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Sample records for behavioral inhibition bi

  1. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the…

  2. Bi-directional interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual sustained contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between homologous muscle representations in the right and left primary motor cortex was studied using a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocol known to evoke interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. The timecourse and magnitude of IHI was studied in fifteen healthy right-handed adults at several interstimulus intervals between the conditioning stimulus and test stimulus (6, 8, 10, 12, 30, 40, 50 ms. IHI was studied in the motor dominant to non-dominant direction and vice versa while the right or left hand was at rest, performing isometric contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle, and isometric contraction of the FDI muscle in the context of holding a pen. Results Compared with rest, IHI was reduced at all ISIs during contraction of either type (with or without the context of pen. IHI was reduced bi-directionally without evidence of hemispheric dominance. Further, contraction of the hand contralateral to the conditioning and test pulse yielded similar reductions in IHI. Conclusion These data provide evidence for bi-directional reduction of IHI during unimanual contractions. During unimanual, sustained contractions of the hand, the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices demonstrate reduced inhibition. The data suggest that unimanual movement decreases inhibition bi-directionally across motor hemispheres and offer one explanation for the observation of ipsilateral M1 activity during hand movements.

  3. The cognitive architecture of anxiety-like behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2017-01-01

    The combination of reward and potential threat is termed approach/avoidance conflict and elicits specific behaviors, including passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition (BI). Anxiety-relieving drugs reduce these behaviors, and a rich psychological literature has addressed how personality traits dominated by BI predispose for anxiety disorders. Yet, a formal understanding of the cognitive inference and planning processes underlying anxiety-like BI is lacking. Here, we present and empirically test such formalization in the terminology of reinforcement learning. We capitalize on a human computer game in which participants collect sequentially appearing monetary tokens while under threat of virtual "predation." First, we demonstrate that humans modulate BI according to experienced consequences. This suggests an instrumental implementation of BI generation rather than a Pavlovian mechanism that is agnostic about action outcomes. Second, an internal model that would make BI adaptive is expressed in an independent task that involves no threat. The existence of such internal model is a necessary condition to conclude that BI is under model-based control. These findings relate a plethora of human and nonhuman observations on BI to reinforcement learning theory, and crucially constrain the quest for its neural implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Aiqing; Guo Lijun; Liu Changsong; Jia Erguang; Zhu Zhengang

    2005-01-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480 - bar Cand another at about 830 - bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830 - bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids

  5. Internal friction behavior of liquid Bi-Sn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Aiqing [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Guo Lijun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu Changsong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Jia Erguang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu Zhengang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China)]. E-mail: zgzhu@issp.ac.cn

    2005-12-01

    Pure Bi and Sn and four Bi-Sn alloys distributed on the entire concentration range were selected for internal-friction investigation over a wide temperature range. There exist two peaks in the plots of internal friction versus temperature for liquid Sn, Bi-Sn60 and Bi-Sn90 alloys, one peak being located at about 480{sup -}bar Cand another at about 830{sup -}bar C. Only a single internal-friction peak at about 830{sup -}bar C occurs in liquid Bi-Sn43 (eutectic composition). No internal-friction peak appears in liquid Bi-Sn20 alloy and pure Bi. The height of the internal-friction peaks depends on the content of Sn. The present finding suggests that Sn-rich Bi-Sn alloys may inherit the internal-friction behaviors of pure Sn, whereas Bi-rich Bi-Sn alloy seems to be like pure Bi. The position of the internal-friction peaks is frequency dependent, which resembles the internal-friction feature in structure transition in solids.

  6. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: A Computer Avatar Task Designed to Assess Behavioral Inhibition Extends to Harm Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI, a temperamental tendency for avoidance in the face of unfamiliar situations, have been identified as risk factors for anxiety disorders. Personality factors are generally identified through self-report inventories. However, this tendency to avoid may affect the accuracy of these self-report inventories. Previously, a computer based task was developed in which the participant guides an on-screen “avatar” through a series of onscreen events; performance on the task could accurately predict participants’ BI, measured by a standard paper and pencil questionnaire (Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition, or AMBI. Here, we sought to replicate this finding as well as compare performance on the avatar task to another measure related to BI, the harm avoidance (HA scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. The TPQ includes HA scales as well as scales assessing reward dependence (RD, novelty seeking (NS and persistence. One hundred and one undergraduates voluntarily completed the avatar task and the paper and pencil inventories in a counter-balanced order. Scores on the avatar task were strongly correlated with BI assessed via the AMBI questionnaire, which replicates prior findings. Females exhibited higher HA scores than males, but did not differ on scores on the avatar task. There was a strong positive relationship between scores on the avatar task and HA scores. One aspect of HA, fear of uncertainty was found to moderately mediate the relationship between AMBI scores and avatar scores. NS had a strong negative relationship with scores on the avatar task, but there was no significant relationship between RD and scores on the avatar task. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the avatar task as a behavioral alternative to self-report measures to assess avoidance. In addition, the use of computer based behavioral tasks are a viable alternative to paper and pencil self

  7. Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of BI and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. However, we know relatively little about the cognitive processes that accompany BI and shape later socio-emotional functioning. We examined the relations among BI in childhood, attention biases to threat in adolescence, and adolescent social withdrawal in a longitudinal study (N = 126, Mean age = 15 years). As has been reported in anxious adults, adolescents who were behaviorally inhibited as toddlers and young children showed heightened attention bias to threat. In addition, attention bias to threat moderated the relation between childhood BI and adolescent social withdrawal.

  8. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  9. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externaliz...

  10. Behavioral inhibition and attentional control in adolescents : Robust relationships with anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sportel, B. Esther; Nauta, Maaike H.; de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with the development of internalizing disorders in children and adolescents. It has further been shown that attentional control (AC) is negatively associated with internalizing problems. The combination of high BI and low AC may particularly lead to

  11. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  12. Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Nhi; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically-based temperament characterized by vigilance toward threat. Over time, many children with BI increasingly fear social circumstances and display maladaptive social behavior. BI is also one of the strongest individual risk factors for developing social anxiety disorder. Although research has established a link between BI and anxiety, its causal mechanism remains unclear. Attention biases may underlie this relation. The current study examined neural markers of the BI-attention-anxiety link in children ages 9-12 years (N=99, Mean=9.97, SD=0.97). ERP measures were collected as children completed an attention-bias (dot-probe) task with neutral and angry faces. P2 and N2 amplitudes were associated with social anxiety and attention bias, respectively. Specifically, augmented P2 was related to decreased symptoms of social anxiety and moderated the relation between BI and social anxiety, suggesting that increasing attention mobilization may serve as a compensatory mechanism that attenuates social anxiety in individuals with high BI. The BI by N2 interaction found that larger N2 related to threat avoidance with increasing levels of BI, consistent with over-controlled socio-emotional functioning. Lastly, children without BI (BN) showed an augmented P1 to probes replacing angry faces, suggesting maintenance of attentional resources in threat-related contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  14. Infant attachment security and early childhood behavioral inhibition interact to predict adolescent social anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multimethod BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Serotonin Transporter Genotype Moderates the Link between Children's Reports of Overprotective Parenting and Their Behavioral Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie L.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Coles, Meredith E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine environmental and genetic correlates of children's levels of behavioral inhibition (BI). Participants were 100 mother child pairs drawn from the community who were part of a larger study of the intergenerational transmission of depression. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal overprotection,…

  16. The Influence of Culture and Adoption Status on the Development of Behavioral Inhibition, Anxiety, Temperament, and Parental Control

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Jennifer Yu

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that child behavioral phenotypes such as behavioral inhibition and aspects of parental control behavior may be shaped by culturally-informed socialization goals. Specifically, in accord with collectivistic values for interpersonal harmony and self-discipline, East Asian parents tend to support children's behavioral inhibition (BI; Chen & French, 2008) and utilize more parental control strategies such as encouragement of moderate emotional expressivity and restricti...

  17. Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E; Henderson, Heather A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Pine, Daniel S; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A

    2009-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence.

  18. Impact of Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Style on Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Early Childhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Perez-Edgar, Koraly E.; Henderson, Heather A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is characterized by a pattern of extreme social reticence, risk for internalizing behavior problems, and possible protection against externalizing behavior problems. Parenting style may also contribute to these associations between BI and behavior problems (BP). A sample of 113 children was assessed for BI in the laboratory at 14 and 24 months of age, self-report of maternal parenting style at 7 years of age, and maternal report of child internalizing and externalizing BP at 4, 7, and 15 years. Internalizing problems at age 4 were greatest among behaviorally inhibited children who also were exposed to permissive parenting. Furthermore, greater authoritative parenting was associated with less of an increase in internalizing behavior problems over time and greater authoritarian parenting was associated with a steeper decline in externalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of considering child and environmental factors in longitudinal patterns of BP across childhood and adolescence. PMID:19521761

  19. A bi-paratopic anti-EGFR nanobody efficiently inhibits solid tumour growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roovers, Rob C.; Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Laeremans, Toon; el Khoulati, Rachid; de Bruin, Renée C.G.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Verkleij, Arie J.; van Dongen, Guus A.M.S.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M. P.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be a valid cancer target for antibody-based therapy. At present, several anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been successfully used, among which cetuximab and matuzumab. X-ray crystallography data show that these antibodies bind to different epitopes on the ecto-domain of EGFR, providing a rationale for the combined use of these two antibody specificities. We have previously reported on the successful isolation of antagonistic anti-EGFR nanobodies. In the present study, we aimed to improve on these molecules by combining nanobodies with specificities similar to both cetuximab and matuzumab into a single bi-paratopic molecule. Carefully designed phage nanobody selections resulted in two sets of nanobodies that specifically blocked the binding of either matuzumab or of cetuximab to EGFR and that did not compete for each others binding. A combination of nanobodies from both epitope groups into the bi-paratopic nanobody CONAN-1 was shown to block EGFR activation more efficiently than monovalent or bivalent (monospecific) nanobodies. In addition, this bi-paratopic nanobody potently inhibited EGF-dependent cell proliferation. Importantly, in an in vivo model of athymic mice bearing A431 xenografts, CONAN-1 inhibited tumour outgrowth with an almost similar potency as the whole mAb cetuximab, despite the fact that CONAN-1 is devoid of an Fc portion that could mediate immune effector functions. Compared to therapy using bivalent, mono-specific nanobodies, CONAN-1 was clearly more potent in tumour growth inhibition. These results show that the rational design of bi-paratopic nanobody-based anti-cancer therapeutics may yield potent lead molecules for further development. PMID:21520037

  20. Selective mutism and temperament: the silence and behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensthaler, Angelika; Khalaf, Sally; Ligges, Marc; Kaess, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Schwenck, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a suspected precursor of selective mutism. However, investigations on early behavioral inhibition of children with selective mutism are lacking. Children aged 3-18 with lifetime selective mutism (n = 109), social phobia (n = 61), internalizing behavior (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 118) were assessed using the parent-rated Retrospective Infant Behavioral Inhibition (RIBI) questionnaire. Analyses showed that children with lifetime selective mutism and social phobia were more inhibited as infants and toddlers than children of the internalizing and healthy control groups, who displayed similar low levels of behavioral inhibition. Moreover, behavioral inhibition was higher in infants with lifetime selective mutism than in participants with social phobia according to the Total BI score (p = 0.012) and the Shyness subscale (p selective mutism. Results yield first evidence of the recently hypothesized temperamental origin of selective mutism. Children at risk should be screened for this debilitating child psychiatric condition.

  1. Behavioral inhibition in childhood predicts smaller hippocampal volume in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C E; Kunwar, P S; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Henin, A; Vangel, M G; Rauch, S L; Biederman, J; Rosenbaum, J F

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a genetically influenced behavioral profile seen in 15–20% of 2-year-old children. Children with BI are timid with people, objects and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, and are more reactive physiologically to these challenges as evidenced by higher heart rate, pupillary dilation, vocal cord tension and higher levels of cortisol. BI predisposes to the later development of anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Reduced hippocampal volumes have been observed in anxiety disorders, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Animal models have demonstrated that chronic stress can damage the hippocampal formation and implicated cortisol in these effects. We, therefore, hypothesized that the hippocampi of late adolescents who had been behaviorally inhibited as children would be smaller compared with those who had not been inhibited. Hippocampal volume was measured with high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging in 43 females and 40 males at 17 years of age who were determined to be BI+ or BI− based on behaviors observed in the laboratory as young children. BI in childhood predicted reduced hippocampal volumes in the adolescents who were offspring of parents with panic disorder, or panic disorder with comorbid major depression. We discuss genetic and environmental factors emanating from both child and parent that may explain these findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the most extensively studied form of temperamentally based human trait anxiety, BI, and hippocampal structure. The reduction in hippocampal volume, as reported by us, suggests a role for the hippocampus in human trait anxiety and anxiety disorder that warrants further investigation. PMID:26196438

  2. Explaining the Behavioral Intention towards BI Implementation in Public Administrations - A Principal-Agent Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jörg; Bergener, Philipp; Lis, Łukasz; Niehaves, Björn

    Business Intelligence (BI) is an established instrument to support public administrations in their management tasks by increasing their information level. BI is of special interest in the context of introducing accrual accounting in public administrations as this affects the information level of different stakeholders, leading to a possible decrease for municipal councils. The principal-agent theory can help to explain different behavioral intentions of the stakeholders concerning the introduction of BI. We employ a single qualitative case study to analyze these behavioral intentions. It shows that the introduction of accrual accounting did decrease the information level of the municipal council making the principal-agent problems possible. Furthermore, it shows that BI might be a solution for this problem. Therefore, council members show the behavioral intention to support the BI implementation while administration staff members rather resist it. Based on these finding, we discuss implications for practice and future research.

  3. Childhood history of behavioral inhibition and comorbidity status in 256 adults with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotge, Jean-Yves; Grabot, Denis; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pélissolo, Antoine; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean

    2011-03-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a heritable temperament, predisposes one to an increased risk of social phobia. Recent investigations have reported that BI may also be a precursor to anxiety as well as depressive and alcohol-related disorders, which are frequently comorbid with social phobia. In the present study, we explored the relationship between BI and psychiatric disorders in 256 adults with a primary diagnosis of social phobia. BI severity was retrospectively assessed with the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition (RSRI). The severity of social phobia and the presence of comorbid diagnoses were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, respectively. The RSRI score was significantly and positively correlated with both the LSAS score and the occurrence of a major depressive disorder. No significant association was found with other anxiety and substance-related disorders. The assessment of BI was retrospective and self-reported. A childhood history of BI was associated with an increased risk of depressive comorbidity in social phobia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of emotional facial expressions among behaviorally inhibited adolescents with lifetime anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Pollak, Seth D.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined differences in emotion expression identification between adolescents characterized with behavioral inhibition (BI) in childhood with and without a lifetime history of anxiety disorder. Participants were originally assessed for behavioral inhibition during toddlerhood and for social reticence during childhood. During adolescence, participants returned to the laboratory and completed a facial-emotion identification task and a clinical psychiatric interview. Results revealed that behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of anxiety disorder displayed a lower threshold for identifying fear relative to anger emotion expressions compared to non-anxious behaviorally inhibited adolescents and non-inhibited adolescents with or without anxiety. These findings were specific to behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of social anxiety disorder. Thus, adolescents with a history of both BI and anxiety, specifically social anxiety, are more likely to differ from other adolescents in their identification of fearful facial expressions. This offers further evidence that perturbations in the processing of emotional stimuli may underlie the etiology of anxiety disorders. PMID:24800906

  5. Influence of Element Substitution on Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of Bi2Te3-based compounds constituting the Peltier module, depending on the operating environment used. In the stage of disposal, Bi2Te3-based compounds may come into contact with water in waste disposal sites. There are very few publications about the influence of condensed water on Peltier modules. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudo binary system compounds are used as p-type material or n-type material, respectively. The lattice distortion will be induced in the crystal of Bi2Te3-based compounds by element substitution due to the reduction in their thermal conductivity. However, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds with practical compositions has been investigated. Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was prepared by the vertical Bridgman method. The electrochemical properties at room temperature were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrolyte was a naturally aerated 0.6 or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution. From the tendency for corrosion potential for all the samples, the corrosion sensitivity of ternary compounds was slightly higher than that of binary compounds. From the trend of current density, it was found that Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 had a corrosion resistance intermediate between Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. On the other hand, corrosion resistance was affected despite a small amount of Se substitution, and the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was close to or lower than that of Bi2Se3. From the observation results of the corrosion products, the trends of morphology and composition of corrosion products for Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 were consistent with those of Sb2Te3 or Bi2Se3, respectively. From the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the electrolyte after testing, the possibility that a

  6. Influence of Element Substitution on Corrosion Behavior of Bi2Te3-Based Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Hitoshi; Yagasaki, Takayoshi

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric water may condense on the surface of Bi2Te3-based compounds constituting the Peltier module, depending on the operating environment used. In the stage of disposal, Bi2Te3-based compounds may come into contact with water in waste disposal sites. There are very few publications about the influence of condensed water on Peltier modules. Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 or Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 pseudo binary system compounds are used as p-type material or n-type material, respectively. The lattice distortion will be induced in the crystal of Bi2Te3-based compounds by element substitution due to the reduction in their thermal conductivity. However, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds remains unclear. In this study, the influence of element substitution on the corrosion behavior of Bi2Te3-based compounds with practical compositions has been investigated. Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was prepared by the vertical Bridgman method. The electrochemical properties at room temperature were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrolyte was a naturally aerated 0.6 or 3.0 mass% NaCl solution. From the tendency for corrosion potential for all the samples, the corrosion sensitivity of ternary compounds was slightly higher than that of binary compounds. From the trend of current density, it was found that Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 had a corrosion resistance intermediate between Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. On the other hand, corrosion resistance was affected despite a small amount of Se substitution, and the corrosion resistance of Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 was close to or lower than that of Bi2Se3. From the observation results of the corrosion products, the trends of morphology and composition of corrosion products for Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 or Bi2Te2.85Se0.15 were consistent with those of Sb2Te3 or Bi2Se3, respectively. From the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the electrolyte after testing, the possibility that a

  7. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: The moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament identified in early childhood, is associated with social reticence in childhood and an increased risk for anxiety problems in adolescence and adulthood. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children remain reticent or develop an anxiety disorder. One possible mechanism accounting for the variability in the developmental trajectories of BI is a child’s ability to successfully recruit cognitive processes involved in the regulation of negative reactivity. However, separate cognitive processes may differentially moderate the association between BI and later anxiety problems. The goal of the current study was to examine how two cognitive processes - attention shifting and inhibitory control - laboratory assessed at 48 months of age moderated the association between 24-month BI and anxiety symptoms in the preschool years. Results revealed that high levels of attention shifting decreased the risk for anxiety symptoms in children with high levels of BI, whereas high levels of inhibitory control increased this risk for anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that different cognitive processes may influence relative levels of risk or adaptation depending upon a child’s temperamental reactivity. PMID:21301953

  8. Contextual startle responses moderate the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyson V; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Degnan, Kathryn A; Walker, Olga L; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament characterized in early childhood by wariness and avoidance of novelty, is a risk factor for anxiety disorders. An enhanced startle response has been observed in adolescents characterized with BI in childhood, particularly when they also manifest concurrent symptoms of anxiety. However, no prior study has examined relations among BI, startle responsivity, and anxiety in a prospective manner. Data for the present study were from a longitudinal study of infant temperament. Maternal reports and observations of BI were assessed at ages 2 and 3. At age 7, participants completed a startle procedure, while electromyography was collected, where participants viewed different colors on a screen that were associated with either the delivery of an aversive stimulus (i.e., puff of air to the larynx; threat cue) or the absence of the aversive stimulus (i.e., safety cue). Parental reports of child anxiety were collected when children were 7 and 9 years of age. Results revealed that startle responses at age 7 moderated the relation between early BI and 9-year anxiety. These findings provide insight into one potential mechanism that may place behaviorally inhibited children at risk for anxiety. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Photocatalytic and Magnetic Behaviors Observed in BiFeO3 Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type BiFeO3 nanofibers with wave nodes-like morphology were prepared by electrospinning. The nanofibers show a highly enhanced visible-light-active photocatalytic property. The results also showed that the diameter could affect the band gap and photocatalytic performances of nanofibers. Additionally, weak ferromagnetic behaviors can be observed at room temperature, which should be correlated to the size-confinement effect on the magnetic ordering of BiFeO3 structure.

  10. Understanding the behavior of buried Bi nanostructures from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hunter; Pantelides, Sokrates; Song, Jiaming; Hudak, Bethany; Lupini, Andrew; Snijders, Paul

    Bismuth dopants in silicon provide several advantages over other n-type options such as phosphorus for usage as quantum bits (qubits). Self-assembled Bi nanolines on Si (100) surfaces may provide a means of introducing these dopants with greater control over placement and with less damage to the host system than is possible using ion implantation. However, these structures have thus far only been observed in vacuum, limiting their usefulness for application. We examine Bi nanolines overgrown with amorphous Si using density functional theory, comparing our findings with observations from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in order to better understand the way in which the Si surface is influenced by both the Bi ad-dimers and the capping layer. We compare the thermodynamic stability of the generally accepted haiku defect core to the modified core that we observe and offer insight from total energy calculations into how the overgrowth process affects the nanolines. Supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02- 09ER46554 (VU) and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy (ORNL).

  11. Analysis of stress-strain behavior in Bi2223 composite tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M.; Osamura, K.; Nyilas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile test was carried out for Bi2223/Ag/Ag alloy composite tapes at RT, 77 and 7 K. Two yielding points are observed in the stress-strain curves. From the stress-strain behavior of the components and critical current (I c ) as a function of tensile strain, it was found that the microscopic reason for these yieldings is attributed to yielding of Ag alloy and fracture of Bi2223, respectively. The strain at the second yielding has temperature dependence and it becomes larger with decreasing measured temperature. From the thermo-mechanical analysis, it can be explained by temperature dependence of compressive residual strain of Bi2223. Reversible recovery of I c was found during loading-unloading test. The relationship between the reversible strain limit and the intrinsic strain of Bi2223 was discussed

  12. Quantum confinement of Bi2S3 in glass with magnetic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Panmand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The novel Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs glass nanosystems with unique magnetic properties have been investigated. The monodispersed QDs of size in the range of 3 to 15 nm were grown in the glass matrix. The optical study of these nanosystems clearly demonstrated the size quantization effect resulting in a pronounced band gap variation with QD size. The magnetic properties of the pristine glass and the Bi2S3 QD glass nanosystems were investigated by VSM and SQUID magnetometer. The pristine glass did not show any ferromagnetism while the Bi2S3 glass nanosystems showed significant and reproducible ferromagnetism. We also investigated the effect of the size of Bi2S3 QDs on the magnetic properties. The saturation magnetization for the 15 nm QD glass-nanosystem (124 memu/g was observed to be higher as compared to the 3nm QD glass nanosystem (58.2 memu/g. The SQUID measurement gave the excellent hysteresis up to 300K. Surprisingly, the bulk Bi2S3 powder is diamagnetic in nature but Bi2S3 quantum dots glass nanosystem showed the ferromagnetic behavior for the first time. The investigated novel QD glass-nanosystem may have a potential application in spintronic devices and most importantly, this nanosystem can be fabricated in any usable shape as per the device requirement.

  13. A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Troller-Renfree, Sonya V; Barker, Tyson V; Bowman, Lindsay C; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Kagan, Jerome; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed. This methodology isolated changes in error monitoring (error-related negativity) and behavior (post-error reaction time slowing) as a function of social context. At 12 years, current social anxiety symptoms and lifetime diagnoses of social anxiety were obtained. Childhood BI prospectively predicted social-specific error-related negativity increases and social anxiety symptoms in adolescence; these symptoms directly related to clinical diagnoses. Serial mediation analysis showed that social error-related negativity changes explained relations between BI and social anxiety symptoms (n = 107) and diagnosis (n = 92), but only insofar as social context also led to increased post-error reaction time slowing (a measure of error preoccupation); this model was not significantly related to generalized anxiety. Results extend prior work on socially induced changes in error monitoring and error preoccupation. These measures could index a neurobehavioral mechanism linking BI to adolescent social anxiety symptoms and diagnosis. This mechanism could relate more strongly to social than to generalized anxiety in the peri-adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior of 210Pb and 210Bi in soil-rice system and the effects of carrier-Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuding

    1993-01-01

    Chemical species of 210 Pb and 210 Bi in soil and rice were investigated using 210 Pb trace experiment. 79%-91% of 210 Pb in the soil was in available fraction. On the contrary, 80%-98% of 210 Bi was bound. The available 210 Pb in the soil was changed slowly into bound fraction, while the bound 210 Bi transformed gradually into available one. Much of 210 Pb and 210 Bi entered into rice were as inorganic free ions. The bound 210 Pb in rice was less than 1% and the bound 210 Bi was around 40%. The different adsorption affinities between 210 Pb and 210 Bi were demonstrated by the different behavior of them. The effect of carrier-Pb on adsorption of 210 Pb and 210 Bi was also discussed

  15. Corrosion behavior of as-cast binary Mg-Bi alloys in Hank's solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-li Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable Mg-xBi (x = 3, 6 and 9wt.% alloys were fabricated by ingot casting, and the change of corrosion behavior of the alloys in the Hank's solution was analyzed with respect to the microstructure using optical micrograph (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS, electrochemical and immersion tests. The results show that the microstructures of the as-cast Mg-Bi alloys mainly consisted of dendritic ?Mg grains and Mg3Bi2 phase in common, with the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS decreasing significantly from 41.2 靘 to 25.4 靘 and the fraction of Mg3Bi2 increasing from 3.1% to 10.7%. Furthermore, the corrosion rate increasing from 1.32 mm昦-1 to 8.07 mm昦-1 as the Bi content was increased from 3wt.% to 9wt.%. The reduced corrosion resistance was mainly ascribed to the increasing fraction of the second phase particles, which bring positive effects on the development of pitting.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of a shape memory Ni-Ti bi-layer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ivanisenko, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schwaiger, Ruth [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hahn, Horst; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-29

    Two different single-layers and a bi-layer Ni-Ti thin films with chemical compositions of Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5}, Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2}/Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} (numbers indicate at.%) determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were deposited on Si (111) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The structures, surface morphology and transformation temperatures of annealed thin films at 500 °C for 15 min and 1 h were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties. The DSC and X-ray diffraction results indicated the austenitic structure of the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and martensitic structure of the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} thin films while the bi-layer was composed of austenitic and martensitic thin films. TEM study revealed that copper encourages crystallization in the bi-layer such that crystal structure containing nano-precipitates in the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} layer was detected after 15 min annealing while the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} layer crystallized after 60 min at 500 °C. Furthermore, after annealing at 500 °C for 15 min, a precipitate free zone and thin layer amorphous were observed closely to the interface in the top layer. The bi-layer was completely crystallized at 500 °C for 1 h and the orientation of the Ni-rich precipitates indicated a stress gradient in the bi-layer. The bi-layer thin film showed different transformation temperatures and mechanical behavior from the single-layers. The developed bi-layer has different phase transformation temperatures, the higher temperatures of shape memory effect and lower temperature of pseudo-elastic behavior compared to the single-layers. Also, the bi-layer thin film exhibited a combined pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect with a reduced

  17. Thermal-induced structural transition and depolarization behavior in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BiAlO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Nie, Hengchang; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin

    2018-03-01

    The depolarization temperature Td determines the upper temperature limit for the application of piezoelectric materials. However, the origin of depolarization behavior for Bi-based materials still remains controversial and the mechanism is intricate for different (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-based systems. In this work, the structure and depolarization behavior of (1-x)(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBiAlO3 (BNT-BA, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.07) ceramics were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. It was found that as temperature increased, the induced long-range ferroelectric phase irreversibly transformed to the relaxor phase as evidenced by the temperature-dependent ferroelectric and dielectric properties, which corresponded to a gradual structural change from the rhombohedral to the pseudocubic phase. Therefore, the thermal depolarization behavior of BNT-BA ceramics was proposed to be directly related to the rhombohedral-pseudocubic transition. Furthermore, Td (obtained from thermally stimulated depolarization currents curves) was higher than the induced ferroelectric-relaxor phase transition temperature TFR (measured from dielectric curves). The phenomenon was quite different from other reported BNT-based systems, which may suggest the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs) within macrodomains prior to the detexturation of short-range ferroelectric domains with PNRs or nanodomains.

  18. Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: a five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Henin, Aude; Faraone, Stephen V; Davis, Stephanie; Harrington, Kara; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2007-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) to the unfamiliar represents the temperamental tendency to exhibit fearfulness, reticence, or restraint when faced with unfamiliar people or situations. It has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. In this prospective longitudinal study, we compared the psychiatric outcomes in middle childhood of children evaluated at preschool age for BI. The baseline sample consisted of 284 children ages 21 months to 6 years, including offspring at risk for anxiety (children of parents with panic disorder and/or major depression) and comparison offspring of parents without mood or major anxiety disorders. They had been assessed for BI using age-specific laboratory protocols. We reassessed 215 of the children (76.5%) at 5-year follow-up at a mean age of 9.6 years using structured diagnostic interviews. BI specifically predicted onset of social anxiety. The rate of lifetime social anxiety (DSM-IV social phobia or DSM-III-R avoidant disorder) was 28% versus 14% (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-5.10) in inhibited versus noninhibited children. BI significantly predicted new onset of social phobia among children unaffected at baseline (22.2% vs 8.0% in inhibited versus noninhibited children (OR = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.16-8.57). No other anxiety disorders were associated with BI. BI appears to be a temperamental antecedent to subsequent social anxiety in middle childhood. Children presenting with BI should be monitored for symptoms of social anxiety and may be good candidates for preventive cognitive behavioral strategies.

  19. Environment dependent enhanced photoluminescence and Boolean logic gates like behavior of Bi2O3 and Ag:Bi2O3 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, S.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2018-03-01

    In the evolution of nanotechnology research for smart and precise sensor fabrication, here we report the implementation of simple logic gate operations performing by luminescent nanostructures in biomolecule environment based on photoluminescence (PL) technique. This present work deals with the luminescence property of α-Bi2O3 and Ag modified α-Bi2O3 nanostructures for D-glucose and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) sensing applications. These nanostructures are prepared by simple co-precipitation method and their morphology are examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). We explore the PL characteristics of the prepared nanostructures and observe their change in PL intensity in the presence of D-glucose and BSA molecules. Enhancement in PL intensity is observed in the presence of D-glucose and BSA. Based on the PL response of prepared nanostructures in the biomolecule environment, we demonstrate biophotonic logic gates including YES, PASS 0, OR and INHIBIT gates.

  20. Shock compression behavior of bi-material powder composites with disparate melting temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Swift, Damian; Barham, Matthew; Stölken, James; Kuntz, Joshua; Kumar, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Laser driven experiments were used to investigate the shock compression behavior of powder processed Bismuth/Tungsten (Bi/W) composite samples. The constituents provide different functionality to the composite behavior as Bi could be shock melted at the pressures attained in this work, while the W could not. Samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing, and the relative density was measured as a function of particle size, applied pressure, and composition for both hot and cold pressing conditions. This resulted in sample densities between 73% and 99% of the theoretical maximum density, and also noticeable differences in microstructure in the hot and cold pressed samples. The compression waves were generated with a 1.3 × 1.3 mm square spot directly onto the surface of the sample, using irradiances between 10 12 and 10 13  W/cm 2 , which resulted in calculated peak pressures between 50 and 150 GPa within a few micrometers. Sample recovery and post-mortem analysis revealed the formation of a crater on the laser drive surface, and the depth of this crater corresponded to the depth to which the Bi had been melted. The melt depth was found to be primarily a function of residual porosity and composition, and ranged from 167 to 528 μm. In general, a higher porosity led to a larger melt depth. Direct numerical simulations were performed, and indicated that the observed increase in melt depth for low-porosity samples could be largely attributed to increased heating associated with work done for pore collapse. However, the relative scaling was sensitive to composition, with low volume fraction Bi samples exhibiting a much stronger dependence on porosity than high Bi content samples. Select samples were repeated using an Al foil ablator, but there were no noticeable differences ensuring that the observed melting was indeed pressure-driven and was not a result of direct laser heating. The resultant microstructures and damage near the spall surface were also investigated

  1. Potential barrier behavior in BiCuVOX materials Comportamento da barreira de potencial em materiais BiCuVOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gheno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The BiMeVOX materials appear being high attractive for applications at low temperatures when the ionic conductivity is the determining parameter. The occurrence of many types substitution was confirmed for numerous Me ions, but the greatest interest have been focused on the BiCuVOX materials. The objective of this study was to image the potential barriers in BiCuVOX. The sample was sintered for 4 h at 750 °C and the results show that the high density compound can be obtained. Simultaneously, topography and electric force microscopy (EFM images are viewed side-by-side. EFM experiments were performed and the results show the maps of the electric field distribution on the surface of BiCuVOX. The formation of potential barrier was observed and the width and intensity were measured.Materiais do tipo BiMeVOX são muito atrativos para aplicações em baixas temperaturas quando a condutividade iônica for o parâmetro determinante. A ocorrência de muitos tipos de substituições foi confirmada para numerosos íons Me, dentre os quais, existe um grande interesse no estudo de materiais BiCuVOX. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar o imageamento das barreiras de potencial em uma amostra de material BiCuVOX. A amostra foi sinterizada 4 h a 750 °C e apresentou alta densidade. Imagens da superfície topográfica e de microscopia de força elétrica (EFM foram obtidas simultaneamente em um microscópio de varredura por sonda. Os experimentos EFM mostraram um mapa da distribuição do campo elétrico na superfície do material BiCuVOx. A formação da barreira de potencial foi observada e tanto a largura quanto a altura foram medidas.

  2. Electrochemical Behavior of La on Liquid Bi electrode in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Kyu; Han, Hwa Jeong; Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Pyroprocessing technology aims to achieve a grouped and efficiently separation of all actinide for recycling with a sufficient decontamination of fission products generating the minimum. The main steps of the pyroprocess is electrowinning process, where the remaining elements in a molten salt after electrorifinning process. That process is U, MAs are concurrently recovered at the liquid metal. Recently, a study of the liquid metal and molten salt using an electrochemical is carried out in a variety of fields. However, there is deficient information about the electrode reaction of lanthanide and actinide on the liquid bismuth metal electrodes. In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of La(III), with liquid bismuth was investigated by the electrochemical method. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of lanthanum or neodymium among lanthanides in molten LiCl-KCl salt at liquid metal bismuth electrode cyclic voltammetry and derive the thermochemical properties. The electrochemical behavior of La was studied in LiCl-KCl-LaCl{sub 3} molten salts using electrochemical techniques Cyclic Voltammetry on liquid Bi electrodes at 773K. During the process of cyclic voltammetry electrolysis, intermetallic compound were observed of La, Lax-Biy, Li-Bi. The diffusion coefficient of La was measured by cyclic voltemmetry and was found to be 8.18x10{sup -5}cm{sup 2}/s.

  3. Adrenergic manipulation inhibits pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Kyle Z; Han, Marina; Unal, Cagla; Meyer, Paul J

    2018-02-26

    Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well. Thus, in order to investigate the influence of norepinephrine in Pavlovian conditioned approach, we administered three adrenergic drugs while rats learned that a food cue (an illuminated, retractable lever) preceded the delivery of banana-flavored food pellets into a food-cup. We found that pre-session injections of disulfiram (a dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor) inhibited the development of sign-tracking, but goal-tracking was only affected at the high dose. In one experiment, post-session injections of disulfiram blocked the development of sign-tracking, although this effect was not replicated in a separate set of rats. Post-session injections of prazosin (an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) also blocked the development of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking. Taken together, these results suggest that adrenergic transmission mediates the acquisition of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking, and thus plays a selective role in the attribution of incentive salience food cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical basis of oxygen pressure control in liquid Pb-Bi using YSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. H.; Hwang, I. S.; Park, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    To develop a liquid Pb-Bi cooled reactor, it is necessary to solve the structural material corrosion problem caused by Pb-Bi. This experiment examine the fundamental behaviors to practically test the oxide film formation on the surface of structural material known as solution of corrosion inhibition in liquid Pb-Bi. The corrosion inhibition through oxide film formation is to prevent metals from dissolving into liquid Pb-Bi though not forming coolants slug resulted from oxidation. In this paper, we examined the oxygen pressure controllability using YSZ in cover gas, and theoretically derived the relationship between oxygen cover gas pressure and dissolved oxygen in liquid Pb-Bi

  5. Corrosion inhibition behavior of Ketosulfone for Zinc in acidic medium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of Ketosulfone for zinc is investigated by polarization and AC-impedance techniques at 303-333K. The Tafel plots indicates that the Ketosulfone is a mixed type inhibitor. The interaction between metal and inhibitor is explained by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. DG0ads andDH0ads value ...

  6. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  7. Enhanced eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited individuals is disrupted by proactive interference following US alone pre-exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from CS or US alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012. US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent CR acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al., (2012 reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI. Sixty six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible learned helplessness. Applications of these findings of

  8. Deep Roots? Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Sensitivity and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, Daniel; Hatak, Isabella; Rauch, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest a link between disinhibition and entrepreneurship. Separately, psychology literature has theorized and empirically shown that the roots of disinhibition can largely be traced to two psychophysiological systems – the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and

  9. Effect of Bi-content on hardness and micro-creep behavior of Sn-3.5Ag rapidly solidified alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, M. [Metal Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Gouda, El Said [Metal Physics Laboratory, Department of Solid State Physics, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Marei, L.K. [Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    In the present paper, the influence of 1, 3, 5 and 10 % Bi (weight %) as ternary additions on structure, melting and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag alloy has been investigated. The effect of Bi was discussed based on the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the alloys of Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.5Ag-1Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-3Bi are composed of two phases; Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC embedded in Sn matrix phase, which indicated that the solubility of Bi phase in Sn-matrix was extended to 3 % as a result of rapid solidification. Bi precipitation in Sn matrix was only observed in Sn-3.5Ag-5Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-10Bi alloys. Also, addition of Bi decreased continuously the melting point of the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag alloy to 202.6 C at 10 % Bi. Vickers hardness of Sn-3.5Ag rapidly solidified alloy increased with increasing Bi content up to 3 % due to supersaturated solid solution strengthening hardening mechanism of Bi phase in Sn matrix, while the alloys contain 5 and 10 % Bi exhibited lower values of Vickers hardness. The lower values can be attributed to the precipitation of Bi as a secondary phase which may form strained regions due to the embrittlement of Bi atom. In addition, the effect of Bi addition on the micro-creep behavior of Sn-3.5Ag alloy as well as the creep rate have been described and has been calculated at room temperature. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Subtype-specific, bi-component inhibition of SK channels by low internal pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Torben; Jespersen, Thomas; Jorgensen, Nanna K

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low intracellular pH (pH(i) 6.4) on cloned small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel currents of all three subtypes (SK1, SK2, and SK3) were investigated in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique. In 400 nM internal Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, all subtypes were inhibited by pH(i) 6...

  11. High-temperature abnormal behavior of resistivities for Bi-In melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yun; Zu Fangqiu; Li Xianfen; Yu Jin; Liu Lanjun; Li Qiang; Chen Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of electrical resistivities versus temperature in large temperature range have been studied, using the D.C. four-probe method, for liquid Bi-In alloys (Bi-In(33 wt%), Bi-In(38 wt%), Bi-In(50.5 wt%), Bi-In(66 wt%)). The clear turning point of each resistivity-temperature curves of the liquid Bi-In alloys is observed at the temperature much above the melting point, in which temperature range the resistivity-temperature coefficient increases rapidly. Except for the turning temperature range, the resistivities of Bi-In alloys increase linearly with temperature. Because resistivity is sensitive to the structure, this experiment shows the structural transition in Bi-In melts at the temperature much higher than the liquidus. And it is suggested that there are different Bi-In short-range orderings in different Bi-In melts, so the resistivity-temperature curves have the turns at different temperatures and the resistivity-temperature coefficients are also different

  12. Creep Behavior of a Sn-Ag-Bi Pb-Free Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianco, Paul; Rejent, Jerome; Grazier, Mark; Kilgo, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Compression creep tests were performed on the ternary 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Bi) Pb-free alloy. The test temperatures were: −25 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C, 125 °C, and 160 °C (± 0.5 °C). Four loads were used at the two lowest temperatures and five at the higher temperatures. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated condition or after having been subjected to one of two air aging conditions: 24 hours at either 125 °C or 150 °C. The strain-time curves exhibited frequent occurrences of negative creep and small-scale fluctuations, particularly at the slower strain rates, that were indicative of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) activity. The source of tertiary creep behavior at faster strain rates was likely to also be DRX rather than a damage accumulation mechanism. Overall, the strain-time curves did not display a consistent trend that could be directly attributed to the aging condition. The sinh law equation satisfactorily represented the minimum strain rate as a function of stress and temperature so as to investigate the deformation rate kinetics: dε/dtmin = Asinhn (ασ) exp (−ΔH/RT). The values of α, n, and ΔH were in the following ranges (±95% confidence interval): α, 0.010–0.015 (±0.005 1/MPa); n, 2.2–3.1 (±0.5); and ΔH, 54–66 (±8 kJ/mol). The rate kinetics analysis indicated that short-circuit diffusion was a contributing mechanism to dislocation motion during creep. The rate kinetics analysis also determined that a minimum creep rate trend could not be developed between the as-fabricated versus aged conditions. This study showed that the elevated temperature aging treatments introduced multiple changes to the Sn-Ag-Bi microstructure that did not result in a simple loss (“softening”) of its mechanical strength.

