 CE). During a typical diagnosis, the physician examines the patients' tongue, radial arteries for pulse beats by the index, middle, and ring fingers of both hands and the urine for features like color, vapor, and bubbles, etc. PMID:24909016

  19. Study of business ethics in occupational medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, R; Goodman, G; Harling, K; Beattie, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. METHOD: A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and of all regional specialty advisers and deputies from the Faculty of Occupational Medicine. ...

  20. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institution...

  1. Comprehensive ambulatory medicine training for categorical internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharel, Monica; Jain, Sharad; Hollander, Harry

    2003-04-01

    It is challenging to create an educational and satisfying experience in the outpatient setting. We developed a 3-year ambulatory curriculum that addresses the special needs of our categorical medicine residents with distinct learning objectives for each year of training and clinical experiences and didactic sessions to meet these goals. All PGY1 residents spend 1 month on a general medicine ambulatory care rotation. PGY2 residents spend 3 months on an ambulatory block focusing on 8 core medicine subspecialties. Third-year residents spend 2 months on an advanced ambulatory rotation. The curriculum was started in July 2000 and has been highly regarded by the house staff, with statistically significant improvements in the PGY2 and PGY3 evaluation scores. By enhancing outpatient clinical teaching and didactics with an emphasis on the specific needs of our residents, we have been able to reframe the thinking and attitudes of a group of inpatient-oriented residents. PMID:12709096

  2. [Alternative medicines and "Evidence-Based Medicine" a possible reconciliation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherweghem, J-L

    2015-09-01

    The contrast between the efficiency of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), a scientific fact, and the popularity of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) is a paradox of the art of healing. EBM is based on the paradigm of positivism and materialism while CAM are based on those of relativism and vitalism. These paradigms are diametrically opposed and the aim of an integrative medicine is aporetic. However, EBM is today in a dead end. The objective proof of a disease according to the rules of EBM is often lacking face to the expectations of patients demanding their illness to be taken into account. EBM and CAM have thus to coexist. Lessons can be drawn from CAM : patient expectations should be given a meaning and be integrated in his or her psychosocial context. PMID:26591330

  3. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo

    2012-12-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.

  4. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    OpenAIRE

    DelliFraine, Jami L.; Langabeer, James; King, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess academic emergency medicine (EM) chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI) training programs. Methods: A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior...

  5. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  6. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  7. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research.

  8. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  9. Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  10. THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristofer Alan Costa Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to poor understanding of the role of nuclear medicine in several disease treatments, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the main therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine as well as their characteristics and radiopharmaceuticals usage through scientific literature review. The main therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine are radio-immunotherapy with iodine-131, yttrium-90, lutetium-177 and copper-67, the radiosynovectomy with yttrium-90, rhenium-186 and gold-198 and pain palliation of osseous metastases with samarium-153, strontium-89 and phosphorus-32. The radioiodine therapy with iodine-131 stands out among therapies because it allows a highly selective treatment of thyroid associated with hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer with favorable dosimetry to healthy tissues and with great advantage to allow the ablation of disseminated lesions due to metastases, success not achieved by traditional radiotherapy. Thus, the therapeutic nuclear medicine is an alternative tool, and often essential for definitive treatment of various diseases considered incurable once. Thus, therapeutic nuclear medicine is an alternative and often essential tool for definitive treatment of various diseases considered once incurable.

  11. Pattern Classification in Kampo Medicine

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    S. Yakubo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan’s history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25–220 AD. The physician Todo Yoshimasu (1702–1773 emphasized that an appropriate treatment could be administered if a set of patterns could be identified. This principle is still referred to as “matching of pattern and formula” and is the basic concept underlying Kampo medicine today. In 1868, the Meiji restoration occurred, and the new government changed its policies to follow that of the European countries, adopting only Western medicine. Physicians trained in Western medicine played an important role in the revival of Kampo medicine, modernizing Kampo patterns to avoid confusion with Western biomedical terminology. In order to understand the Japanese version of traditional disorders and patterns, background information on the history of Kampo and its role in the current health care system in Japan is important. In this paper we overviewed the formation of Kampo patterns.

  12. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  13. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. PMID:25921562

  14. Conservation Medicine, Ecology of Diseases and Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Viviana Gómez Carrillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation Medicine, Ecology of Diseases and Veterinary Medicine are intertwined in investigative processes and provide solutions to problems affecting both human and animal health. On this issue, it is known that infectious diseases affect the welfare of humans and animals; in this regard, it has been found that 75 %  of zoonotic diseases have origins in wild animals and 60 % of infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic. The foregoing puts at risk human populations because of emerging and reemerging diseases; also it affects livestock production by reducing the quality and quantity of products and manages to disrupt wildlife populations by decimating the species, which can sometimes reach extinction.