  13. Physiological markers of motor inhibition during human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Greenhouse, Ian; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies in humans have shown that many behaviors engage processes that suppress excitability within the corticospinal tract. Inhibition of the motor output pathway has been extensively studied in the context of action stopping, where a planned movement needs to be abruptly aborted. Recent TMS work has also revealed markers of motor inhibition during the preparation of movement. Here, we review the evidence for motor inhibition during action stopping and action preparation, focusing on studies that have used TMS to monitor changes in the excitability of the corticospinal pathway. We discuss how these physiological results have motivated theoretical models of how the brain selects actions, regulates movement initiation and execution, and switches from one state to another. PMID:28341235

  14. Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), Behavioral activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia : Relationship with psychopathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Marion R. M.; van Honk, Jack; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been conceptualized as two neural motivational systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment (BIS) and reward (BAS). Imbalance in BIS and BAS levels has been reported to be related to various forms of

  15. Influence of PbBi environment on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of SNS target container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkhof, D.; Grosse, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the stainless steel 316L and the 10.5Cr-steel Manet-II was investigated at 260 deg. C in air and in stagnant lead-bismuth (PbBi). At low-strain levels, the fatigue lives for 316L in PbBi and air were comparable. At total strain amplitudes of 0.50% and higher a weak influence of PbBi was observed. In contrast to 316L, the results of LCF tests for Manet-II in PbBi showed a significant reduction of lifetime for all applied strain amplitudes. In the worst case the cycle number to crack initiation was reduced by a factor of ∼7 compared with the comparable test in air. For the low-strain amplitude of 0.30%, fatigue tests conducted at a frequency of 0.1 Hz had shorter fatigue lives than at a frequency of 1.0 Hz. For Manet-II the crack propagation in PbBi was much faster than in air, and failure immediate followed the formation of the first macroscopic crack

  16. Bi-magnetic microwires: a novel family of materials with controlled magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirota, K.R.; Provencio, M.; Garcia, K.L.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Vazquez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique involving combined sputtering and electroplating procedures has been recently developed to deposit metallic (magnetic or not) nano and microlayer tubes onto glass-coated amorphous magnetic microwires to enable the tailoring of their magnetic behavior. Here, after introducing the general aspects of that technique, we present the latest results on a new family of two-phase magnetic samples: bi-magnetic multilayer microwires. They consist of a magnetically soft nucleus (typically a Fe or Co base amorphous microwire, coated by Pyrex layer) onto which a 30 nm thick Au layer is first sputtered followed by the electroplating of a harder microlayer, namely Co x Ni (1- x ) layer, with x controlled by the current density during electrodeposition whose micrometric thickness is also controlled by plating time. The hysteresis loops present a two-step reversal process typical of two-phase magnetic material. The magnetization reversal of the soft nucleus and the harder layer takes place at around 1 Oe and up to about 200 Oe, respectively. The presence of sputtered and electroplated layers induces significant stresses in the soft magnetic nucleus that modify its magnetization easy axis. This technique allowing us the tailoring of the magnetic behavior of multilayer magnetic microwires opens new possibilities for applying these novel materials as sensing elements in various devices

  17. Semiconductor- to metallic-like behavior in Bi thin films on KCl substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Thanh Nhan; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Bi thin films, with a thickness of 100 nm, are deposited by electron-beam evaporation on a freshly cleaved (100) KCl substrate. The substrate temperature during film growth (T_d_e_p) ranges from room temperature up to 170 °C. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit a maze-like microstructure typical of the rhombohedral (110) texture, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. For T_d_e_p above 80 °C, a different microstructure appears, characterized by concentric triangular shapes corresponding to the trigonal (111) texture. Temperature dependence of the resistivity shows a transition from a semiconductor-like behavior for films deposited at room temperature to a metallic-like behavior for T_d_e_p above 80 °C. From magnetoresistance measurements between room temperature and 1.6 K, we extract the electron and hole mobilities, concentrations, and mean free paths, which allow to draw a complete picture of the transport properties of both types of films.

  18. Aspirin and salicylate bind to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and inhibit its ATPase activity in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W G; Ruan, K H; Du, M; Saunders, M A; Wu, K K

    2001-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous signaling molecule of plants, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic actions in human. Its derivative, aspirin, is the most commonly used anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug. Aspirin and sodium salicylate (salicylates) have been reported to have multiple pharmacological actions. However, it is unclear whether they bind to a cellular protein. Here, we report for the first time the purification from human fibroblasts of a approximately 78 kDa salicylate binding protein with sequence identity to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP). The Kd values of SA binding to crude extract and to recombinant BiP were 45.2 and 54.6 microM, respectively. BiP is a chaperone protein containing a polypeptide binding site recognizing specific heptapeptide sequence and an ATP binding site. A heptapeptide with the specific sequence displaced SA binding in a concentration-dependent manner whereas a control heptapeptide did not. Salicylates inhibited ATPase activity stimulated by this specific heptapeptide but did not block ATP binding or induce BiP expression. These results indicate that salicylates bind specifically to the polypeptide binding site of BiP in human cells that may interfere with folding and transport of proteins important in inflammation.

  19. The role of bismuth on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of ternary Mg–1.2Ca–xBi alloys for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tok, H.Y.; Hamzah, E., E-mail: Esah@fkm.utm.my; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Secondary phases have a significant effect on corrosion properties of the alloys. • Microstructure of Mg–Ca–xBi was refined significantly after Bi addition. • Addition of 0.5 wt.% Bi to Mg–Ca alloy leads to increase corrosion resistance. • Microstructure analysis showed needle-shaped precipitates at the grain boundaries. - Abstract: In this study the influence of various Bi additions on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Mg–1.2Ca–xBi alloys (x = 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, 12 wt.%) were evaluated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy, immersion and electrochemical tests. Microstructural observations showed that the refinement efficiency became more pronounced with increased Bi amount. Microstructural results of Mg–1.2Ca–xBi (x = 0.5, 1.5, and 3) indicated that the formation of three distinct phases—namely α-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}. However, further addition of Bi to 5 and 12 wt.% leads to evolution of α-Mg, Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}Ca phases. The addition of Bi up to 0.5 wt.% enhanced corrosion resistance while further addition from 1.5 to 12 wt.% accelerated the degradation rate because of the emergence of more galvanic coupling between the α-Mg phases and secondary phases. The analyses showed that the Mg–1.2Ca–0.5Bi alloy gives the best corrosion resistance behavior, which makes it ideal for biodegradable medical applications.

  20. Liquid-liquid phase separation and solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy with different cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lin; Wu, Di; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    The cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification behavior and microstructure of monotectic alloy. In this study, different cooling rate was designed through casting in the copper mold with different bore diameters. The effects of different cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 (at.%) immiscible alloy have been investigated. The liquid-liquid phase separation of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy melt was investigated by resistivity test. The solidification microstructure and phase analysis of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy were performed by the SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in the solidification of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic melt from 917 °C to 653 °C. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscibility zone of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was lower than those of Al-Bi binary monotectic alloy. The solidification morphology of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was very sensitive to the cooling rate. The Al/Bi core-shell structure formed when Al55Bi36Cu9 melt was cast in the copper mold with a 8 mm bore diameter.

  1. Ferroelectric domain switching dynamics and memristive behaviors in BiFeO3-based magnetoelectric heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weichuan; Liu, Yukuai; Luo, Zhen; Hou, Chuangming; Zhao, Wenbo; Yin, Yuewei; Li, Xiaoguang

    2018-06-01

    The ferroelectric domain reversal dynamics and the corresponding resistance switching as well as the memristive behaviors in epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO, ~150 nm) based multiferroic heterojunctions were systematically investigated. The ferroelectric domain reversal dynamics could be described by the nucleation-limited-switching model with the Lorentzian distribution of logarithmic domain-switching times. By engineering the domain states, multi and even continuously tunable resistances states, i.e. memristive states, could be non-volatilely achieved. The resistance switching speed can be as fast as 30 ns in the BFO-based multiferroic heterojunctions with a write voltage of ~20 V. By reducing the thickness of BFO, the La0.6Sr0.4MnO3/BFO (~5 nm)/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ) shows an even a quicker switching speed (20 ns) with a much lower operation voltage (~4 V). Importantly, the MFTJ exhibits a tunable interfacial magnetoelectric coupling related to the ferroelectric domain switching dynamics. These findings enrich the potential applications of multiferroic BFO based devices in high-speed, low-power, and high-density memories as well as future neuromorphic computational architectures.

  2. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Enhanced Eyeblink Conditioning in Behaviorally Inhibited Individuals is Disrupted by Proactive Interference Following US Alone Pre-exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael Todd; Miller, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety vulnerable individuals exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as well as enhanced proactive interference from conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US) alone pre-exposures (Holloway et al., 2012). US alone pre-exposures disrupt subsequent conditioned response (CR) acquisition to CS-US paired trials as compared to context pre-exposure controls. While Holloway et al. (2012) reported enhanced acquisition in high trait anxiety individuals in the context condition, anxiety vulnerability effects were not reported for the US alone pre-exposure group. It appears from the published data that there were no differences between high and low anxiety individuals in the US alone condition. In the work reported here, we sought to extend the findings of enhanced proactive interference with US alone pre-exposures to determine if the enhanced conditioning was disrupted by proactive interference procedures. We also were interested in the spontaneous eyeblinks during the pre-exposure phase of training. We categorized individuals as anxiety vulnerability or non-vulnerable individuals based scores on the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI). Sixty-six participants received 60 trials consisting of 30 US alone or context alone pre-exposures followed by 30 CS-US trials. US alone pre-exposures not only disrupted CR acquisition overall, but behaviorally inhibited (BI) individuals exhibited enhanced proactive interference as compared to non-inhibited (NI) individuals. In addition, US alone pre-exposures disrupted the enhanced acquisition observed in BI individuals as compared to NI individuals following context alone pre-exposures. Differences were also found in rates of spontaneous eyeblinks between BI and NI individuals during context pre-exposure. Our findings will be discussed in the light of the neural substrates of eyeblink conditioning as well as possible factors such as hypervigilance in the amygdala and hippocampal systems, and possible

  4. Corrosion behavior of materials in a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, F.; Balbaud, F.; Deloffre, P.; Terlain, A.

    2001-01-01

    Corrosion results of austenitic and martensitic steels exposed to Pb-Bi liquid alloy (material candidate for the spallation target of ADS) are presented. They show the large influence of parameters such as the oxygen content in Pb-Bi and the Pb-Bi velocity on the corrosion. At low O 2 content (7 10 -8 wt%) in Pb-Bi the steels can suffer from significant dissolution while at high O 2 (1-2 10 -6 wt%) content they can be covered by an oxide layer which protects them from the dissolution. Moreover it is shown that, in aniso-thermal systems, the deposit chemical composition formed in the cold parts can depend on the temperature. (authors)

  5. Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO3 thin films on LaNiO3-buffered Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinman; Zhang Hu; Ruan Kaibin; Shi Wangzhou

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO was reported. ► Rectification property was explained from the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces and the distinct oxygen vacancy density. ► The modification of Schottky-like barrier was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices. - Abstract: We reported the annealing effect on the electrical behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films integrated on LaNiO 3 (LNO) layers buffered Si substrates by sol–gel spin-coating technique. All the BiFeO 3 thin films exhibit the reversible bipolar resistive switching behaviors with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO configuration. The electrical conduction mechanism of the devices was dominated by the Ohmic conduction in the low resistance state and trap-controlled space charged limited current in the high resistance state. Good diode-like rectification property was observed in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 500 °C, but vanished in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 600 °C. This was attributed to the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces as well as the distinct oxygen vacancy density verified by XPS. Furthermore, the modification of Schottky-like barrier due to the drift of oxygen vacancies was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices.

  6. Two-dimensional peridynamic simulation of the effect of defects on the mechanical behavior of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q V; Chan, W K; Schwartz, J

    2014-01-01

    Ag/AgX sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x (Bi2212) is the only superconducting round wire (RW) with high critical current density (J c ) at high magnetic (>25 T) and is thus a strong candidate for high field magnets for nuclear magnetic resonance and high energy physics. A significant remaining challenge, however, is the relatively poor electromechanical behavior of Bi2212 RW, yet there is little understanding of the relationships between the internal Bi2212 microstructure and the mechanical behavior. This is in part due to the complex microstructures within the Bi2212 filaments and the uncertain role of interfilamentary bridges. Here, two-dimensional peridynamic simulations are used to study the stress distribution of the Bi2212 RWs under an axial tensile load. The simulations use scanning electron micrographs obtained from high J c wires as a starting point to study the impact of various defects on the distribution of stress concentration within the Bi2212 microstructure and Ag. The flexibility of the peridynamic approach allows various defects, including those captured from SEM micrographs and artificially created defects, to be inserted into the microstructure for systematic study. Furthermore, this approach allows the mechanical properties of the defects to be varied, so the effects of porosity and both soft and hard secondary phases are evaluated. The results show significant stress concentration around defects, interfilamentary bridges and the rough Bi2212/Ag interface. In general, the stress concentration resulting from porosity is greater than that of solid-phase inclusions. A clear role of the defect geometry is observed. Results indicate that crack growth is likely to initiate at the Ag/Bi2212 interface or at voids, but that voids may also arrest crack growth in certain circumstances. These results are consistent with experimental studies of Bi2212 electromechanical behavior and magneto-optical imaging of crack growth. (paper)

  7. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina G; Rapport, Lisa J; Meachen, Sarah-Jane; Hanks, Robin A; Lumley, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI. Research Method/Design: Eighty-one adults with complicated-mild to severe TBI and 76 of their significant others (SOs) participated. Measures included the BIS/BAS scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Awareness Questionnaire. Among adults with TBI, BIS/BAS internal consistency reliabilities were similar to those found in normative samples of adults without TBI. The TBI group endorsed significantly higher BAS than did the SO group, and injury severity was positively correlated to BAS. The SO group showed expected patterns of correlation between personality and affect; positive affect was associated with BAS, and negative affect with BIS. In contrast, in the TBI group, BAS was positively correlated to both positive and negative affect. Impaired awareness of abilities moderated the intensity of relationships between BIS/BAS and affect. TBI was associated with relatively intensified BAS (approach behavior) but not BIS (avoidance behavior). The observed pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of TBI-related personality change and with theory regarding the independence of the BIS and BAS systems. The BIS/BAS scale shows promise as a personality measure in TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Is running away right? The behavioral activation-behavioral inhibition model of anterior asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Leue, Anja; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    The measurement of anterior electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetries has become an important standard paradigm for the investigation of affective states and traits. Findings in this area are typically interpreted within the motivational direction model, which suggests a lateralization of approach and withdrawal motivational systems to the left and right anterior region, respectively. However, efforts to compare this widely adopted model with an alternative account-which relates the left anterior region to behavioral activation independent of the direction of behavior (approach or withdrawal) and the right anterior region to goal conflict-induced behavioral inhibition-are rare and inconclusive. Therefore, the authors measured the EEG in a sample of 93 young men during emotional imagery designed to provide a critical test between the 2 models. The results (e.g., a correlation between left anterior activation and withdrawal motivation) favor the alternative model on the basis of the concepts of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition. In addition, the present study also supports an association of right parietal activation with physiological arousal and the conceptualization of parietal EEG asymmetry as a mediator of emotion-related physiological arousal. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  9. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Jong-taek [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-il [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Dong-A, Hadan-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Tae-hyun, E-mail: tahynam@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwadong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (

  10. Martensitic transformation behavior in Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jai-young; Chun, Su-jin; Kim, Nam-suk; Cho, Jeung-won; Kim, Jae-hyun; Yeom, Jong-taek; Kim, Jae-il; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag, In and Sn were soluble in TiNi matrix, while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not. • The B2-R-B19′transformation occurred in Ti-Ni-(Ag, In, Sn) alloys. • Solid solution hardening was essential for inducing the B2-R transformation. - Abstract: The microstructures and transformation behaviors of Ti–Ni–X (Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Tl, Pb, Bi) ternary alloys were investigated using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Micro Vickers hardness tests. All specimens consisted of Ti–Ni matrices and second phase particles. Ag, In and Sn were soluble in Ti–Ni matrices with a limited solubility (≤1.0 at%), while Sb, Te, Tl, Pb and Bi were not soluble. Two-stage B2-R-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–48.8Ni–1.2Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0In and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sn alloys, while one-stage B2-B19′ transformation occurred in Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Ag, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Sb, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Te, Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Pb and Ti–49.0Ni–1.0Bi alloys. Micro Vickers hardness of the alloys displaying the B2-R-B19′ transformation (Hv 250–368) was much larger than that (< Hv 200) of the alloys displaying the B2-B19′ transformation. Solid solution hardening was an important factor for inducing the B2-R transformation in Ti–Ni–X (X = non-transition elements) alloys

  11. Polarization fluctuation behavior of lanthanum substituted Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Ni; Xiang, Ping-Hua, E-mail: phxiang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Xing; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Ping-Xiong; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Jun-Hao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2015-09-14

    Polarization fluctuation behavior of lanthanum substituted Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Bi{sub 4−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}, BLT) ferroelectric thin films has been examined. Remnant polarization exhibits an initial increase (P{sub up}, 1–10{sup 6} cycles) and a subsequent decrease (P{sub down}, 10{sup 6}–10{sup 9} cycles) with switching cycles, whereas the dielectric constant exhibits a continuous decrease. By careful investigations on the effect of switching frequency and annealing atmosphere on the polarization fluctuation characteristics, we propose that this polarization fluctuation characteristic of BLT films is attributed to the competition between domain pinning and passive layer growing effect, due to the redistribution of oxygen vacancy related defect under external applied field. P{sub up} behavior is dominated by the unpinning of pinned domain, while P{sub down} behavior is dominated by the reduction of applied field on BLT bulk layer, due to the growing of the passive layer between BLT and Pt electrode. By assuming the dielectric constant and initial thickness of passive layer, the passive layer was estimated to be about 2–5 times thicker than the initial state after 10{sup 9} cycling.

  12. Preparation and characterization of WO3/Bi3O4Cl nanocomposite and its photocatalytic behavior under visible light irradiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakraborty, AK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis January 2012/ Vol. 106 (1), DOI 10.1007/s11144-012-0423-7 Preparation and characterization of WO3/Bi3O4Cl nanocomposite and its photocatalytic behavior under visible light irradiation Chakraborty AK1... and Kebede MA2 1Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh 2CSIR. Materials Science and Manufacturing Email: akc_iu@yahoo.co.uk Abstract The highly efficient and visible light (? ? 420 nm...

  13. Unusual interlayer quantum transport behavior caused by the zeroth Landau level in YbMnBi2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Hu, J; Graf, D; Zou, T; Zhu, M; Shi, Y; Che, S; Radmanesh, S M A; Lau, C N; Spinu, L; Cao, H B; Ke, X; Mao, Z Q

    2017-09-21

    Relativistic fermions in topological quantum materials are characterized by linear energy-momentum dispersion near band crossing points. Under magnetic fields, relativistic fermions acquire Berry phase of π in cyclotron motion, leading to a zeroth Landau level (LL) at the crossing point, a signature unique to relativistic fermions. Here we report the unusual interlayer quantum transport behavior resulting from the zeroth LL mode observed in the time reversal symmetry breaking type II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi 2 . The interlayer magnetoresistivity and Hall conductivity of this material are found to exhibit surprising angular dependences under high fields, which can be well fitted by a model, which considers the interlayer quantum tunneling transport of the zeroth LL's Weyl fermions. Our results shed light on the unusual role of zeroth LLl mode in transport.The transport behavior of the carriers residing in the lowest Landau level is hard to observe in most topological materials. Here, Liu et al. report a surprising angular dependence of the interlayer magnetoresistivity and Hall conductivity arising from the lowest Landau level under high magnetic field in type II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi 2 .

  14. TbxBi1-xFeO3 nanoparticulate multiferroics fabricated by micro-emulsion technique: Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Anwar, Zobia

    2014-04-01

    Tb-doped BiFeO3 multiferroics nanoparticles fabricated via micro-emulsion route were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fully characterized TbxBi1-xFeO3 nanoparticles were then subjected to magnetic behavior evaluation for various technological applications. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) conducted in the range 25-1000 C predicted the temperature (~960 C) for phase formation. XRD estimated the crystallite size 30-47 nm, while the particles size estimated by SEM was found (80-120 nm). The XRD data confirmed the rhombohedral (space group R3c) phase with average cell volume 182.66 Å3 (for BiFeO 3). Various other physical parameters like bulk density, X-ray density and porosity were also determined from the XRD data and found in agreement with theoretical predictions. The magnetic studies showed that as Bi3+ was substituted by Tb3+, all magnetic parameters were altered. The maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) (0.6691 emug -1) was exhibited by Tb0.02Bi0.98FeO 3 while the Tb0.00Bi1.00Fe1.00O 3 showed the maximum (549 Oe) coercivity. The evaluated magnetic behavior categorized these materials as soft magnetic materials that may be useful for fabricating advanced technological applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  16. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  17. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  18. Effect of Bi modification treatment on microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of cast Al-Mg2Si metal matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi has a good modification effect on the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy, and the morphology of eutectic Si changes from coarse acicular to fine fibrous. Based on the similarity between Mg2Si and Si phases in crystalline structure and crystallization process, the present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Bi on the microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of cast Al-15wt.%Mg2Si in-situ metal matrix composite. The results show that the addition of the proper amount of Bi has a significant modification effect on both primary and eutectic Mg2Si in the Al-15wt.%Mg2Si composite. With an increase in Bi content from 0 to 1wt.%, the morphology of the primary Mg2Si is changed from irregular or dendritic to polyhedral shape; and its average particle size is significantly decreased from 70 to 6 μm. Moreover, the morphology of the eutectic Mg2Si phase is altered from flake-like to very short fibrous or dot-like. When the Bi addition exceeds 4.0wt.%, the primary Mg2Si becomes coarse again. However, the eutectic Mg2Si still exhibits the modified morphology. Tensile tests reveal that the Bi addition can improve the tensile strength and ductility of the material. Compared with those of the unmodified composite, the ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation after fracture with 1.0wt.% Bi increase 51.2% and 100%, respectively. At the same time, the Bi addition changes the fracture behavior from brittle to ductile.

  19. [Fermentation behaviors of recombinant Pichia pastoris under inhibited methanol concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Fan, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

    2003-09-01

    Chemostat culture was performed to characterize the growth, substrate consumption and the hirudin production, and to disclose their interrelations in the fermentation of recombinant Pichia pastoris. The Andrew substrate-inhibited growth model is more suitable than Monod model to simulate the growth of Pichia pastoris on methanol. Therefore, two stationary states can be obtained in the continuous culture at a certain dilution rate because of the substrate inhibition on cell growth. The stationary state could be obtained if only the dilution rate not more than 0.048 h(-1) in the continuous fermentation. The concentrations of cell, methanol and hirudin were constant after 50 h continuous culture with dilution rate at 0.04 h(-1). However, it could not be obtained when the dilution rate more than 0.048 h(-1) because the other stationary point at S > 0.048 h(-1) is unstable. Therefore, it was found that the cell concentration declined and the methanol concentration increased from 2.9 g/L to 18.1 g/L within 18h at dilution rate 0.06 h(-1). Thus, the fed-batch culture with a constant specific growth rate was carried out to disclose the fermentation behavior at high and constant methanol concentration in aid of a methanol sensor. The theoretical maximum specific growth rate, microm = 0.0464 h(-1), was found under critical methanol concentration, Scrit = 3.1 g/L. The growth of P. pastoris was typically methanol-limited at the methanol concentration S Scrit. The maximum specific Hir65 production rate qp was obtained at 0.2 mg/(g x h) when methanol concentration and mu were 0.5 g/L and 0.02 h(-1), respectively. The specific Hir65 production rate qp increased with the increase of mu and S at mu 0.02 h(-1). The specific methanol consumption rate increased with the increase of S when S 5 g/L. At last, the high Hir65 production rate 0.2 mg/(g x h) was obtained in the fermentation conducted under methanol-limited concentration and mu controlled at 0.5 g/L and 0.02 h(-1

  20. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.

  1. Enhanced magnetic and dielectric behavior in Co doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Sarkar, Babusona; Ashok, Vishal Dev [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Chaudhuri, Sheli Sinha [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); De, S.K., E-mail: msskd@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic and dielectric properties of Co doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles (13 nm) have been investigated. The dopant Co{sup 2+} converts spherical morphology to cubic nanostructures. The significant changes in temperature dependence of magnetization may be due to magnetic disorder phase induced by divalent Co. The substitution of Fe by Co disrupts cycloidal spin structure of BFO and improves the ferromagnetic property. Enhancement of the saturation magnetization and coercivity by about 10 times in doped BFO are due to changes in morphology. High dielectric constant of about 670 and low loss at room temperature show Co doped BFO as promising material for multifunctional devices.

  2. Nucleation behavior of melted Bi films at cooling rates from 101 to 104 K/s studied by combining scanning AC and DC nano-calorimetry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kechao; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a general data reduction scheme that combines scanning AC and DC calorimetry results for the study of reaction kinetics. • Calorimetry measurements at cooling rates ranging from 30 K/s to 20,000 K/s were achieved. • Upon initial melting, the Bi thin-film sample breaks up into thousands of isolated islands, and highly repeatable nucleation behavior is observed. • The nucleation rate of melted Bi is calculated, which can be well described by classical nucleation theory over a wide range of cooling rates. - Abstract: We study the nucleation behavior of undercooled liquid Bi at cooling rates ranging from 10 1 to 10 4 K/s using a combination of scanning DC and AC nano-calorimetry techniques. Upon initial melting, the Bi thin-film sample breaks up into silicon nitride-coated isolated islands. The number of islands in a typical sample is sufficiently large that highly repeatable nucleation behavior is observed, despite the stochastic nature of the nucleation process. We establish a data reduction technique to evaluate the nucleation rate from DC and AC calorimetry results. The results show that the driving force for the nucleation of melted Bi is well described by classical nucleation theory over a wide range of cooling rates. The proposed technique provides a unique and efficient way to examine nucleation kinetics with cooling rates over several orders of magnitude. The technique is quite general and can be used to evaluate reaction kinetics in other materials

  3. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203

  4. Nuclear relaxation behavior of the superconducting cuprates: Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstedt, R. E.; Bell, R. F.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1991-10-01

    Nuclear-magnetic-resonance data are presented and analyzed for the high-Tc compound Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 for two oxygen doping levels. Both sample conditions lead to spin-gap behavior for the NMR shift, with a precursive downturn in the data at T>Tc. In addition, the relaxation times T1 obey the relation (T1T)-1~Ks(T) at low temperatures (T<~100 K), where Ks(T) is the spin paramagnetic shift. This relation, which is also obeyed by other superconductors, is argued to be related to the spin-gap effects and thus incompatible with a Fermi-liquid approach to the understanding of these systems.

  5. Impedance spectroscopy of SrBi2Ta2O9 and SrBi2Nb2O9 ceramics correlation with fatigue behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Thio, C.; Desu, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    In this research, a fatigue model for ferroelectric materials is proposed. The reasons for the electrical fatigue resistance of SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT), SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 (SBN), and PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) are discussed in terms of the bulk ionic conductivities of the compounds. To obtain the bulk ionic conductivity of SBT and SBN, we have used impedance spectroscopy which provides an effective method that allows us to separate the individual contributions of bulk, grain boundaries, and electrode-ferroelectric interfaces from the total capacitor impedance. The bulk ionic conductivities of SBT and SBN (∼10 -7 S/cm) are much higher than those of the perovskite ferroelectrics, e.g., PZT (∼10 -11 -10 -10 S/cm). The high ionic conductivities led us to conclude that the good fatigue resistance of SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 and SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 is due to easy recovery of defects. Specifically, oxygen vacancies entrapped within the capacitors are easily released, resulting in limited space charge buildup and domain wall pinning during the polarization reversal process. However, the oxygen vacancies in PZT are trapped at trap sites to become space charges, resulting in capacitor fatigue. copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  6. Clinical Evaluation of the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Thomas R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (in which mild and brief contingent electric stimulation is delivered) was evaluated with five cases involving severe mental retardation and previously unmanageable self-injurious behavior. Findings indicated almost complete elimination of the self-injurious behavior with followup suggesting continuing…

  7. The effect of sintering temperature on the intergranular properties and weak link behavior of Bi2223 superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kameli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available  A systematic study of the intergranular properties of (Bi,Pb2 Sr2 Ca2 Cu3 Oy (Bi2223 polycrystalline samples has been done using the electrical resistivity and AC susceptibility techniques. In this study, we have prepared a series of Bi2223 samples with different sintering temperatures. The XRD results show that by increasing the sintering temperature up to 865° c , the Bi2212 phase fraction decreases. It was found that the Bi2212 phase on the grain boundaries is likely to play the role of the weak links and consequently reduces the intergranular critical current densities.

  8. Relative contributions of pituitary-adrenal hormones to the ontogeny of behavioral inhibition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kim, H

    1995-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups exhibit deficits in behavioral inhibition. Furthermore, administration of exogenous corticosterone (CORT) restores behavioral inhibition in ADX pups. Although these studies suggest that CORT has an important role in the development of behavioral inhibition, the relative behavioral effects of elevated pituitary hormone secretion induced by ADX are not known. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the potential behavioral effects of elevated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion induced by ADX and to further evaluate the contribution of endogenous CORT to the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 1., we verified that 10-day-old ADX rats exhibit high levels of plasma ACTH throughout the preweaning period associated with the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 2, 10-day-old pups were hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and ADX and were compared behaviorally to sham-operated controls on day 14. When tested in the presence of an anesthetized unfamiliar adult male rat, HYPOX + ADX pups exhibited low levels of freezing accompanied by ultrasonic vocalizations. These pups also had reduced concentrations of plasma ACTH and CORT. In Experiment 3, 10-day-old pups were HYPOX and tested for behavioral inhibition on day 14. In comparison to sham-operated controls, HYPOX rats exhibited significantly lower levels of freezing and had reduced plasma concentrations of ACTH and CORT. Results demonstrate clearly that deficits in freezing occur even in the presence of low plasma ACTH concentrations. Therefore, elevated secretion of pituitary hormones is not a major factor that contributes to the ADX-induced deficits in behavioral inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Temperature behavior of the hole density of (Bi,Pb)-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Aliakbar; Janowitz, Christoph; Dwelk, Helmut; Krapf, Alica; Manzke, Recardo [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal [Dept. of Physics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    One of the most puzzling anomalies of high-T{sub c} cuprates is the strong temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient (R{sub H}) and the hole density (n{sub H}). Gor'kov and Teitel'baum (GT) showed by using experimental data of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) that the number of holes per Cu atom, n{sub H}, changes with temperature according to n{sub H}(T,x)=n{sub 0}(x)+n{sub 1}(x)exp(-{Delta}(x)/T). To clarify the temperature dependence of n{sub H} we have determined n{sub H} by X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the CuL{sub 3} edge for nearly optimum and slightly underdoped (Bi,Pb)-2212 single crystals. Our results point out that the GT formula cannot fit our data and therefore must be extended to the three terms.

  10. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.

  11. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. inhibition of germination and growth behavior of some cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... COWPEA VARIETIES USING NEEM (AZADIRACTA INDICA) LEAF WATER. EXTRACTS ... Keywords: Neem, Allelopathic effect, Leaf extract, Germination, Growth behavior ... and lotion today, as well as biological insecticide.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of a Bi-Axial Torsional MEMS Mirror with Sidewall Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozdogan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamic responses of a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS mirror with sidewall electrodes are presented that are in close agreement with previously-reported experimental data. An analysis of frequency responses reveals softening behavior, and secondary resonances originated from the dominant quadratic nonlinearity. The quadratic nonlinearity is an electromechanical coupling effect caused by the electrostatic force. This effect is reflected in our mathematical model used to simulate the dynamic response of the micro-mirror. The effects of increased forcing and decreased damping on the frequency response are investigated as the mirrors are mostly used in vacuum packages. The results can predict MEMS mirror behaviors in optical devices better than previously-reported models.

  14. Glass additive influence on the sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave magnetic properties of Cu-Bi-Zn co-doped Co2Z ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I; Mei, Li-Then; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Wu, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Bao; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    The Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-SiO 2 (BB35SZ) glass effects on the sintering behavior and microwave magnetic properties of Cu-Bi-Zn co-doped Co 2 Z ferrites were investigated to develop low-temperature-fired ferrites. The glass wetting characteristics on the Co 2 Z ferrite surface, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and a dilatometer were used to examine the BB35SZ glass effect on Co 2 Z ferrite densification and the chemical reaction between the glass and Co 2 Z ferrites. The results indicate that BB35SZ glass can be used as a sintering aid to reduce the densification temperature of Co 2 Z ferrites from 1300 to 900 o C. 3(Ba 0.9 Bi 0.1 O).2(Co 0.8 Cu 0.2 O).12(Fe 1.975 Zn 0.025 O 3 ) ferrite with 2 wt% BB35SZ glass can be densified below 900 o C, exhibiting an initial permeability of 3.4. This process provides a promising candidate for multilayer chip magnetic devices for microwave applications. - Research highlights: → Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-SiO 2 glass can effectively wet Co 2 Z ferrites and promote Co 2 Z ferrite densification. → The excess substitution of Bi and Zn (x=0.2) and glass addition enhanced Z phase decomposition into U, W and spinel phases, which resulted in magnetic property degradation. → 3(Ba 0.9 Bi 0.1 O).2(Co 0.8 Cu 0.2 O).12(Fe 1.975 Zn 0.025 O 3 ) ferrite with 2 wt% glass can be densified at below 900 o C and exhibits an initial permeability of 3.4, which provides a promising candidate for multilayer chip magnetic devices for microwave applications.

  15. Effect of copper valence on the glass structure and crystallization behavior of Bi-Pb-Cu-O glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yi; Lin, U.-L.; Liu, N.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Bi 0.43 Pb 0.35 Cu 0.22 O y glasses with different Cu + contents were prepared by melting at different temperatures. The glass structure consists of [BiO 3 [ and [BiO 6 [ units and the ratio of [BiO 3 [/[BiO 6 [ increases with increasing Cu + content. The glass transition temperature, the first crystallization temperature peak, and the thermal stability of the glasses decreases with increasing Cu + content. The value of the activation energy, E a , varies as a function of the Cu + content. The crystallization mechanism in the glasses is closely related to the glass structure, which is mainly affected by the Cu + content. (orig.)

  16. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  19. Study of the structure and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.

    2015-06-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material. The distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi2O2)2+ layers of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics have been revealed through Raman spectroscopy. At lower value of x, it is seen that La3+ ions prefer to substitute A-site Bi3+ ions in the perovskite layers while for higher x values, La3+ ions get incorporated into the (Bi2O2)2+ layers. A critical La content of x ˜ 0.2 in BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 is seen to exhibit a large remnant polarization (Pr) with low coercive field (Ec). The improvement in the ferroelectric properties of La substituted BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of lanthanum ion.

  20. Anomalous magneto-structural behavior of MnBi explained: A path towards an improved permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkevich, N. A., E-mail: zarkev@ameslab.gov; Wang, L.-L. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Johnson, D. D. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Low-temperature MnBi (hexagonal NiAs phase) exhibits anomalies in the lattice constants (a, c) and bulk elastic modulus (B) below 100 K, spin reorientation and magnetic susceptibility maximum near 90 K, and, importantly for high-temperature magnetic applications, an increasing coercivity (unique to MnBi) above 180  K. We calculate the total energy and magneto-anisotropy energy (MAE) versus (a, c) using DFT+U methods. We reproduce and explain all the above anomalies. We predict that coercivity and MAE increase due to increasing a, suggesting means to improve MnBi permanent magnets.

  1. Anomalous magneto-structural behavior of MnBi explained: A path towards an improved permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkevich, NA; Wang, LL; Johnson, DD

    2014-03-01

    Low-temperature MnBi (hexagonal NiAs phase) exhibits anomalies in the lattice constants (a, c) and bulk elastic modulus (B) below 100 K, spin reorientation and magnetic susceptibility maximum near 90 K, and, importantly for high-temperature magnetic applications, an increasing coercivity (unique to MnBi) above 180 K. We calculate the total energy and magneto-anisotropy energy (MAE) versus (a, c) using DFT+U methods. We reproduce and explain all the above anomalies. We predict that coercivity and MAE increase due to increasing a, suggesting means to improve MnBi permanent magnets. (C) 2014 Author(s).

  2. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  3. One-dimensional BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes: Preparation, characterization, improved magnetic behaviors, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lei [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sui, Wenbo; Dong, Chunhui; Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jiang, Changjun, E-mail: 779322052@qq.com [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We present a fabrication method of one-dimensional BFO nanotubes prepared using a sol–gel-based electrospinning process followed by thermal treatment. • By compared with BiFeO{sub 3} bulks, enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism has been successfully realized in BFO nanotubes. • The impacts of processing temperature on the final microscopic structure and component are characterized in detail. • The existence of plentiful oxygen vacancies will play a key role in terms of enhanced ferromagnetism. - Abstract: With the progress of science and technology, the growing demands for practical applications make low-dimensional multiferroics more appealing in areas such as chemical and bio-sensors, nanoelectronic, high-density data storage devices. One-dimensional BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes were successfully synthesized by sol–gel-based electrospinning process. The images of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy collectively demonstrate that BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes with long slender structure and virtually uniform diameter of approximately 100 nm were observed at 500 °C annealing temperature. By compared with BiFeO{sub 3} bulks observed at 800 °C annealing temperature, enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism was successfully realized in BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes at room temperature. The results of electron spin resonance measurement further confirm that ferromagnetic resonances were detected in BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes at different temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study proves the existence of plentiful oxygen vacancies in BiFeO{sub 3} nanotubes, which will play a key role in terms of enhanced ferromagnetism. The results will contribute to expand the applications of BiFeO{sub 3} into the new field of spintronic devices and high-density data storage media.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    -aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing...... to locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer...... the time in locomotion, average velocity, and path length and by increasing the turning rate and frequency of stops. Females responded similarly at the two highest doses, whereas their locomotor behavior was not significantly different from the control group at the lowest dimethoate dose, suggesting a sex...

  5. Stable Ferroelectric Behavior of Nb-Modified Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Ahmed, Tanveer; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and electric field-induced strain properties of lead-free Nb-modified 0.96Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BKT-BMT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Crystal structure analysis showed a gradual phase transition from tetragonal to pseudocubic phase with increasing Nb content. The optimal piezoelectric property of small-signal d 33 was enhanced up to ˜ 68 pC/N with a lower coercive field ( E c) of ˜ 22 kV/cm and an improved remnant polarization ( P r) of ˜ 13 μC/cm2 for x = 0.020. A relaxor-like behavior with a frequency-dependent Curie temperature T m was observed, and a high T m around 320°C was obtained in the investigated system. This study suggests that the ferroelectric properties of BKT-BMT was significantly improved by means of Nb substitution. The possible shift of depolarization temperature T d toward high temperature T m may have triggered the spontaneous relaxor to ferroelectric phase transition with long-range ferroelectric order without any traces of a nonergodic relaxor state in contradiction with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based systems. The possible enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties near the critical composition x = 0.020 may be attributed to the increased anharmonicity of lattice vibrations which may facilitate the observed phase transition from a low-symmetry tetragonal to a high-symmetry cubic phase with a decrease in the lattice anisotropy of an undoped sample. This highly flexible (at a unit cell level) narrow compositional range triggers the enhancement of d 33 and P r values.

  6. Finasteride inhibited brain dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kang, Yun-Xiao; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ying-Kun; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Cui, Hui-Xian; Shi, Ge-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels. Meanwhile, open-field behaviors of the rats are examined because of the regulatory effect of dopaminergic system on the behaviors. Open-field behaviors were evaluated by exploratory and motor behaviors. Dopamine and its metabolites were assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. It was found that in adolescent male rats, administration of finasteride at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days dose dependently inhibited open-field behaviors, reduced contents of dopamine and its metabolites in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and down-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, there was no significant change of these parameters in early developmental rats after finasteride treatment. These results suggest that finasteride inhibits dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and imply finasteride as a potential therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hyperactivities of dopaminergic system and androgen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  9. Complex Living Conditions Impair Behavioral Inhibition but Improve Attention in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Rixt; Kentrop, Jiska; van der Tas, Liza; Loi, Manila; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a

  10. Complex living conditions impair behavioral inhibition but improve attention in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt evan der Veen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid adaptation to changes, while maintaining a certain level of behavioral inhibition is an important feature in every day functioning. How environmental context and challenges in life can impact on the development of this quality is still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of a complex rearing environment during adolescence on attention and behavioral inhibition in adult male rats. We also tested whether these effects were affected by an adverse early life challenge, maternal deprivation. We found that animals that were raised in large, two floor MarlauTM cages, together with 10 conspecifics, showed improved attention, but impaired behavioral inhibition in the 5-choice serial reaction time task. The early life challenge of 24h maternal deprivation on postnatal day 3 led to a decline in bodyweight during adolescence, but did not by itself influence responses in the 5-choice task in adulthood, nor did it moderate the effects of complex housing. Our data suggest that a complex rearing environment leads to a faster adaptation to changes in the environment, but at the cost of lower behavioral inhibition.

  11. The Biological Behaviors of Rat Dermal Fibroblasts Can Be Inhibited by High Levels of MMP9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Neng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the effects of the high expression of MMP9 on biological behaviors of fibroblasts. Methods. High glucose and hyperhomocysteine were used to induce MMP9 expression in skin fibroblasts. Cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry and cell viability by CCK-8. ELISA assay was used to detect collagen (hydroxyproline secretion. Scratch test was employed to evaluate horizontal migration of cells and transwell method to evaluate vertical migration of cells. Results. The mRNA and protein expressions of MMP9 and its protease activity were significantly higher in cells treated with high glucose and hyperhomocysteine than those in control group. At the same time, the S-phase cell ratio, proliferation index, cell viability, collagen (hydroxyproline secretion, horizontal migration rate, and the number of vertical migration cells decreased in high-glucose and hyperhomocysteine-treated group. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1, which inhibits the activity of MMP9, recovered the above biological behaviors. Conclusions. High expression of MMP9 in skin fibroblasts could be induced by cultureing in high glucose and hyperhomocysteine medium, which inhibited cell biological behaviors. Inhibitions could be reversed by TIMP1. The findings suggested that MMP9 deters the healing of diabetic foot ulcers by inhibiting the biological behaviors of fibroblasts.

  12. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.

  13. Relationship between self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition and lifetime anxiety disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Phillip B; Wilhelm, Kay A; Malhi, Gin S

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between an early inhibited temperament and lifetime anxiety disorders, we studied a sample of patients with major depression who were not selected on the basis of comorbid axis I anxiety disorders. One-hundred eighty-nine adults (range = 17-68 years) referred to a tertiary depression unit underwent structured diagnostic interviews for depression and anxiety and completed two self-report measures of behavioral inhibition, the retrospective measure of behavioural inhibition (RMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005] and the adult measure of behavioural inhibition (AMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005]. Patients' scores were classified into "low," "moderate," or "high" inhibition. While groups did not differ in terms of depression severity, there were differences across groups in clinically diagnosed nonmelancholic status and age of onset of first episode. Those reporting a high degree of childhood inhibition were significantly more likely to qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia, and this association was independent of their scores on the AMBI. Findings are discussed in light of the existing risk-factor literature and support the hypothesis that an early inhibited temperament may be a significant precursor to later anxiety, especially social anxiety disorder. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Influence of trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral approach motivation systems on the LPP and frontal asymmetry to anger pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.

  15. Effects of oxygen content and heating rate on phase transition behavior in Bi2(V0.95Ti0.05)O5.475-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taninouchi, Yu-ki; Uda, Tetsuya; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Phase transition behavior of oxide-ion conductor Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x , which has various thermal histories and physical forms. → At the same heating rate of 10 K min -1 , Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x with less oxygen content exhibits transition from α f to β f at a higher temperature and the transition from β f to γ f at a lower temperature. → α f directly transformed to β f at fast heating rates. At a slower heating rate of 2 K min -1 , β f precipitated from α f due to the sufficient diffusion of Ti and oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: The phase transition behavior of oxide-ion conductor Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x , which has various thermal histories and sample forms, has been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the oxygen content per compositional formula varied with the applied thermal treatment, although no significant structural difference was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The phase transition behavior from α f to β f and from β f to γ f , observed at a heating rate of 10 K min -1 , are markedly affected by the sample preparation. For example, the endothermic peak of the transition from α f to β f appeared at around 400 deg. C for quenched powder and at around 320 deg. C for powder cooled at 0.5 K min -1 . The trend of the transition temperatures can be qualitatively explained in terms of oxygen content, i.e., Bi 2 (V 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O 5.475-x with less oxygen content exhibits the transition from α f to β f at a higher temperature and the transition from β f to γ f at a lower temperature. We confirmed the two types of transition behavior from α f to β f depending on heating rate of DSC and high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) analysis. At rapid heating rates of 10 and 40 K min -1 , α f transformed to β f directly. Meanwhile, at a slow heating rate of 2 K min -1 , the β f precipitated from α f because slow heating

  16. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  17. Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

  18. Relations between behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical and clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form,

  19. Exploring the high-pressure behavior of the three known polymorphs of BiPO4: Discovery of a new polymorph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errandonea, D.; García-Domene, B.; Gomis, O.; Santamaría-Perez, D.; Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.; Popescu, C.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the structural behavior of bismuth phosphate under compression. We performed x-ray powder diffraction measurements up to 31.5 GPa and ab initio calculations. Experiments were carried out on different polymorphs: trigonal (phase I) and monoclinic (phases II and III). Phases I and III, at low pressure (P < 0.2–0.8 GPa), transform into phase II, which has a monazite-type structure. At room temperature, this polymorph is stable up to 31.5 GPa. Calculations support these findings and predict the occurrence of an additional transition from the monoclinic monazite-type to a tetragonal scheelite-type structure (phase IV). This transition was experimentally found after the simultaneous application of pressure (28 GPa) and temperature (1500 K), suggesting that at room temperature the transition might by hindered by kinetic barriers. Calculations also predict an additional phase transition at 52 GPa, which exceeds the maximum pressure achieved in the experiments. This transition is from phase IV to an orthorhombic barite-type structure (phase V). We also studied the axial and bulk compressibility of BiPO 4 . Room-temperature pressure-volume equations of state are reported. BiPO 4 was found to be more compressible than isomorphic rare-earth phosphates. The discovered phase IV was determined to be the less compressible polymorph of BiPO 4 . On the other hand, the theoretically predicted phase V has a bulk modulus comparable with that of monazite-type BiPO 4 . Finally, the isothermal compressibility tensor for the monazite-type structure is reported at 2.4 GPa showing that the direction of maximum compressibility is in the (0 1 0) plane at approximately 15° (21°) to the a axis for the case of our experimental (theoretical) study

  20. CEA/CD3-bispecific T cell-engaging (BiTE) antibody-mediated T lymphocyte cytotoxicity maximized by inhibition of both PD1 and PD-L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Patel, Sandip P; Hammond, Scott A; Osada, Koya; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-06-01

    Bispecific T cell-engaging (BiTE) antibodies recruit polyclonal cytotoxic T cells (CTL) to tumors. One such antibody is carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) BiTE that mediates T cell/tumor interaction by simultaneously binding CD3 expressed by T cells and CEA expressed by tumor cells. A widely operative mechanism for mitigating cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing is the interaction of tumor-expressed PD-L1 with T cell-expressed PD-1, which may be partly reversed by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. We hypothesized that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade during BiTE-mediated T cell killing would enhance CTL function. Here, we determined the effects of PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade during initial T cell-mediated killing of CEA-expressing human tumor cell lines in vitro, as well as subsequent T cell-mediated killing by T lymphocytes that had participated in tumor cell killing. We observed a rapid upregulation of PD-1 expression and diminished cytolytic function of T cells after they had engaged in CEA BiTE-mediated killing of tumors. T cell cytolytic activity in vitro could be maximized by administration of anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies alone or in combination if applied prior to a round of T cell killing, but T cell inhibition could not be fully reversed by this blockade once the T cells had killed tumor. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that dual blockade of PD-1 and PD-L1 maximizes T cell killing of tumor directed by CEA BiTE in vitro, is more effective if applied early, and provides a rationale for clinical use.

  1. Synthesis, structure, and electrical behavior of Sr{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 7}O{sub 24}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbuchen, M. A.; Sherman, V. O.; Tagantsev, A. K.; Schubert, J.; Hawley, M. E.; Fong, D. D.; Streiffer, S. K.; Jia, Y.; Tian, W.; Schlom, D. G.; The Aerospace Corp.; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; IBNI-IT and JARA-Fundamentals fo Future Information Technologies; LANL; Cornell Univ.

    2010-01-25

    An n = 7 Aurivillius phase, Sr{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 7}O{sub 24}, with c = 6.44 nm, was synthesized as an epitaxial (001)-oriented film. This phase and its purity were confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The material is ferroelectric, with a P{sub r} = 5.3 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} oriented in the (001) plane and a paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature of T{sub C} = 324 K. Some indications of relaxorlike behavior are observed. Such behavior is out of character for Sr{sub n-1}Bi{sub 2}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+3} Aurivillius phases and is closer to the bulk behavior of doped SrTiO{sub 3}, implying a spatial limit to the elastic interlayer interactions in these layered oxides. A finite-element solution to the interpretation of data from interdigitated capacitors on thin films is also described.

  2. Corrosion behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450circC and 550circC

    OpenAIRE

    倉田 有司; 二川 正敏; 斎藤 滋

    2005-01-01

    Static corrosion tests of various austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi at 450circC and 550circC for 3000h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on corrosion behavior. Oxidation, grain boundary corrosion, dissolution and penetration were observed. The corrosion depth decreases at 450circC with increasing Cr content in steels regardless of ferritic/martensitic or austenitic steels. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr doe...

  3. Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive inhibition predict risky driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence: Prediction from inhibition, language, parenting, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle

    2018-03-22

    The aim of the current research was to disentangle four theoretically sound models of externalizing behavior etiology (i.e., attachment, language, inhibition, and parenting) by testing their relation with behavioral trajectories from early childhood to adolescence. The aim was achieved through a 10-year prospective longitudinal study conducted over five waves with 111 referred children aged 3 to 5 years at the onset of the study. Clinical referral was primarily based on externalizing behavior. A multimethod (questionnaires, testing, and observations) approach was used to estimate the four predictors in early childhood. In line with previous studies, the results show a significant decrease of externalizing behavior from early childhood to adolescence. The decline was negatively related to mothers' coercive parenting and positively related to attachment security in early childhood, but not related to inhibition and language. The study has implications for research into externalizing behavior etiology recommending to gather hypotheses from various theoretically sound models to put them into competition with one another. The study also has implications for clinical practice by providing clear indications for prevention and early intervention.

  5. Chronic Inhibition of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Facilitates Behavioral Responses to Cocaine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Liles, Larry Cameron; Iuvone, Paul Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2012-01-01

    The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse), decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/−) and Dbh −/− mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh −/− mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/− mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/− mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh −/− mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor) enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:23209785

  6. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

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    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  7. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

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    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  8. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Function: Interplay between Inhibition and Updating Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Wittenberg, Ellen; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity. We found that both behavioral (accuracy and reaction time) and neurophysiological (P300 amplitude and alpha band power) metrics on the inhibition task (i.e., flanker task) were influenced by the updating load (n-back level) and modulated by working memory capacity. Using independent component analysis, source localization (DIPFIT), and Granger Causality analysis of the EEG time-series data, the present study demonstrated that manipulation of cognitive demand in a dual executive function task influenced the causal neural network. We compared connectivity across three updating loads (n-back levels) and found that experimental manipulation of working memory load enhanced causal connectivity of a large-scale neurocognitive network. This network contains the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with inhibition and updating executive function processes. This study has potential applications in human performance modeling and assessment of mental workload, such as the design of training materials and interfaces for those performing complex multitasking under stress.

  9. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Function: Interplay between Inhibition and Updating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity. We found that both behavioral (accuracy and reaction time and neurophysiological (P300 amplitude and alpha band power metrics on the inhibition task (i.e., flanker task were influenced by the updating load (n-back level and modulated by working memory capacity. Using independent component analysis, source localization (DIPFIT, and Granger Causality analysis of the EEG time-series data, the present study demonstrated that manipulation of cognitive demand in a dual executive function task influenced the causal neural network. We compared connectivity across three updating loads (n-back levels and found that experimental manipulation of working memory load enhanced causal connectivity of a large-scale neurocognitive network. This network contains the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with inhibition and updating executive function processes. This study has potential applications in human performance modeling and assessment of mental workload, such as the design of training materials and interfaces for those performing complex multitasking under stress.

  10. Study of the structural and electrical behavior of Bi(Mg,TiO3 modified (Ba,CaTiO3 ceramics

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    Md. Kashif Shamim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of BaTiO3 to form solid solutions with different dopants (both iso- and aliovalent makes it versatile for various applications. In the present study, (Ba,CaTiO3 (BCT is modified with Bi(MgTiO3 (BMT in search for new lead-free ferroelectric material and improve their properties. For this purpose, BCT acts as a main base material and BMT acts as a modifier to fabricate a multifunctional material. In this study, we report the structural and electrical properties of lead free piezo-ceramics (1−x(Ba0.8Ca0.2TiO3–xBi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3 with x=0.2, 0.4, 0.5 prepared by solid-state sintering technique. Single perovskite phase with tetragonal structure is obtained for all the compositions, which is reconfirmed by the Raman Spectroscopic study. Dielectric study confirm the temperature stable behavior of the dielectric permittivity values above 300∘C. The dielectric constant value decreases with increase in BMT doping content. Impedance Spectroscopic study confirms non-Debye type dielectric relaxation in the specimen. The Nyquist plot and conductivity studies show the negative temperature coefficient of resistance behavior (NTCR of the samples.

  11. Investigations on electrical, magnetic and optical behaviors of five-layered Aurivillius Bi6Ti3Fe2O18 polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, W.; Xu, W.F.; Wu, J.; Zhu, J.Y.; Chen, G.; Yang, J.; Lin, T.; Meng, X.J.; Tang, X.D.; Chu, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Five-layered Aurivillius Bi 6 Ti 3 Fe 2 O 18 (BTF2) polycrystalline thin films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition route. The crystalline structures and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, micro-Raman spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. Its electrical and magnetic properties were investigated, and especially optical properties were addressed in detail. Coexistence of the ferroelectric and weak ferromagnetic properties indicated the multiferroic behavior of the BTF2 films. The optical dielectric functions in the photon energy range of 1.13–4.13 eV have been extracted by fitting the experimental data in the light of the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model. A direct interband transition with bandgap energy ∼ 3.72 eV was determined for the BTF2 films. The weak absorption below band-gap edge was explained by the Urbach band tail rule. Finally, the optical dispersion behaviors of the BTF2 films in the transparent oscillating region were described using a single oscillator model. - Highlights: ► Five-layered Aurivillius Bi 6 Ti 3 Fe 2 O 18 (BTF2) thin films were prepared. ► Electrical and magnetic properties of the BTF2 films were investigated. ► Optical properties of the BTF2 films were especially addressed in detail.

  12. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi4+δTi4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O. P.; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi4+δTi4O15 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (Tm) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (Pr ~ 12.5 µC/cm2), low coercive fields (Ec ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  13. Evidence for different fission behavior of hot nuclei formed in central and peripheral collisions of 40Ar + 209Bi reaction at 25 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Enjiu; Zheng Jiwen; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Chun; Tan Jilian; Yin Shuzhi; Wang Sufang; Jin Genming; Yin Xu; Song Mingtao; Jin Weiyang; Peng Xingping; Li Zuyu; Wu Heyu; He Zhiyong; Jiang Dongxing; Qian Xing

    1999-01-01

    Correlated fission fragments from the reaction of 25 MeV/u 40 Ar + 209 Bi and their further correlation with α particles have been studied for peripheral and central collisions simultaneously. The excitation energy at scission deduced from post scission multiplicity is about 172.5 MeV. The fission timescale deduced from prescission multiplicity is about 4 x 10 -21 s. Systematic analysis of the mass and energy distributions of fission fragments as a function of the initial temperature of hot fissioning nuclei reveals the existence of different fission behavior of hot nuclei formed in central and peripheral collisions. Experimental data demonstrate the change of fission behavior at T∼4 MeV

  14. The Relationship of Behavioral Activation and Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS, Difficulty of Emotional Regulation, Metacognition with Worry

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    S. Soltan Mohammadlou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Worry is a popular phenomenon and a common feature of many disorders, especially anxiety disorders. The objective of the study was to predict worry by using three predictive factors related to biological, emotional and cognition areas. In this study, behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation system, difficulties in emotion regulation and metacognition were examined as predictive variables. In a correlation cross-sectional design, 234 Medical Group students [BA and MA] of Tehran University of Medical Sciences participated in this study by using cluster sampling. The students completed these scales: Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Systems (BAS/BIS, Difficulty of Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30 and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ. Behavioral inhibition system, difficulty of emotion rgulation and metacognition variables were significantly positively correlated with worry (P<0/0 1(. Behavioral activation system variable was not significantly associated with worry. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated a predictive model for worry in which behavioral inhibition system, difficulty of emotional regulation and metacognition were its components respectively. Behavioral activation system was not included in the model. The findings of this study that worry should be studied in different biological, emotional, and metacognitive aspects. The results also emphasize the role of behavioral inhibition system as a temperamental and biological factor in psychopathology of worry in adult population.

  15. Inhibiting effect of bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation on bacterial quorum sensing-regulated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hu; Wang, Shou-Xian; Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Cao, Chun-Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation. The culture supernatant was condensed into 0.2 vol by freeze-drying. The condensed supernatant was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm membrane filter and added to Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used to monitor QS inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. The results have revealed that, of 102 mushroom strains, the bioactive metabolites produced by 14 basidiomycetes were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in C. violaceum. Higher fungi can produce QS-inhibitory compounds. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Response inhibition moderates the association between drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydegger, Liesl A; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W; Grenard, Jerry L

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection is problematic among all drug users, not only injection drug users. Drug users are at risk for contracting HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors. The present study sought to determine whether inhibitory processes moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected sex and multiple sex partners). One hundred ninety-six drug offenders enrolled in drug education programs were administered a battery of computer-based assessments. Measures included a cued go/no-go assessment of inhibitory processes, the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) assessment of problematic drug use, and self-report assessment of condom use and multiple sex partners. Findings revealed that response inhibition assessed by the proportion of false alarms on the cued go/no-go moderated the relationship between problematic drug use and an important measure of HIV risk (condom nonuse) among drug offenders. However, response inhibition did not moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and another measure of HIV risk: multiple sex partners. Among this sample of drug offenders, we have found a relationship between problematic drug use and condom nonuse, which is exacerbated by poor control of inhibition. These findings have implications for the development of HIV intervention components among high-risk populations.

  17. The BOLD-fMRI study of behavior inhibition in chronic heroin addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fei; Yuan Yi; Liu Yinshe; Zhao Jun; Weng Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)

  18. Chronic fluoxetine inhibits sexual behavior in the male rat: reversal with oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J M; Binik, Y M; Pfaus, J G

    1999-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, used widely in the treatment of depression, progressively inhibit sexual orgasm in many patients and induce a transient inhibition of sexual desire. We attempted to model the effects of these drugs in sexually experienced male rats during tests of copulation in bilevel chambers. These chambers allow the study of both appetitive and consummatory sexual responses of male rats. Males were treated daily with fluoxetine hydrochloride (0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) and tested for sexual behavior with receptive females at 4-day intervals. Rats were treated with oxytocin (200 ng/kg) or saline after ejaculations had decreased. Fluoxetine decreased ejaculatory responses of male rats in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but left the copulatory efficiency of the males intact. In contrast, conditioned level changing, a measure of appetitive sexual excitement, was inhibited following acute and chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg, although tolerance may have developed to the effect of 5 mg/kg. Subsequent administration of oxytocin restored the ejaculatory response but not the measure of sexual excitement to baseline levels. The reversal by oxytocin of the fluoxetine-induced deficit in ejaculations is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin suppresses ejaculatory mechanisms by interrupting the action of oxytocin, which normally accompanies sexual behavior. Co-administration of oxytocin may help to alleviate the predominant sexual side effect of serotonin reuptake blockers.

  19. Inhibition and Encouragement of Entrepreneurial Behavior: Antecedents Analysis from Managers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hashimoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the paths chosen by businesses to increase their competitiveness through innovation is by encouraging employees to adopt a more entrepreneurial attitude. Although studies on Entrepreneurial Orientation have brought important contributions, anecdotal evidences of entrepreneurial employees not affected by corporate initiatives drive attention to managers’ roles in developing entrepreneurial behavior. We found good possible explanations in the theory Induced vs. Autonomous Entrepreneurial Behavior. Thus, the objective of this study is to empirically analyze the factors that inhibit or encourage entrepreneurial behavior. These factors arose from empirical research and were consolidated based on a literature review. This is a qualitative study whose data were collected in interviews carried out with 15 executives from different businesses in Brazil. The results showed that, while some Entrepreneurially Oriented practices can induce employees to adopt entrepreneurial behavior, autonomous behavior intrapreneurs are mostly stimulated by manager attitude. Managers use different approaches depending on the type of intrapreneur whose entrepreneurial behavior is intended to be stimulated, leading to the conclusion that managers, in some cases, play an important role in promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship.

  20. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  1. Comparison of the corrosion behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels exposed to static liquid Pb Bi at 450 and 550 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.; Saito, S.

    2005-08-01

    Static corrosion tests of various steels were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450 °C and 550 °C for 3000 h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on corrosion behavior in liquid Pb-Bi. Corrosion depth decreases at 450 °C with increasing Cr content in steels regardless of ferritic/martensitic steels or austenitic steels. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr does not occur in the three austenitic steels at 450 °C. Corrosion depth of ferritic/martensitic steels also decreases at 550 °C with increasing Cr content in steels whereas corrosion depth of austenitic steels, JPCA and 316SS becomes larger due to ferritization caused by dissolution of Ni at 550 °C than that of ferritic/martensitic steels. An austenitic stainless steel containing about 5%Si exhibits fine corrosion resistance at 550 °C because the protective Si oxide film is formed and prevents dissolution of Ni and Cr.

  2. Comparison of the corrosion behavior of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels exposed to static liquid Pb-Bi at 450 and 550 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Y.; Futakawa, M.; Saito, S.

    2005-01-01

    Static corrosion tests of various steels were conducted in oxygen-saturated liquid Pb-Bi eutectic at 450 deg. C and 550 deg. C for 3000 h to study the effects of temperature and alloying elements on corrosion behavior in liquid Pb-Bi. Corrosion depth decreases at 450 deg. C with increasing Cr content in steels regardless of ferritic/martensitic steels or austenitic steels. Appreciable dissolution of Ni and Cr does not occur in the three austenitic steels at 450 deg. C. Corrosion depth of ferritic/martensitic steels also decreases at 550 deg. C with increasing Cr content in steels whereas corrosion depth of austenitic steels, JPCA and 316SS becomes larger due to ferritization caused by dissolution of Ni at 550 deg. C than that of ferritic/martensitic steels. An austenitic stainless steel containing about 5%Si exhibits fine corrosion resistance at 550 deg. C because the protective Si oxide film is formed and prevents dissolution of Ni and Cr

  3. Temperature-dependent leakage current behavior of epitaxial Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based thin films made by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. M.; Safari, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses the electrical conduction mechanisms in a 0.88 Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08 Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04 BaTiO3 thin film in the temperature range of 200-350 K. The film was deposited on a SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. At all measurement temperatures, the leakage current behavior of the film matched well with the Lampert's triangle bounded by three straight lines of different slopes. The relative location of the triangle sides varied with temperature due to its effect on the density of charge carriers and un-filled traps. At low electric fields, the ohmic conduction governed the leakage mechanism. The calculated activation energy of the trap is 0.19 eV implying the presence of shallow traps in the film. With increasing the applied field, an abrupt increase in the leakage current was observed. This was attributed to a trap-filling process by the injected carriers. At sufficiently high electric fields, the leakage current obeyed the Child's trap-free square law suggesting the space charge limited current was the dominant mechanism.

  4. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  5. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Clove Oil on Iron in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of iron in hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss as well Scanning electron microscopy study without and with clove oil. The percentage inhibition efficiency increases with increasing clove oil concentration. All the data revel that the oil acts as an excellent inhibitor for the corrosion of iron in HCl solution. Thermodynamic, kinetic parameters and equilibrium constant for adsorption process were calculated from the experimental data. The adsorption of clove oil on experimental metals was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm at all the concentration studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, investigations also indicate that clove oil greatly lowers the dissolution currents.

  6. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  7. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  8. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  9. Inhibition of hormonal and behavioral effects of stress by tryptophan in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sumera; Saleem, Darakhshan; Haleem, Muhammad A; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2017-11-03

    Stress in known to alter hormonal systems. Pharmacological doses of tryptophan, the essential amino acid precursor of serotonin, increase circulating leptin and decrease ghrelin in normal healthy adults. Because systemically injected leptin inhibits stress-induced behavioral deficits and systemically injected serotonin modulates leptin release from the adipocytes, we used tryptophan as a pharmacological tool to modulate hormonal and behavioral responses in unstressed and stressed rats. Leptin, ghrelin, serotonin, tryptophan, and behavior were studied in unstressed and stressed rats following oral administration of 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of tryptophan. Following oral administration of tryptophan at a dose of 300 mg/kg, circulating levels of serotonin and leptin increased and those of ghrelin decreased in unstressed animals. No effect occurred on 24-hours cumulative food intake and elevated plus maze performance. Exposure to 2 hours immobilization stress decreased 24 hours cumulative food intake and impaired performance in elevated plus maze monitored next day. Serum serotonin decreased, leptin increased, and no effect occurred on ghrelin. Stress effects on serotonin, leptin, food intake, and elevated plus maze performance did not occur in tryptophan-pretreated animals. Tryptophan-induced decreases of ghrelin also did not occur in stressed animals. The findings show an important role of serum serotonin, leptin, and ghrelin in responses to stress and suggest that the essential amino acid tryptophan can improve therapeutics in stress-induced hormonal and behavioral disorders.

  10. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  11. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral approach or inhibition, mediates the relationship between stress and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Stress has been associated with poor self-control. Individual differences in impulsivity and other behavioral tendencies may influence the relationship of stress with self-control, although this possibility has not been examined to date. The present research investigated whether cumulative stress is associated with poor self-control, and whether this relationship is mediated by impulsivity, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition in men and women. A community sample of 566 adults (319 women and 247 men) was assessed on the Cumulative Adversity Interview, Brief Self-control Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System Scale (BIS/BAS). Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques. In the total sample, the effects of cumulative stress on self-control were mediated by impulsivity. Neither behavioral inhibition nor behavioral approach mediated the association between cumulative stress and self-control in the total sample. Results were similar when men and women were considered separately, with impulsivity, but not behavioral inhibition or approach, mediating the association between cumulative stress and self-control. Impulsive individuals might benefit preferentially from interventions focusing on stress management and strategies for improving self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced GABAA-Mediated Tonic Inhibition in Auditory Thalamus of Rats with Behavioral Evidence of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametsky, Evgeny A; Turner, Jeremy G; Larsen, Deb; Ling, Lynne; Caspary, Donald M

    2015-06-24

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in the pathology of tinnitus. Opposing hypotheses proposed either a pathologic decrease or increase of GABAergic inhibition in medial geniculate body (MGB). In thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAARs. Given that extrasynaptic GABAARs control the firing mode of thalamocortical neurons, we examined tonic GABAAR currents in MGB neurons in vitro, using the following three groups of adult rats: unexposed control (Ctrl); sound exposed with behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Tin); and sound exposed with no behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Non-T). Tonic GABAAR currents were evoked using the selective agonist gaboxadol. Months after a tinnitus-inducing sound exposure, gaboxadol-evoked tonic GABAAR currents showed significant tinnitus-related increases contralateral to the sound exposure. In situ hybridization studies found increased mRNA levels for GABAAR δ-subunits contralateral to the sound exposure. Tin rats showed significant increases in the number of spikes per burst evoked using suprathreshold-injected current steps. In summary, we found little evidence of tinnitus-related decreases in GABAergic neurotransmission. Tinnitus and chronic pain may reflect thalamocortical dysrhythmia, which results from abnormal theta-range resonant interactions between thalamus and cortex, due to neuronal hyperpolarization and the initiation of low-threshold calcium spike bursts (Walton and Llinás, 2010). In agreement with this hypothesis, we found tinnitus-related increases in tonic extrasynaptic GABAAR currents, in action potentials/evoked bursts, and in GABAAR δ-subunit gene expression. These tinnitus-related changes in GABAergic function may be markers for tinnitus pathology in the MGB. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359369-12$15.00/0.

  13. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale when getting online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated. The subjects were 2,258 college students (1,066 men and 1,192 women). They completed the Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale (BIS/BAS) according to their experience online or offline. Internet addiction, depression, and Internet activity type were evaluated simultaneously. The results showed that reinforcement sensitivity was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer score on BIS and BAS after getting online than did others. The higher reward and aversion sensitivity are associated with the risk of Internet addiction. The fun seeking online might contribute to the maintenance of Internet addiction. This suggests that reinforcement sensitivity would change after getting online and would contribute to the risk and maintenance of Internet addiction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Structures of a bi-functional Kunitz-type STI family inhibitor of serine and aspartic proteases: Could the aspartic protease inhibition have evolved from a canonical serine protease-binding loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Yasel; Valiente, Pedro A; Pons, Tirso; Berry, Colin; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Bi-functional inhibitors from the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family are glycosylated proteins able to inhibit serine and aspartic proteases. Here we report six crystal structures of the wild-type and a non-glycosylated mutant of the bifunctional inhibitor E3Ad obtained at different pH values and space groups. The crystal structures show that E3Ad adopts the typical β-trefoil fold of the STI family exhibiting some conformational changes due to pH variations and crystal packing. Despite the high sequence identity with a recently reported potato cathepsin D inhibitor (PDI), three-dimensional structures obtained in this work show a significant conformational change in the protease-binding loop proposed for aspartic protease inhibition. The E3Ad binding loop for serine protease inhibition is also proposed, based on structural similarity with a novel non-canonical conformation described for the double-headed inhibitor API-A from the Kunitz-type STI family. In addition, structural and sequence analyses suggest that bifunctional inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases from the Kunitz-type STI family are more similar to double-headed inhibitor API-A than other inhibitors with a canonical protease-binding loop. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Investigations of magnetoelectric behavior in BiFe0.95Co0.05O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, V. G.; Gadani, Keval; Rathod, K. N.; Boricha, Hetal; Prajapati, Pooja; Keshvani, M. J.; Kataria, B. R.; Joshi, A. D.; Pandya, D. D.; Shah, N. A.; Solanki, P. S.

    2017-05-01

    Nanophasic BiFe0.95Co0.05O3 (BFCO) particles were synthesized using low cost, easy, simple, environment friendly and low temperature acetate precursor based modified sol-gel method. Influence of particle size and magnetic field on the structural, dielectric, impedance and a.c. conductivity of BFCO is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has been performed to understand the structural modifications in the samples upon increasing the sintering temperature. Crystallite size (CS) increases from 33.62nm to 39.56nm due to agglomeration effect between the smaller crystallites. Effect of sintering temperature on the dielectric, impedance and conductivity has been studied and understood in the context of the creation of crystallite (particle) size and oxygen vacancies created due to high temperature sintering process. Magnetic field induced modifications in all these electrical properties [magnetoelectric (ME) effects] for the presently studied BFCO samples have been discussed on the basis of magnetostriction effect and charge mobility across the Fe-O lattice in the samples.

  17. Tourette-like behaviors in the normal population are associated with hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors but do not relate to deficits in conditioned inhibition or response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eHeym

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (TS present as distinct conditions clinically; however, comorbidity and inhibitory control deficits have been proposed for both. Whilst such deficits have been studied widely within clinical populations, findings are mixed – partly due to comorbidity and/or medication effects - and studies have rarely distinguished between subtypes of the disorders. Studies in the general population are sparse. Using a continuity approach, the present study examined (i the relationships between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD and TS-like behaviors in the general population, and (ii their unique associations with automatic and executive inhibitory control, as well as (iii yawning (a proposed behavioral model of TS. One hundred and thirty-eight participants completed self-report measures for ADHD and TS-like behaviors as well as yawning, and a conditioned inhibition task to assess automatic inhibition. A sub-sample of fifty-four participants completed three executive inhibition tasks. An exploratory factor analysis of the TS behavior checklist supported a distinction between phonic and motor like pure TS behaviors. Whilst hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD were associated with increased pure and compulsive TS-like behaviors, inattention in isolation was related to reduced obsessive-compulsive TS-like behaviors. TS-like behaviors were associated with yawning during situations of inactivity, and specifically motor TS was related to yawning during stress. Phonic TS and inattention aspects of ADHD were associated with yawning during concentration/activity. Whilst executive interference control deficits were linked to hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors, this was not the case for inattentive ADHD or TS-like behaviors, which instead related to increased performance on some measures. No associations were observed for automatic conditioned inhibition.

  18. High-Field Quench Behavior and Protection of $Bi_2 Sr_2 Ca Cu_2 O_x$ Coils: Minimum and Maximum Quench Detection Voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming [Fermilab; Ye, Liyang [NCSU, Raleigh; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Li, Pei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Small insert coils have been built using a multifilamentary Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire, and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage shall be greater than 50 mV to not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increases from ~40 K to ~80 K with increasing the operating wire current density Jo from 89 A/mm2 to 354 A/mm2 whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increases from ~60 K to ~140 K, showing the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing Jo and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to < 1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to access the impact of the maximum allowable voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming to limit the hot spot temperature to <300 K.

  19. High-field quench behavior and dependence of hot spot temperature on quench detection voltage threshold in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Tengming; Ye, Liyang; Turrioni, Daniele; Li, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Small insert solenoids have been built using a multifilamentary Ag/Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x round wire insulated with a mullite sleeve (∼100 μm in thickness) and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage should be greater than 50 mV in order not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increased from ∼40–∼80 K while increasing the operating wire current density J o from 89 A mm −2 to 354 A mm −2 , whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increased from ∼60–∼140 K. This shows the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing J o and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to <1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to assess the impact of the maximum allowable detection voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming a limit of the hot spot temperature to <300 K. (paper)

  20. In-situ synthesis of nanofibers with various ratios of BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z} for effective trichloroethylene photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifan [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mira [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Yong [Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ding, Bin [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z}/PAN fibers were synthesized by in-situ method. • Photodegradation behavior of BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z}/PAN fibers was measured under solar light irradiation. • BiOCl{sub 0.3}/BiOBr{sub 0.3}/BiOI{sub 0.4}/PAN fibers exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. • Photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this work, BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z} (x + y + z = 1) composite nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning and the sol-gel methods. Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z}/PAN nanofibers was systematically investigated via gas chromatography (GC). Optimum photocatalytic activity was achieved with BiOCl{sub 0.3}/BiOBr{sub 0.3}/BiOI{sub 0.4} fibers under solar light irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) peaks due to C−O and C=O were observed at 286.0 and 288.3 eV, respectively, it indicated that the BiOCl{sub x}/BiOBr{sub y}/BiOI{sub z} mixture had been successfully doped on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results also confirmed that we had synthesized the as-prepared composite nanofibers successfully. Photocatalytic activities of BiOCl{sub 0.3}/BiOBr{sub 0.3}/BiOI{sub 0.4} were up to 3 times higher than the pure BiOCl, BiOBr and BiOI samples, respectively.

  1. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behavior of Sn-Bi Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced with NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Strips Under Flexural Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poormir, Mohammad Amin; Khalili, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    Utilizing intelligent materials such as shape memory alloys as reinforcement in metal matrix composites is a novel method to mimic self-healing behavior. In this study, the bending behavior of a self-healing metal matrix composite made from Sn-13 wt.% Bi alloy as matrix and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) strips as reinforcement is investigated. Specimens were fabricated in different reinforcement vol.% (0.78, 1.55, 2.33) and in various pre-strains (0, 2, 6%) and were healed at three healing temperatures (170°C, 180°C, 190°C). Results showed that shape recovery was accomplished in all the specimens, but not all of them were able to withstand second loading after healing. Only specimens with 2.33 vol.% of SMA strips, 1.55 vol.% of SMA, and 6% pre-strain could endure bending force after healing, and they gained 35.31-51.83% of bending force self-healing efficiency.

  2. Inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase attenuates food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Garretson, John T; Hwang, Yousang; Cole, Philip A; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach in direct proportion to the time since the last meal and has therefore been called a 'hunger signal'. The octanoylation of ghrelin is critical for its orexigenic functions and is dependent upon ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) catalyzation. The GOAT inhibitor, GO-CoA-Tat, decreases the circulating concentrations of octanoylated ghrelin and attenuates weight gain on a high fat diet in mice. Unlike rats and mice, Siberian hamsters and humans do not increase food intake after food deprivation, but increase food hoarding after food deprivation. In Siberian hamsters, exogenous ghrelin increases ingestive behaviors similarly to 48-56 h food deprivation. Therefore, we tested the necessity of increased ghrelin in food-deprived Siberian hamsters to stimulate ingestive behaviors. To do so we used our simulated natural housing system that allows hamsters to forage for and hoard food. Animals were given an injection of GO-CoA-Tat (i.p., 11 μmol/kg) every 6h because that is the duration of its effective inhibition of octanoylated ghrelin concentrations during a 48 h food deprivation. We found that GO-CoA-Tat attenuated food foraging (0-1h), food intake (0-1 and 2-4h), and food hoarding (0-1h and 2 and 3 days) post-refeeding compared with saline treated animals. This suggests that increased octanoylated ghrelin concentrations play a role in the food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behavior. Therefore, ghrelin is a critical aspect of the multi-faceted mechanisms that stimulate ingestive behaviors, and might be a critical point for a successful clinical intervention scheme in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caspase inhibition in select olfactory neurons restores innate attraction behavior in aged Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Chihara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and cognitive performance decline with age. Neural dysfunction caused by nerve death in senile dementia and neurodegenerative disease has been intensively studied; however, functional changes in neural circuits during the normal aging process are not well understood. Caspases are key regulators of cell death, a hallmark of age-related neurodegeneration. Using a genetic probe for caspase-3-like activity (DEVDase activity, we have mapped age-dependent neuronal changes in the adult brain throughout the lifespan of Drosophila. Spatio-temporally restricted caspase activation was observed in the antennal lobe and ellipsoid body, brain structures required for olfaction and visual place memory, respectively. We also found that caspase was activated in an age-dependent manner in specific subsets of Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, Or42b and Or92a neurons. These neurons are essential for mediating innate attraction to food-related odors. Furthermore, age-induced impairments of neural transmission and attraction behavior could be reversed by specific inhibition of caspase in these ORNs, indicating that caspase activation in Or42b and Or92a neurons is responsible for altering animal behavior during normal aging.

  4. Caspase inhibition in select olfactory neurons restores innate attraction behavior in aged Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takahiro; Kitabayashi, Aki; Morimoto, Michie; Takeuchi, Ken-ichi; Masuyama, Kaoru; Tonoki, Ayako; Davis, Ronald L; Wang, Jing W; Miura, Masayuki

    2014-06-01

    Sensory and cognitive performance decline with age. Neural dysfunction caused by nerve death in senile dementia and neurodegenerative disease has been intensively studied; however, functional changes in neural circuits during the normal aging process are not well understood. Caspases are key regulators of cell death, a hallmark of age-related neurodegeneration. Using a genetic probe for caspase-3-like activity (DEVDase activity), we have mapped age-dependent neuronal changes in the adult brain throughout the lifespan of Drosophila. Spatio-temporally restricted caspase activation was observed in the antennal lobe and ellipsoid body, brain structures required for olfaction and visual place memory, respectively. We also found that caspase was activated in an age-dependent manner in specific subsets of Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), Or42b and Or92a neurons. These neurons are essential for mediating innate attraction to food-related odors. Furthermore, age-induced impairments of neural transmission and attraction behavior could be reversed by specific inhibition of caspase in these ORNs, indicating that caspase activation in Or42b and Or92a neurons is responsible for altering animal behavior during normal aging.

  5. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  6. The aging motor system as a model for plastic changes of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition and their behavioral relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Kirstin-F; Zimerman, Maximo; Hoppe, Julia; Gerloff, Christian; Wegscheider, Karl; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2013-05-22

    Since GABAA-mediated intracortical inhibition has been shown to underlie plastic changes throughout the lifespan from development to aging, here, the aging motor system was used as a model to analyze the interdependence of plastic alterations within the inhibitory motorcortical network and level of behavioral performance. Double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (dpTMS) was used to examine inhibition by means of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex in a sample of 64 healthy right-handed human subjects covering a wide range of the adult lifespan (age range 20-88 years, mean 47.6 ± 20.7, 34 female). SICI was evaluated during resting state and in an event-related condition during movement preparation in a visually triggered simple reaction time task. In a subgroup (N = 23), manual motor performance was tested with tasks of graded dexterous demand. Weak resting-state inhibition was associated with an overall lower manual motor performance. Better event-related modulation of inhibition correlated with better performance in more demanding tasks, in which fast alternating activation of cortical representations are necessary. Declining resting-state inhibition was associated with weakened event-related modulation of inhibition. Therefore, reduced resting-state inhibition might lead to a subsequent loss of modulatory capacity, possibly reflecting malfunctioning precision in GABAAergic neurotransmission; the consequence is an inevitable decline in motor function.

  7. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  8. GABAergic inhibition of leg motoneurons is required for normal walking behavior in freely moving Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Swetha B M; Paranjpe, Pushkar D; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Thiagarajan, Devasena; Palliyil, Sudhir; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2018-02-27

    Walking is a complex rhythmic locomotor behavior generated by sequential and periodical contraction of muscles essential for coordinated control of movements of legs and leg joints. Studies of walking in vertebrates and invertebrates have revealed that premotor neural circuitry generates a basic rhythmic pattern that is sculpted by sensory feedback and ultimately controls the amplitude and phase of the motor output to leg muscles. However, the identity and functional roles of the premotor interneurons that directly control leg motoneuron activity are poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the powerful genetic methodology available in Drosophila to investigate the role of premotor inhibition in walking by genetically suppressing inhibitory input to leg motoneurons. For this, we have developed an algorithm for automated analysis of leg motion to characterize the walking parameters of wild-type flies from high-speed video recordings. Further, we use genetic reagents for targeted RNAi knockdown of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in leg motoneurons together with quantitative analysis of resulting changes in leg movement parameters in freely walking Drosophila Our findings indicate that targeted down-regulation of the GABA A receptor Rdl (Resistance to Dieldrin) in leg motoneurons results in a dramatic reduction of walking speed and step length without the loss of general leg coordination during locomotion. Genetically restricting the knockdown to the adult stage and subsets of motoneurons yields qualitatively identical results. Taken together, these findings identify GABAergic premotor inhibition of motoneurons as an important determinant of correctly coordinated leg movements and speed of walking in freely behaving Drosophila . Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Relations among behavioral inhibition, shame- and guilt-proneness, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Bouwman, Leanne; Notermans, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition (as an index of anxiety proneness), and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children aged 8-13 years (N = 126), using children's self-report data. Results showed that there were positive and significant correlations between shame and guilt, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms. When controlling for the overlap between shame and guilt, it was found that shame (but not guilt) remained significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety proneness and anxiety symptoms. Further, when controlling for the effect of behavioral inhibition, shame still accounted for a significant proportion of the variance of total anxiety and generalized anxiety scores. For these anxiety problems, support emerged for a model in which shame acted as a partial mediator in the relation between behavioral inhibition and anxiety. These results indicate that the self-conscious emotion of shame is a robust correlate of anxiety pathology in children.

  10. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigations on the electrodeposition behaviors of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin film from nitric acid baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Feihui; Huang Qinghua; Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction process of Bi 3+ , HTeO 2 + , Sb III and their mixtures in nitric acid medium was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The reduction products electrodeposited at various potentials were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that cathodic process in the nitric acid solution containing Bi 3+ , HTeO 2 + and Sb III involves the following reduction reactions in different polarizing potential ranges: In low polarizing potential ranges, Te 0 is formed firstly on the electrode surface through the electrochemical reduction of HTeO 2 + ; with the negative shift of the cathodic polarizing potential, the reduction reaction of Bi 3+ with Te 0 to form Bi 2 Te 3 takes place; when the cathodic polarizing potential is negative enough, Bi 3+ and Sb III react with Te 0 to form Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 . The results indicate that Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 films can be fabricated by controlling the electrodepositing potential in a proper high potential ranges.

  12. Study of the structure and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita, E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007 (India); Goyal, Parveen K. [Department of Physics, ARSD College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Thakur, O. P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material. The distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics have been revealed through Raman spectroscopy. At lower value of x, it is seen that La{sup 3+} ions prefer to substitute A-site Bi{sup 3+} ions in the perovskite layers while for higher x values, La{sup 3+} ions get incorporated into the (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers. A critical La content of x ∼ 0.2 in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} is seen to exhibit a large remnant polarization (P{sub r}) with low coercive field (E{sub c}). The improvement in the ferroelectric properties of La substituted BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of lanthanum ion.

  13. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  14. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  15. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejin Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP. Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854 aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52; participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS, the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS. In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use. We analyzed the data in three steps: (1 identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2 deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN, and (3 computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female, weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

  16. Inhibition in Parkinson’s disease: A focus on prepulse inhibition and Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: α-synucleinopathies are characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway and midbrain dopamine function. These disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are associated with sensorimotor gating deficits and show an increased prevalence of the parasomnia REM sleep...... with daytime motor function in Parkinsonism, the relation to the increased motor activity during REM sleep as seen in RBD is unclear. Aim: The objective of this thesis was 1) to examine prepulse inhibition of the acoustic blink reflex in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD), Parkinson...... in the striatum. Moreover, our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep in iRBD is associated with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, while EMG-activity during REM-sleep in PD is associated with dopaminergic medication....