  15. Neuroimaging, nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes radionuclide imaging as it related to neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD), idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), and normal aging, among the various diseases of the elderly. The role of neuroimaging with nuclear medicine is to detect changes in neural activities that are caused by these diseases. Such changes may be indirect phenomena, but the imaging of neural functions provides physicians with useful, objective information regarding pathophysiology in the brain. Brain activities change with age, with the elderly showing decreased brain function in memory, execution, and attention. Age-dependent reduction in the global mean of cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been reported in many studies that have used X-133 and O-15 labeled gas, the spatial resolution of which is low. Partial volume correction (PVC) is available through the segmentation of grey matter from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Meltzer reported that age-related change disappeared after PVC. The relative distribution of CBF and glucose metabolism has been examined on a voxel-by-voxel basis in many studies. The areas negatively correlated with age are the anterior part of the brain, especially the dorsolateral and medial frontal areas, anterior cingulate cortices, frontolateral and perisylvian cortices, and basal ganglia. The areas positively correlated with age are the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, sensorimotor cortex, and primary visual cortex. It is not easy to define ''normal aging''. Aged people tend to have the potential for diseases like cerebral ischemia caused by arteriosclerosis. Ischemia results in volume loss of the gray matter and CBF. The ApoE e4 gene is a risk factor for AD, and carriers of the ApoE e4 allel show CBF-like AD even at a relatively young age. Hypo-glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex is seen in 5% of normal people over 50 years of age. This Alzheimer-like CBF/metabolic pattern needs further

  16. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Junko Sato,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Katsuyoshi Torii,1 Mizuki Oka,2 Atsushi Negi,1 Hiroshi Tatsumi,3 Jin Narumoto,4 Toshi A Furukawa,5 Masaru Mimura21Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Department of Health Science, Faculty of Psychological and Physical Science, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya, 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 5Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan.Methods: Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4 participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI.Results: The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention.Conclusion: The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of

  17. Determining the Frequency of Defensive Medicine Among General Practitioners in Southeast Iran

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    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Defensive medicine prompts physicians not to admit high-risk patients who need intensive care. This phenomenon not only decreases the quality of healthcare services, but also wastes scarce health resources. Defensive medicine occurs in negative and positive forms. Hence, the present study aimed to determine frequency of positive and negative defensive medicine behaviors and their underlying factors among general practitioners in Southeast Iran. Methods The present cross-sectional study was performed among general practitioners in Southeast Iran. 423 subjects participated in the study on a census basis and a questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics through SPSS 20. Results The majority of participants were male (58.2%. The mean age of physicians was 40 ± 8.5. The frequency of positive and negative defensive medicine among general practitioners in Southeast Iran was 99.8% and 79.2% respectively. A significant relationship was observed between working experience, being informed of law suits against their colleagues, and committing defensive medicine behavior (P< 0.001. Conclusion The present study indicated high frequency of defensive medicine behavior in the Southeast Iran. So, it calls policy-makers special attention to improve the status quo.

  18. [Theoretical model for compatibility of medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316

  19. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance This study is the first to demonstrate the breadth and patterns of the medicinal applications of African palms. It sheds light on species with the potential to provide new therapeutic agents for use in biomedicine; and links the gap between traditional use of palms...... and pharmacological evaluation for the beneficial effects of palm products on human health. Last but not least, the study provides recommendations for the areas that should be targeted in future ethno-botanical surveys. Aim of the study The primary objective of this survey was to assemble all available ethno-medicinal...... data on African palms, and investigate patterns of palm uses in traditional medicine; and highlight possible under-investigated areas. Materials and methods References were found through bibliographic searches using several sources including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar and search engines...

  20. The future of general medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, John

    2014-08-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that there is a problem with general medicine. Physicians have become increasingly specialised over the past 30 years or so, and specialist care has produced increasingly better outcomes for some patients. The patients left behind are looked after by general medicine, where demand is increasing, operational priority within hospitals is low, there is little professional kudos and recruitment is suffering. Three recent reports - Hospitals on the Edge?, the Future Hospital Commission report, and the Shape of Training report - have described the problems, but not articulated compelling solutions. Here, I discuss what is good about general medicine, what is bad and make suggestions for improvement. These involve getting specialities to take responsibility for care of appropriate admissions automatically and without delay, giving general physicians control over the service that they provide, and using well-chosen financial drivers to support movement in the right direction.