  17. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  18. Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: the role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Wiers, Reinout W; Monshouwer, Karin; van de Schoot, Rens; Janssen, Tim; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between automatic processes and drinking behavior in relation to individual differences in response inhibition in young adolescents who had just started drinking. It was hypothesized that strong automatic behavioral tendencies toward alcohol-related stimuli (alcohol-approach bias) were associated with higher levels of alcohol use, especially amongst adolescents with relatively weak inhibition skills. To test this hypothesis structural equation analyses (standard error of mean) were performed using a zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. A well-known problem in studying risk behavior is the low incidence rate resulting in a zero dominated distribution. A ZIP-model accounts for non-normality of the data. Adolescents were selected from secondary Special Education schools (a risk group for the development of substance use problems). Participants were 374 adolescents (mean age of M = 13.6 years). Adolescents completed the alcohol approach avoidance task (a-AAT), the Stroop colour naming task (Stroop) and a questionnaire that assessed alcohol use. The ZIP-model established stronger alcohol-approach tendencies for adolescent drinkers (P processes are associated with the drinking behavior of young, at-risk adolescents. It appears that alcohol-approach tendencies are formed shortly after the initiation of drinking and particularly affect the drinking behavior of adolescents with relatively weak inhibition skills. Implications for the prevention of problem drinking in adolescents are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. The collective benefits of feeling good and letting go: positive emotion and (dis)inhibition interact to predict cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Kraft-Todd, Gordon; Gruber, June

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process) and positive emotion (an intuitive process) in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218) or during (Study 2, N = 236) the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion). Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing) may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.

  20. BiP Negatively Affects Ricin Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Sandvig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The AB plant toxin ricin binds both glycoproteins and glycolipids at the cell surface via its B subunit. After binding, ricin is endocytosed and then transported retrogradely through the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the ER, the A subunit is retrotranslocated to the cytosol in a chaperone-dependent process, which is not fully explored. Recently two separate siRNA screens have demonstrated that ER chaperones have implications for ricin toxicity. ER associated degradation (ERAD involves translocation of misfolded proteins from ER to cytosol and it is conceivable that protein toxins exploit this pathway. The ER chaperone BiP is an important ER regulator and has been implicated in toxicity mediated by cholera and Shiga toxin. In this study, we have investigated the role of BiP in ricin translocation to the cytosol. We first show that overexpression of BiP inhibited ricin translocation and protected cells against the toxin. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of BiP enhanced toxin translocation resulting in increased cytotoxicity. BiP-dependent inhibition of ricin toxicity was independent of ER stress. Our findings suggest that in contrast to what was shown with the Shiga toxin, the presence of BiP does not facilitate, but rather inhibits the entry of ricin into the cytosol.

  1. The personality trait of behavioral inhibition modulates perceptions of moral character and performance during the trust game: behavioral results and computational modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen L. Radell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Decisions based on trust are critical for human social interaction. We judge the trustworthiness of partners in social interactions based on a number of partner characteristics as well as experiences with those partners. These decisions are also influenced by personality. The current study examined how the personality trait of behavioral inhibition, which involves the tendency to avoid or withdraw from novelty in both social and non-social situations, is related to explicit ratings of trustworthiness as well as decisions made in the trust game. In the game, healthy young adults interacted with three fictional partners who were portrayed as trustworthy, untrustworthy or neutral through biographical information. Participants could choose to keep $1 or send $3 of virtual money to a partner. The partner could then choose to send $1.5 back to the participant or to keep the entire amount. On any trial in which the participant chose to send, the partner always reciprocated with 50% probability, irrespective of how that partner was portrayed in the biography. Behavioral inhibition was assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Finally, a reinforcement learning computational model was fit to the behavior of each participant. Self-reported ratings of trust confirmed that all participants, irrespective of behavioral inhibition, perceived differences in the moral character of the three partners (trustworthiness of good > neutral > bad partner. Decisions made in the game showed that inhibited participants tended to trust the neutral partner less than uninhibited participants. In contrast, this was not reflected in the ratings of the neutral partner (either pre- or post-game, indicating a dissociation between ratings of trustworthiness and decisions made by inhibited participants. Computational modeling showed that this was due to lower initial trust of the neutral partner rather than a higher learning rate associated with loss, suggesting an implicit bias

  2. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors to Oral-Dental Health Behavior in Adolescents: a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral-dental diseases, especially tooth decay, are among the most common diseases in the world which usually begin in adolescence. Oral health during this period of life has a huge impact on the reduction of dental problems. This study aimed to determine motivating and inhibiting factors to oral-dental health behavior in adolescents. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional which had a descriptive and analytical design was conducted on 10-12th grade students in Kashan city, Iran. Using multi-stage sampling method and based on sampling size formula, a total of 290 of the students were randomly selected from the schools and were enrolled into the study. Then they received a research-made questionnaire containing questions about the knowledge and motivating and inhibiting factors to oral-dental health behavior. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS V.20 by independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Of all, 62.8% of students brushed their teeth at least once a day. Moreover, 11.7% used dental floss once a day and 6.6% visited a dentist every six months. Oral-dental health behavior had a significant relationship with gender (P0.05. Conclusion When designing educational plans and interventions for improving oral-dental health behavior in students, it is necessary to adopt measures to enhance motivating factors and eliminate inhibiting factors.

  3. Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohanich, G P; Cada, D A

    1989-12-01

    Androgens have been found to inhibit lordosis activated by estrogen treatment of ovariectomized female rats. In the present experiments, dihydrotestosterone propionate (200 micrograms for 3 days) inhibited the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (1 microgram for 3 days). This inhibition of lordosis was reversed 15 min after bilateral intraventricular infusion of physostigmine (10 micrograms/cannula), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or carbachol (0.5 microgram/cannula), a cholinergic receptor agonist. This reversal of inhibition appears to be mediated by cholinergic muscarinic receptors since pretreatment with scopolamine (4 mg/kg, ip), a muscarinic receptor blocker, prevented the reversal of androgen inhibition by physostigmine. These results indicate that androgens may inhibit estrogen-activated lordosis through interference with central cholinergic muscarinic mechanisms.

  4. Large-scale label-free comparative proteomics analysis of polo-like kinase 1 inhibition via the small-molecule inhibitor BI 6727 (Volasertib) in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Brian D; Pellitteri-Hahn, Molly C; Scarlett, Cameron O; Ahmad, Nihal

    2014-11-07

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role during the cell cycle by regulating mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Plk1 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and is essential to sustained oncogenic proliferation, thus making Plk1 an attractive therapeutic target. However, the clinical efficacy of Plk1 inhibition has not emulated the preclinical success, stressing an urgent need for a better understanding of Plk1 signaling. This study addresses that need by utilizing a quantitative proteomics strategy to compare the proteome of BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells following treatment with the Plk1-specific inhibitor BI 6727. Employing label-free nano-LC-MS/MS technology on a Q-exactive followed by SIEVE processing, we identified more than 20 proteins of interest, many of which have not been previously associated with Plk1 signaling. Here we report the down-regulation of multiple metabolic proteins with an associated decrease in cellular metabolism, as assessed by lactate and NAD levels. Furthermore, we have also identified the down-regulation of multiple proteasomal subunits, resulting in a significant decrease in 20S proteasome activity. Additionally, we have identified a novel association between Plk1 and p53 through heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNPC), thus providing valuable insight into Plk1's role in cancer cell survival.

  5. Corrosion behavior of Al-Fe-sputtering-coated steel, high chromium steels, refractory metals and ceramics in high temperature Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khalid, Rivai; Minoru, Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion tests of Al-Fe-coated steel, high chromium steels, refractory metals and ceramics were carried out in high temperature Pb-Bi at 700 C degrees. Oxygen concentrations in this experiment were 6.8*10 -7 wt.% for Al-Fe-coated steels and 5*10 -6 wt.% for high chromium steels, refractory metals and ceramics. All specimens were immersed in molten Pb-Bi in a corrosion test pot for 1.000 hours. Coating was done with using the unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) technique to protect the steel from corrosion. Sputtering targets were Al and SUS-304. Al-Fe alloy was coated on STBA26 samples. The Al-Fe alloy-coated layer could be a good protection layer on the surface of steel. The whole of the Al-Fe-coated layer still remained on the base surface of specimen. No penetration of Pb-Bi into this layer and the matrix of the specimen. For high chromium steels i.e. SUS430 and Recloy10, the oxide layer formed in the early time could not prevent the penetration of Pb-Bi into the base of the steels. Refractory metals of tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) had high corrosion resistance with no penetration of Pb-Bi into their matrix. Penetration of Pb-Bi into the matrix of niobium (Nb) was observed. Ceramic materials were SiC and Ti 3 SiC 2 . The ceramic materials of SiC and Ti 3 SiC 2 had high corrosion resistance with no penetration of Pb-Bi into their matrix. (authors)

  6. Behavioral Inhibition System activity is associated with increased amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volume: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrós-Loscertales, A; Meseguer, V; Sanjuán, A; Belloch, V; Parcet, M A; Torrubia, R; Avila, C

    2006-11-15

    Recent research has examined anxiety and hyperactivity in the amygdala and the anterior hippocampus while processing aversive stimuli. In order to determine whether these functional differences have a structural basis, optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to study the relationship between gray matter concentration in the brain and scores on a Behavioral Inhibition System measure (the Sensitivity to Punishment scale) in a sample of 63 male undergraduates. Results showed a positive correlation between Sensitivity to Punishment scores and gray matter volume in the amygdala and the hippocampal formation, that is, in areas that Gray, J.A., and McNaughton, N.J. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications. associated with the Behavioral Inhibition System.

  7. Investigation on magnetoelectric behavior of (80Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-20Bi0.5K0.5TiO3)-CoFe2O4 particulate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Yan, Shuoqing; Yao, Lingling; He, Jun; He, Longhui; Hu, Zhaowen; Huang, Shengxiang; Deng, Lianwen

    2017-12-01

    Particulate magnetoelectric (ME) ceramics constituted by (1-x)(80Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-20Bi0.5K0.5TiO3)-xCoFe2O4 [(1-x)BNKT-xCFO] (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 1.0) were synthesized by an powder-in-sol precursor hybrid processing method and their structure, magnetic, ferroelectric, magnetodielectric (MD) and ME properties have been investigated. Results showed that the ceramics consisted of only two chemically separated phases and had homogeneous microstructure. The introduction of CFO into BNKT matrix led to the weakening of ferroelectric and dielectric properties whereas the strengthening magnetic and MD properties. The observation of the MD effect revealed the evidence of the strain-induced ME coupling and the MD value is well scaled with M2. A maximum value of ME output of 25.07 mV/cm·Oe was achieved for the 0.7BNKT-0.3CFO composite. The improved ME response together with the linear MD effect makes the ceramics promise for use in magnetic field controllable devices or magneto-electric transducers.

  8. Early childhood behavioral inhibition, adult psychopathology and the buffering effects of adolescent social networks: a twenty-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Fox, Nathan A; Pine, Daniel S; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether the temperament of behavioral inhibition is a significant marker for psychopathology in early adulthood and whether such risk is buffered by peer social networks. Participants (N = 165) were from a prospective study spanning the first two decades of life. Temperament was characterized during infancy and early childhood. Extent of involvement in peer social networks was measured during adolescence, and psychopathology was assessed in early adulthood. Latent Class Analyses generated comprehensive variables at each of three study time-points. Regressions assessed (a) the direct effect of early behavioral inhibition on adult psychopathology (b) the moderating effect of adolescent involvement in social peer networks on the link between temperamental risk and adult psychopathology. Stable behavioral inhibition in early childhood was negatively associated with adult mental health (R(2 ) = .07, p = .005, β = -.26), specifically increasing risk for adult anxiety disorders (R(2) = .04, p = .037, β = .19). These temperament-pathology relations were significantly moderated by adolescent peer group social involvement and network size (Total R(2) = .13, p = .027, β = -.22). Temperament predicted heightened risk for adult anxiety when adolescent social involvement was low (p = .002, β = .43), but not when adolescent social involvement was high. Stable behavioral inhibition throughout early childhood is a risk factor for adult anxiety disorders and interacts with adolescent social involvement to moderate risk. This is the first study to demonstrate the critical role of adolescent involvement in socially active networks in moderating long-lasting temperamental risk over the course of two decades, thus informing prevention/intervention approaches. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tilman J; Dingerkus, Vita L S; Crockett, Molly J; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Helmbold, Katrin; Sánchez, Cristina L; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Zepf, Florian D

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight-adjusted depletion protocol. Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years) were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL) in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood-brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja-De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults.

  10. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman J. Gaber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. Objective: This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight–adjusted depletion protocol. Design: Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Results: Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood–brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja–De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults.

  11. Music therapy inhibits morphine-seeking behavior via GABA receptor and attenuates anxiety-like behavior induced by extinction from chronic morphine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jin; Lee, Sang Nam; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2018-05-01

    Morphine is a representative pain killer. However, repeated use tends to induce addiction. Music therapy has been gaining interest as a useful type of therapy for neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study examined whether Korean traditional music (KT) could suppress morphine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior induced by extinction from chronic morphine use and additionally investigated a possible neuronal mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer morphine hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg) using a fixed ratio 1 schedule in daily 2 h session during 3 weeks. After training, rats who established baseline (variation less than 20% of the mean of infusion for 3 consecutive days) underwent extinction. Music was played twice a day during extinction. In the second experiment, the selective antagonists of GABA A and GABA B receptors were treated before the last playing to investigate the neuronal mechanism focusing on the GABA receptor pathway. Another experiment of elevated plus maze was performed to investigate whether music therapy has an anxiolytic effect at the extinction phase. KT but not other music (Indian road or rock music) reduced morphine-seeking behavior induced by a priming challenge with morphine. And, this effect was blocked by the GABA receptor antagonists. In addition, KT showed anxiolytic effects against withdrawal from morphine. Results of this study suggest that KT suppresses morphine-seeking behavior via GABA receptor pathway. In addition, KT showed to have anxiolytic effects, suggesting it has bi-directional effects on morphine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. fMRI investigation of response inhibition, emotion, impulsivity, and clinical high-risk behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew R G; Benoit, James R A; Juhás, Michal; Dametto, Ericson; Tse, Tiffanie T; MacKay, Marnie; Sen, Bhaskar; Carroll, Alan M; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Silverstone, Peter H; Dolcos, Florin; Dursun, Serdar M; Greenshaw, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14-17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents.

  13. An Attitude Strength and Self-Perception Framework Regarding the Bi-directional Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Extra-Role and In-Role Behavior: The Doubly Moderating Role of Work Centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior.

  14. An Attitude Strength and Self-Perception Framework Regarding the Bi-directional Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Extra-Role and In-Role Behavior: The Doubly Moderating Role of Work Centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior. PMID:26973556

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BI-RADS: Its Influence on the Diagnosis, behavior of Doctors and Patients Who have been Imaged in a Center of the City of Ibague (Colombia),2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Cordoba, Alma Patricia; Lopez Rivera, Ricardo; Rodriguez Avila, Diana

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the Breast Imaging Report and Database System (BI-RADS) on the behavior of radiologists, general medics, and users. Methods: Descriptive,correlative, and retrospective quantitative study of 6.389 examinations conducted between 2002 and 2004, and registered in the database (presented at the Colombian Conference of Radiology in 1998). The sample consisted of 281 patients; the error margin was 3%. Results:The average age of the women studied was 52 years. 84,7% of them were from Ibague; from social strata 3 and 4. The reason for consultation was mastalgy (24,91%), mass (24,20%), and prevention (23,13%). The radiologists found mammary density (25% to 50%) in 117 persons.Conclusion: An aging and sedentary female population with good access to the health care system was found. Most of them requested consultation because they had symptoms. The radiologists followed the criteria of BI-RADS classification whose diagnostic certainty was found adequate. Medical conducts for BI-RADS 4 and 5 were carried out. Few users changed their habits after the study and management. The diagnosis of breast cancer happens in advanced stages; there are few pathological findings of carcinoma in situ.

  17. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  18. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  19. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.

  20. Adolescent development of inhibition as a function of SES and gender: Converging evidence from behavior and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Galarce, Ezequiel M; Ladouceur, Cecile D; McMakin, Dana L; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Silk, Jennifer S; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-08-01

    The ability to adaptively inhibit responses to tempting/distracting stimuli in the pursuit of goals is an essential set of skills necessary for adult competence and wellbeing. These inhibitory capacities develop throughout childhood, with growing evidence of important maturational changes occurring in adolescence. There also has been intense interest in the role of social adversity on the development of executive function, including inhibitory control. We hypothesized that the onset of adolescence could be a time of particular opportunity/vulnerability in the development of inhibition due to the large degree of maturational changes in neural systems involved in regulatory control. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal study of adolescents by examining the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the maturation of inhibition and concurrent brain function. Furthermore, we examined gender as a potential moderator of this relationship, given evidence of gender-specificity in the developmental pathways of inhibition as well as sex differences in adolescent development. Results reveal that lower SES is associated with worse behavioral inhibition over time and a concurrent increase in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, but only in girls. We also found that lower SES girls exhibited decreased ACC ↔ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) coupling over time. Our findings suggest that female adolescents with lower SES appear to develop less efficient inhibitory processing in dlPFC, requiring greater and relatively unsuccessful compensatory recruitment of ACC. In summary, the present study provides a novel window into the neural mechanisms by which the influence of SES on inhibition may be transmitted during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Adolescent Development of Inhibition as a Function of SES & Gender: Converging Evidence from Behavior & fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; McMakin, Dana L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to adaptively inhibit responses to tempting/distracting stimuli in the pursuit of goals is an essential set of skills necessary for adult competence and wellbeing. These inhibitory capacities develop throughout childhood, with growing evidence of important maturational changes occurring in adolescence. There also has been intense interest in the role of social adversity on the development of executive function, including inhibitory control. We hypothesized that the onset of adolescence could be a time of particular opportunity/vulnerability in the development of inhibition due to the large degree of maturational changes in neural systems involved in regulatory control. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal study of adolescents by examining the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the maturation of inhibition and concurrent brain function. Furthermore, we examined gender as a potential moderator of this relationship, given evidence of gender-specificity in the developmental pathways of inhibition as well as sex differences in adolescent development. Results reveal that lower SES is associated with worse behavioral inhibition over time and a concurrent increase in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, but only in girls. We also found that lower SES girls exhibited decreased ACC↔dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) coupling over time. Our findings suggest that female adolescents with lower SES appear to develop less efficient inhibitory processing in dlPFC, requiring greater and relatively unsuccessful compensatory recruitment of ACC. In summary, the present study provides a novel window into the neural mechanisms by which the influence of SES on inhibition may be transmitted during adolescence. PMID:26010995

  2. Preparation and Faraday rotation of Bi-YIG/PMMA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H. P.; Hong, R. Y.; Wu, Y. J.; Di, G. Q.; Xu, B.; Zheng, Y.; Wei, D. G.

    Bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi-YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by coprecipitation and subsequent heating treatment. Thermal gravity-differential thermal analysis was performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the Bi-YIG precursors and to decide the best annealing temperature. Phase formation of garnet NPs was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. The size of Bi-YIG NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and the magnetic properties of Bi-YIG NPs were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the temperature needed for the transformation of Bi-YIG from the amorphous phase to the garnet phase decreases with increasing Bi content, and Bi-YIG NPs with sizes of 28-78 nm are obtained after heating treatment at 650-1000 °C. The saturation magnetization of Bi-YIG NPs increases as the Bi content increases. Moreover, the Faraday rotation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slices doped with Bi-YIG NPs was investigated. The results indicate that the angle of Faraday rotation increases with increasing Bi content in PMMA composites, and the maximum value of the figure of merit is 1.46°, which is comparable to the value of a sputtered film. The Bi-YIG NPs-doped PMMA slices are new promising materials for magneto-optical devices.

  3. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...... comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expressiondata. Brief. Bioinform., 14:279-292.) and compared Bi-Force against eight existing tools: FABIA, QUBIC, Cheng and Church, Plaid, BiMax, Spectral, xMOTIFs and ISA. To this end, a suite of synthetic datasets as well as nine large gene expression...

  4. High photocatalytic performance of BiOI/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} toward toluene and Reactive Brilliant Red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Huiquan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui Yumin, E-mail: cuiyumin0908@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China); Hong Wenshan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang 236041 (China)

    2013-01-01

    obviously higher UV and visible light photocatalytic activities than commercial P25, pure Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and BiOI, for the photodegradation of toluene and X-3B. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to the fact that the proper BiOI sensitized nano-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} increase its BET surface area, decrease band-gap energy, enhance absorption in the 380-600 nm region and inhibit the recombination of photo-induced carriers.

  5. SQUID picovoltometry of single crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+delta) - Observation of the crossover from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature vortex-glass behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, H.; Gammel, P. L.; Bishop, D. J.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1992-04-01

    A SQUID voltmeter has been used to measure current-voltage curves in untwinned crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+delta) as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The data show a clear crossover from high-temperature Arrhenius behavior to a critical region associated with the low-temperature three-dimensional vortex-glass phase transition. The critical exponents v(z - 1) = 7 +/- 1 in this system are in accord with theoretical models and previous measurements in YBa2Cu3O7. The width of the critical region collapses below 2 T, reflecting the changing role of dimensionality with field.

  6. A Comparison of Behavioral Inhibition/ Activation System, Type D and Optimism in the Breast Cancer Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alipoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Nowadays, the role and importance of psychosocial factors on physical health, as well as the influence of personality characteristics in having psychosomatic diseases such as cancer are of interest to many researchers. In spite of increase in breast cancer in Iran, very few studies have been carried out on risk factors of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative Behavioral inhibition / Activation System, type D and optimism in the breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. Methods: In the present casual-comparative study, 190 people (95 Patients and 95 Normal Subjects were selected in Rasht, Iran. Moreover, the groups were matched for demographic characteristics (age, gender and education. All individuals diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Normal Subjects received a Gary-Wilson Personality Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test and Type D Personality Scale. Collected data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and regression. Results: The findings revealed that there were significant differences between cancer and normal groups in behavioral inhibition/activation system, type D Personality and optimism. In this regard, the Breast Cancer group had higher scores subscales of negative affect, social inhibition, passive avoidance, extinction and fight-flight than normal group. In addition, subscales of approach, active avoidance and optimism in the normal group were more than the Breast Cancer group. Conclusion: The present study supported the role of psychological variables in breast cancer patients which is essential for improving patients’ health and quality of life.

  7. Examination of the Relationship of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation, Behavioral Activation and Behavioral Inhibition System in the Prediction of Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Amiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anxiety has a significant impact on academic and social performance as well as quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between brain/behavioral systems and difficulties in emotion regulation with cognitive and physical aspects of social anxiety. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 306 students were selected from the student population of the Urmia University using multistage cluster sampling. Data collection was performed using measuring scales of social anxiety dimensions, behavioral activation and inhibition system, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, correlation, simultaneous multiple regression analysis, and t-test analysis. Results: In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between behavioral inhibition system and social anxiety dimensions (p<0.001, Also, examination of the relationships of difficulties in emotion regulation and social anxiety indicated a significant positive correlation between difficulties in emotion regulation and social anxiety (p<0.001. In the comparison between women and men in terms of social anxiety components, both groups were different in cognitive dimension of social anxiety, so that the women obtained higher scores than men in the cognitive dimensions. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, individual differences in using negative emotion regulation strategies and personality traits play an important role in the onset and maintenance of anxiety.

  8. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  9. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Emergence of Self-Referential and Inhibition Mechanisms of Body Movements Underling Felicitous Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hama; Homae, Fumitaka; Taga, Gentaro

    2011-01-01

    In young infants, activation or inhibition of body movements on perception of environmental events is important to enable them to act on the world or understand the world. To reveal the development of this ability, we observed movement patterns in all four limbs under the two experimental conditions. Infants assigned to the interaction condition…

  11. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  12. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  13. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi{sub 4+δ}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita, E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com, E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com; Goyal, Parveen K., E-mail: mails4anita@gmail.com, E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007 (India); Thakur, O. P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4+δ}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (T{sub m}) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (P{sub r} ~ 12.5  µC/cm{sup 2}), low coercive fields (E{sub c} ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  14. Study of the structure, dielectric and ferroelectric behavior of BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Sreenivas, K.; Thakur, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and ferroelectric properties of excess bismuth doped barium bismuth titanate BaBi_4_+_δTi_4O_1_5 (δ = 2 - 10 wt.%)) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of a single phase material with a change in the orthorhombic distortion with varying excess of bismuth content. There is no change in the phase transition temperature (T_m) while the relaxor behaviour has been modified significantly with excess of bismuth doping. Saturated hysteresis loops with high remnant polarization (P_r ~ 12.5  µC/cm"2), low coercive fields (E_c ~ 26 kV/cm) are measured and a high piezoelectric coefficient (d_3_3 ~ 29 pC/N) is achieved in poled BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics prepared with up to 8 wt.% of excess bismuth oxide. The improvement in the ferroelectric properties with increase in the excess bismuth content in BaBi_4Ti_4O_1_5 ceramics has been explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation. Tunable ferroelectric materials can be obtained by manipulating the doping amount of excess bismuth.

  15. Asymmetrical frontal resting-state beta oscillations predict trait aggressive tendencies and behavioral inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Dennis; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetrical patterns of frontal cortical activity have been implicated in the development and expression of aggressive behavior. Along with individual motivational tendencies, the ability to restrain one's impulses might be a factor in aggressive behavior. Recently, a role for the inhibitory cortical beta rhythm was suggested. The present study investigated whether individual differences in resting state asymmetries in the beta frequency band were associated with trait aggression and behavio...

  16. Does marriage inhibit antisocial behavior?: An examination of selection vs causation via a longitudinal twin design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra; Donnellan, M Brent; Humbad, Mikhila N; Hicks, Brian M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that marriage is negatively associated with male antisocial behavior. Although often interpreted as a causal association, marriage is not a random event. As such, the association may stem from selection processes, whereby men less inclined toward antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. To evaluate selection vs causation explanations of the association between marriage and desistence from antisocial behavior. Co-twin control analyses in a prospective twin study provided an analogue of the idealized counterfactual model of causation. The co-twin control design uses the unmarried co-twin of a married twin to estimate what the married twin would have looked like had he remained unmarried. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins are particularly informative because they share a common genotype and rearing environment. General community study. Two hundred eighty-nine male-male twin pairs (65.1% MZ) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study underwent assessment at 17, 20, 24, and 29 years of age. None of the participants were married at 17 years of age, and 2.6% were married at 20 years of age. By 29 years of age, 58.8% of the participants were or had been married. A tally of criterion C symptoms of DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder, as assessed via structured clinical interview. Mean differences in antisocial behavior across marital status at age 29 years were present even at 17 and 20 years of age, suggesting a selection process. However, the within-pair effect of marriage was significant for MZ twins, such that the married twin engaged in less antisocial behavior following marriage than his unmarried co-twin. Results were equivalent to those in dizygotic twins and persisted when controlling for prior antisocial behavior. Results indicate an initial selection effect, whereby men with lower levels of antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. However, this tendency to refrain from antisocial behavior appears to be accentuated by the

  17. Effects of thermal and electrical histories on structure and dielectric behaviors of (Li0.5Nd0.52+-modified (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwen Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal and electrical histories on structure and dielectric behaviors is studied using 0.95(Bi0.5Na0.50.97(Li0.5Nd0.50.03TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (abbreviated as BNTLN0.03-BT5 ceramic as a selected system. Subtle structure change caused by annealing treatment, and pronounced phase transition and domain switching by electrical poling, are observed to occur, respectively. The dielectric constant and its strong frequency dispersion in unpoled samples decrease evidently by electrical poling due to electric field-induced ordered domain. The high temperature Maxwell-Wagner relaxor behavior vanishes by annealing treatment due to the loss of electrical inhomogeneity with interface charging effects. Piezoelectric properties are improved evidently by annealing treatment at 900 °C, implying a new appropriate method to improve piezoelectric properties.

  18. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  19. Enhanced magnetic behavior, exchange bias effect, and dielectric property of BiFeO3 incorporated in (BiFeO30.50 (Co0.4Zn0.4Cu0.2 Fe2O40.5 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mukhopadhyay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of BiFeO3 (BFO are incorporated in the nanocomposite of (BiFeO30.50 (Co0.4Zn0.4Cu0.2 Fe2O40.5, (BFO-CZCF and these are prepared by chemical route. The formation of pure crystallographic phase of each component (BFO and CZCF in the nanocomposite of BFO-CZCF has been confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffractograms using FULLPROF program. Morphology, average particle size and its distribution, crystallographic phase etc. are obtained from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of BFO-CZCF. Magnetic measurements of BFO-CZCF have been carried out to explore the modulation of magnetic behavior of BFO in BFO-CZCF. Interestingly, magnetization of BFO-CZCF has been drastically enhanced compared to that of the pristine BFO. An exchange bias effect is also observed in the M vs. H loops of BFO-CZCF recorded in field cooled and zero field cooled conditions, which suggest that nanoparticles of BFO (AFM are encapsulated by nanoparticles of CZCF (FM in BFO-CZCF. Thermal variation of dielectric constant of BFO-CZCF is recorded in the range of 300 to 1073 K and a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition is observed at ∼728 K. Enhanced magnetic property of BFO would quite interesting for this important multiferroic.

  20. Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-28

    It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peripheral afferent mechanisms underlying acupuncture inhibition of cocaine behavioral effects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seol Ah Kim

    Full Text Available Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles Hz and was not affected by block of C/Aδ-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/Aδ-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue.

  2. Evidence for the quasi-two dimensional behavior of the vortex structure in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoriza, H.; Arribere, A.; Goffman, M.F.; Cruz, F. de la; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1994-01-01

    AC susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (BSCCO) single crystals in a wide range of temperatures clearly show that below the dc irreversibility line the vortex system loss the long range order in the c direction. The susceptibility data taken at 7 Hz show the different nature of two dissipation peaks: One related to the interplane currents at temperatures well below the dc irreversibility line and the other associated with the intraplane ones at temperatures above that line. In this sense the irreversibility line corresponds to the temperature where quasi-two dimensional vortices are depinned. (orig.)

  3. MicroRNA-223 Targeting STIM1 Inhibits the Biological Behavior of Breast Cancer

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    Yanfang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the cellular effects and clinical significance of microRNA-223 (miR-223 in breast cancer by targeting stromal interaction molecule1 (STIM1. Methods: Breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, SKB-R3, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 and a normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A were prepared for this study. MiR-223 mimics, anti-miR-223 and pcDNA 3.1-STIM1 were transiently transfected into cancer cells independently or together, and then RT-qPCR was performed to detect the expressions of miR-223 and STIM1 mRNA, dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effects of miR-223 on STIM1, Western blotting was used to measure the expressions of the STIM1 proteins, MTT and Trans-well assays were performed to detect cell proliferation and invasion. Finally, the correlation of miR-223 and STIM1 was investigated by detecting with ISH and IHC in breast cancer specimens or the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Results: Compared with normal cells and tissues, breast cancer tissues and cells exhibited significantly lower expression of miR-223, but higher expression of STIM1. MiR-223 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells by negatively regulating the expressions of STIM1. Reimplantation with STIM1 partially rescued the miRNA-223-induced inhibition of breast cancer cells. Clinical data revealed that high expression of STIM1 and miR-223 was respectively detrimental and beneficial factor impacting patient’s disease-free survival (DFS rather than overall survival (OS. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis also confirmed that STIM1 was inversely correlated with miR-223. Conclusion: MiR-223 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer by targeting STIM1. The miR-223/STIM1 axis could possibly be a potential therapeutic target for treating breast cancer patients.

  4. Chemical and structural effects on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of (1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluca, Marco [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Roseggerstraße 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Institut für Struktur- und Funktionskeramik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter Tunner Straße 5, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Picht, Gunnar [Institute of Applied Materials, Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering Applied Research 1, Robert Bosch Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hoffmann, Michael J. [Institute of Applied Materials, Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rechtenbach, Annett; Töpfer, Jörg [Department of SciTec, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Carl-Zeiß-Promenade 2, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schader, Florian H.; Webber, Kyle G., E-mail: webber@ceramics.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-04-07

    Bismuth sodium titanate–barium titanate [(1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3}, NBT-100xBT] is one of the most well studied lead-free piezoelectric materials due in large part to the high field-induced strain attainable in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.06). The BaTiO{sub 3}-rich side of the phase diagram, however, has not yet been as comprehensively studied, although it might be important for piezoelectric and positive temperature coefficient ceramic applications. In this work, we present a thorough study of BaTiO{sub 3}-rich NBT-100xBT by ferroelastic measurements, dielectric permittivity, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the high-temperature mechanical behavior, i.e., above the Curie temperature, T{sub C}, is influenced by local disorder, which appears also in pure BT. On the other hand, in NBT-100xBT (x < 1.0), lattice distortion, i.e., tetragonality, increases, and this impacts both the mechanical and dielectric properties. This increase in lattice distortion upon chemical substitution is counterintuitive by merely reasoning on the ionic size, and is due to the change in the A-O bond character induced by the Bi{sup 3+} electron lone pair, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Skittish, shielded, and scared: relations among behavioral inhibition, overprotective parenting, and anxiety in native and non-native Dutch preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Huijding, Jorg; Rapee, Ronald M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting as correlates and predictors of anxiety disorder symptoms in preschoolers with a multi-cultural background (N=168). Parents of 3- to 6-year-old children completed a set of questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Parents were also interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV at the 12-month point to assess the clinical severity of children's anxiety symptoms. Behavioral inhibition consistently emerged as a significant concurrent correlate of anxiety symptoms and this was particularly true for social anxiety symptoms. Overprotective parenting also emerged as a significant correlate of anxiety, but only in the case of non-social anxiety symptoms and mainly in non-native Dutch children. Prospective analyses revealed that behavioral inhibition was a significant predictor of social anxiety symptoms, while overprotective parenting did not explain significant variance in the development of children's anxiety over time. The support for an interactive effect of behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting was unconvincing. Finally, it was found that children who exhibited stable high levels of behavioral inhibition throughout the study ran the greatest risk for developing an anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Import of the Cortisol Rise in Child Care Differs as a Function of Behavioral Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Children of ages 3 to 4.5 years (N = 107; 45 boys, 62 girls) were studied twice, 6 months apart, to examine whether the cortisol rise in child care at Time 1 (T1) was associated with (a) changes in anxious, vigilant behavior from T1 to Time 2 (T2) and (b) higher internalizing symptoms at T2. Controlling for measures of home environment and child…

  7. Let's inhibit our excitement: the relationships between Stroop, behavioral disinhibition, and the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Lara H; Laluz, Victor; Jang, Jung; Ketelle, Robin; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2011-09-01

    The Stroop (Stroop, 1935) is a frequently used neuropsychological test, with poor performance typically interpreted as indicative of disinhibition and frontal lobe damage. This study tested those interpretations by examining relationships between Stroop performance, behavioral disinhibition, and frontal lobe atrophy. Participants were 112 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia, recruited through UCSF's Memory and Aging Center. Participants received comprehensive dementia evaluations including structural MRI, neuropsychological testing, and informant interviews. Freesurfer, a semiautomated parcellation program, was used to analyze 1.5T MRI scans. Behavioral disinhibition was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (Cummings, 1997; Cummings et al., 1994) Disinhibition Scale. The sample (n = 112) mean age was 65.40 (SD = 8.60) years, education was 16.64 (SD = 2.54) years, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein et al., 1975) was 26.63 (SD = 3.32). Hierarchical linear regressions were used for data analysis. Controlling for age, MMSE, and color naming, Stroop performance was not significantly associated with disinhibition (β = 0.01, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .29). Hierarchical regressions controlling for age, MMSE, color naming, intracranial volume, and temporal and parietal lobes, examined whether left or right hemisphere regions predict Stroop performance. Bilaterally, parietal lobe atrophy best predicted poorer Stroop (left: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002; right: β = 0.0004, ΔR² = 0.02, p = .002). Of frontal regions, only dorsolateral prefrontal cortex atrophy predicted poorer Stroop (β = 0.001, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .03); left and right anterior cingulate cortex atrophy predicted better Stroop (left: β = -0.003, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02; right: β = -0.004, ΔR² = 0.01, p = .02). These findings suggest Stroop performance is a poor measure of behavioral disinhibition and frontal lobe atrophy even among a relatively high-risk population

  8. Chronic inhibition, self-control and eating behavior: test of a 'resource depletion' model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Hagger

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1 aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72 categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2 aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83 classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition. Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating

  9. Clerodendrum inerme Leaf Extract Alleviates Animal Behaviors, Hyperlocomotion, and Prepulse Inhibition Disruptions, Mimicking Tourette Syndrome and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Lie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found a patient with intractable motor tic disorder, a spectrum of Tourette syndrome (TS, responsive to the ground leaf juice of Clerodendrum inerme (CI. Here, we examined the effect of the ethanol extract of CI leaves (CI extract on animal behaviors mimicking TS, hyperlocomotion, and sensorimotor gating deficit. The latter is also observed in schizophrenic patients and can be reflected by a disruption of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (PPI in animal models induced by methamphetamine and NMDA channel blockers (ketamine or MK-801, based on hyperdopaminergic and hypoglutamatergic hypotheses, respectively. CI extract (10–300 mg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by methamphetamine (2 mg/kg, i.p. and PPI disruptions induced by methamphetamine, ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p., and MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. but did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity, rotarod performance, and grip force. These results suggest that CI extract can relieve hyperlocomotion and improve sensorimotor gating deficit, supporting the therapeutic potential of CI for TS and schizophrenia.

  10. Evolution of phase transformation behavior and dielectric temperature stability of BaTiO3–Bi(Zn0.5Zr0.5)O3 ceramics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiliang; Chen, Xiuli; Zhou, Huanfu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (1 − x)BaTiO 3 –xBi(Zn 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 3 ceramics were synthesized. ► A systematic structural change was observed near x = 0.07 and x = 0.4. ► A change from a normal ferroelectric behavior to diffusive and dispersive relaxor-like characteristic was also observed. ► (1 − x)BT–xBZZ ceramics show good dielectric temperature stability over a wide temperature range. - Abstract: (1 − x)BaTiO 3 –xBi(Zn 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 3 [(1 − x)BT–xBZZ, 0.01 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.6] ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. Based on the X-ray diffraction data analysis, a systematic structure change from the ferroelectric tetragonal phase to pseudocubic phase and the pseudocubic phase to orthorhombic phase was observed near x = 0.07 and x = 0.4 at room temperature, respectively. Dielectric measurements show a dielectric anomaly, over the temperature range from 50 to 200 °C for the compositions with 0.03 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.09. A change from a normal ferroelectric behavior to diffusive and dispersive relaxor-like characteristic was also observed. Moreover, (1 − x)BT–xBZZ ceramics show good dielectric temperature stability over a wide temperature range, which indicates that these ceramics can be applied in the temperature stability devices.

  11. Effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on depression: A one-year follow-up study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhang; Xu, Yun; Chen, Zi

    2015-12-15

    Depression is a worldwide mental health problem among adolescents. The current study aimed to examine the roles of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on adolescent depression. A total of 330 Chinese adolescents were recruited to complete initial assessments of BIS/BAS, emotion regulation, and depression, with a follow-up after one year. Depression on these two occasions was positively correlated with gender, age, initial scores of BIS/BAS activity, and with Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores for self-blame, rumination, putting into perspective, catastrophizing, and blaming others, and negatively correlated with initial positive reappraisal scores. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that higher BIS activity, catastrophizing, rumination, and lower positive reappraisal predicted depression after one year. However, after controlling for initial depression, these variables were indirectly related to subsequent depression. Implications are discussed for assessments of depression and interventions targeted at the BIS, BAS, and emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yildirim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales and BIS/BAS personality scales. In terms of correlational analyses, fear of happiness revealed significant negative correlations with positive affect, all domains of psychological well-being except purpose in life (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and self-acceptance and BAS fun seeking dimension while a significant positive correlation was found with negative affect. With regard to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, fear of happiness accounted for a unique variance in both affective aspects of subjective well-being, namely positive and negative affect and three aspects of psychological well-being (autonomy, positive relations and self-acceptance after controlling for BIS/BAS personality model. These results suggested that fear of happiness is uniquely useful to both subjective and psychological well-being beyond the effect of the aspects of BIS/BAS personality.

  13. Electrical behaviors of c-axis textured 0.975Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.025BiCoO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feifei [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang, Bin, E-mail: binyang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Shantao, E-mail: stzhang@mail.nju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Danqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Fengmin [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Dali [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Cao, Wenwu [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The thin films of 0.975Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.025BiCoO{sub 3} (BNT-BC) have been successfully deposited on (1 1 1) Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si (1 0 0) substrates by pulse laser deposition and their ferroelectric, dielectric, local piezoelectric properties and temperature dependent leakage current behaviors have been investigated systematically. X-ray diffraction indicates the films are single phased and c-axis oriented. The thin films exhibit ferroelectric polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loop with a remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of 10.0 μC/cm{sup 2} and an excellent fatigue resistance property up to 5 × 10{sup 9} switching cycles. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss are 500 and 0.22 at 1 kHz, respectively. The tunability of the dielectric constant is about 12% at 20 kV/mm. The piezo-phase response hysteresis loop and piezo-amplitude response butterfly curve are observed by switching spectroscopy mode of piezoelectric force microscope (SS-PFM) and the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} is about 19–63 pm/V, which is comparable to other reports. The dominant leakage current conduction mechanisms are ohmic conduction at low electric field and Schottky emission at high electric field, respectively. Our results may be helpful for further work on BNT-based thin films with improved electric properties.

  14. A Comparative Study of Personality Traits and Brain Behavioral activation Systems and Inhibition in Women with Cancer, Cardiovascular Diseases and Normal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Amiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic diseases are among the most important causes of mortality. The aim of the current study was to compare the Brain/behavioral systems and Dark personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy in cancer, cardiovascular female patients and normal women. Methods: In this study, 60 individuals were selected using available sampling in three groups of 20 cancer patients, cardiovascular patients, and normal subjects. Finally, in order to test the goals and hypotheses of the research, the participants were studied based on Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System, and Dark Triad traits. Data analysis was performed using multivariate ANOVA, univariate ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results: In this study, there was a significant difference among the three groups in Brain/behavioral systems and traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, so that the cancer and cardiovascular patients had higher score in dark triad traits compared to normal individuals. Also, the cancer patients had a higher score in Machiavellianism trait compared to the cardiovascular patients. In the brain/behavioral systems, cardiovascular and cancer patients had higher score in behavioral inhibition system (BIS component compared to the normal individuals in the of behavioral inhibition system (BIS. Also, in the reward seeking subscale of behavioral activation system (BAS-f, cancer patients had a higher score compared to cardiovascular patients, which was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cancer and cardiovascular patients, have greater extent of social disgusting personality traits as well as behavioral inhibition system as anxiety-predisposing factor.

  15. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enhances cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is still a major population health issue. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to control drug-seeking behaviors. There are two main endocannabinoids: anandamide degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) degraded by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The role of MAGL has only been explored recently, and so far, no study have been performed to evaluate the effects of MAGL inhibitor on nicotine reinforcing properties and cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Here, we investigated the effects of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 on nicotine self-administration under fixed and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement and on cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in mice. We also evaluated the effects of JZL184 on food self-administration for possible non-specific effects. JZL184 (0, 8, and 16 mg/kg) did not affect food taking, nicotine taking, or motivation for nicotine. MAGL inhibition by JZL184 (16 mg/kg) increased reinstatement of previously extinguished nicotine seeking induced by presentation of nicotine-associated cues, but did not produce reinstatement on its own. This study implicates involvement of 2-AG in nicotine-seeking behaviors.

  16. Major role of suckling stimulation for inhibition of estrous behaviors in lactating rabbits: acute and chronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Dalmán, Cipatli; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Lactation in rabbits induces anestrus: sexual receptivity and scent-marking (chinning) are reduced despite the brevity of suckling (one daily nursing bout, lasting around 3 min). The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown but, as chinning, lordosis, and ambulation in an open field are immediately inhibited by the peripheral stimulation received during mating we hypothesized that, across lactation, suckling stimulation would provoke a similar effect. To test this possibility we provided litters of 1, 3, 5, or 10 pups across lactation days 1-15 and quantified chinning and ambulation frequencies, the lordosis quotient, and milk output. Baseline chinning frequency, determined before the daily nursing bout, was low across lactation days 1-15 in does nursing 3, 5 or 10 pups but it increased steadily across days 1-10 in rabbits suckling one pup. Yet, a single young was sufficient to abolish chinning for about 1h, after which this behavior rose again. Suckling litters of all sizes reduced (but did not abolish) ambulation frequency, both chronically (baseline levels declined across days 1-5) and acutely. Sexual receptivity was significantly reduced on lactation day 15 only in does that had nursed 10 pups. Large litter size promoted a larger milk output and a normal duration of nursing episodes. Results support a major role of suckling stimulation for the suppression of estrous behaviors and ambulation through as yet unidentified mechanisms. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  18. MicroRNA-198 inhibited tumorous behaviors of human osteosarcoma through directly targeting ROCK1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shilian; Zhao, Yuehua; Wang, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary sarcoma of bone and occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults. The prognosis of OS remains poor, and most of them will die due to local relapse or metastases. The discovery of microRNAs provides a new possibility for the early diagnosis and treatment of OS. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the expression and functions of microRNA-198 (miR-198) in osteosarcoma. The expression levels of miR-198 were determined by qRT-PCR in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were adopted to investigate the effects of miR-198 on tumorous behaviors of osteosarcoma cells. The results showed that miR-198 expression levels were lower in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. In addition, low miR-198 expression levels were correlated with TNM stage and distant metastasis. After miR-198 mimics transfection, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly suppressed in the osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, ROCK1 was identified as a novel direct target of miR-198 in osteosarcoma. These findings suggested that miR-198 may act not only as a novel prognostic marker, but also as a potential target for molecular therapy of osteosarcoma.

  19. MicroRNA-198 inhibited tumorous behaviors of human osteosarcoma through directly targeting ROCK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shilian, E-mail: shilian_zhang@126.com; Zhao, Yuehua; Wang, Lijie

    2016-04-08

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary sarcoma of bone and occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults. The prognosis of OS remains poor, and most of them will die due to local relapse or metastases. The discovery of microRNAs provides a new possibility for the early diagnosis and treatment of OS. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the expression and functions of microRNA-198 (miR-198) in osteosarcoma. The expression levels of miR-198 were determined by qRT-PCR in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were adopted to investigate the effects of miR-198 on tumorous behaviors of osteosarcoma cells. The results showed that miR-198 expression levels were lower in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. In addition, low miR-198 expression levels were correlated with TNM stage and distant metastasis. After miR-198 mimics transfection, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly suppressed in the osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, ROCK1 was identified as a novel direct target of miR-198 in osteosarcoma. These findings suggested that miR-198 may act not only as a novel prognostic marker, but also as a potential target for molecular therapy of osteosarcoma.

  20. Age influences the effects of nicotine and monoamine oxidase inhibition on mood-related behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villégier, Anne-Sophie; Gallager, Brittney; Heston, Jon; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a comorbidity of smoking with depression and anxiety, particularly during adolescence. However, few animal studies have considered possible synergistic interactions between nicotine and other tobacco smoke constituents, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, in the regulation of mood. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that nicotine combined with the irreversible MAO inhibitor, tranylcypromine, will differentially affect depression- and anxiety-related behaviors in adolescent and adult rats. Nicotine (0, 0.05, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) and tranylcypromine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested separately, or together, on male rats aged postnatal days 30 and 68, in three mood-related behavioral tests: forced swim test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM), and open field. Nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) in adults significantly decreased floating time in the FST and increased time spent in the open arm of the EPM, with no change in locomotor activity. Tranylcypromine pretreatment combined with nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open field. Whereas nicotine alone had no significant effect on adolescents, it significantly increased locomotor activity and decreased floating time in the FST when combined with tranylcypromine pretreatment. There is an age-dependent effect of nicotine, alone and in combination with MAO inhibition, on mood-related behaviors. Whereas nicotine alone induces mood improvement in adults, it has no effect on adolescents. Nicotine combined with tranylcypromine has unique, age-dependent effects. Thus, experimental studies of smoking should consider both age and other tobacco constituents, such as MAO inhibitors, as critical factors.

  1. CXCL14 deficiency in mice attenuates obesity and inhibits feeding behavior in a novel environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Tanegashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CXCL14 is a chemoattractant for macrophages and immature dendritic cells. We recently reported that CXCL14-deficient (CXCL14(-/- female mice in the mixed background are protected from obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The decreased macrophage infiltration into visceral adipose tissues and the increased insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle contributed to these phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive study for the body weight control of CXCL14(-/- mice in the C57BL/6 background. We show that both male and female CXCL14(-/- mice have a 7-11% lower body weight compared to CXCL14(+/- and CXCL14(+/+ mice in adulthood. This is mainly caused by decreased food intake, and not by increased energy expenditure or locomotor activity. Reduced body weight resulting from the CXCL14 deficiency was more pronounced in double mutant CXCL14(-/-ob/ob and CXCL14(-/-A(y mice. In the case of CXCL14(-/-A(y mice, oxygen consumption was increased compared to CXCL14(+/-A(y mice, in addition to the reduced food intake. In CXCL14(-/- mice, fasting-induced up-regulation of Npy and Agrp mRNAs in the hypothalamus was blunted. As intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant CXCL14 did not change the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice, CXCL14 could indirectly regulate appetite. Intriguingly, the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice was significantly repressed when mice were transferred to a novel environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that CXCL14 is involved in the body weight control leading to the fully obese phenotype in leptin-deficient or A(y mutant mice. In addition, we obtained evidence indicating that CXCL14 may play an important role in central nervous system regulation of feeding behavior.

  2. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catechol-O-methlytransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R. H.; Exposto, F. G.; O’Buckley, S. C.; Westlund, K. N.; Nackley, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10–45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of ARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. PMID:25659347

  4. Less approach, more avoidance: Response inhibition has motivational consequences for sexual stimuli that reflect changes in affective value not a lingering global brake on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Rachel L; de Launay, Keelia Quinn; Fenske, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Response inhibition negatively impacts subsequent hedonic evaluations of motivationally relevant stimuli and reduces the behavioral incentive to seek and obtain such items. Here we expand the investigation of the motivational consequences of inhibition by presenting sexually appealing and nonappealing images in a go/no-go task and a subsequent image-viewing task. Each initially obscured image in the viewing task could either be made more visible or less visible by repeatedly pressing different keys. Fewer key presses were made to obtain better views of preferred-sex images when such images had previously been inhibited as no-go items than when previously encountered as noninhibited go items. This finding replicates prior results and is consistent with the possibility that motor-response suppression has lingering effects that include global reductions in all behavioral expression. However, for nonpreferred images, prior inhibition resulted in more key presses to obscure their visibility than when such images had not been inhibited. This novel finding suggests that the motivational consequences of response inhibition are not due to a global brake on action but are instead linked to negative changes in stimulus value that induce corresponding increases in avoidance and decreases in approach.

  5. Behavior of steels in flowing liquid PbBi eutectic alloy at 420-600 deg. C after 4000-7200 h

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Konys, J.; Schumacher, G.; Weisenburger, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Engelko, V.; Rusanov, A.; Markov, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of steel exposure up to 7200 h in flowing LBE at elevated temperatures and is a follow-up paper of that with results of an exposure of up to 2000 h. The examined AISI 316 L, 1.4970 austenitic and MANET 10Cr martensitic steels are suitable as a structural material in LBE (liquid eutectic Pb 45 Bi 55 ) up to 550 deg. C, if 10 -6 wt% of oxygen is dissolved in the LBE. The martensitic steel develops a thick magnetite and spinel layer while the austenites have thin spinel surface layers at 420 deg. C and thick oxide scales like the martensitic steel at 550 deg. C. The oxide scales protect the steels from dissolution attack by LBE during the whole test period of 7200 h. Oxide scales that spall off are replaced by new protective ones. At 600 deg. C severe attack occurs already after 2000 and 4000 h of exposure. Steels with 8-15 wt% Al alloyed into the surface suffer no corrosion attack at all experimental temperatures and exposure times

  6. Photoinduced changes in the fatigue behavior of SrBi2Ta2O9 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimos, D.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Warren, W.L.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) thin films can be made to exhibit significant polarization fatigue by electric-field cycling under broad-band, optical illumination. Photoinduced fatigue is also observed for Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin-film capacitors with (La,Sr)CoO 3 (LSCO) electrodes. These results demonstrate that both the Pt/SBT/Pt and the LSCO/PZT/LSCO systems are susceptible to fatigue effects, which are attributed primarily to pinning of domain walls due to charge trapping. Capacitors that have been fatigued under illumination can be fully rejuvinated by applying a dc saturating bias with light or by electric-field cycling without light, which indicates an intrinsic, field-assisted recovery mechanism. We suggest that fatigue is essentially a competition between domain wall pinning and unpinning and that domain pinning is not necessarily absent in these nominally fatigue-free systems, but rather these systems are ones in which unpinning occurs at least as rapidly as any pinning. In both cases, the extent of photoinduced fatigue decreases with increased cycling voltage, indicating the relative importance of field-assisted unpinning. Finally, the observation of photoinduced fatigue implies that increased injection rates, potentially due to oxygen vacancy accumulation, may account for the electrode dependence on fatigue in PZT thin films

  7. Positive Side Effects in the Treatment of SIB Using the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS): Implications for Operant and Biochemical Explanations of SIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Thomas R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The rate of self-injurious head hitting in an eight-year old with severe/profound mental retardation was reduced using contingent electric shock delivered via the Self Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System. An improved affective state and increased interaction with the environment were documented. Treatment gains were maintained at one-year…

  8. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Jani; Mehri Molaee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present...

  9. Investigation of Upconversion, downshifting and quantum –cutting behavior of Eu3+, Yb3+, Bi3+ co-doped LaNbO4 phosphor as a spectral conversion material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A.; Mishra, K.; Rai, S. B.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the spectral conversion characteristics [upconversion (UC), downshifting (DS) and quantum–cutting (QC) optical processes] of Eu3+, Yb3+ and Bi3+ co-doped LaNbO4 (LBO) phosphor samples synthesized by solid state reaction technique. The crystal structure and the pure phase formation have been confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The surface morphology and particle size are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rarely observed intense red UC emission from Eu3+ ion has been successfully obtained in Eu3+/Yb3+ co-doped LaNbO4 phosphor (on excitation with 980 nm) by optimizing the concentrations of Eu3+ and Yb3+ ions. The downshifting (DS) behavior has been studied by photoluminescence (PL) measurements on excitation with 265 nm wavelength from a Xe lamp source. A broad blue emission in the region 300–550 nm with its maximum ∼415 nm due to charge transfer band (CTB) of the host and large number of sharp peaks due to f-f transitions of Eu3+ ion have been observed. The energy transfer has been observed from (NbO4)3‑ to Eu3+ ion and the fluorescence emission has been optimized by varying the concentration of Eu3+ ion. An intense red emission has also been observed corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ion at 611 nm in LBO: 0.09Eu3+ phosphor on excitation with 394 nm. The luminescence properties of Eu3+ ion are enhanced further through the sensitization effect of Bi3+ ion. The near infra-red (NIR) quantum cutting (QC) behavior due to Yb3+ ion has been monitored on excitation with 265 as well as 394 nm. The NIR QC is observed due to 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 transition of Yb3+ ion via co-operative energy transfer (CET) process from (NbO4)3‑ as well as Eu3+ ions to Yb3+ ion. This multimodal behavior (UC, DS and QC) makes this a promising phosphor material for multi-purpose spectral converter.

  10. TbxBi1-xFeO3 nanoparticulate multiferroics fabricated by micro-emulsion technique: Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Anwar, Zobia; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Azhar; Asghar, Muhammad Hammad; Shakir, Imran; Shahid, Muhammad; Bibi, Ismat; Farooq Warsi, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    nanoparticles were then subjected to magnetic behavior evaluation for various technological applications. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) conducted in the range 25-1000 C predicted the temperature (~960 C) for phase formation. XRD estimated the crystallite

  11. Physiological slowing and upregulation of inhibition in cortex are correlated with behavioral deficits in protein malnourished rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaudhary

    Full Text Available Protein malnutrition during early development has been correlated with cognitive and learning disabilities in children, but the neuronal deficits caused by long-term protein deficiency are not well understood. We exposed rats from gestation up to adulthood to a protein-deficient (PD diet, to emulate chronic protein malnutrition in humans. The offspring exhibited significantly impaired performance on the 'Gap-crossing' (GC task after reaching maturity, a behavior that has been shown to depend on normal functioning of the somatosensory cortex. The physiological state of the somatosensory cortex was examined to determine neuronal correlates of the deficits in behavior. Extracellular multi-unit recording from layer 4 (L4 neurons that receive direct thalamocortical inputs and layers 2/3 (L2/3 neurons that are dominated by intracortical connections in the whisker-barrel cortex of PD rats exhibited significantly low spontaneous activity and depressed responses to whisker stimulation. L4 neurons were more severely affected than L2/3 neurons. The response onset was significantly delayed in L4 cells. The peak response latency of L4 and L2/3 neurons was delayed significantly. In L2/3 and L4 of the barrel cortex there was a substantial increase in GAD65 (112% over controls and much smaller increase in NMDAR1 (12-20%, suggesting enhanced inhibition in the PD cortex. These results show that chronic protein deficiency negatively affects both thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical transmission during somatosensory information processing. The findings support the interpretation that sustained protein deficiency interferes with features of cortical sensory processing that are likely to underlie the cognitive impairments reported in humans who have suffered from prolonged protein deficiency.

  12. Effect of Bi on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Meiyi; Zhou Bangxin; Li Qiang; Zhang Weipeng; Zhu Li; Zou Linghong; Zhang Jinlong; Peng Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate systematically the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys, different zirconium-based alloys, including Zr-4 (Zr-l.5Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr), S5 (Zr-0.8Sn-0.35Nb-0.4Fe-0.1Cr), T5 (Zr-0.7Sn-l.0Nb-0.3Fe-0.1Cr) and Zr-1Nb, were adopted to prepare the zirconium alloys containing Bi of 0∼0.5% in mass fraction. These alloys were denoted as Zr-4 + xBi, S5 + xBi, T5 + xBi and Zr-1Nb + xBi, respectively. The corrosion behavior of these specimens was investigated by autoclave testing in lithiated water with 0.01 M LiOH or deionized water at 360 ℃/18.6 MPa and in superheated steam at 400 ℃/10.3 MPa. The microstructure of the alloys was examined by TEM and the second phase particles (SPPs) were analyzed by EDS. Microstructure observation shows that the addition of Bi promotes the precipitation of Sn as second phase particles (SPPs) because Sn is in solid solution in α-Zr matrix in Zr-4, S5 and T5 alloys. The concentration of Bi dissolved in α-Zr matrix increase with the increase of Nb in the alloys, and the excess Bi precipitates as Bi-containing SPPs. The corrosion results show that the effect of Bi addition on the corrosion behavior of different zirconium-based alloys is very complicated, depending on their compositions and corrosion conditions. In the case of higher Bi concentration in α-Zr, the zirconium alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance. However, in the case of precipitation of Bi-containing SPPs, the corrosion resistance gets worse. This indicates that the solid solution of Bi in α-Zr matrix can improve the corrosion resistance, while the precipitation of the Bi-containing SPPs is harmful to the corrosion resistance. (authors)

  13. Endocrine control of sexual behavior in sneaker males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo: effects of castration, aromatase inhibition, testosterone and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Alpedrinha, João; Teles, Magda; Oliveira, Rui F

    2007-04-01

    The effects of castration and sex steroid manipulations on the expression of sexual behavior were investigated in a small fish, the peacock blenny, Salaria pavo. In this species, large males defend nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males reproduce by imitating the female morphology and courtship behavior in order to approach nests during spawning events and parasitically fertilize eggs. Sneakers switch into nest holders in their second breeding season, thus displaying both male and female-like sexual behavior during their lifetime. We tested the effects of castration and of an aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole, F), testosterone (T) or 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) implants on the expression of male and female-like behavior in sneakers. Sneakers were either sham-operated, castrated or castrated and implanted with vehicle, F, T+F or E(2)+F. Seven days after the treatment, sneakers were placed in a tank with a nesting male, two ripe females and an available nest. Castrated fish had lower levels of circulating T and increased the time spent displaying female typical nuptial coloration. T implants had the opposite effect, inhibiting the expression of female-like behavior and coloration. E(2) implants had no significant effect on the display of sexual behavior but the frequency of aggressive displays decreased. The results agree with previous findings in sneakers of S. pavo that demonstrated an inhibition of female-like behavior by 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). The reported increase in T and 11-KT production when sneakers change into nest holders may thus contribute to behaviorally defeminize sneakers. Contrarily, both T and E(2) failed to promote male-like behavior, suggesting that behavioral masculization during tactic switching depends on other neuroendocrine mechanisms or that the time length of the experiment was insufficient to induce male-like behavioral changes in sneakers.

  14. Unusual Concentration Induced Antithermal Quenching of the Bi(2+) Emission from Sr2P2O7:Bi(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyi; Peng, Mingying; Viana, Bruno; Wang, Jing; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-06-15

    The resistance of a luminescent material to thermal quenching is essential for the application in high power LEDs. Usually, thermal luminescence quenching becomes more and more serious as the activator concentration increases. Conversely, we found here that a red phosphor Sr2P2O7:Bi(2+) is one of the exceptions to this as we studied the luminescence properties at low (10-300 K) and high (300-500 K) temperatures. As Bi(2+) ions are incorporated into Sr2P2O7, they exhibit the emissions at ∼660 and ∼698 nm at room temperature and are encoded, hereafter, as Bi(1) and Bi(2) due to the substitutions for two different crystallographic sites Sr(1) and Sr(2), respectively, in the compound. However, they will not substitute for these sites equally. At lower dopant concentration, they will occupy preferentially Sr(2) sites partially due to size match. As the concentration increases, more Bi(2+) ions start to occupy the Sr(1) sites. This can be verified by the distinct changes of emission intensity ratio of Bi(2) to Bi(1). As environment temperature increases, the thermal quenching happens, but it can be suppressed by the Bi(2+) concentration increase. This becomes even more pronounced in Bi(2+) heavily doped sample as we decompose the broad emission band into separated Bi(1) and Bi(2) Gaussian peaks. For the sample, the Bi(1) emission at ∼660 nm even shows antithermal-quenching particularly at higher temperatures. This phenomenon is accompanied by the blue shift of the overall emission band and almost no changes of lifetimes. A mechanism is proposed due to volume expansion of the unit cell, the increase of Bi(1) content, and temperature dependent energy transfer between Bi(2) and Bi(1). This work helps us better understand the complex luminescent behavior of Bi(2+) doped materials, and it will be helpful to design in the future the heavily doped phosphor for WLEDs with even better resistance to thermal quenching.

  15. Children of Few Words: Relations Among Selective Mutism, Behavioral Inhibition, and (Social) Anxiety Symptoms in 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hendriks, Eline; Bot, Suili

    2016-02-01

    Children with selective mutism (SM) fail to speak in specific public situations (e.g., school), despite speaking normally in other situations (e.g., at home). The current study explored the phenomenon of SM in a sample of 57 non-clinical children aged 3-6 years. Children performed two speech tasks to assess their absolute amount of spoken words, while their parents completed questionnaires for measuring children's levels of SM, social anxiety and non-social anxiety symptoms as well as the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition. The results indicated that high levels of parent-reported SM were primarily associated with high levels of social anxiety symptoms. The number of spoken words was negatively related to behavioral inhibition: children with a more inhibited temperament used fewer words during the speech tasks. Future research is necessary to test whether the temperament characteristic of behavioral inhibition prompts children to speak less in novel social situations, and whether it is mainly social anxiety that turns this taciturnity into the psychopathology of SM.

  16. Thermoelectric power of Bi and Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloy thin films and superlattices grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Ketterson, J B; Meyer, J R; Hoffman, C A

    1997-07-01

    The authors have measured the thermoelectric power (TEP) of MBE-grown epitaxial Bi and Bi{sub 1{minus}x} alloy thin films and superlattices as a function of temperature in the range 20--300 K. They have observed that the TEP of a Bi thin film of 1 {micro}m thickness is in good agreement with the bulk single crystal value and that the TEPs for superlattices with 400 {angstrom} and 800 {angstrom} Bi well thicknesses are enhanced over the bulk values. For x = 0.072 and 0.088 in Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} thin films showing semiconducting behavior, TEP enhancement was observed by a factor of two. However as Bi or Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} well thickness decreases in superlattice geometry, the TEP decreases, which may be due to unintentional p-type doping.

  17. Bi209 alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Penna, M.M. de.

    1970-01-01

    The study for measuring Bi 209 alpha activity is presented. Ilford L4 nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with bismuth citrate to obtain a load of 100 mg/cm 3 of dry emulsion, were prepared. Other pellicles were prepared with the same. Ilford L4 gel to estimate the background radiation. To observe 'fading' effect, pellicles loaded with bismuth were submitted to neutrons of high energy, aiming to record recoil proton tracks. The pellicles were confined in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature lower than -10 0 C. The Bi 209 experimental half-life was obtained and compared with the estimated theoretical data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. The Short-Term Dynamics of Peers and Delinquent Behavior: An Analysis of Bi-weekly Changes Within a High School Student Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Weerman (Frank); P. Wilcox (Pamela); C.J. Sullivan (Christopher J.)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Objectives:_ To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. _Methods:_ The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was

  19. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  20. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global EiBI-monopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Xinghua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A global EiBI-monopole problem is studied under EiBI gravitational theory.The equations of global EiBI-monopole are derived in the curved spacetime and the relation between the spacetime metric and auxiliary metric is found.In the case of a very small parameter,an asymptotic form of equations is given.The series solutions of global EiBI-monopole at infinity are found.

  2. Arcuate Na+,K+-ATPase senses systemic energy states and regulates feeding behavior through glucose-inhibited neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hideharu; Xu, Kai Y; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Santoso, Putra; Yang, Yifei; Arai, Takeshi; Gantulga, Darambazar; Muroya, Shinji; Lefor, Alan K; Kakei, Masafumi; Watanabe, Eiju; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-08-15

    Feeding is regulated by perception in the hypothalamus, particularly the first-order arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, of the body's energy state. However, the cellular device for converting energy states to the activity of critical neurons in ARC is less defined. We here show that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in ARC senses energy states to regulate feeding. Fasting-induced systemic ghrelin rise and glucose lowering reduced ATP-hydrolyzing activity of NKA and its substrate ATP level, respectively, preferentially in ARC. Lowering glucose concentration (LG), which mimics fasting, decreased intracellular NAD(P)H and increased Na(+) concentration in single ARC neurons that subsequently exhibited [Ca(2+)]i responses to LG, showing that they were glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons. Third ventricular injection of the NKA inhibitor ouabain induced c-Fos expression in agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in ARC and evoked neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent feeding. When injected focally into ARC, ouabain stimulated feeding and mRNA expressions for NPY and AgRP. Ouabain increased [Ca(2+)]i in single NPY/AgRP neurons with greater amplitude than in proopiomelanocortin neurons in ARC. Conversely, the specific NKA activator SSA412 suppressed fasting-induced feeding and LG-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in ARC GI neurons. NPY/AgRP neurons highly expressed NKAα3, whose knockdown impaired feeding behavior. These results demonstrate that fasting, via ghrelin rise and LG, suppresses NKA enzyme/pump activity in ARC and thereby promotes the activation of GI neurons and NPY/AgRP-dependent feeding. This study identifies ARC NKA as a hypothalamic sensor and converter of metabolic states to key neuronal activity and feeding behaviour, providing a new target to treat hyperphagic obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  4. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  5. bi tule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    8.-18. IV 2004 Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis Eesti Kunstiakadeemia keraamikaosakonna magistrantide grupinäitus "Läbi tule". Reeli Haamer, Kadri Kivi, Annika Vilippus, Ingrid Allik, Mathew Graziano ja Milvi Korela kaitsevad 12. IV oma magistritööd. 23. IV-15. VI näitus Leesi Ermi loomingust sarjas "Klassikud"

  6. Orbital-dependent Rashba coupling in bulk BiTeCl and BiTeI

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    By all-electron ab initio calculations, the layered polar semiconductor BiTeCl is shown to host giant bulk Rashba spin splitting, similar to the recently reported compound BiTeI. In both materials, the standard Rashba–Bychkov model is no longer applicable, because of huge band extrema shifts even in the absence of spin–orbit coupling and a strong momentum dependence of the Rashba coupling constant (αR). By assuming αR to be orbital dependent, a phenomenological extension of the Rashba–Bychkov model is proposed which explains the splitting behavior of states with small in-plane momentum.

  7. Orbital-dependent Rashba coupling in bulk BiTeCl and BiTeI

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2013-02-06

    By all-electron ab initio calculations, the layered polar semiconductor BiTeCl is shown to host giant bulk Rashba spin splitting, similar to the recently reported compound BiTeI. In both materials, the standard Rashba–Bychkov model is no longer applicable, because of huge band extrema shifts even in the absence of spin–orbit coupling and a strong momentum dependence of the Rashba coupling constant (αR). By assuming αR to be orbital dependent, a phenomenological extension of the Rashba–Bychkov model is proposed which explains the splitting behavior of states with small in-plane momentum.

  8. Longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnototermopower in Bi nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The galvanomagnetic effect of single crystals Bi nanowires have been studied in longitudinal magnetic fields up to 14 T. The influence of diameters, temperature and deformation extension on the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetotermopower (H||I, H||ΔT) of bismuth nanowires is studied. Elastic deformation measurements were conducted at maximum relative elongation 2 %. For the first time have been investigated the magnetotermopower of Bi nanowires with d=45 nm. Essentially non monotonic dependence H max on temperature in longitudinal thermopower in wires with d=45-60 nm is found out. Such difference in behavior of maximum on R(H) and on α(H) in wires with d<100nm says that the behavior of resistance is caused by other mechanism, then thermopower. (author)

  9. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Zhang, P.; Xu, L. P.; Chen, C.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G.; Luo, H. S.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co) doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8%) single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2) and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  10. Electronic structures and abnormal phonon behaviors of cobalt-modified Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8% single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2 and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.

  11. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-05-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  12. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  13. Photocatalytic Performance of a Novel MOF/BiFeO3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Si

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, MOF/BiFeO3 composite (MOF, metal-organic framework has been synthesized successfully through a one-pot hydrothermal method. The MOF/BiFeO3 composite samples, pure MOF samples and BiFeO3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and by UV–vis spectrophotometry. The results and analysis reveal that MOF/BiFeO3 composite has better photocatalytic behavior for methylene blue (MB compared to pure MOF and pure BiFeO3. The enhancement of photocatalytic performance should be due to the introduction of MOF change the surface morphology of BiFeO3, which will increase the contact area with MB. This composing strategy of MOF/BiFeO3 composite may bring new insight into the designing of highly efficient photocatalysts.

  14. Bi-Provincial Upgrader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Husky Oil's Bi-Provincial Upgrader is located in the rural municipality of Wilton, east of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. It is jointly owned by Husky Oil and the Saskatchewan government. The upgrader is designed to produce 7.300 m 3 /cd of synthetic crude from 8.440 m 3 /cd of diluted Lloyd blend and distillates from the existing Lloydminster refinery. The designed coke and sulphur production is 415 t/day and 240 t/day respectively. Chronology of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader project was presented, along with details of the heavy oil feedstock properties for Cold Lake, Lloydminster and Lloyd Blend. Upgrader production history since start-up, synthetic crude oil customers, and the evolution of prices for Edmonton light vs. Husky LLB at Hardisty were also reviewed. 3 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI......) at the ipsilateral finger during concomitant stimulation of the contralateral median nerve increased significantly, suggesting augmented functional inhibition. Since the CPT in the ipsilateral hallux did not significantly change in response to median nerve stimulation, it is more likely that the CPT......-increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition....

  16. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tobias Munz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective: By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: 14 boys (10-14 yrs diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.

  17. Callous-Unemotional Features, Behavioral Inhibition, and Parenting: Independent Predictors of Aggression in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Frick, Paul J.; Boris, Neil W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Cornell, Amy H.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A behaviorally-uninhibited temperament, callous-unemotional (CU) features, and harsh parenting have been associated with specific patterns of aggressive behavior in older children and adolescents. We tested the additive and interactive effects of these factors in predicting different types of aggressive behavior in a high-risk preschool sample.…

  18. Comparative study of phase structure and dielectric properties for K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BiAlO3 and LaAlO3-BiAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yudong; Zheng, Mupeng; Si, Meiju; Cui, Lei; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this work, two perovskite-type compounds, K 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 and LaAlO 3 , have been selected as host material to incorporate with BiAlO 3 using a solid-state reaction route. The phase evolution and dielectric properties for both systems have been investigated in detail. For the K 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 -BiAlO 3 system, it is interesting to find that when using Bi 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 CO 3 , and TiO 2 as starting materials, the formed compounds are K 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 -K 0.5 Bi 4.5 Ti 4 O 15 and Al 2 O 3 only plays a dopant role. There are two distinct dielectric peaks appearing in the patterns of temperature dependence of dielectric constant, corresponding to the phase-transition points of perovskite-type K 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 and Aurivillius-type K 0.5 Bi 4.5 Ti 4 O 15 , independently. In comparison, using Bi 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , and La 2 O 3 as starting materials, the pure perovskite phase LaAlO 3 -BiAlO 3 can be obtained. Compared to the inherent paraelectric behavior in LaAlO 3 , the diffuse phase-transition phenomena can be observed in the LaAlO 3 -BiAlO 3 binary system, which corresponds well to the Vogel-Fulcher (VF) relationship. Moreover, compared to pure LaAlO 3 , the synthesized LaAlO 3 -BiAlO 3 compound shows enhanced dielectric properties, which are promising in application as gate dielectric materials. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Attempting to realize n-type BiCuSeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Feng, Dan; He, Jiaqing; Zhao, Li-Dong

    2018-02-01

    As an intrinsic p-type semiconductor, BiCuSeO has been widely researched in the thermoelectric community, however, n-type BiCuSeO has not been reported so far. In this work, we successfully realized n-type BiCuSeO through carrying out several successive efforts. Seebeck coefficient of BiCuSeO was increased through introducing extra Bi/Cu to fill the Bi/Cu vacancies that may produce holes, and the maximum Seebeck coefficient was increase from +447 μVK-1 for undoped BiCuSeO to +638 μVK-1 for Bi1.04Cu1.05SeO. The Seebeck coefficient of Bi1.04Cu1.05SeO was changed from p-type to n-type through electron doping through introducing Br/I in Se sites, the maximum negative Seebeck coefficient can reach ∼ -465 μVK-1 and -543 μVK-1 for Bi1.04Cu1.05Se1-xIxO and Bi1.04Cu1.05Se1-xBrxO, respectively. Then, after compositing Bi1.04Cu1.05Se0.99Br0.01O with Ag, n-type BiCuSeO can be absolutely obtained in the whole temperature range of 300-873 K, the maximum ZT 0.05 was achieved at 475 K in the Bi1.04Cu1.05Se0.99Br0.01O+15% Ag. Our report indicates that it is possible to realize n-type conducting behaviors in BiCuSeO system.

  20. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Dong; Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei; Lai, Luhua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. ► Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. ► FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. ► Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. ► Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  1. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Dong [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, Luhua, E-mail: lhlai@pku.edu.cn [BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry for Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  2. Ga-Bi-Te system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustamov, P.G.; Seidova, N.A.; Shakhbazov, M.G.; AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Neorganicheskoj i Fizicheskoj Khimii)

    1976-01-01

    To elucidate the nature of interaction in the system Ga-Bi-Te, a study has been made of sections GaTe-Bi 2 Te 3 , Ga 2 Te 3 -Bi, GaTe-Bi and Bi 2 Te 3 -Ga. The alloys have been prepared by direct melting of the components or their alloys with subsequent homogenizin.o annealing at 400 deg C. The study has been made by the methods of differential thermal, microstructural analysis and by microhardness measurements. On the basis of literature data and data obtained a projection of the liquidus surface of the phase diagram for the system Ga-Bi-Te has been constructed. In the ternary system there are 17 curves of monovariant equilibrium dividing the liquidus into 10 fields of primary crystallization of phases, 9 points of non-variant equilibrium of which 4 points are triple eutectics and 5 points are triple peritectics

  3. Investigation of the effects of head irradiation with gamma rays and protons on startle and pre-pulse inhibition behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerich, Paul; Eggers, Cara; Pecaut, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    With the increased international emphasis on manned space exploration, there is a growing need to understand the impact of the spaceflight environment on health and behavior. One particularly important aspect of this environment is low-dose radiation. In the present studies, we first characterized the γ- and proton-irradiation dose effect on acoustic startle and pre-pulse inhibition behaviors in mice exposed to 0-5 Gy brain-localized irradiation, and assessed these effects 2 days later. Subsequently, we used 2 Gy to assess the time course of γ- and proton-radiation effects on startle reactivity 0-8 days after exposure. Exposures targeted the brain to minimize the impact of peripheral inflammation-induced sickness behavior. The effects of radiation on startle were subtle and acute. Radiation reduced the startle response at 2 and 5 Gy. Following a 2-Gy exposure, the response reached a minimum at the 2-day point. Proton and γ-ray exposures did not differ in their impact on startle. We found there were no effects of radiation on pre-pulse inhibition of the startle response.

  4. Bi-liquid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneville, Odile

    1997-01-01

    Concentrated emulsions have structures similar to foams; for this reason they are also called 'bi-liquid foams'. For oil in water emulsions, they are made of polyhedral oil cells separated by aqueous surfactant films. The limited stability of these Systems is a major nuisance in their applications. In this work, we tried to understand and to control the mechanisms through which bi-liquid foams can loose their stability. In a first stage, we characterized the states of surfactant films in bi-liquid foams submitted to different pressures. We determined their hydration, the surfactant density at interfaces as well as their thicknesses. The bi-liquid foams were made by concentrating hexadecane-in-water emulsions through centrifugation. The initial emulsions contained submicron oil droplets that were completely covered with surfactant. We measured the resistance of the films to dehydration, and we represented it by pressure-film thickness curves or pressure-film hydration curves. We also obtained evidence that the interfacial surfactant density increases when the film thickness is decreased (SDS case). The Newton Black Film state is the most dehydrated metastable state that can be reached. In this state, the films can be described as surfactant bilayers that only contain the hydration water of the surfactant polar heads. Two different processes are involved the destabilization of bi-liquid foams: Ostwald ripening (oil transfer from small cells to large cells) and coalescence (films rupture). The first mechanism can be controlled by choosing oils that are very insoluble in water, avoiding ethoxylated nonionic surfactants of low molecular weight, and making emulsions that are not too fine. The second mechanism is responsible for the catastrophic destabilization of bi-liquid foams made of droplets above one micron or with a low coverage in surfactant. In these cases, destabilization occurs in the early stages of concentration, when the films are still thick. It is caused

  5. Behavioral Flexibility Is Increased by Optogenetic Inhibition of Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell during Specific Time Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquili, Luca; Liu, Andrew W.; Shindou, Mayumi; Shindou, Tomomi; Wickens, Jeffery R.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is vital for survival in an environment of changing contingencies. The nucleus accumbens may play an important role in behavioral flexibility, representing learned stimulus-reward associations in neural activity during response selection and learning from results. To investigate the role of nucleus accumbens neural activity…

  6. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  7. Intraperitoneal injections of low doses of C75 elicit a behaviorally specific and vagal afferent-independent inhibition of eating in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abdelhak; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H.; Ronnett, Gabriele; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Arnold, Myrtha; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Central and intraperitoneal C75, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase and stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1, inhibits eating in mice and rats. Mechanisms involved in feeding inhibition after central C75 have been identified, but little is yet known about how systemic C75 might inhibit eating. One issue is whether intraperitoneal C75 reduces food intake in rats by influencing normal physiological controls of food intake or acts nonselectively, for example by eliciting illness or aversion. Another issue relates to whether intraperitoneal C75 acts centrally or, similar to some other peripheral metabolic controls of eating, activates abdominal vagal afferents to inhibit eating. To further address these questions, we investigated the effects of intraperitoneal C75 on spontaneous meal patterns and the formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We also tested whether the eating inhibitory effect of intraperitoneal C75 is vagally mediated by testing rats after either total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (TVX) or selective subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentations (SDA). Intraperitoneal injection of 3.2 and 7.5 mg/kg of C75 significantly reduced food intake 3, 12, and 24 h after injection by reducing the number of meals without affecting meal size, whereas 15 mg/kg of C75 reduced both meal number and meal size. The two smaller doses of C75 failed to induce a CTA, but 15 mg/kg C75 did. The eating inhibitory effect of C75 was not diminished in either TVX or SDA rats. We conclude that intraperitoneal injections of low doses of C75 inhibit eating in a behaviorally specific manner and that this effect does not require abdominal vagal afferents. PMID:18667714

  8. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, castability and in vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys developed for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, K J; Liu, Y; Zhou, F Y; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F; Liu, Y H

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the microstructure, mechanical properties, castability, electrochemical behaviors, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys with pure Ti as control were systematically investigated to assess their potential applications in the dental field. The experimental results showed that, except for the Ti-20Bi alloy, the microstructure of all other Ti-Bi alloys exhibit single α-Ti phase, while Ti-20Bi alloy is consisted of mainly α-Ti phase and a small amount of BiTi2 and BiTi3 phases. The tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance of Ti-Bi alloys were demonstrated to be improved monotonically with the increase of Bi content. The castability test showed that Ti-2Bi alloy increased the castability of pure Ti by 11.7%. The studied Ti-Bi alloys showed better corrosion resistance than pure Ti in both AS (artificial saliva) and ASFL (AS containing 0.2% NaF and 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. The concentrations of both Ti ion and Bi ion released from Ti-Bi alloys are extremely low in AS, ASF (AS containing 0.2% NaF) and ASL (AS containing 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. However, in ASFL solution, a large number of Ti and Bi ions are released. In addition, Ti-Bi alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to L929 cells and MG63 cells, similar to pure Ti, indicating a good in vitro biocompatibility. Besides, both L929 and MG63 cells perform excellent cell adhesion ability on Ti-Bi alloys. The hemolysis test exhibited that Ti-Bi alloys have an ultra-low hemolysis percentage below 1% and are considered nonhemolytic. To sum up, the Ti-2Bi alloy exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and has great potential for dental applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  11. Heat treatment control of Bi-2212 coils: I. Unravelling the complex dependence of the critical current density of Bi-2212 wires on heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Ye, Liyang

    2018-01-01

    A robust and reliable heat treatment is crucial for developing superconducting magnets from several superconductors especially Bi-2212. An improper heat treatment may significantly reduce the critical current density Jc of a Bi-2212 superconducting coil, even to zero, since the Jc of Bi-2212 wires is sensitive to parameters of its heat treatment (partial melt processing). To provide an essential database for heat treating Bi-2212 coils, the dependence of Jc on heat treatment is studied systematically in 11 industrial Bi-2212 wires, revealing several common traits shared between these wires and outlier behaviors. The dependence of the Jc of Bi-2212 on heat treatment is rather complex, with many processing parameters affecting Jc, including the peak processing temperature Tp, the time at the peak temperature tp, the time in the melt tmelt, the rate at which Bi-2212 melt is initially cooled CR1, the rate at which the solidification of Bi-2212 melt occurs CR2, and the temperature Tq at which the cooling rate switches from CR1 to CR2. The role of these parameters is analyzed and clarified, in the perspective of heat treating a coil. Practical advices on heat treatment design are given. The ability of a Bi-2212 coil to follow the prescribed recipe decreases with increasing coil sizes. The size of a coil that can be properly heat treated is determined.

  12. Thermal analysis and phase diagrams of the LiF BiF3 e NaF BiF3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Gerson Hiroshi de Godoy

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of the binary systems LiF-BiF 3 and NaF-BiF 3 were performed with the objective of clarifying the thermal behavior and phase equilibria of these systems and their intermediary phases, an important requisite for high-quality crystal growth. Several samples in the entire range of compositions (0 to 100 mol% BiF 3 ) of both systems were subjected to experiments of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG), and also of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A few specific compositions were selected for X-ray diffraction to supplement the experimental data. Due to the high vulnerability of BiF 3 to oxygen contamination, its volatility and propensity to destroy metal parts upon heating, it was necessary to determine the optimal conditions for thermal analysis before investigating the systems themselves. Phase relations in the system LiF-BiF 3 were completely clarified and a phase diagram was calculated and evaluated via the commercial software Factsage. The diagram itself consists in a simple peritectic system in which the only intermediary compound, LiBiF 4 , decomposes into LiF and a liquid phase. The NaF-BiF 3 system could not be completely elucidated and the phase relations in the NaF poor side (> 50% BiF 3 ) are still unknown. In the NaF rich side, however, the possible peritectoid decomposition of the compound NaBiF 4 was identified. In both systems X-ray diffraction yielded crystal structures discrepant with the literature for the intermediary phases, LiBiF 4 , NaBiF 4 and a solid solution of NaF and BiF 3 called I. The observed structures remain unknown and explanations for the discrepancies were proposed. (author)

  13. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  14. Inhibition of serotonin but not norepinephrine transport during development produces delayed, persistent perturbations of emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Mark S; Morelli, Emanuela; Gingrich, Jay A

    2008-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) acts as a neurotransmitter, but also modulates brain maturation during early development. The demonstrated influence of genetic variants on brain function, personality traits, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a critical importance of developmental mechanisms. However, little is known about how and when developmentally perturbed 5-HT signaling affects circuitry and resulting behavior. The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of extracellular 5-HT levels and we used pharmacologic strategies to manipulate 5-HTT function during development and determine behavioral consequences. Transient exposure to the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine, clomipramine, and citalopram from postnatal day 4 (P4) to P21 produced abnormal emotional behaviors in adult mice. Similar treatment with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor, desipramine, did not adversely affect adult behavior, suggesting that 5-HT and norepinephrine (NE) do not share the same effects on brain development. Shifting our period of treatment/testing to P90/P185 failed to mimic the effect of earlier exposure, demonstrating that 5-HT effects on adult behavior are developmentally specific. We have hypothesized that early-life perturbations of 5-HT signaling affect corticolimbic circuits that do not reach maturity until the peri-adolescent period. In support of this idea, we found that abnormal behaviors resulting from postnatal fluoxetine exposure have a post-pubescent onset and persist long after reaching adult age. A better understanding of the underlying 5-HT sensitive circuits and how they are perturbed should lead to new insights into how various genetic polymorphisms confer their risk to carriers. Furthermore, these studies should help determine whether in utero exposure to 5-HTT blocking drugs poses a risk for behavioral abnormalities in later life.

  15. Testosterone inhibits facilitating effects of parenting experience on parental behavior and the oxytocin neural system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Shota; Kitano, Kanako; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-06-13

    Parental behavior in mammals is facilitated by sensory experiences from infant, and by endocrine hormones. However, the interactions between these factors in the parental behavior of nonreproductive adults are not understood. We examined the interactive effects of gonadal hormones and the experience of repeated pup exposure on parental behavior in sexually naive mice. We also compared oxytocin (OT) expression levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to behavioral outcomes. Clear sex differences were observed in retrieving tests; initial retrieving latency was shorter in females than in males, and 5-time pup exposure shortened retrieving latency in females only. Gonadectomy influenced neither initial retrieving latency nor pup sensitization in females. In contrast, gonadectomy shortened initial retrieving latency and caused pup sensitization in males. Estrogen implants given simultaneously with gonadectomy further shortened the initial retrieving latency in males, but pup sensitization was not affected and occurred in both sexes. In contrast, simultaneous testosterone implants impaired pup sensitization in both sexes. Similar to the results for responsiveness to pups, the number of OT neurons was increased by gonadectomy in males only. In comparison to gonadectomy only, OT neurons were decreased by simultaneous testosterone implants, but were not influenced by estrogen in either sex. Considering the parallel inhibitory effects of testosterone on both pup sensitization and number of OT neurons, we postulate that sex differences in parental responsiveness facilitated by repeated pup exposure were caused by an inhibitory effect of testosterone via the OT neural system in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of combined exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and shaker stress on acoustic startle response, pre-pulse inhibition and open field behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovicky, M; Paton, S; Morris, M; Mach, M; Lucot, J B

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of combined exposure of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and chronic shaker stress on acoustic startle responses (ASR), pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and open field behavior of adult C57BL/6J mice. PB (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days) or saline was administered subcutaneously using osmotic Alzet minipumps implanted under the skin on the back of the mice. At the same time, the mice were exposed to 7 days of intermittent shaker stress. They were tested for ASR (100 dB and 120 dB stimuli) and PPI (70 dB + 100 dB and 70 dB + 120 dB) in the acoustic startle monitor system. The mice were assessed during the shaker stress on days 2 and 7 and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after discontinuation of treatment. Separate groups of mice were tested in the open field in 15 min sessions on days 1, 3 and 6 during shaker stress and PB treatment. Exposure of mice to PB resulted in an exaggerated ASR, reduced PPI and non-significant decrease in locomotor activity. These behavioral changes were apparent only during exposure to PB. Repeated shaker stress did not have any effect on sensorimotor functions or open field behavior of mice. There was no prolonged or delayed effect of PB and/or stress on individual behavioral variables. The study found C57BL/6J mice to be behaviorally sensitive to PB treatment. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. RKIP inhibition in cervical cancer is associated with higher tumor aggressive behavior and resistance to cisplatin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, being high-risk group the HPV infected, the leading etiological factor. The raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several human neoplasms, however its role on cervical cancer is unclear. In the present study, 259 uterine cervix tissues, including cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas, were analyzed for RKIP expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that RKIP expression was significantly decreased during malignant progression, being highly expressed in non-neoplastic tissues (54% of the samples; 73/135, and expressed at low levels in the cervix invasive carcinomas (∼15% (19/124. Following in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we observed a viability and proliferative advantage of RKIP-inhibited cells over time, which was associated with an altered cell cycle distribution and higher colony number in a colony formation assay. An in vitro wound healing assay showed that RKIP abrogation is associated with increased migratory capability. RKIP downregulation was also associated with an increased vascularization of the tumors in vivo using a CAM assay. Furthermore, RKIP inhibition induced cervical cancer cells apoptotic resistance to cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, we described that RKIP protein is significantly depleted during the malignant progression of cervical tumors. Despite the lack of association with patient clinical outcome, we demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that loss of RKIP expression can be one of the factors that are behind the aggressiveness, malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of cervical cancer.

  19. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A.; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transitio...

  20. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez; Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez; Raquel A. Benavides-Torres; Rogelio Zapata-Garibay; Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez; María Aracely Márquez-Vega; Gabriela Zamora-Carmona

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in...

  1. Engineering Critical Current Density Improvement in Ag- Bi-2223 Tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W. G.; Seifi, Behrouz; Eriksen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 multifilament tapes were produced by the powder-in-tube method. Engineering critical current density improvement has been achieved through both enhancement of critical current density by control of the thermal behavior of oxide powder and by an increase of the filling...... factor of the tapes. Phase evolution at initial sintering stage has been studied by a quench experiment in Ag-Bi-2223 tapes. The content, texture, and microstructure of various phases were determined by XRD and SEM. A novel process approach has been invented in which square wire was chosen rather than...

  2. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Scott; Yuan, Fang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kosuda, Kosuke; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras [Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mozharivskyj, Yurij, E-mail: mozhar@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    The second and third known rare-earth bismuthide oxides, Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, have been discovered via high temperature reactions at 1300 °C. Like its Gd–Sb–O counterparts, the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases crystallize in the monoclinic C2/m space group, with the latter containing disordered Bi atoms along the b direction of the unit cell. Unlike the RE{sub 8}Sb{sub 3}O{sub 8} series, the formation of the Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} phase does not necessarily precede the formation of Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, which is likely due to the difficulty of accommodating bismuth in the RE–O framework due to its larger size. Physical property measurements performed on a pure Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} sample reveal semiconducting behavior. Although electronic structure calculations predict metallic behavior due to an unbalanced electron count, the semiconducting behavior originates from the Anderson localization of the Bi p states near the Fermi level as a result of atomic disorder. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of GdBi and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at high temperatures yields Gd–Bi–O phases. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the second and third rare-earth bismuthide oxides, have been discovered. • Gd{sub 3}BiO{sub 3} and Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} are isostructural with RE{sub 3}SbO{sub 3} and RE{sub 8}Sb{sub 3}O{sub 8}. • Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8} displays semiconducting behavior despite an unbalanced electron count. • Anderson localization of Bi p states results in semiconducting behavior in Gd{sub 8}Bi{sub 3}O{sub 8}.

  4. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.

  5. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border. This was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB) of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination. The sample was predominantly male (89.5%), with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73) and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37). A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use ( r s  = 0.130, p  machismo (β = -0.28, t  = -4.83, p  machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant populations from other parts of the border, as well undertaking as a qualitative approach to explore new variables.

  6. Different Neural Networks are Involved in Cross-Modal Non-Spatial Inhibition of Return (IOR: The Effect of the Sensory Modality of Behavioral Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We employed a novel cross-modal non-spatial inhibition of return (IOR paradigm with fMRI to investigate whether object concept is organized by supramodal or modality-specific systems. A precue-neutral cue-target sequence was presented and participants were asked to discriminate whether the target was a dog or a cat. The precue and the target could be either a picture or vocalization of a dog or a cat. The neutral cue (bird was always from the same modality as the precue. Behaviorally, for both visual and auditory targets, the main effect of cue validity was the only significant effect, p<0.01, with equivalent effects for within- and cross-modal IOR. Neurally, for visual targets, left inferior frontal gyrus and left medial temporal gyrus showed significantly higher neural activity in cued than uncued condition, irrespective of the precue-target relationship, indicating that the two areas are involved in inhibiting a supramodal representation of previously attended object concept. For auditory targets, left lateral occipital gyrus and right postcentral gyrus showed significantly higher neural activity in uncued than cued condition irrespective of the cue-target relationship, indicating that the two areas are involved in creating a new supramodal representation when a novel object concept appears.

  7. Thermal behavior of GeO{sub 2} doped PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xiao Hanning [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)]. E-mail: hnxiao@hnu.cn; Guo Weiming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo Wenming [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2006-05-15

    PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass is a representative system for vacuum and electronic sealing. Effects of GeO{sub 2} on thermal properties of the glass have been investigated in this paper. Activation energy for crystallization, glass structure, the type of crystals were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the addition of GeO{sub 2} (0.4-2 wt.%) to PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass can suppress crystallization of the glass and decrease the sealing temperature. With the increase of GeO{sub 2} content, germanate crystals were revealed, resulting in a slight increase of sealing temperature. When the content of GeO{sub 2} is 0.7 wt.%, the glass possesses the highest stability and lowest sealing temperature (400 deg. C), which is desirable for low-temperature sealing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was measured by dilatometry. The result shows that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the glass increases with the content of GeO{sub 2}. The adjustability of the coefficient of thermal expansion would expand the applications of PbO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass. A flexural strength of 28.3 MPa was obtained at the GeO{sub 2} content of 0.7 wt.%, showing good mechanical property for sealing process.

  8. Thermal analysis and phase diagrams of the LiF BiF{sub 3} e NaF BiF{sub 3} systems; Analise termica e diagramas de fase dos sistemas LiF-BiF{sub 3} e NaF-BiF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Gerson Hiroshi de Godoy

    2013-07-01

    Investigations of the binary systems LiF-BiF{sub 3} and NaF-BiF{sub 3} were performed with the objective of clarifying the thermal behavior and phase equilibria of these systems and their intermediary phases, an important requisite for high-quality crystal growth. Several samples in the entire range of compositions (0 to 100 mol% BiF{sub 3}) of both systems were subjected to experiments of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry (TG), and also of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A few specific compositions were selected for X-ray diffraction to supplement the experimental data. Due to the high vulnerability of BiF{sub 3} to oxygen contamination, its volatility and propensity to destroy metal parts upon heating, it was necessary to determine the optimal conditions for thermal analysis before investigating the systems themselves. Phase relations in the system LiF-BiF{sub 3} were completely clarified and a phase diagram was calculated and evaluated via the commercial software Factsage. The diagram itself consists in a simple peritectic system in which the only intermediary compound, LiBiF{sub 4}, decomposes into LiF and a liquid phase. The NaF-BiF{sub 3} system could not be completely elucidated and the phase relations in the NaF poor side (> 50% BiF{sub 3}) are still unknown. In the NaF rich side, however, the possible peritectoid decomposition of the compound NaBiF{sub 4} was identified. In both systems X-ray diffraction yielded crystal structures discrepant with the literature for the intermediary phases, LiBiF{sub 4}, NaBiF{sub 4} and a solid solution of NaF and BiF{sub 3} called {sup I.} The observed structures remain unknown and explanations for the discrepancies were proposed. (author)

  9. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  10. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo; Ye, Minhua; Zhang, Anling; Nan, Yang; Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan; Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei; Pu, Peiyu; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE

  11. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Ye, Minhua [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006 (China); Zhang, Anling [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Nan, Yang [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Pu, Peiyu [Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin 300052 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurotrauma, Variation and Regeneration, Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipal Government (China); Huang, Qiang, E-mail: huangqiang209@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Zhong, Yue, E-mail: zhongyue2457@sina.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE.

  12. Growth behavior of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films on graphene substrate grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Wan [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hwan; Kang, Min A.; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Young Kuk [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Gu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A comparative study of the substrate effect on the growth mechanism of chalcogenide Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films was carried out. Obvious microstructural discrepancy in both the as-deposited Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films was observed when grown on graphene or SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films deposited on the graphene substrate were observed to be grown epitaxially along c-axis and show very smooth surface compared to that on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Based on the experimental results of this study, the initial adsorption sites on graphene substrate during deposition process, which had been discussed theoretically, could be demonstrated empirically. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE (BI IMPLEMENTATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF INDIVIDUAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia de Mesquita Fetzner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Change is central in the implementation of Information Technology (IT. This paper reports on a study in which the aim was to examine the nature of change at the individual level with an analysis based on interviews with representatives from a Business Intelligence (BI solution provider and a group of clients. The implementations seemed to have occurred without great difficulty, BI learning was quick, intuitive, and the process generated a positive affect. Changes occurred in work practices, in the relationships between professionals, with regard to information, and in decision making. The study uses different theoretical approaches and proposes the application of an analytical perspective that includes affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects in order to investigate IT adoption. On a practical level, the study contributes to the knowledge regarding a particular technology - BI and, consequently, provides professionals with the opportunity to expand their knowledge of the perceptions people have of technology, which can lead to reflection and differentiated practices.

  14. Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)

  15. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico–United States (US border.MethodsThis was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination.ResultsThe sample was predominantly male (89.5%, with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73 and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37. A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p < 0.01 and rs = −0.174, p < 0.01, respectively. Regression analysis showed that a permissive sexual attitude decreased the practice of safe sex (β = 0.17, t = 4.16, p < 0.001, as did sexual machismo (β = −0.28, t = −4.83, p < 0.001 and HIV knowledge (β = −0.11, t = −2.62, p = 0.006.DiscussionIt was found that access to health services did not influence the SSB of migrants, as suggested by the literature. However, a permissive sexual attitude, sexual machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant

  16. Inhibiting PKMζ reveals dorsal lateral and dorsal medial striatum store the different memories needed to support adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; Clark, Alexandra D; Guenther, Heidi J; O'Reilly, Randall C; Rudy, Jerry W

    2012-06-20

    Evidence suggests that two regions of the striatum contribute differential support to instrumental response selection. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is thought to support expectancy-mediated actions, and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is thought to support habits. Currently it is unclear whether these regions store task-relevant information or just coordinate the learning and retention of these solutions by other brain regions. To address this issue, we developed a two-lever concurrent variable-interval reinforcement operant conditioning task and used it to assess the trained rat's sensitivity to contingency shifts. Consistent with the view that these two regions make different contributions to actions and habits, injecting the NMDA antagonist DL-AP5 into the DMS just prior to the shift impaired the rat's performance but enhanced performance when injected into the DLS. To determine if these regions support memory content, we first trained rats on a biased concurrent schedule (Lever 1: VI 40" and Lever 2: VI 10"). With the intent of "erasing" the memory content stored in striatum, after this training we inhibited the putative memory-maintenance protein kinase C isozyme protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Infusing zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the DLS enhanced the rat's ability to adapt to the contingency shift 2 d later, whereas injecting it into the DMS had the opposite effect. Infusing GluR2(3Y) into the DMS 1 h before ZIP infusions prevented ZIP from impairing the rat's sensitivity to the contingency shift. These results support the hypothesis that the DMS stores information needed to support actions and the DLS stores information needed to support habits.

  17. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  18. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  19. Multiferroic BiFeO3-BiMnO3 Nanocheckerboard From First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Palova, L.; Chandra, P.; Rabe, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a first principles study of an unusual heterostructure, an atomic-scale checkerboard of BiFeO3-BiMnO3, and compare its properties to the two bulk constituent materials, BiFeO3 and BiMnO3. The "nanocheckerboard" is found to have a multiferroic ground state with the desired properties of each constituent: polar and ferrimagnetic due to BiFeO3 and BiMnO3, respectively. The effect of B-site cation ordering on magnetic ordering in the BiFeO3-BiMnO3 system is studied. The checkerboard ge...

  20. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and behavioral analysis in adult rats after chronic administration of fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Scaini, Giselli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Constantino, Larissa S; Deroza, Pedro F; Ghedim, Fernando V; Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Quevedo, João; Zugno, Alexandra I; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic and it is rapidly converted in vivo into amphetamine. It elevates the levels of extracellular dopamine in the brain. Acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine. Thus, we investigated whether the effects of chronic administration of fenproporex in adult rats alters acquisition and retention of avoidance memory and acetylcholinesterase activity. Adult male Wistar rats received repeated (14 days) intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg i.p.). For behavioral assessment, animals were submitted to inhibitory avoidance (IA) tasks and continuous multiple trials step-down inhibitory avoidance (CMIA). Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum. The administration of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) did not induce impairment in short and long-term IA or CMIA retention memory in rats. In addition, longer periods of exposure to fenproporex administration decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of rats, but no alteration was verified in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In conclusion, the present study showed that chronic fenproporex administration decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain. However, longer periods of exposure to fenproporex did not produce impairment in short and long-term IA or CMIA retention memory in rats.

  1. Effects of Mind-Body Training on Personality and Behavioral Activation and Inhibition System According to BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Lee, Ul Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-05-01

    It has been known that mind-body training (MBT) can affect personality and behavior system as well as emotional well-being, but different effects of MBT on them has not been reported according to BDNF genetic polymorphism. Healthy subjects consisted of 64 subjects and the MBT group who practiced meditation regularly consisted of 72 practitioners. Participants completed neuroticism-extraversion-openness (NEO) Five-Factor Inventory and Behavioral Activation System/Behavioral Inhibition System (BAS/BIS) scales. All subjects were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the increased Extraversion (p=0.033) and the increased Openness to Experience (p=0.004) compared to the control group. Also, in the same Met/Met carriers, MBT group exhibited the increase of Extraversion (p=0.008), the reduction of Neuroticism (p=0.002), and the increase of Openness to Experience (p=0.008) compared to the control group. In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the decreased BAS-Reward Responsiveness (p=0.016) and the decrease of BIS (p=0.004) compared to the control group. In the BDNF Met/Met group, MBT group increased BAS-Fun Seeking (p=0.045) and decreased BIS (p=0.013) compared to the control group. MBT would differently contribute to NEO personality and BAS/BIS according to BDNF genetic polymorphism, compensating for different vulnerable traits based on each genotype.

  2. Microstructure Of MnBi/Bi Eutectic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, William R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, B.; Richardson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Collection of three reports describes studies of directional solidification of MnBi/Bi eutectic alloy. Two of the reports, "Influence of Convection on Lamellar Spacing of Eutectics" and "Influence of Convection on Eutectic Microstructure," establish theoretical foundation for remaining document. Reports seek to quantify effect of convection on concentration field of growing lamellar eutectic. Remaining report, "Study of Eutectic Formation," begins by continuing theoretical developments. New technique under development by one of the authors helps to reveal three-dimensional microstructures of alloys.

  3. Enhancement of thermoelectric properties of Mg2Si compounds with Bi doping through carrier concentration tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, Sang-Hum; Oh, Min-Wook; Ryu, Byungi; Joo, Sung-Jae; Kim, Bong-Seo; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Hee-Woong; Park, Su-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The Bi-doped Mg2Si powder was fabricated with solid state reaction method and consolidated with hot pressing method and then its thermoelectric properties were investigated. The n-type transport properties were measured in all samples and temperature dependence of the electrical properties shows a behavior of degenerate semiconductors for Bi-doped samples. The electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient were greatly reduced with Bi, which was mainly due to the increment of the carrier concentration. The samples have maximum carrier concentration of 8.2 × 1018 cm-3. The largest ZT value of 0.61 was achieve at 873 K for Mg2.04SiBi0.02. The Bi-doping was found to be an effective n-type dopant to adjust carrier concentration. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Optical, electrical and the related parameters of amorphous Ge-Bi-Se thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Korashy, A.; El-Kabany, N.; El-Zahed, H.

    2005-01-01

    The related optical and electrical parameters of amorphous Ge-Bi-Se thin films were studied. The dependence of optical and electrical properties on the Bi content was observed in most compositions. At Bi >10at% the behavior show a switch from p to n type conduction mechanism. The correlation between the optical band gap E g and the average heats of atomization H s were observed. The results indicated that both the number of topological constant N con and the radial and angular N α , N β valence force constants exhibit the same trend with increasing Bi content. On the other hand, the mean bond energy increases with increasing Bi content to x=15at%. It may be concluded that is a function of the mean coordination number N co , the type of bonds, the degree of cross-linking and the band energy forming the network

  5. Effect of Pb and Cr Substitutions on Phase Formation and Excess Conductivity of Bi-2212 Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khir, F. L. M.; Mohamed, Z.; Yusuf, A. A.; Yusof, M. I. M.; Yahya, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Pb and Cr substitutions on the superconducting properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) superconductors is reported. The samples were prepared from Bi 2-x Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2-y Cr y Cu 3 O 10-δ (x = 0-0.3, y = 0-0.3) starting composition by the solid-state-reaction method. XRD analysis showed formation of pure Bi-2212 for (x = 0, y = 0), (x = 0.3, y = 0.2,) and (x = 0.3, y = 0.2,) starting compositions. Excess conductivity analysis based on Asmalazov-Larkin theory on single-phased Bi2212 samples showed 2D to 3D transition in superconducting fluctuation behavior (SFB) for all the samples. Highest 2D-3D transition temperature, T 2D-3D was observed at Pb and Cr substitutions of x = 0.3, and x = 0.2, respectively.

  6. Biological Control of Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato by Trichoderma harzianum BI and Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Naserinasab; , N. Sahebani; , H.R. Etebarian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Trichoderma harzianum BI was evaluated for its capacity to reduce the incidence and pathogenicity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Culture Şltrates of T. harzianum BI at different concentrations, (standard, 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100) were studied. In vitro studies revealed that hatching of M. javanica eggs was inhibited by the culture Şltrates and this inhibition was positively correlated with increase in the concentration of culture Şltrates. Parasitism of ...

  7. The monoaminergic pathways and inhibition of monoamine transporters interfere with the antidepressive-like behavior of ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine (KET, a NMDA receptor antagonist, has been studied for its rapid and efficacious antidepressant effect, even for the treatment-resistant depression. Although depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, the treatment can be feasible, affordable and cost-effective, decreasing the population health burden. We evaluated the antidepressive-like effects of KET and its actions on monoamine contents (DA and its metabolites, as well as 5-HT and on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. In addition DAT and SERT (DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively were also assessed. Male Swiss mice were divided into Control and KET-treated groups. The animals were acutely treated with KET (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. and subjected to the forced swimming test, for evaluation of the antidepressive-like behavior. Imipramine and fluoxetine were used as references. The results showed that KET decreased dose-dependently the immobility time and shortly after the test, the animals were euthanized for striatal dissections and monoamine determinations. In addition, the brain (striata, hippocampi and prefrontal cortices was immunohistochemically processed for TH, DAT and SERT. KET at its higher dose increased DA and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA and mainly 5-HT contents, in mice striata, effects associated with increases in TH and decreases in DAT immunoreactivities. Furthermore, reductions in SERT immunoreactivities were observed in the striatum and hippocampus. The results indicate that KET antidepressive-like effect probably involves, among other factors, monoaminergic pathways, as suggested by the increased striatal TH immunoreactivity and reduced brain DA (DAT and 5-HT (SERT transporters. Keywords: Ketamine, Antidepressive effect, Dopaminergic neurotransmission, Serotonergic neurotransmission, Monoamine transporters

  8. Integrated Bi2O3 nanostructure modified with Au nanoparticles for enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankwon Lim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated Bi2O3 (i-Bi2O3 nanostructure with a particle size 10 nm inducing agglomerated structure were synthesized by dissolving bismuth nitrate pentahydrate in diethylene glycol at 180 °C with post heat treatment. The prepared i-Bi2O3 nanostructures were employed for the construction of Au/i-Bi2O3 composite system and characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The i-Bi2O3 nanostructure and Au/i-Bi2O3 composite system were found to exhibit high photocatalytic activity than commercial Bi2O3 in decomposing salicylic acid under visible light irradiation. The high catalytic activity of i-Bi2O3 nanostructure was deduced to be caused by charge separation facilitated by electron hopping between the particles within the integrated structure and space-charge separation between i-Bi2O3 and Au. The charge separation behavior in i-Bi2O3 nanostructure was further bolstered by comparing the measured. OH radical produced in the solution with i-Bi2O3 nanostructure, commercial Bi2O3 and Au/i-Bi2O3 composite which readily react with 1,4-terephthalic acid (TA inducing 2-hydroxy terephthalic acid (TAOH that shows unique fluorescence peak at 426 nm. The space-charge separation between i-Bi2O3 and Au was confirmed by measuring the electron spin resonance (ESR spectra.

  9. Facile synthesis of well-dispersed Bi_2S_3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yajie; Tian, Guohui; Mao, Guijie; Li, Rong; Xiao, Yuting; Han, Taoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Well-dispersed Bi_2S_3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide were prepared. • Poly(sodium-p-styrenesul-fonate) can maintain Bi_2S_3 small particle size. • The prepared composites inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charges. • The prepared composites exhibited better visible light photoactivity. - Abstract: Here we present a facile method for the synthesis of highly dispersed Bi_2S_3 nanoparticles (Bi_2S_3 NPs) with an average diameter of ca. 25 ± 3 nm on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a poly(sodium-p-styrenesul-fonate) (PSS) asisted hydrothermal process. Such synthetic strategy can avoid excess aggregates of Bi_2S_3 nanoparticles, meanwhile from effective interfacial contact between Bi_2S_3 nanoparticles and RGO nanosheets, and inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charges. The enhanced charge transfer properties were proved by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. The obtained Bi_2S_3 NPs/RGO composites showed more significant visible light photoactivity for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and Rhodamine B than that pure Bi_2S_3 and the control sample prepared in the absence of PSS. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the synergistic effect of efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, increased catalytic active sites and visible light utilization.

  10. Atomistic modeling and simulation of the role of Be and Bi in Al diffusion in U-Mo fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, G. L.; Bozzolo, G.; Mosca, H. O.; Yacout, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    Within the RERTR program, previous experimental and modeling studies identified Si as the alloying addition to the Al cladding responsible for inhibiting Al interdiffusion in the UMo fuel. However, difficulties with reprocessing have rendered this choice inappropriate, leading to the need to study alternative elements. In this work, we discuss the results of an atomistic modeling effort which allows for the systematic study of several possible alloying additions. Based on the behavior observed in the phase diagrams, beryllium or bismuth additions suggest themselves as possible options to replace Si. The results of temperature-dependent simulations using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for the energetics for varying concentrations of either element are shown, indicating that Be could have a substantial effect in stopping Al interdiffusion, while Bi does not. Details of the calculations and the dependence of the role of each alloying addition as a function of temperature and concentration (of beryllium or bismuth in Al) are shown.

  11. Atomistic modeling and simulation of the role of Be and Bi in Al diffusion in U-Mo fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bozzolo, G., E-mail: guille_bozzolo@yahoo.com [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B165KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Yacout, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Within the RERTR program, previous experimental and modeling studies identified Si as the alloying addition to the Al cladding responsible for inhibiting Al interdiffusion in the UMo fuel. However, difficulties with reprocessing have rendered this choice inappropriate, leading to the need to study alternative elements. In this work, we discuss the results of an atomistic modeling effort which allows for the systematic study of several possible alloying additions. Based on the behavior observed in the phase diagrams, beryllium or bismuth additions suggest themselves as possible options to replace Si. The results of temperature-dependent simulations using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for the energetics for varying concentrations of either element are shown, indicating that Be could have a substantial effect in stopping Al interdiffusion, while Bi does not. Details of the calculations and the dependence of the role of each alloying addition as a function of temperature and concentration (of beryllium or bismuth in Al) are shown.

  12. Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles on the Sintering Behavior and Physical Properties of Bi0.5(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Le Dai; Truong-Tho, Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Sintered Bi0.5(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3 + x wt.% ZnO nanoparticle (BNKT- xZnOn) ceramics have been fabricated by conventional annealing with the aid of ultrasound waves for preliminary milling. Because of the presence of the liquid Bi2O3-ZnO phase at the eutectic point of 738°C, the sintering temperature decreased from 1150°C to 1000°C, and the morphology phase boundary of BNKT- xZnOn ceramics can be clarified by two separated peaks at (002)T and (200)T of 2 θ in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The improvement of ferroelectric properties has been obtained for BNZT-0.2 wt.% ZnOn ceramics by the increase of remanent polarization up to 20.4 μC/cm2 and a decrease of electric coercive field down to 14.2 kV/cm. The piezoelectric parameters of the ceramic included a piezoelectric charge constant of d 31 = 78 pC/N; electromechanical coupling factors k p = 0.31 and k t = 0.34, larger than the values of 42 pC/N, 0.12 and 0.13, respectively, were obtained for the BNKT ceramics.

  13. The inhibition of the kynurenine pathway prevents behavioral disturbances and oxidative stress in the brain of adult rats subjected to an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Becker, Indianara R T; Scaini, Giselli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Oses, Jean P; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Barichello, Tatiana

    2018-02-02

    Evidence has shown that the kynurenine pathway (KP) plays a role in the onset of oxidative stress and also in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to use a pharmacological animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine to investigate if KP inhibitors could protect the brains of Wistar rats against oxidative stress and behavioral changes. Ketamine, injected at the dose of 25mg/kg, increased spontaneous locomotor activity. However, the inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) were able to reverse these changes. In addition, the IDO inhibitor prevented lipid peroxidation, and decreased the levels of protein carbonyl in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum. It also increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus, as well as increasing the levels of catalase activity in the PFC and hippocampus. The TDO inhibitor prevented lipid damage in the striatum and reduced the levels of protein carbonyl in the hippocampus and striatum. Also, the TDO inhibitor increased the levels of SOD activity in the striatum and CAT activity in the hippocampus of ketamine-induced pro-oxidant effects. Lipid damage was not reversed by the KMO inhibitor. The KMO inhibitor increased the levels of SOD activity in the hippocampus, and reduced the levels of protein carbonyl while elevating the levels of CAT activity in the striatum of rats that had been injected with ketamine. Our findings revealed that the KP pathway could be a potential mechanism by which a schizophrenia animal model induced by ketamine could cause interference by producing behavioral disturbance and inducing oxidative stress in the brain, suggesting that the inhibition of the KP pathway could be a potential target in treating schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of BiVO4 Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai; Thongtem, Titipun

    2018-05-01

    Hyperbranched BiVO4 microstructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Upon characterization the products by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, pure monoclinic hyperbranched BiVO4 with dominant vibration peak at 810 cm-1 and strong photoemission peak at 360 nm was synthesized in the solution with pH 1. In the solution with pH 2, tetragonal BiVO4 phase was also detected. In this research, antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was investigated by counting the colony forming unit (CFU). At 37°C within 24 h, the monoclinic BiVO4 phase can play the role in inhibiting S. aureus growth (350 CFU/mL remaining bacteria) better than that against E. coli (a large number of remaining bacteria).

  15. The modulation and reconstruction of a BiO layer of cuprate Bi2212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wei; Zeng, Z

    2011-01-01

    Studies based on ab initio density functional theory show that the modulated structures of BiO surfaces of cuprate Bi2212 superconductors are spontaneously formed and closely related to the reconstructions of BiO surfaces. The reconstructions of BiO layers occur both on the surface and in the bulk, accompanied with the formations of BiO-zigzag chains and Bi 2 O 2 quadrilaterals. The structural modulations of the BiO surface are along the b axis, perpendicular to the BiO-zigzag chains along the a axis. Our calculations provide a unified understanding of the formation of modulating structures in Bi2212. Another interesting result is that electronic structures of BiO surfaces are significantly influenced by the CuO 2 layer beneath because of the structural modulations and reconstructions.

  16. Antiviral Activity of HIV gp120 Targeting Bispecific T Cell Engager (BiTE®) Antibody Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozy, Johannes; Schlaepfer, Erika; Mueller, Christina K S; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Rampini, Silvana K; Myburgh, Renier; Raum, Tobias; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Muenz, Markus; Speck, Roberto F

    2018-05-02

    Today's gold standard in HIV therapy is the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). It requires strict adherence by patients and life-long medication, which can lower the viral load below detection limits and prevent HIV-associated immunodeficiency, but cannot cure patients. The bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody technology has demonstrated long-term relapse-free outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. We here generated BiTE® antibody constructs that target the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 (HIV gp120) using either the scFv B12 or VRC01, the first two extracellular domains (1+2) of human CD4 alone or joined to the single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the antibody 17b fused to an anti-human CD3ϵ scFv. These engineered human BiTE® antibody constructs showed engagement of T cells for redirected lysis of HIV gp120-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, they substantially inhibited HIV-1 replication in PBMCs as well as in macrophages co-cultured with autologous CD8+ T-cells, the most potent being the human CD4(1+2) BiTE® antibody construct and the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct. The CD4(1+2) h BiTE® antibody construct promoted HIV infection of human CD4-/CD8+ T cells. In contrast, the neutralizing B12 and the VRC01 BiTE® antibody constructs as well as the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct did not. Thus, BiTE® antibody constructs targeting HIV gp120 are very promising for constraining HIV and warrant further development as novel antiviral therapy with curative potential. Importance HIV is a chronic infection well controlled with the current cART. However, we lack cure of HIV, and the HIV pandemic goes on. Here we showed in vitro and ex vivo t hat a bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody construct targeting HIV gp120 resulted in substantially reduced HIV replication. In addition, these BiTE® antibody constructs display efficient killing of gp120 expressing cells and inhibited replication in ex vivo

  17. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  18. Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres: Ion exchange synthesis and photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianchang; Li, Zhenlu; Ge, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres were prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Bi/BiOBr microspheres and AgNO3. The characteristic of the as-obtained ternary microspheres was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL). Under visible light irradiation, Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres exhibited an excellent photocatalytic efficiency for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation, which was about 1.4 and 4.9 times as high as that of Bi/BiOBr and BiOBr/AgBr, demonstrating that the highest separation efficiency of charge carriers in the heterostructured Bi/BiOBr/AgBr. The photocatalytic activity of Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres just exhibited a slight decrease after three consecutive cycles. The photocatalytic mechanism investigation confirmed that the superoxide radicals (O2•-) were the dominant reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Bi/BiOBr/AgBr suspension.

  19. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films with Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingxian; Liu, Yuehua; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hongbin; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Yuanming

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after 5 recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  20. Evidence for the quasi-two dimensional behavior of the vortex structure in Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8] single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastoriza, H [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Arribere, A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Goffman, M F [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Cruz, F de la [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Mitzi, D B [Dept. of Applied Physics, Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kapitulnik, A [Dept. of Applied Physics, Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    AC susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements on Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8] (BSCCO) single crystals in a wide range of temperatures clearly show that below the dc irreversibility line the vortex system loss the long range order in the c direction. The susceptibility data taken at 7 Hz show the different nature of two dissipation peaks: One related to the interplane currents at temperatures well below the dc irreversibility line and the other associated with the intraplane ones at temperatures above that line. In this sense the irreversibility line corresponds to the temperature where quasi-two dimensional vortices are depinned. (orig.)

  1. Bose-glass behavior in Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYxCu2O8 crystals with columnar defects: Experimental evidence for variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta Phuoc, V.; Sousa, R. de; Ammor, L.; Soret, J.C.; Ruyter, A.; Wahl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Disorder plays a crucial role in the static and dynamic properties of the mixed state of high-T c cuprates. A main feature of the diagram phase is the phase transition separating a high temperature vortex liquid-like state from a low temperature vortex solid-like state. In particular, the nature of the latter depends on the strength and the dimensionality of disorder. In the presence of an unidimensional disorder, Nelson and Vinokur predict a Bose-glass. In this paper, the authors concern themselves with the variable-range vortex hopping transport predicted in a Bose-glass. They report on vortex transport in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1-x Y x Cu 2 O 8 crystals irradiated at different doses of heavy ions. They show evidence of a flux-creep resistivity typical of a variable-range vortex hopping mechanism as predicted by Nelson and Vinokur

  2. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films With Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxian Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSA facial method was used to fabricate BiOI/BiOCl film at room temperature.30% BiOI/BiOCl showed an excellent photocatalytic activity and stability.Improvement of photocatalytic activity was owed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation efficiency of charge.Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after five recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  3. The tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debika; Sreenath, V.; Sriramkumar, L., E-mail: debika@physics.iitm.ac.in, E-mail: sreenath@lsu.edu, E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-11-01

    Matter bounces are bouncing scenarios wherein the universe contracts as in a matter dominated phase at early times. Such scenarios are known to lead to a scale invariant spectrum of tensor perturbations, just as de Sitter inflation does. In this work, we examine if the tensor bi-spectrum can discriminate between the inflationary and the bouncing scenarios. Using the Maldacena formalism, we analytically evaluate the tensor bi-spectrum in a matter bounce for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors. We show that, over scales of cosmological interest, the non-Gaussianity parameter h{sub NL} that characterizes the amplitude of the tensor bi-spectrum is quite small when compared to the corresponding values in de Sitter inflation. During inflation, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations freeze on super-Hubble scales, a behavior that results in the so-called consistency condition relating the tensor bi-spectrum and the power spectrum in the squeezed limit. In contrast, in the bouncing scenarios, the amplitude of the tensor perturbations grow strongly as one approaches the bounce, which suggests that the consistency condition will not be valid in such situations. We explicitly show that the consistency relation is indeed violated in the matter bounce. We discuss the implications of the results.

  4. Enhanced magnetic and ferroelectric properties in scandium doped nano Bi2Fe4O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Dimple P.; Sudakar, C.; Mocherla, Pavana S.V.; Mandal, Balaji P.; Jayakumar, Onnatu D.; Tyagi, Avesh K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report the synthesis of undoped and Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles using sonochemical technique. X-ray diffraction reveals that all samples are single phase with no impurities detected. EDS analysis was done to confirm the extent of Sc 3+ doping in the samples. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles have been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which is quite different from the linear M–H relationship reported for bulk Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 . A magnetization of 0.144 μB/f.u. is obtained at 300 K, which is mainly attributed to the uncompensated moments at the disordered particle surface resulting from the reduced coordination of the surface spins, arising due to lattice strain or oxygen deficiency. Addition of Sc 3+ dopant in varying concentrations in these Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles, improves their magnetic as well as ferroelectric properties. The leakage current is considerably reduced and electric polarization increases significantly in case of Bi 2 Fe 4(1−x) Sc x O 9 (x = 0.1) nanoparticles. Thus it can be inferred that Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles shows promise as good multiferroic materials. -- Graphical abstract: Undoped and Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical technique. The bi-functionalities of Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles have been demonstrated. The Bi 2 Fe 4(1−x) Sc x O 9 (x = 0.1) nanoparticles showed enhanced magnetic and ferroelectric properties with considerably less lossy characteristics compared to the bulk Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 . Highlights: ► Phase pure Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanostructures synthesized using a facile sonochemical technique. ► Nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic order at room temperature. ► Sc 3+ doping in Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles alters their magnetic and ferroelectric properties. ► A

  5. Photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Modified with BiOCl nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haipeng; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Jinwen; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BiOCl were deposited on TiO2 NTAs by sequential chemical bath deposition. • BiOCl can decrease background photocurrent and increase current response. • High sensitivity BiOCl/TiO2 is due to the direct oxidation of organics on BiOCl. - Abstract: BiOCl nanosheets were deposited on anodized TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) by sequential chemical bath deposition method to get BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs for photoelectrochemical detection of organic compounds (represented by glucose). The structures, elemental components and morphologies of TiO 2 and BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs were characterized by using X-ray diffraction diffractometer, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The photoelectrochemical behaviors of TiO 2 and BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs in the buffer and glucose solutions were measured by cyclic votammetry and amperometry with different optical powers. The modification of BiOCl nanosheets on TiO 2 NTAs decreases the photocurrents of TiO 2 NTAs in the buffer solution and increases the current response to glucose. Both of the background photocurrent decrease and current response increase are benefit for photoelectrochemical detection of organic compounds. When glucose was used as the target organic compound, the optimized BiOCl/TiO 2 NTAs sensor achieved a sensitivity of 0.327 μA/μM (0.417 μA·cm −2 ·μM −1 ), linear range from 0 to 1300 μM and calculated detection limit of 5.7 μM. Mechanisms of BiOCl modification were studied by measuring the optical absorption and hydroxyl radical HO· productivity. The transfer of holes from TiO 2 to BiOCl and the direct oxidation of organic compounds on BiOCl nanosheets led to the decrease of background photocurrent (lower reaction rate of water splitting on BiOCl nanosheets) and the increase of current response to organic compounds (higher reaction rate of direct oxidation of organic compounds)

  6. Towards Next Generation BI Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Jovan; Romero, Oscar; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    Next generation Business Intelligence (BI) systems require integration of heterogeneous data sources and a strong user-centric orientation. Both needs entail machine-processable metadata to enable automation and allow end users to gain access to relevant data for their decision making processes....... This framework is based on the findings of a survey of current user-centric approaches mainly focusing on query recommendation assistance. Finally, we discuss the benefits of the framework and present the plans for future work....

  7. Teknisk Ståbi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teknisk Ståbi er de bygningsprojekterendes og entreprenørers håndbog. Den dækker matematik, fysik, statestik, laster og sikkerhed samt beggematerialerne: beton, stål, træ, murværk, letbeton, glas og endelig fundering. Denne udgave er en næsten totalrevision, baseret på de nye Eurocodes, der afløs...

  8. Receptor complementation and mutagenesis reveal SR-BI as an essential HCV entry factor and functionally imply its intra- and extra-cellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Dreux

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV entry into cells is a multi-step and slow process. It is believed that the initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction protein Claudin-1, ultimately leading to uptake and cellular penetration of HCV via low-pH endosomes. Several reports have indicated that HDL promotes HCV entry through interaction with SR-BI. This pathway remains largely elusive, although it was shown that HDL neither associates with HCV particles nor modulates HCV binding to SR-BI. In contrast to CD81 and Claudin-1, the importance of SR-BI has only been addressed indirectly because of lack of cells in which functional complementation assays with mutant receptors could be performed. Here we identified for the first time two cell types that supported HCVpp and HCVcc entry upon ectopic SR-BI expression. Remarkably, the undetectable expression of SR-BI in rat hepatoma cells allowed unambiguous investigation of human SR-BI functions during HCV entry. By expressing different SR-BI mutants in either cell line, our results revealed features of SR-BI intracellular domains that influence HCV infectivity without affecting receptor binding and stimulation of HCV entry induced by HDL/SR-BI interaction. Conversely, we identified positions of SR-BI ectodomain that, by altering HCV binding, inhibit entry. Finally, we characterized alternative ectodomain determinants that, by reducing SR-BI cholesterol uptake and efflux functions, abolish HDL-mediated infection-enhancement. Altogether, we demonstrate that SR-BI is an essential HCV entry factor. Moreover, our results highlight specific SR-BI determinants required during HCV entry and physiological lipid transfer functions hijacked by HCV to favor infection.

  9. Large linear magnetoresistance in a new Dirac material BaMnBi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Yan; Yu, Qiao-He; Xia, Tian-Long

    2016-10-01

    Dirac semimetal is a class of materials that host Dirac fermions as emergent quasi-particles. Dirac cone-type band structure can bring interesting properties such as quantum linear magnetoresistance and large mobility in the materials. In this paper, we report the synthesis of high quality single crystals of BaMnBi2 and investigate the transport properties of the samples. BaMnBi2 is a metal with an antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 288 K. The temperature dependence of magnetization displays different behavior from CaMnBi2 and SrMnBi2, which suggests the possible different magnetic structure of BaMnBi2. The Hall data reveals electron-type carriers and a mobility μ(5 K) = 1500 cm2/V·s. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance reveals the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface in BaMnBi2. A crossover from semiclassical MR ˜ H 2 dependence in low field to MR ˜ H dependence in high field, which is attributed to the quantum limit of Dirac fermions, has been observed in magnetoresistance. Our results indicate the existence of Dirac fermions in BaMnBi2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574391), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant No. 14XNLQ07).

  10. Large linear magnetoresistance in a new Dirac material BaMnBi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi-Yan; Yu Qiao-He; Xia Tian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Dirac semimetal is a class of materials that host Dirac fermions as emergent quasi-particles. Dirac cone-type band structure can bring interesting properties such as quantum linear magnetoresistance and large mobility in the materials. In this paper, we report the synthesis of high quality single crystals of BaMnBi 2 and investigate the transport properties of the samples. BaMnBi 2 is a metal with an antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 288 K. The temperature dependence of magnetization displays different behavior from CaMnBi 2 and SrMnBi 2 , which suggests the possible different magnetic structure of BaMnBi 2 . The Hall data reveals electron-type carriers and a mobility μ (5 K) = 1500 cm 2 /V·s. Angle-dependent magnetoresistance reveals the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface in BaMnBi 2 . A crossover from semiclassical MR ∼ H 2 dependence in low field to MR ∼ H dependence in high field, which is attributed to the quantum limit of Dirac fermions, has been observed in magnetoresistance. Our results indicate the existence of Dirac fermions in BaMnBi 2 . (rapid communication)

  11. Bi induced step-flow growth in the homoepitaxial growth of Au(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiko, M.; Mizuno, H.; Chihaya, H.; Xu, J.-H.; Kojima, I.; Yamamoto, R.

    2005-01-01

    Homoepitaxial growth of Au on Bi-covered Au(1 1 1) was studied at room temperature using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). From observations of RHEED it is found that the Au(1 1 1) (23 x 1) reconstruction structure changes to a (1 x 1) by about 0.16-0.5 ML deposition of Bi and to a (2√3 x 2√3)R30 deg by about 1.0 ML deposition of Bi, respectively. The surface morphology evolution by Bi deposition leads to a change of Au homoepitaxial growth behavior from layer-by-layer to step flow. This indicates that the surface diffusion distance of Au atoms on the Bi-precovered (1 x 1) and (2√3 x 2√3)R30 deg surfaces is longer than that on the Au(1 1 1) (23 x 1) clean surfaces. A strong surface segregation of Bi was found at top of surface. It is concluded that Bi atoms acted as an effective surfactant in the Au homoepitaxial growth by promoting Au intralayer mass transport

  12. A three-dimensional BiOBr/RGO heterostructural aerogel with enhanced and selective photocatalytic properties under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xue; Shi, Junjie; Feng, Lijuan; Li, Chunhu; Wang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst was synthesized using dopamine as reducing agent. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel can be easily controlled morphology by a simple two-step method. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst exhibited superior performance in MO decoloration. - Abstract: A series of BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) aerogel was fabricated using a two steps hydrothermal method. Various methods such as SEM, TEM, DRS and Raman spectroscopy were employed to fully characterize the as-obtained BiOBr/RGO. Their photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were studied under visible light irradiation. The combination of BiOBr and RGO result in an improved activity. The sample with 10 wt% RGO abbreviated as BiOBr-G10 shows the highest activity. Moreover, this sample exhibits a selective visible-light photocatalytic behavior as the degradation rate over MO (80%) is much higher than that over Rhodamin B (50%) and phenol (35%) in 60 min. The XRD and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy characterization of the BiOBr-G10 samples indicates an increased crystallization of BiOBr and efficient quenching of photo-excited electrons and holes contributes to the improved photocatalytic activities.

  13. A three-dimensional BiOBr/RGO heterostructural aerogel with enhanced and selective photocatalytic properties under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xue [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China); Shi, Junjie, E-mail: junjieshiding@gmail.com [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry and Center for Environmental Research and Sustainable Technology, University Bremen, Leobener Str. UFT, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Feng, Lijuan; Li, Chunhu [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China); Wang, Liang, E-mail: wangliangouc@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qing dao 266100 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst was synthesized using dopamine as reducing agent. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel can be easily controlled morphology by a simple two-step method. • BiOBr/RGO aerogel photocatalyst exhibited superior performance in MO decoloration. - Abstract: A series of BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) aerogel was fabricated using a two steps hydrothermal method. Various methods such as SEM, TEM, DRS and Raman spectroscopy were employed to fully characterize the as-obtained BiOBr/RGO. Their photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were studied under visible light irradiation. The combination of BiOBr and RGO result in an improved activity. The sample with 10 wt% RGO abbreviated as BiOBr-G10 shows the highest activity. Moreover, this sample exhibits a selective visible-light photocatalytic behavior as the degradation rate over MO (80%) is much higher than that over Rhodamin B (50%) and phenol (35%) in 60 min. The XRD and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy characterization of the BiOBr-G10 samples indicates an increased crystallization of BiOBr and efficient quenching of photo-excited electrons and holes contributes to the improved photocatalytic activities.

  14. Bismuth-boron multiple bonding in BiB_2O"- and Bi_2B"-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Tian; Cheung, Ling Fung; Chen, Teng-Teng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Despite its electron deficiency, boron is versatile in forming multiple bonds. Transition-metal-boron double bonding is known, but boron-metal triple bonds have been elusive. Two bismuth boron cluster anions, BiB_2O"- and Bi_2B"-, containing triple and double B-Bi bonds are presented. The BiB_2O"- and Bi_2B"- clusters are produced by laser vaporization of a mixed B/Bi target and characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Well-resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained and interpreted with the help of ab initio calculations, which show that both species are linear. Chemical bonding analyses reveal that Bi forms triple and double bonds with boron in BiB_2O"- ([Bi≡B-B≡O]"-) and Bi_2B"- ([Bi=B=Bi]"-), respectively. The Bi-B double and triple bond strengths are calculated to be 3.21 and 4.70 eV, respectively. This is the first experimental observation of Bi-B double and triple bonds, opening the door to design main-group metal-boron complexes with multiple bonding. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Heterojunction BiOI/Bi2MoO6 nanocomposite with much enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wen Ting; Zheng, Yi Fan; Yin, Hao Yong; Song, Xu Chun

    2015-01-01

    BiOI/Bi 2 MoO 6 heterostructures with different amounts of BiOI were successfully prepared via a facile deposition method. The obtained BiOI/Bi 2 MoO 6 photocatalysts exhibited much higher visible light (λ > 420 nm) induced photocatalytic activity compared with single Bi 2 MoO 6 and BiOI photocatalysts. 20 % BiOI/Bi 2 MoO 6 nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with almost all RhB decomposed within 70 min. However, excess BiOI covering on the surface of Bi 2 MoO 6 can inversely reduce the photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activities could be resulted from the function of the novel p–n heterojunction interface between Bi 2 MoO 6 and BiOI, which could separate photoinduced carriers efficiently. Possible mechanisms on the basis of the relative band positions were also discussed

  16. Investigating the effect of multiple grain-grain interfaces on electric transport behavior of [50 wt% BaFe12O19-50 wt% Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3] magnetoelectric nanocomposite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Ranjit; Raut, Subhajit; Dash, Tapan; Mohapatra, Soumyaranjan; Muduli, Rakesh; Panigrahi, Simanchala

    2017-05-01

    Polycrystalline [50 wt% BaFe12O19 (BaM)-50 wt% Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT)] particulate novel magnetoelectric nanocomposite system was successfully fabricated by solid state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction pattern was provided the evidence about the pure phase formation of desired nanocomposite system as well as the presence of both ferrimagnetic (FM) BaM & ferroelectric (FE) NBT phases separately. The Field Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM) and Scanning Tunneling Electron Micrograph (STEM) explored the information about grain size and connectivity of the composite system. The XPS study was helped to examine the presence of oxygen vacancy (Ov) as well as multi oxidation states of transition metal ions for nanocomposite system. In this report we have systematically examined the conduction mechanism of different interfaces (BaM-BaM, BaM-NBT and NBT-NBT) by the help of complex impedance spectroscopy technique. From our investigation it was observed that, different interfaces activates at different temperature ranges. Due to absence of OV, BaM-NBT interfaces conduction dominants over BaM-BaM interfaces conduction even at room temperature (RT). The mechanism behind the appeared high dielectric loss (tanδ) at RT which was reduced when NBT-NBT interfaces were activates at higher temperature was explained by Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization concept.

  17. Heightened Conflict in Cue-Target Translation Increases Backward Inhibition in Set Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A.; Houghton, George

    2010-01-01

    Backward inhibition (BI) is a performance cost that occurs when an individual returns to a task after 1 (vs. more than 1) intervening trial, and it may reflect the inhibition of task-set components during switching. In 3 experiments, we support the theory that inhibition can target cue-based preparatory stages of a task. Participants performed a…

  18. Calorimetric investigations of U-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Renu; Joshi, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    U 0.333 Bi 0.667 is a compound that may form on breach of clad during reactor operation with metallic fuel and lead-bismuth coolant. Therefore, enthalpy of mixing of U-Bi liquid solution in limited composition range and enthalpy of formation of U 0.333 Bi 0.667 compound were measured by high temperature calorimetry. The enthalpy of mixing follows subregular solution model and enthalpy of formation U 0.333 Bi 0.667 from U(l) and Bi(l) at 843 K was -52.5 kJ/mol and -40.8 kJ/mol from U(s) and Bi(s) at 298.15 K. Both enthalpy of mixing and enthalpy of formation of intermetallic compound obtained experimentally were compared with Miedema model values. (author)

  19. The effect of precursor powder size on the microstructure and integranular properties of Bi2223 superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdolhosseini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have studied the effect of precursor powder size on the microstructure and intergranular behavior of polycrystalline Bi2223 superconductors using the XRD, SEM, electrical resistivity and AC susceptibility techniques. Polycrystalline Bi2223 superconductors were prepared from the powders with different milling times. The XRD results show that by decreasing the precursor powder size the Bi2223 phase fraction increases. It was found that the grain size and grain connectivity improved by decreasing the precursor powder size. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility near the transition temperature (Tc has been done employing Beans critical state model. The observed variation of intergranular critical current densities (Jc with temperature indicates that the decreasing of precursor powder size in the Bi2223 system cases an increase in the intergranular critical current density.

  20. Properties and Microstructures of Sn-Bi-X Lead-Free Solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-Bi base lead-free solders are proposed as one of the most popular alloys due to the low melting temperature (eutectic point: 139°C and low cost. However, they are not widely used because of the lower wettability, fatigue resistance, and elongation compared to traditional Sn-Pb solders. So the alloying is considered as an effective way to improve the properties of Sn-Bi solders with the addition of elements (Al, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, In, Sb, and rare earth and nanoparticles. In this paper, the development of Sn-Bi lead-free solders bearing elements and nanoparticles was reviewed. The variation of wettability, melting characteristic, electromigration, mechanical properties, microstructures, intermetallic compounds reaction, and creep behaviors was analyzed systematically, which can provide a reference for investigation of Sn-Bi base solders.

  1. Effects of Lu and Tm Doping on Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2Te3 Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprintsev, Maxim; Lyubushkin, Roman; Soklakova, Oxana; Ivanov, Oleg

    2018-02-01

    The Bi2Te3, Bi1.9Lu0.1Te3 and Bi1.9Tm0.1Te3 thermoelectrics of n-type conductivity have been prepared by the microwave-solvothermal method and spark plasma sintering. These compounds behave as degenerate semiconductors from room temperature up to temperature T d ≈ 470 K. Within this temperature range the temperature behavior of the specific electrical resistivity is due to the temperature changes of electron mobility determined by acoustic and optical phonon scattering. Above T d, an onset of intrinsic conductivity takes place when electrons and holes are present. At the Lu and Tm doping, the Seebeck coefficient increases, while the specific electrical resistivity and total thermal conductivity decrease within the temperature 290-630 K range. The increase of the electrical resistivity is related to the increase of electron concentration since the Tm and Lu atoms are donor centres in the Bi2Te3 lattice. The increase of the density-of-state effective mass for conduction band can be responsible for the increase of the Seebeck coefficient. The decrease of the total thermal conductivity in doped Bi2Te3 is attributed to point defects like the antisite defects and Lu or Tm atoms substituting for the Bi sites. In addition, reducing the electron thermal conductivity due to forming a narrow impurity (Lu or Tm) band having high and sharp density-of-states near the Fermi level can effectively decrease the total thermal conductivity. The thermoelectric figure-of-merit is enhanced from ˜ 0.4 for undoped Bi2Te3 up to ˜ 0.7 for Bi1.9Tm0.1Te3 and ˜ 0.9 for Bi1.9Lu0.1Te3.

  2. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  3. Monoclinic Cc-phase stabilization in magnetically diluted lead free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3—Evolution of spin glass like behavior with enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Karthik; Asthana, Saket

    2015-09-01

    The effect of magnetic cation substitution on the phase stabilization, ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties of a lead free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) system prepared by O2 atmosphere solid state sintering were studied extensively. Cobalt (Co) was chosen as the magnetic cation to substitute at the Ti-site of NBT with optimized 2.5 mol%. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data favours the monoclinic Cc phase stabilization strongly rather than the parent R3c phase. FE-SEM micrograph supports the single phase characteristics without phase segregation at the grain boundaries. The stabilized Cc space group was explained based on the collective local distortion effects due to spin-orbit stabilization at Co3+ and Co2+ functional centres. The phonon mode changes as observed in the TiO6 octahedral modes also support the Cc phase stabilization. The major Co3+-ion presence was revealed from corresponding crystal field transitions observed through solid state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhanced spontaneous polarization (Ps) from ≅38 μC cm-2 to 45 μC cm-2 could be due to the easy rotation of polarization vector along the {(1\\bar{1}0)}{{pc}} in Cc phase. An increase in static dielectric response (ɛ) from ɛ ≅ 42 to 60 along with enhanced diffusivity from γ ≅ 1.53 to 1.75 was observed. Magneto-thermal irreversibility and their magnetic field dependent ZFC/FC curves suggest the possibility of a spin glass like behaviour below 50 K. The monoclinic Cc phase stabilization as confirmed from structural studies was well correlated with the observed ferroic properties in magnetically diluted NBT.

  4. Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 4 by FCPR03 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors in Mice: Involvement of p38 and JNK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS triggers depressive-like behavioral syndrome in rodents. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 produces a robust anti-inflammatory effect in inflammatory cells. Unfortunately, archetypal PDE4 inhibitors cause intolerable gastrointestinal side-effects, such as vomiting and nausea. N-isopropyl-3-(cyclopropylmethoxy-4-difluoromethoxy benzamide (FCPR03 is a novel, selective PDE4 inhibitor with little, or no, emetic potency. Our previous studies show that FCPR03 is effective in attenuating neuroinflammation in mice treated with LPS. However, whether FCPR03 could exert antidepressant-like effect induced by LPS is largely unknown. In the present study, mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with LPS was established as an in vivo animal model of depression. The antidepressant-like activities of FCPR03 were evaluated using a tail suspension test, forced swimming test, and sucrose preference test. We demonstrated that administration of FCPR03 (1 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effects in mice challenged by LPS, as evidenced by decreases in the duration of immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, while no significant changes in locomotor activity were observed. FCPR03 also increased sucrose preference in mice treated with LPS. In addition, treatment with FCPR03 abolished the downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by LPS and decreased the level of corticosterone in plasma. Meanwhile, periphery immune challenge by LPS induced enhanced phosphorylation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in both the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Interestingly, treatment with FCPR03 significantly blocked the role of LPS and reduced the levels of phosphorylated p38 and JNK. Collectively, these results indicate that FCPR03 shows antidepressant-like effects in mice challenged by LPS, and the p38/JNK

  5. BI-ratkaisuja talouden suoritusjohtamiseen

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjä, Tero

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin tietojärjestelmiä toimittavan yrityksen tietovarasto- ja raportointiratkaisuja toteuttavan tiimin toiminnankehittämishankkeen yhteydessä. Kehitystavoitteena oli parantaa yrityksen muun henkilöstön tietämystä business intelligencestä. Opinnäyttetyön tavoitteena oli toimia osana tätä tavoitetta ja toimia dokumenttina, jota voitaisiin hyödyntää tilanteissa, joissa BI-tietämyksen kasvattaminen on tarpeen. Pääasiallisesti opinnäytetyö sisältää teoriaa liiketoimintatie...

  6. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w Bi ) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ F  = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L ϕ ) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w Bi and t smaller than λ F showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L ϕ (T) exceed w Bi or t

  7. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y., E-mail: youngok@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ{sub F} = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ϕ}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than λ{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ϕ}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

  8. Dispersion interactions between neighboring Bi atoms in (BiH3 )2 and Te(BiR2 )2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Rebekka; Schulz, Stephan; Jansen, Georg

    2018-03-13

    Triggered by the observation of a short Bi⋯Bi distance and a BiTeBi bond angle of only 86.6° in the crystal structure of bis(diethylbismuthanyl)tellurane quantum chemical computations on interactions between neighboring Bi atoms in Te(BiR 2 ) 2 molecules (R = H, Me, Et) and in (BiH 3 ) 2 were undertaken. Bi⋯Bi distances atoms were found to significantly shorten upon inclusion of the d shells of the heavy metal atoms into the electron correlation treatment, and it was confirmed that interaction energies from spin component-scaled second-order Møller-Plesset theory (SCS-MP2) agree well with coupled-cluster singles and doubles theory including perturbative triples (CCSD(T)). Density functional theory-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (DFT-SAPT) was used to study the anisotropy of the interplay of dispersion attraction and steric repulsion between the Bi atoms. Finally, geometries and relative stabilities of syn-syn and syn-anti conformers of Te(BiR 2 ) 2 (R = H, Me, Et) and interconversion barriers between them were computed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MLED_BI: a new BI Design Approach to Support Multilingualism in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Dedić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches to support Multilingualism (ML in Business Intelligence (BI create problems for business users, present a number of challenges from the technical perspective, and lead to issues with logical dependence in the star schema. In this paper, we propose MLED_BI (Multilingual Enabled Design for Business Intelligence, a novel BI design approach to support the application of ML in BI Environment, which overcomes the issues and problems found with existing approaches. The approach is based on a revision of the data warehouse dimensional modelling approach and treats the Star Schema as a higher level entity. This paper describes MLED_BI and the validation and evaluation approach used.

  10. Photocatalytic activity of Bi_2WO_6/Bi_2S_3 heterojunctions: the facilitation of exposed facets of Bi_2WO_6 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Long; Wang, Yufei; Shen, Huidong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian; Wang, Danjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 hybrids with exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets have been synthesized. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that a small amount of Bi_2S_3 was formed. • The enhanced photoactivity of hybrids is due to heterojunction and (020) facets. • A possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 hybrid architectures with exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets have been synthesized via a controlled anion exchange approach. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that a small amount of Bi_2S_3 was formed on the surface of Bi_2WO_6 during the anion exchange process, thus leading to the transformation from the Bi_2WO_6 to Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6. A rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solution was chosen as model organic pollutants to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6 catalysts. Under visible light irradiation, the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6-TAA displayed the excellent visible light photoactivities compared with pure Bi_2S_3, Bi_2WO_6 and other composite photocatalysts. The efficient photocatalytic activity of the Bi_2S_3/Bi_2WO_6-TAA composite microspheres was ascribed to the constructed heterojunctions and the inner electric field caused by the exposed (020) Bi_2WO_6 facets. Active species trapping experiments revealed that h"+ and O_2·"− are the main active species in the photocatalytic process. Furthermore, the as-obtained photocatalysts showed good photocatalytic activity after four recycles. The results presented in this study provide a new concept for the rational design and development of highly efficient photocatalysts.

  11. Psychometric properties of the brazilian version of the Behavioral Inhibition Instrument (BII and associations with psychopathological symptoms = Propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Behavioral Inhibition Instrument (BII e associações com sintomas psicopatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeSousa, Diogo Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desse estudo foram investigar propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Behavioral Inhibition Instrument (BII e suas associações com sintomas de ansiedade e depressão em crianças e adolescentes. Participaram 838 estudantes com idades entre 9-18 anos (M=12,89; DP=2,10 de uma amostra comunitária respondendo a versão brasileira do BII e questionários de autorrelato de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Os resultados demonstraram que a prevalência de crianças e adolescentes na categoria de alta inibição comportamental foi de 16,6%. O BII apresentou propriedades psicométricas satisfatórias com maiores níveis de inibição comportamental correlacionados a maiores níveis de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, especialmente para sintomas de fobia social. Além disso, participantes com altos escores de inibição comportamental tiveram maior probabilidade de apresentar sintomas de ansiedade em um espectro clínico ou subclínico, especialmente para fobia social. Implicações para intervenções preventivas precoces são brevemente discutidas

  12. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  13. Gd-substituted Bi-2223 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of gadolinium doping at calcium site on the normal and super- conducting properties of Bi-2223 system were ... quantities of the metal oxides and the carbonates were taken and thoroughly mixed. The calcination of the mixture after .... Therefore, Gd has higher solubility in (BiPb)-2223 as compared to Pr, and is, ...

  14. Facile synthesis of Bi/BiOCl composite with selective photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongling; Zhang, Min; Lu, Qiuju; Chen, Junfang; Liu, Bitao; Wang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and facile method to fabricate Bi/BiOCl composites with dominant (001) facets in situ via a microwave reduction route. Different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), cathodoluminescence spectrum (CL), and lifetime, have been employed to investigate the structure, optical and electrical properties of the Bi/BiOCl composites. The experimental results show that the introduction of Bi particles can efficiently enhance the photocatalytic performance of BiOCl for the degradation of several dyes under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, especially for negative charged methyl orange (MO). Unlike the UV photocatalytic performance, such Bi/BiOCl composite shows higher degradation efficiency towards rhodamine B (RhB) than MO and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. This special photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the synergistic effect between oxygen vacancies and Bi particles. This work provides new insights about the photodegradation mechanisms of MO, MB and RhB under UV and visible light irradiation, which would be helpful to guide the selection of an appropriate catalyst for other pollutants. - Highlights: • Bi/BiOCl composites were synthesized via a microwave reduction. • Tunable selectivity photocatalytic activity can be achieved. • Photodegradation mechanism under UV and visible light were proposed

  15. A Longitudinal Investigation of Predictors of the Association Between Age 3 and Age 6 Behavioural Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Victoria C; Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N; Dyson, Margaret W; Bufferd, Sara J; Durbin, C Emily; Dougherty, Lea R; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2016-08-01

    Children who exhibit elevated levels of the temperament trait behavioural inhibition (BI) across time may be at greatest risk for anxiety. However, little research has investigated the influence of other temperamental traits, particularly positive emotionality (PE), on the continuity of BI in childhood, nor whether parental overprotection influences associations between early and later child BI. To explore whether PE and overprotection shape associations between early and later BI, this longitudinal study of three-year-olds ( N = 446) followed up at age 6 included tasks tapping child temperament, and parental overprotection was assessed via interview ratings and parent-report. Lower levels of child PE and higher levels of caregiver overprotection at baseline predicted stronger associations between laboratory-assessed BI at ages 3 and 6. Findings elucidate influences shaping the developmental continuity of BI.

  16. Accurate solid solution range of BiMnxFe3-xO6 and low temperature magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pengfei; Yue, Mufei; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    BiMnxFe3-xO6 (x = 1) represents a new type of oxide structure containing Bi3+ and competing magnetic super-exchanges. In literature, multiple magnetic states were realized at low temperatures in BiMnFe2O6, and the hypothetical parent compounds (BiMn3O6, BiFe3O6) were predicted to be different in magnetism. Herein, we performed a careful study on the syntheses of BiMnxFe3-xO6 at ambient pressure, and the solid solution range was determined to be 0.9 ≤ x ≤ 1.3 by Rietveld refinements on high-quality powder X-ray diffraction data. Due to the very similar cationic size of Mn3+ and Fe3+, and possibly the structural rigidity, there was no significant structure change in the whole range of solid solution. The magnetic behavior of BiMnxFe3-xO6 (x = 1.2, 1.22, 1.26, 1.28 and 1.3) was generally similar to BiMnFe2O6, while the relative higher concentration of Mn3+ led to the decreasing of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature.

  17. Optical anisotropy of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Bozovic, I.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Harris, J. S., Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The optical anisotropy of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 in the 0.08-0.5-eV region is investigated by polarized reflectance measurements on single crystals. A very large anisotropy is found in this spectral region. The in-plane reflectance exhibits metallic behavior, while the c-axis reflectance exhibits insulatorlike behavior. This result is consistent with the large anisotropy found in the resistivity of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Our spectroscopic data suggest that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 is a quasi-two-dimensional metal similar to La2-xSrxCuO4.

  18. Structural transitions and multiferroic properties of high Ni-doped BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Cantera, L. G.; Bolarín-Miró, A. M.; Cortés-Escobedo, C. A.; Hernández-Cruz, L. E.; Sánchez-De Jesús, F.

    2018-06-01

    Nickel doped bismuth ferrite powders, BiFe1-x NixO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), were synthesized by high-energy ball milling followed by an annealing at 700 °C. A detailed study about the substitution of Fe3+ by Ni2+ on the crystal structure and multiferroic properties is presented. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of rhombohedral structure with small amounts of Bi2Fe4O9 as a secondary phase for x behavior indicates the frustration of the G-antiferromagnetic order typical of the un-doped BiFeO3, caused by the presence of small amounts of Ni2+ (x Behavior modifications of electrical conductivity, permittivity and dielectric loss versus frequency are related with crystal structure transformations, when nickel concentration is increased.

  19. Few-layer bismuth selenides exfoliated by hemin inhibit amyloid-β1–42 fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yunjing; Lin, Zhiqin; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is the primary therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Several small molecules and nanomaterials have been used to inhibit Aβ fibril formation. However, insufficient inhibition efficiency or poor metabolization limits their further applications. Here, we used hemin to exfoliate few-layer Bi2Se3 in aqueous solution. Then we separated few-layer Bi2Se3 with different sizes and thicknesses by fractional centrifugation, and used them to attempt to inhibit Aβ1-42 aggregation. The results show that smaller and thinner few-layer Bi2Se3 had the highest inhibition efficiency. We further investigated the interaction between few-layer Bi2Se3 and Aβ1-42 monomers. The results indicate that the inhibition effect may be due to the high adsorption capacity of few-layer Bi2Se3 for Aβ1−42 monomers. Few-layer Bi2Se3 also decreased Aβ-mediated peroxidase-like activity and cytotoxicity according to in vitro neurotoxicity studies under physiological conditions. Therefore, our work shows the potential for applications of few-layer Bi2Se3 in the biomedical field. PMID:26018135

  20. Enhanced multiferroic properties in scandium doped Bi2Fe4O9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Dimple P.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped and Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method. The phase purity of the samples was checked using powder X-rau diffraction technique. EDS analysis was done to confirm the extent of Sc 3+ doping in the samples. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles have been analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which is quite different from the linear M–H relationship reported for bulk Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 . This is mainly attributed to the uncompensated moments at the disordered particle surface resulting from the reduced coordination of the surface spins, arising due to lattice strain or oxygen deficiency. Addition of Sc 3+ dopant in varying concentrations in these Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles, improves their magnetic as well as ferroelectric properties. The leakage current is considerably reduced and electric polarization increases significantly in case of Bi 2 Fe 4(1-x) Sc x O 9 (x = 0.1) nanoparticles. Hence it can be inferred that Sc 3+ doped Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 nanoparticles shows promise as good multiferroic materials.

  1. Multiferroic properties of the Y2BiFe5O12 garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A.; Ostos, C.; Arnache, O.; Siqueiros, J. M.; García-Guaderrama, M.

    2017-10-01

    Multiferroic properties are found in the Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) modified with Bi3+. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the Bi3+ ion is completely soluble up to one-third of the Y molar content forming the Y2BiFe5O12 compound as a single phase. Structural analysis did not show signals of other incipient non-centrosymmetric phases in the compound. However, the dielectric and polarization studies clearly exhibit a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior at room temperature where the maxima of the broad permittivity peaks shift with frequency. The quadratic diffuseness coefficient obtained from the modified Curie-Weiss law suggests polar nanoregion switching in a broad temperature range. Using the Vogel-Fulcher relationship, the activation energy and freezing temperature were found to be 243.1 meV and 322.6 K, respectively. Here, the main contribution to relaxation comes from thermally activated reorientation of the dipole moments, as confirmed by the well-defined hysteresis loops in the P-E measurements. The dipole fluctuations arise from the compositional disorder induced by Bi3+ ions randomly distributed in the lattice, having thermally active polarization fluctuations above the freezing temperature, Tf. Furthermore, it is found that Bi3+ preserves the magnetization features of this compound. Thus, the Bi3+ modified YIG compound is found to be a multiferroic material at room temperature.

  2. One-step growth of nanosheet-assembled BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres for highly efficient visible photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Jiali; Dai, Kai; Liang, Changhao; Liu, Qi

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have developed a simple synthetic approach of nanosheet-assembled BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres by an ethylene glycol (EG)-assisted hydrothermal method. The crystalline form, morphology, chemical composition, optical performance and surface area of BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectra (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis, high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres were nanosheet-assembled particles, which possessed visible light absorption under LED light irridation. Additionally, the methylene blue (MB) photodegradation performance of different BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres irradiated under 410 nm LED light arrays were investigated, the results exhibited that as-prepared BiOCl/BiOBr products showed higher catalytic effiency than pure BiOCl or BiOBr. By optimizing the composition ration of the BiOCl and BiOBr, up to 93% degradation rate can be obtained in the 40%BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiOCl/BiOBr microspheres had been proposed.

  3. Molecular Doping the Topological Dirac Semimetal Na3Bi across the Charge Neutrality Point with F4-TCNQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Mark T; Hellerstedt, Jack; O'Donnell, Kane M; Tadich, Anton; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2016-06-29

    We perform low-temperature transport and high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy on 20 nm thin film topological Dirac semimetal Na3Bi grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate efficient electron depletion ∼10(13) cm(-2) of Na3Bi via vacuum deposition of molecular F4-TCNQ without degrading the sample mobility. For samples with low as-grown n-type doping (1 × 10(12) cm(-2)), F4-TCNQ doping can achieve charge neutrality and even a net p-type doping. Photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory are utilized to investigate the behavior of F4-TCNQ on the Na3Bi surface.

  4. A comparative study of the Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Boullay, Ph.; Manier, M.; Mercurio, D.

    2004-06-01

    The room temperature structures of the four-layer Aurivillius phase ferroelectrics CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 and BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 are determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the CaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, in agreement with the tolerance factor, a significant deformation of the perovskite blocks is observed. The rotation system of the octahedra is typical from even layer Aurivillius phases and leads to the use of the space group A2 1am. For the BaBi 4Ti 4O 15 phase, only a weak variation with respect to the F2 mm space group can be suggested from single crystal X-ray diffraction. A significant presence of Ba atoms in the [ M2O 2] slabs is confirmed in agreement with the previous works but specific Ba 2+ and Bi 3+ sites have to be considered due to the large difference in bounding requirement of these cations. Possible origins for the ferroelectric relaxor behavior of the Ba-based compound are discussed in view of the presented structural analyses.

  5. Slow electron acoustic double layer (SEADL) structures in bi-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shaukat Ali; Imtiaz, Nadia

    2018-05-01

    The properties of ion acoustic double layer (IADL) structures in bi-ion plasma with electron trapping are investigated by using the quasi-potential analysis. The κ-distributed trapped electrons number density expression is truncated to some finite order of the electrostatic potential. By utilizing the reductive perturbation method, a modified Schamel equation which describes the evolution of the slow electron acoustic double layer (SEADL) with the modified speed due to the presence of bi-ion species is investigated. The Sagdeev-like potential has been derived which accounts for the effect of the electron trapping and superthermality in a bi-ion plasma. It is found that the superthermality index, the trapping efficiency of electrons, and ion to electron temperature ratio are the inhibiting parameters for the amplitude of the slow electron acoustic double layers (SEADLs). However, the enhanced population of the cold ions is found to play a supportive role for the low frequency DLs in bi-ion plasmas. The illustrations have been presented with the help of the bi-ion plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere F-region.

  6. Superstrengthening Bi2Te3 through Nanotwinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guodong; Aydemir, Umut; Morozov, Sergey I.; Wood, Max; An, Qi; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Goddard, William A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3 ) based thermoelectric (TE) materials have been commercialized successfully as solid-state power generators, but their low mechanical strength suggests that these materials may not be reliable for long-term use in TE devices. Here we use density functional theory to show that the ideal shear strength of Bi2Te3 can be significantly enhanced up to 215% by imposing nanoscale twins. We reveal that the origin of the low strength in single crystalline Bi2Te3 is the weak van der Waals interaction between the Te1 coupling two Te 1 - Bi - Te 2 - Bi - Te 1 five-layer quint substructures. However, we demonstrate here a surprising result that forming twin boundaries between the Te1 atoms of adjacent quints greatly strengthens the interaction between them, leading to a tripling of the ideal shear strength in nanotwinned Bi2Te3 (0.6 GPa) compared to that in the single crystalline material (0.19 GPa). This grain boundary engineering strategy opens a new pathway for designing robust Bi2Te3 TE semiconductors for high-performance TE devices.

  7. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  8. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  9. BiDil: from another vantage point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckrein, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In a recent Health Affairs Web Exclusive, Pamela Sankar and Jonathan Kahn argue against the Food and Drug Administration's approval of BiDil as a new drug for the treatment of heart failure in African Americans. Their paper questions the existence of disparities between African American and other heart-failure patients and the motivations of BiDil's developers and manufacturer. The disparities are confirmed and persistent, however, and BiDil's effectiveness is proven. If the authors' logic were to prevail, patients would be denied life-saving therapy. Continued investigation will likely narrow identification of patients who will benefit.

  10. Preparation, characterization and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of BiPO4/BiVO4 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Siyuan; Zheng, Hong; Lian, Youwei; Wu, Yiying

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composites were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method. • BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composites exhibited broad absorption in the visible region. • Visible-light photocatalytic activities of BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composites were enhanced. • P/V molar ratio and pH value of the reaction affect photocatalytic activity. • The mechanism of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities was discussed. - Abstract: BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composites with different P/V molar ratios were prepared by the hydrothermal method and the effect of pH values of hydrothermal reaction on photocatalytic activity of BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composite was investigated. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the composites was much higher than that of pure BiPO 4 and BiVO 4 . The rate constant of Methylene blue degradation over BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 (P/V molar ratio of 5:1 and hydrothermal reaction pH value of 1.5) is 1.7 times that of pure BiVO 4 . The photocatalytic activity enhancement of BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 composite is closely related to the BiVO 4 functioning as a sensitizer to adsorb visible light and the heterojunction of BiPO 4 /BiVO 4 acting as an active center for hindering the rapid recombination of electron–hole pairs during the photocatalytic reaction

  11. Luminescence of Bi3+ ions in Y3Al5O12:Bi single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Vistovsky, V.; Nedilko, S.; Nikl, M.

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and cathodoluminescence spectra of single crystalline films (SCF) of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Bi garnet depending on Bi concentration were analyzed. For consideration of the nature of the UV and visible Bi-related emission bands the time-resolved luminescence of Bi 3+ (ns 2 ) ions in YAG:Bi SCF was studied at 10 K under excitation by synchrotron radiation. The difference in the excitation spectra and emission decay of the UV and visible bands has been explained via radiative relaxation from the 3 P 1,0 excited states to the 1 S 0 ground state of the isolated and pair/clustered Bi 3+ emission centers in the garnet lattice, respectively

  12. Social Media Use and HIV-Related Risk Behaviors in Young Black and Latino Gay and Bi Men and Transgender Individuals in New York City: Implications for Online Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Viraj V; Masyukova, Mariya; Sutton, Desmond; Horvath, Keith J

    2016-04-01

    Urban young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women continue to experience high rates of new HIV infections in the USA, yet most of this population is not reached by current prevention interventions. The rate of Internet and social media use among youth is high. However, continually updated understanding of the associations between social media access and use and HIV risk behaviors is needed to reach and tailor technology-delivered interventions for those most vulnerable to HIV-racially and ethnically diverse urban YMSM and transgender persons. Thus, we conducted an in-person, venue-based cross-sectional survey among young gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals at locations primarily visited by Black and Latino gay and bisexual and transgender individuals in New York City to understand social media use and how it may relate to HIV risk behaviors to inform social media-based interventions. Among 102 primarily Black and Latino gay and bisexual men (75.5 %) and transgender women (19.6 %), over 90 % were under 30 years of age, 18.6 % reported homelessness in the past 6 months, and 10.8 % reported having HIV. All participants used social media, most accessed these platforms most often via a mobile device (67.6 %) and most logged on multiple times per day (87.3 %). Participants used social media to seek sex partners (56.7 %), exchange sex for money or clothes (19.6 %), and exchange sex for drugs (9.8 %). These results confirm prior studies demonstrating the feasibility of using social media platforms to reach at-risk, urban youth. Of particular concern is the association between recent STI and exchanging sex for money/clothes and drugs. Interventions using social media for young, urban minority MSM and transgender populations should incorporate risk reduction modules addressing exchange partners and promote frequent and regular HIV/STI testing.

  13. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  14. Estradiol induces region-specific inhibition of ZENK but does not affect the behavioral preference for tutored song in adult female zebra finches

    OpenAIRE

    Svec, Lace A.; Wade, Juli

    2008-01-01

    Female zebra finches display a preference for songs of males raised with tutors compared to those from males without tutors. To determine howthis behavioral preference may bemediated by auditory perception sites, the social behavior network, and the dopamine reward system, and whether responses of these regions are affected by estradiol, females were treated with hormone or blank implants.An auditory choice test was conducted followed by exposure to tutored or untutored song or silence to exa...

  15. Thromboxane synthase suppression induces lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kin Chung; Li, Ming-Yue; Leung, Billy C.S.; Hsin, Michael K.Y.; Mok, Tony S.K.; Underwood, Malcolm J.; Chen, George G.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that the inhibition of thromboxane synthase (TXS) induced apoptosis in cancer cells. TXS inhibitor 1-Benzylimidzole (1-BI) can trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells but the mechanism is not fully defined. In this study, lung cancer cells were treated with 1-BI. In this study, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured and NF-κB activity was determined in human lung cancer cells. The roles of ROS and NF-κB in 1-BI-mediated cell death were analyzed. The results showed that 1-BI induced ROS generation but decreased the activity of NF-κB by reducing phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and inhibiting the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. In contrast to 1-BI, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) stimulated cell proliferation and significantly protected the cells from 1-BI-mediated cell death by neutralizing ROS. Collectively, apoptosis induced by 1-BI is associated with the over-production of ROS and the reduction of NF-κB. Antioxidants can significantly block the inhibitory effect of 1-BI.

  16. Bi-induced band gap reduction in epitaxial InSbBi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpalke, M. K.; Linhart, W. M.; Birkett, M.; Alaria, J.; Veal, T. D., E-mail: T.Veal@liverpool.ac.uk [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bomphrey, J. J.; Jones, T. S.; Ashwin, M. J., E-mail: M.J.Ashwin@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sallis, S.; Piper, L. F. J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-11-24

    The properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown InSb{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys are investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows that the Bi content increases from 0.6% for growth at 350 °C to 2.4% at 200 °C. X-ray diffraction indicates Bi-induced lattice dilation and suggests a zinc-blende InBi lattice parameter of 6.626 Å. Scanning electron microscopy reveals surface InSbBi nanostructures on the InSbBi films for the lowest growth temperatures, Bi droplets at intermediate temperatures, and smooth surfaces for the highest temperature. The room temperature optical absorption edge was found to change from 172 meV (7.2 μm) for InSb to ∼88 meV (14.1 μm) for InSb{sub 0.976}Bi{sub 0.024}, a reduction of ∼35 meV/%Bi.

  17. Demonstration of surface transport in a hybrid Bi2Se3/Bi2Te3 heterostructure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanfei; Chang, Cui-Zu; Jiang, Ying; DaSilva, Ashley; Sun, Yi; Wang, Huichao; Xing, Ying; Wang, Yong; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In spite of much work on topological insulators (TIs), systematic experiments for TI/TI heterostructures remain absent. We grow a high quality heterostructure containing single quintuple layer (QL) of Bi2Se3 on 19 QLs of Bi2Te3 and compare its transport properties with 20 QLs Bi2Se3 and 20 QLs Bi2Te3. All three films are grown on insulating sapphire (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) provides direct evidence that the su...

  18. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  19. Calorimetric investigation of Pb-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Renu; Jat, Ram Avtar; Sen, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy increment of Pb 0.71 Bi 0.29 compound was determined using high temperature Calvet calorimeter. The data was fit into the following polynomial equation. ΔH(T-298.15 K) J/mol = -10384.96 + 39.23 T - 0.014T 2 - 18970/T. By precipitation method, the enthalpy of formation of the compound of composition Pb 0.68 Bi 0.32 at 448 K, from Pb(l) and Bi(l) was determined to be -2450± 50 J/mol and from Pb(s) and Bi(s) at 298.15 K was calculated to be 4047 J/mol. (author)

  20. Influence of photoinduced Bi-related self-doping on the photocatalytic activity of BiOBr nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dan [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yue, Songtao; Wang, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); An, Tiacheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Guiying [Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ye, Liqun [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Yip, Ho Yin [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Po Keung, E-mail: pkwong@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi{sup 5+} self-doped BiOBr nanosheets are achieved under UV irradiation. • Bi{sup 5+} is formed due to the oxidation of surface Bi{sup 3+} by photoexcited h{sup +} of BiOBr. • Two photoinduced h{sup +} mediated oxidation processes happen simultaneously. • Self-doped BiOBr is superior in phenol degradation and bacterial inactivation. • Bi{sup 5+} electron trapping induced photocatalytic enhancement mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Under UV irradiation, self-doped Bi{sup 5+} is evidenced to be generated on the surface of BiOBr nanosheets, but with well-preserved crystal structure and morphology compared with pure counterpart. Bi{sup 5+} self-doping BiOBr (BiOBr-4) exhibits distinct photocatalytic mode for dyes degradation, as compared with pure BiOBr nanosheets. These photodegradation distinctions are mainly due to the simultaneous occurrence of two photoinduced hole (h{sup +}) mediated oxidation processes on the BiOBr surfaces: (1) a portion of photoexcited h{sup +} participates in the photocatalytic oxidation of dyes, and (2) partial h{sup +} involves the oxidation of Bi{sup 3+} to Bi{sup 5+}. Notably, BiOBr-4 nanosheets comparatively show superior photocatalytic activity for the phenol decomposition as well as the bacterial inactivation. Besides Bi{sup 5+} induced narrowed bandgap and enhanced light adsorption capacity, significantly, the oxidative Bi{sup 5+} acts as electron traps to promote the photoexcited electron-hole separation and accelerate h{sup +} migration, resulting in the considerable photocatalytic enhancement of BiOBr-4 nanosheets. These novel findings will not only give new insights into the photocatalytic mechanism but also explore new route to enhance photocatalytic performance of Bi-based materials.

  1. Projection of the Liquidus Surface of the Co - Sn - Bi System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilov, Ch. I.; Allazov, M. R.; Sadygova, S. G.

    2016-11-01

    The crystallization behavior of phases in alloys of the Co - Sn - Bi system is studied by the methods of differential thermal (DTA), x-ray phase (XRP) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and hardness measurement. The projection of the liquidus surface is plotted. The boundaries of layering, the development of the monovariant processes, and the coordinates of the nonvariant equilibrium compositions are determined. Compositions of (Co3Sn2)1 - x Bi x solid solutions suitable for the production of antifriction materials are suggested.

  2. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  3. Series of edge-sharing bi-triangle Ln4 clusters with a μ4-NO3- bridge: syntheses, structures, luminescence, and the SMM behavior of the Dy4 analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua-Hong; Wang, Rong; Chen, Zi-Lu; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Liang, Fu-Pei

    2014-02-14

    A series of Ln4 clusters, [Ln4L2(μ3-OH)2(μ4-NO3)(NO3)4(OCH3)(H2O)]·xMeCN·yMeOH (Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), L = 2-{[2-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-ethylimino]-methyl}-6-methoxyphenol), have been synthesized by the reaction of Ln(NO)3 and a Schiff-base ligand formed in situ. The six complexes display similar structures, with an overall metal core comprising two edge-sharing triangular Ln3 units linked by a μ4-NO3(-) bridge. The luminescence spectrum of complex 2 shows the characteristic emission of the Tb(III) ions. The magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that the Ln(III) ions are very weakly interacting in all six compounds. Frequency dependence of the ac-susceptibility was found for 3, suggesting a typical single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with an anisotropic barrier of 28 K.

  4. Metaheuristics for bi-level optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a complete background on metaheuristics to solve complex bi-level optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale bi-level optimization problems by efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics and mathematical programming approaches. Numerous real-world examples of problems demonstrate how metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, engineering design, finance and security.

  5. BiCaSrCuO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvi, V.M.; Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    BiCaSrCuO and BiPbCaSrCuO powders have been synthesized. Different research methods (SEM,EDS,XRF,SRD,DTA) have been used to characterize the bulk specimen and wires. Resistance and current density measured as a function of temperature are reported. The ceramic products contained several phases. Lead containing specimen gave the best results and the synthesis was easily reproducible

  6. Bi-layered nanocomposite bandages for controlling microbial infections and overproduction of matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, J; Mohandas, Annapoorna; Seethalakshmy, S; Suresh, Maneesha K; Menon, Riju; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-15

    Chronic diabetic wounds is characterised by increased microbial contamination and overproduction of matrix metalloproteases that would degrade the extracellular matrix. A bi-layer bandage was developed, that promotes the inhibition of microbial infections and matrix metalloprotease (MMPs) activity. Bi-layer bandage containing benzalkonium chloride loaded gelatin nanoparticles (BZK GNPs) in chitosan-Hyaluronic acid (HA) as a bottom layer and sodium alendronate containing chitosan as top layer was developed. We hypothesized that the chitosan-gelatin top layer with sodium alendronate could inhibit the MMPs activity, whereas the chitosan-HA bottom layer with BZK GNPs (240±66nm) would enable the elimination of microbes. The porosity, swelling and degradation nature of the prepared Bi-layered bandage was studied. The bottom layer could degrade within 4days whereas the top layer remained upto 7days. The antimicrobial activity of the BZK NPs loaded bandage was determined using normal and clinical strains. Gelatin zymography shows that the proteolytic activity of MMP was inhibited by the bandage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women.

  8. Au/BiOCl heterojunction within mesoporous silica shell as stable plasmonic photocatalyst for efficient organic pollutants decomposition under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaohui; Li, Renhong; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A heterojunction of Au/BiOCl was fabricated within the mesoporous silica shell. • The compact contact between Au and BiOCl enables electrons back flow from Au to BiOCl. • Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 plasmonic photocatalyst shows efficient visible light photoactivity. • Hydroxyl radicals are the main oxidants in formaldehyde and Rhodamine B decomposition. - Abstract: A new mesoporous silica protected plasmonic photocatalyst, Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 , was prepared by a modified AcHE method and a subsequent UV light induced photodeposition process. The surfactant-free heterojunction allows the electrons spontaneously flow from Au to nearby BiOCl surface, leading to the accumulation of positive charges on Au surface, and negative charges on Bi species under visible light. Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 exhibits high visible light photocatalytic efficiency in complete oxidation of aqueous formaldehyde and Rhodamin B. We showed that a positive relationship exists between the LSPR effect and rate enhancements, and leads to a hypothesis that the metallic Au LSPR enhances the photocatalytic rates on nearby semiconductors by transferring energetic electrons to BiOCl and increasing the steady-state concentration of active ·OH species by a multi-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. The ·OH species is the main oxidant in photocatalytic transformations, whose intensity is greatly enhanced in the dye-involving systems due to the synergetic effect between LSPR and dye sensitization processes. In addition, the mesoporous SiO 2 shell not only inhibits the over growth of BiOCl nanocrystals within the silica frameworks, but also protects the dissolution of chloride or Au species into aqueous solution, which ultimately makes the Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 catalysts rather stable during photocatalysis.

  9. Behavioral intention and its relationship with gender: a study of green school students in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrudin, I. A.; Karyanto, P.; Ramli, M.

    2018-05-01

    The environmental problems faced today have had a great impact on human beings. The root causes of all environmental problems are related to injudicious human behavior. Since human behavior is determined by Behavioral Intention (BI), it is crucial to examine the role of BI with regard to the study of environmentally friendly behavior. As such, in this research, BI was scrutinized; in particular, this study aimed to identify the factors affecting the particular degree of BI from the perspective of gender. This study was conducted with 334 high school student participants in the district of Surakarta, Indonesia. According to the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) result, the BI possessed by high school students does not sufficiently promote environmentally friendly behavior. This research also found that there is no significant link between BI and gender.

  10. Development of molecular tools based on the dopamine D3 receptor ligand FAUC 329 showing inhibiting effects on drug and food maintained behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Anne; Brox, Regine; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Hübner, Harald; Hocke, Carsten; Prante, Olaf; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Dopamine D 3 receptor-mediated networks have been associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases, drug addiction and food maintained behavior, which makes D 3 a highly promising biological target. The previously described dopamine D 3 receptor ligand FAUC 329 (1) showed protective effects against dopamine depletion in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. We used the radioligand [ 18 F]2, a [ 18 F]fluoroethoxy substituted analog of the lead compound 1 as a molecular tool for visualization of D 3 -rich brain regions including the islands of Calleja. Furthermore, structural modifications are reported leading to the pyrimidylpiperazine derivatives 3 and 9 displaying superior subtype selectivity and preference over serotonergic receptors. Evaluation of the lead compound 1 on cocaine-seeking behavior in non-human primates showed a substantial reduction in cocaine self-administration behavior and food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication of BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts for enhanced visible-light activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Huang, Xiang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Tan, Xin [School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Yu, Tao, E-mail: yutao@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xiangli [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Libin [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Shucong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts have been synthesized. • The p–n junction photocatalysts improved water splitting and dye degradation activity. • BiOBr amount in the BiOBr@TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts was investigated. - Abstract: The construction of p–n junction structure is a smart strategy for improving the photocatalytic activity, since p–n junctions can inhibit the recombination of photo-induced charges. Herein, BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts were prepared by assembling BiOBr nanosheets on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanobelts via a hydrothermal route followed by a co-precipitation process. BiOBr@TiO{sub 2} p–n junction photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in photocatalytic H{sub 2} production over water splitting and photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Mott–Schottky plots confirmed the formation of p–n junctions in the interface of BiOBr and TiO{sub 2}. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the 1D nanostructure and the formation of p–n junctions. This work shows a potential application of low cost BiOBr as a substitute for noble metals in photocatalytic H{sub 2} production under visible light irradiation.

  12. CyPPA, a Positive SK3/SK2 Modulator, Reduces Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons, Inhibits Dopamine Release, and Counteracts Hyperdopaminergic Behaviors Induced by Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrik, Kjartan F; Redrobe, John P; Holst, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) containing midbrain neurons play critical roles in several psychiatric and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the substantia nigra pars compacta neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacological......]-amine (CyPPA), a subtype-selective positive modulator of SK channels (SK3¿>¿SK2¿>¿>¿>¿SK1, IK), decreased spontaneous firing rate, increased the duration of the apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization, and caused an activity-dependent inhibition of current-evoked action potentials in DA neurons from both...

  13. Bi-Mix Antimicrobial Scaffolds for Regenerative Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuk, Jadesada; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Hippenmeyer, Lauren; Platt, Jeffrey A.; Spolnik, Kenneth J.; Gregory, Richard L.; Bottino, Marco C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Eliminating and/or inhibiting bacterial growth within the root canal system have been shown to play a key role in the regenerative outcome. The aim of this study was to synthesize and determine in vitro both the antimicrobial effectiveness and cytocompatibility of bi-mix antibiotic-containing polydioxanone (PDS)-based polymer scaffolds. Methods Antibiotic-containing (metronidazole, MET and ciprofloxacin, CIP) polymer solutions (distinct antibiotic weight ratios) were spun into fibers as a potential mimic to the double antibiotic paste (DAP, a MET/CIP mixture). Fiber morphology, chemical characteristics, and tensile strength were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and tensile testing, respectively. Antimicrobial efficacy was tested over time (aliquot collection) against Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Similarly, cytotoxicity was evaluated in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Data were statistically analyzed (pendodontics. PMID:25201643

  14. Simple BiCMOS CCCTA design and resistorless analog function realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsrirat, Worapong

    2014-01-01

    The simple realization of the current-controlled conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCTA) in BiCMOS technology is introduced. The proposed BiCMOS CCCTA realization is based on the use of differential pair and basic current mirror, which results in simple structure. Its characteristics, that is, parasitic resistance (R x) and current transfer (i o/i z), are also tunable electronically by external bias currents. The realized circuit is suitable for fabrication using standard 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Some simple and compact resistorless applications employing the proposed CCCTA as active elements are also suggested, which show that their circuit characteristics with electronic controllability are obtained. PSPICE simulation results demonstrating the circuit behaviors and confirming the theoretical analysis are performed.

  15. Simple BiCMOS CCCTA Design and Resistorless Analog Function Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapong Tangsrirat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The simple realization of the current-controlled conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCTA in BiCMOS technology is introduced. The proposed BiCMOS CCCTA realization is based on the use of differential pair and basic current mirror, which results in simple structure. Its characteristics, that is, parasitic resistance (Rx and current transfer (io/iz, are also tunable electronically by external bias currents. The realized circuit is suitable for fabrication using standard 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Some simple and compact resistorless applications employing the proposed CCCTA as active elements are also suggested, which show that their circuit characteristics with electronic controllability are obtained. PSPICE simulation results demonstrating the circuit behaviors and confirming the theoretical analysis are performed.

  16. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liangliang [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Sinomatech Wind Power Blade Co., Ltd, Beijing 100092 (China); Wu, Di [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wenshuai [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Lianzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin [Institute of Mechanics, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel (Germany); Gao, Yang, E-mail: gaoyangg@gmail.com [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated. - Highlights: • Green's functions of 1D piezoelectric quasicrystal bi-material are studied. • The coupled fields subjected to line forces or line dislocations are obtained. • Mechanical behavior under the effect of different material constants is researched.

  17. Observation of antiphase coherent phonons in the warped Dirac cone of Bi2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golias, E.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.

    2016-10-01

    In this Rapid Communication we investigate the coupling between excited electrons and phonons in the highly anisotropic electronic structure of the prototypical topological insulator Bi2Te3 . Using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we are able to identify the emergence and ultrafast temporal evolution of the longitudinal-optical A1 g coherent-phonon mode in Bi2Te3 . We observe an antiphase behavior in the onset of the coherent-phonon oscillations between the Γ K ¯ and the Γ M ¯ high-symmetry directions that is consistent with warping. The qualitative agreement between our density-functional theory calculations and the experimental results reveals the critical role of the anisotropic coupling between Dirac fermions and phonon modes in the topological insulator Bi2Te3 .

  18. Pairing mechanism in Bi-O superconductors: A finite-size chain calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aligia, A.A.; Nunez Regueiro, M.D.; Gagliano, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the pairing mechanism in BiO 3 systems by calculating the binding energy of a pair of holes in finite Bi-O chains, for parameters that simulate three-dimensional behavior. In agreement with previous results using perturbation theory in the hopping t, for covalent Bi-O binding and parameters for which the parent compound has a disproportionate ground state, pairing induced by the presence of biexcitons is obtained for sufficiently large interatomic Coulomb repulsion. The analysis of appropriate correlation functions shows a rapid metallization of the system as t and the number of holes increase. This fact shrinks the region of parameters for which the finite-size calculations can be trusted without further study. The same model for other parameters yields pairing in two other regimes: bipolaronic and magnetic excitonic

  19. Bulk crystal growth and electronic characterization of the 3D Dirac semimetal Na3Bi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K. Kushwaha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High quality hexagon plate-like Na3Bi crystals with large (001 plane surfaces were grown from a molten Na flux. The freshly cleaved crystals were analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, allowing for the characterization of the three-dimensional (3D Dirac semimetal (TDS behavior and the observation of the topological surface states. Landau levels were observed, and the energy-momentum relations exhibited a linear dispersion relationship, characteristic of the 3D TDS nature of Na3Bi. In transport measurements on Na3Bi crystals, the linear magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations are observed for the first time.

  20. A combination of SILAC and nucleotide acyl phosphate labelling reveals unexpected targets of the Rsk inhibitor BI-D1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Alexander J; Trost, Matthias; Watts, Colin; Zaru, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors frequently have interesting effects that cannot be fully ascribed to the intended target kinase(s) but identifying additional targets that might explain the effects is not straightforward. By comparing two different inhibitors of the Rsk (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) kinases, we found that the increasingly used compound BI-D1870 had biological effects in murine DCs (dendritic cells) that could not be solely ascribed to Rsk or other documented targets. We assessed the ability of BI-D1870 and a second Rsk inhibitor, BIX 02565 to protect enzyme active sites from reaction with biotinylated nucleotide acyl phosphates. Using SILAC (stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture)-labelled DC lysates as a source of enzyme targets, we identify several kinases that interact with BI-D1870 but not with BIX 02565. We confirmed that these kinases, including Slk, Lok and Mst1, are inhibited by BI-D1870 but to a much lesser extent by BIX 02565 and that phosphorylation of some of their substrates is blocked by BI-D1870 in living cells. Our results suggest that the BI-D1870 inhibitor should be used with caution. The SILAC-based methodology we used should be useful for further comparative unbiased profiling of the target spectrum of kinase inhibitors with interesting biological effects under conditions that closely mimic those found in cells. © 2014 The author(s).

  1. Rosemary tea consumption results to anxiolytic- and anti-depressant-like behavior of adult male mice and inhibits all cerebral area and liver cholinesterase activity; phytochemical investigation and in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Katsikoudi, Antigoni; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Kellici, Tahsin F; Iatrou, Grigoris; Lamari, Fotini N; Tzakos, Andreas G; Margarity, Marigoula

    2015-07-25

    Our aim was to investigate the possible effects of regular drinking of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf infusion on behavior and on AChE activity of mice. Rosemary tea (2% w/w) phytochemical profile was investigated through LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n). Adult male mice were randomly divided into two groups: "Rosemary-treated" that received orally the rosemary tea for 4weeks and "control" that received drinking water. The effects of regular drinking of rosemary tea on behavioral parameters were assessed by passive avoidance, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. Moreover, its effects on cerebral and liver cholinesterase (ChE) isoforms activity were examined colorimetricaly. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of diterpenes, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives in rosemary tea; the major compounds were quantitatively determined. Its consumption rigorously affected anxiety/fear and depression-like behavior of mice, though memory/learning was unaffected. ChE isoforms activity was significantly decreased in brain and liver of "rosemary treated" mice. In order to explain the tissue ChE inhibition, principal component analysis, pharmacophore alignment and molecular docking were used to explore a possible relationship between main identified compounds of rosemary tea, i.e. rosmarinic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, caffeic acid and known AChE inhibitors. Results revealed potential common pharmacophores of the phenolic components with the inhibitors. Our findings suggest that rosemary tea administration exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects on mice and inhibits ChE activity; its main phytochemicals may function in a similar way as inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Containerless solidification of BiFeO3 oxide under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianding; Arai, Yasutomo; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Ishikawa, Takehito; Yoda, Shinichi

    1999-07-01

    Containerless solidification of BiFeO3 oxide has been carried out under microgravity with Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) aboard on the sounding rocket (TR-IA). It is a first containerless experiment using ELF under microgravity for studying the solidification of oxide insulator material. Spherical BiFeO3 sample with diameter of 5mm was heated by two lasers in oxygen and nitrogen mixing atmosphere, and the sample position by electrostatic force under pinpoint model and free drift model. In order to compare the solidification behavior in microgravity with on ground, solidification experiments of BiFeO3 in crucible and drop tube were carried out. In crucible experiment, it was very difficult to get single BiFeO3 phase, because segregation of Fe2O3 occured very fast and easily. In drop tube experiment, fine homogeneous BiFeO3 microstructure was obtained in a droplet about 300 μm. It implies that containerless processing can promote the phase selection in solidification. In microgravity experiment, because the heating temperature was lower than that of estimated, the sample was heated into Fe2O3+liquid phase region. Fe2O3 single crystal grew on the surface of the spherical sample, whose sample was clearly different from that observed in ground experiments.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (wt%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Shuaiju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Hui, E-mail: yuhuidavid@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Huixing [Mechanical and Material School, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350 (China); Cui, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shangdong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Park, Sung Hyuk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Weiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); You, Bong Sun [Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-06

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a newly developed rare earth free Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (BAZ811, in wt%) alloy were investigated and compared with those of a commercial AZ31 alloy. The as-extruded BAZ811 alloy with much finer grain size shows more homogeneous dynamical recrystallized (DRXed) microstructure and weaker basal texture than those of AZ31 alloy. In addition, compared with bimodal structure AZ31 alloy containing only relatively coarse and sparse Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phases, the coexistence of strip-like fragmented Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitate and nano-size Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles in the microstructure was observed in BAZ811 alloy. Moreover, the BAZ811 alloy exhibits a tensile yield stress of 291 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 331 MPa, an elongation to failure of 14.6% as well as a reduction in yield asymmetry, which is mainly attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and micro-scale broken Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles together with nano-scale spherical Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitates. The strain hardening behavior of both BAZ811 and AZ31 alloys were also discussed in terms of microstructure variation.

  4. In-plain electric properties of [CaMnO3/REMO3] (RE=Bi, La M=Fe, Fe0.8Mn0.2) superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwata, N.; Watabe, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Takase, K.; Huijben, Mark; Inaba, T.; Oshima, K.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-01-01

    The [CaMnO3 (CMO)/REMO3] (RE = Bi, La M = Fe, Fe0.8Mn0.2) superlattices show semiconducting behavior with transition temperatures (TEg) of 71, 127, and 151 K in the [CMO/BiFe0.8Mn0.2O3], [CMO/BiFeO3], and [CMO/LaFeO3] superlattices. The formation of a magnetic polaron is expected in the CMO layer of

  5. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: Neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J., E-mail: jun.cui@pnnl.gov; Choi, J. P.; Li, G.; Polikarpov, E.; Darsell, J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Kramer, M. J.; Zarkevich, N. A.; Wang, L. L.; Johnson, D. D. [Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Marinescu, M. [Electron Energy Corporation, Landisville, Pennsylvania 17538 (United States); Huang, Q. Z.; Wu, H. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States); Vuong, N. V.; Liu, J. P. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained powder. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91 wt. % at 300 K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 μ{sub B} at 50 K and 300 K, respectively.

  6. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: Neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J; Choi, JP; Li, G; Polikarpov, E; Darsell, J; Kramer, MJ; Zarkevich, NA; Wang, LL; Johnson, DD; Marinescu, M; Huang, QZ; Wu, H; Vuong, NV; Liu, JP

    2014-05-07

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained powder. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91 wt. % at 300 K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 mu(B) at 50 K and 300 K, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Brain oscillations and BIS/BAS (behavioral inhibition/activation system) effects on processing masked emotional cues. ERS/ERD and coherence measures of alpha band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido

    2009-11-01

    Alpha brain oscillation modulation was analyzed in response to masked emotional facial expressions. In addition, behavioural activation (BAS) and behavioural inhibition systems (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of motivational significance on cortical activity. Nineteen subjects were submitted to an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral). The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and posterior sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right-side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right-frontal activity for negative emotions. Finally, whereas higher BIS subjects generated a more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, and surprise), Reward-BAS subjects were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Valence and potential threatening power of facial expressions were considered to elucidate these cortical differences.

  8. Enhancing the rheological properties and shale inhibition behavior of water-based mud using nanosilica, multi-walled carbon nanotube, and graphene nanoplatelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aftab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Five different drilling mud systems namely potassium chloride (KCl as a basic mud, KCl/partial hydrolytic polyacrylamide (PHPA, KCl/graphene nanoplatelet (GNP, KCl/nanosilica and KCl/multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT were prepared and investigated for enhancement of rheological properties and shale inhibition. Nanoparticles were characterized in drilling mud using transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis. Mineralogical analysis of shale was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Five shale plugs were prepared using compactor cell for the determination of shale swelling. Shale swelling was determined using the linear swell meter (LSM for 20 hours. Results revealed that basic mud and KCl/polymer mud systems shows 30% and 24% change in shale volume. MWCNT, nanosilica and GNP were added separately in the KCl mud system. 0.1 ppb of each MWCNT and nanosilica showed 32% and 33% change in shale volume. However, when the shale was interacted with WBM containing 0.1 ppb of GNP, it was found that only 10% change in shale volume occurred. The results showed that the addition of nanoparticles in the KCl mud system improved the shale inhibition. API, HPHT filtrate loss volume, plastic viscosity (PV and yield point (YP were improved using GNP. It is learned from the experimental work that small concentration of KCl with GNP can mitigate shale swelling compared to the mud contains higher concentration of KCl and PHPA in WBM. Thus, GNP can be a better choice for enhancement of WBM performance.

  9. Activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) attenuates breast cancer cell metastatic behaviors through inhibition of plasminogen activation and extracellular proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzi, Zainab A.; Lanoue, Danielle; El-Youssef, Mouhanned; Romagnuolo, Rocco; Tubman, Janice; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Porter, Lisa A.; Boffa, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a plasma zymogen, which can be converted to activated TAFI (TAFIa) through proteolytic cleavage by thrombin, plasmin, and most effectively thrombin in complex with the endothelial cofactor thrombomodulin (TM). TAFIa is a carboxypeptidase that cleaves carboxyl terminal lysine and arginine residues from protein and peptide substrates, including plasminogen-binding sites on cell surface receptors. Carboxyl terminal lysine residues play a pivotal role in enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation to plasmin. Plasmin has many critical functions including cleaving components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which enhances invasion and migration of cancer cells. We therefore hypothesized that TAFIa could act to attenuate metastasis. To assess the role of TAFIa in breast cancer metastasis, in vitro migration and invasion assays, live cell proteolysis and cell proliferation using MDA-MB-231 and SUM149 cells were carried out in the presence of a TAFIa inhibitor, recombinant TAFI variants, or soluble TM. Inhibition of TAFIa with potato tuber carboxypeptidase inhibitor increased cell invasion, migration and proteolysis of both cell lines, whereas addition of TM resulted in a decrease in all these parameters. A stable variant of TAFIa, TAFIa-CIIYQ, showed enhanced inhibitory effects on cell invasion, migration and proteolysis. Furthermore, pericellular plasminogen activation was significantly decreased on the surface of MDA-MB-231 and SUM149 cells following treatment with various concentrations of TAFIa. Taken together, these results indicate a vital role for TAFIa in regulating pericellular plasminogen activation and ultimately ECM proteolysis in the breast cancer microenvironment. Enhancement of TAFI activation in this microenvironment may be a therapeutic strategy to inhibit invasion and prevent metastasis of breast cancer cells

  10. 209Bi NMR in heavy-electron system YbBiPt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.P.; Le, L.P.; Heffner, R.H.; Ahrens, E.T.; Fisk, Z.; Canfield, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Bismuth NMR Knight shift and spin lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 are reported between 35--325K in the low-carrier heavy fermion system YbBiPt. The Knight shift is strongly temperature dependent and negative. Its temperature dependence tracks the bulk susceptibility with a hyperfine coupling constant A hf = -7.89 kOe/μB. At low temperatures 1/T 1 exhibits a dramatic increase, such that the average 4f spin correlation time τ f shows a crossover behavior at about 75K. The rate 1/τ f is proportional to temperature, but with a different proportionality constant above and below about 75K. The linear temperature dependence is consistent with non-interacting 4f local moments which are relaxed via Korringa-type scattering with the conduction electrons. Below 75K, we infer that the reduced thermal excitation of a higher crystal-field multiplet is responsible for the dramatic decrease in the rate of 4f relaxation

  11. Multiple Behavior Phenotypes of the Fragile-X Syndrome Mouse Model Respond to Chronic Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Mark E; Cogram, Patricia; Deacon, Robert M; Rex, Christopher; Tranfaglia, Michael

    2017-11-07

    Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) patients display intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder due to silencing of the X-linked, fragile-X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. Dysregulation of cAMP metabolism is a consistent finding in patients and in the mouse and fly FXS models. We therefore explored if BPN14770, a prototypic phosphodiesterase-4D negative allosteric modulator (PDE4D-NAM) in early human clinical trials, might provide therapeutic benefit in the mouse FXS model. Daily treatment of adult male fmr1 C57Bl6 knock-out mice with BPN14770 for 14 days reduced hyperarousal, improved social interaction, and improved natural behaviors such as nesting and marble burying as well as dendritic spine morphology. There was no decrement in behavioral scores in control C57Bl6 treated with BPN14770. The behavioral benefit of BPN14770 persisted two weeks after washout of the drug. Thus, BPN14770 may be useful for the treatment of fragile-X syndrome and other disorders with decreased cAMP signaling.

  12. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Ka; Wang, Weichao; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gupta, Rahul P.; White, John B.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2Te3, NiTe/Bi2Te3, Co/Bi 2Te3 and CoTe2/Bi2Te3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi2Te3. The interface formation energy for Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi2Te3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi2Te3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe2 on Bi2Te3 are comparable. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Ka; Wang Weichao; Alshareef, Husam N; Gupta, Rahul P; Gnade, Bruce E; Cho, Kyeongjae; White, John B

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2 Te 3 , NiTe/Bi 2 Te 3 , Co/Bi 2 Te 3 and CoTe 2 /Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi 2 Te 3 . The interface formation energy for Co/Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi 2 Te 3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi 2 Te 3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe 2 on Bi 2 Te 3 are comparable.

  14. Electronic structures and stability of Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Ka

    2010-03-04

    We investigate the electronic structures and stability for Ni/Bi 2Te3, NiTe/Bi2Te3, Co/Bi 2Te3 and CoTe2/Bi2Te3 interfaces by first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band alignment. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi2Te3. The interface formation energy for Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces is much lower than that of Ni/Bi2Te3 interfaces. Furthermore, we found that NiTe on Bi2Te3 is more stable than Ni, while the formation energies for Co and CoTe2 on Bi2Te3 are comparable. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Exploratory Bi-factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    OpenAIRE

    Jennrich, Robert L.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford (1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler (2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis that does not require one to provide an explicit bi-factor structure a priori. They use exploratory factor analysis and a bi-factor rotation criterion designed to produce a rotated loading mat...

  16. Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange strategy for construction of Bi2O2CO3/BiOI photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Peng-Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Wei-De

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heterostructured Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI microspheres were prepared via anion exchange. • Sodium citrate-assisted anion exchange for construction of composite photocatalysts. • Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI composites show high visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI heterojuncted photocatalysts were constructed through a facile partial anion exchange strategy starting from BiOI microspheres and urea with the assistance of sodium citrate. The content of Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 in the catalysts was regulated by modulating the amount of urea as a precursor, which was decomposed to generate CO 3 2− in the hydrothermal process. Citrate anion plays a key role in controlling the morphology and composition of the products. The Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 /BiOI catalysts display much higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiOI and Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the heterojuncted catalysts is attributed to the formation of p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 , which is favorable for retarding the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the holes are demonstrated to be the main active species for the degradation of RhB and BPA

  17. In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study on Surface Melting of Bi Nanoparticles Embedded in a SiO2 Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Ming; Huo Kai-Tuo; Liu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Bi nanoparticles embedded in a SiO 2 matrix were prepared via the high energy ball milling method. The melting behavior of Bi nanoparticles was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC cannot distinguish the surface melting from ‘bulk’ melting of the Bi nanoparticles. The XRD intensity of the Bi nanoparticles decreases progressively during the in situ heating process. The variation in the normalized integrated XRD intensity versus temperature is related to the average grain size of Bi nanoparticles. Considering the effects of temperature on Debye—Waller factor and Lorentz-polarization factor, we discuss the XRD results in accordance with surface melting. Our results show that the in situ XRD technique is effective to explore the surface melting of nanoparticles

  18. Optimization of excess Bi doping to enhance ferroic orders of spin casted BiFeO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika; James, A. R.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Multiferroic Bismuth Ferrite (BiFeO 3 ) thin films with varying excess bismuth (Bi) concentration were grown by chemical solution deposition technique. Room temperature multiferroic properties (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity) of the deposited BiFeO 3 thin films have been studied. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that the dominant phases formed in the prepared samples change continuously from a mixture of BiFeO 3 and Fe 2 O 3 to pure BiFeO 3 phase and, subsequently, to a mixture of BiFeO 3 and Bi 2 O 3 with increase in the concentration of excess Bi from 0% to 15%. BiFeO 3 thin films having low content (0% and 2%) of excess Bi showed the traces of ferromagnetic phase (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ). Deterioration in ferroic properties of BiFeO 3 thin films is also observed when prepared with higher content (15%) of excess Bi. Single-phased BiFeO 3 thin film prepared with 5% excess Bi concentration exhibited the soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and ferroelectric characteristics with remnant polarization 4.2 μC/cm 2 and saturation magnetization 11.66 emu/g. The switching of fine spontaneous domains with applied dc bias has been observed using piezoresponse force microscopy in BiFeO 3 thin films having 5% excess Bi. The results are important to identify optimum excess Bi concentration needed for the formation of single phase BiFeO 3 thin films exhibiting the improved multiferroic properties.

  19. Optimization of excess Bi doping to enhance ferroic orders of spin casted BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda Housea, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); James, A. R. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Texas at SanAntonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Multiferroic Bismuth Ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with varying excess bismuth (Bi) concentration were grown by chemical solution deposition technique. Room temperature multiferroic properties (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity) of the deposited BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been studied. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that the dominant phases formed in the prepared samples change continuously from a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to pure BiFeO{sub 3} phase and, subsequently, to a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increase in the concentration of excess Bi from 0% to 15%. BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having low content (0% and 2%) of excess Bi showed the traces of ferromagnetic phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Deterioration in ferroic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films is also observed when prepared with higher content (15%) of excess Bi. Single-phased BiFeO{sub 3} thin film prepared with 5% excess Bi concentration exhibited the soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and ferroelectric characteristics with remnant polarization 4.2 μC/cm{sup 2} and saturation magnetization 11.66 emu/g. The switching of fine spontaneous domains with applied dc bias has been observed using piezoresponse force microscopy in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having 5% excess Bi. The results are important to identify optimum excess Bi concentration needed for the formation of single phase BiFeO{sub 3} thin films exhibiting the improved multiferroic properties.

  20. Analysis of Bi-directional Effects on the Response of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung-Kui; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The floor response spectrum depends on the height of the floor of the structure. Also FRS depends on the characteristics of the seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio. In the previous study, the floor response spectrum of the base isolated structure was calculated for each axis without considering bi-directional effect. However, the shear behavior of the seismic base isolation system of two horizontal directions are correlated each other by the bi-directional effects. If the shear behavior of the seismic isolation system changes, it can influence the floor response spectrum and displacement response of isolators. In this study, the analysis of a bi-directional effect on the floor response spectrum was performed. In this study, the response of the seismic base isolation system based on the bi-directional effects was analyzed. By analyzing the time history result, while there is no alteration in the maximum shear force of seismic base isolation system, it is confirmed that the shear force is generally more decreased in a one-directional that in a two-directional in most parts. Due to the overall decreased shear force, the floor response spectrum is more reduced in a two-directional than in a one-directional

  1. Processing Y- and Bi-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, U.; Dos Santos, D.I.; von Stumberg, A.W.; Graham, S.W.; Singh, J.P.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Goretta, K.C.; Shi, D.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on bulk specimens of YBa 2 Cu 3 O x and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y formed and then processed by sintering in the solid state, in the presence of a liquid phase, or by sinter forging. Both Y- and Bi-based superconductors are difficult to densify by solid-state sintering but easy to densify in the presence of a liquid phase. Effects of sintering conditions on superconducting properties are, however, different between the two materials. These differences will be discussed. Attempts to texture microstructures and increase J c by sinter-forging techniques have been successful for Y-based superconductors, but unsuccessful for Bi-based superconductors

  2. Reduction in thermal conductivity of BiSbTe lump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Kaleem [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Wan, C. [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Al-Eshaikh, M.A.; Kadachi, A.N. [King Saud University, Research Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    In this work, systematic investigations on the thermal conductivities of BiSbTe lump, microstructured pristine BiSbTe bulk and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/BiSbTe bulk nanocomposites were performed. BiSbTe lumps were crushed to form a coarse powder (200 μm) and effect of particle size reduction on the effective thermal conductivity of BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk were analyzed. For further reduction in the conductivity, a two pronged strategy has been employed. First, additional refinement of BiSbTe (200 μm) were performed through ball milling in an inert environment. Second, SWCNTs in 0.75, and 1.0 vol% were distributed uniformly in the fine BiSbTe ball milled powder. The results showed that the effective thermal conductivities decrease with the reduction in the particle size from lump to BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk as well as with the addition of SWCNTs accompanied by further refinement of BiSbTe particles. The significant reduction in thermal conductivities of the lump was achieved for pure BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk and 0.75 vol% of SWCNTs/BiSbTe composite. This can be ascribed to the enhanced phonon scattering by the grain boundaries between the nanostructured BiSbTe particles as well as the interfaces between BiSbTe and the low dimensional carbon nanotubes. (orig.)

  3. Topotactic synthesis of a new BiS2-based superconductor Bi2(O,F)S2

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Tomoyuki; Ogino, Hiraku; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    A new BiS2-based superconductor Bi2(O,F)S2 was discovered. This is a layered compound consisting of alternate stacking structure of rock-salt-type BiS2 superconducting layer and fluorite-type Bi(O,F) blocking layer. Bi2(O,F)S2 was obtained as the main phase by topotactic fluorination of undoped Bi2OS2 using XeF2, which is the first topotactic synthesis of an electron-doped superconductor via reductive fluorination. With increasing F-content, a- and c-axis length increased and decreased, respe...

  4. Topotactic synthesis of a new BiS2-based superconductor Bi2(O,F)S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tomoyuki; Ogino, Hiraku; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2015-02-01

    A new BiS2-based superconductor, Bi2(O,F)S2, was discovered. It is a layered compound consisting of alternately stacked structure of rock-salt-type BiS2 superconducting layers and fluorite-type Bi(O,F) blocking layers. Bi2(O,F)S2 was obtained as the main phase by topotactic fluorination of undoped Bi2OS2 using XeF2. This is the first topotactic synthesis of an electron-doped superconductor via reductive fluorination. With increasing F-content, a- and c-axis lengths increased and decreased, respectively, and Tc increased to 5.1 K.

  5. Improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of trace Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Zhang, Wangyao; Zhou, Shilin; Xue, Zi-Ling; Xu, Lina; Gu, Yingying; Miao, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrostatic interaction improves the quality of Bi deposition. • The designed Bi/SWNTs/GCE shows many advantages over Bi/GCE toward Cr VI detection. • The Bi/SWNTs/GCE exhibits good analyzing behavior with pretty low detection limit. • The fabricated sensor is better of reproducibility, repeatability and life time. • River samples were successfully analyzed using current sensor for Cr VI detection. -- Abstract: We report here the successful fabrication of an improved Bi film wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (Bi/SWNTs/GCE) as a highly sensitive platform for ultratrace Cr(VI) detection through catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV). The introduction of negatively charged SWNTs extraordinarily decreased the size of Bi particles to nanoscale due to electrostatic interaction which made Bi(III) cations easily attracted onto the surface of SWNTs in good order, leading to higher quality of Bi film deposition. The obtained Bi/SWNTs composite was well characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the static water contact angle and the voltammetric measurements. The results demonstrate the improvements in the quality of Bi film deposited on the surface of SWNTs such as faster speed of electron transfer, more uniform and smoother morphology, better hydrophilicity and higher stripping signal. Using diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as complexing ligand, the fabricated electrode displays a well-defined and highly sensitive peak for the reduction of Cr(III)–DTPA complex at −1.06 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a linear concentration range of 0–25 nM and a fairly low detection limit of 0.036 nM. No interference was found in the presence of coexisting ions, and good recoveries were achieved for the analysis of a river sample. In comparison to previous approaches using Bi film modified GCE, the newly designed electrode exhibits better

  6. The effects of solvent on photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiyao; Huang, Yunfang; Xu, Hui; Luo, Dan; Huang, Feiyue; Gu, Lin; Wei, Yuelin; Zhao, Huang; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2018-04-01

    Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts with two different microstructures were controllably fabricated via a facile two-step synthetic route. XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, BET-surface, DRS, PL spectra, photoelectrochemical measurement (Mott-Schottky), and zeta-potential analyzer were employed to clarify structural and morphological characteristics of the obtained products. The results showed that Bi2WO6 nanoparticles/nanosheets grew on the primary TiO2 nanorods. The TiO2 nanorods used as a synthetic template inhibit the growth of Bi2WO6 crystals along the c-axis, resulting in Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterostructure with one-dimensional (1D) morphology. The photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6/TiO2 heterojunction photocatalysts were strongly dependent on their shapes and structures. Compared with bare Bi2WO6 and TiO2, Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite have stronger adsorption ability and better visible light photocatalytic activities towards organic dyes. The Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite prepared in EG solvent with optimal Bi:Ti ratio of 2:12 (S-TB2) showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which could totally decompose Rhodamine B within 10 min upon irradiation with visible light (λ > 422 nm), and retained the high photocatalytic performance after five recycles, confirming its stability and practical usability. The results of PL indicated that Bi2WO6 and TiO2 could combine well to form a heterojunction structure which facilitated electron-hole separation, and lead to the increasing photocatalytic activity.

  7. In Vitro Inhibition of Histamine Release Behavior of Cetirizine Intercalated into Zn/Al- and Mg/Al-Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The intercalation of cetirizine into two types of layered double hydroxides, Zn/Al and Mg/Al, has been investigated by the ion exchange method to form CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites, respectively. The basal spacing of the nanocomposites were expanded to 31.9 Å for CTZAN and 31.2 Å for CTMAN, suggesting that cetirizine anion was intercalated into Layered double hydroxides (LDHs and arranged in a tilted bilayer fashion. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR study supported the formation of both the nanocomposites, and the intercalated cetirizine is thermally more stable than its counterpart in free state. The loading of cetirizine in the nanocomposite was estimated to be about 57.2% for CTZAN and 60.7% CTMAN. The cetirizine release from the nanocomposites show sustained release manner and the release rate of cetirizine from CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites at pH 7.4 is remarkably lower than that at pH 4.8, presumably due to the different release mechanism. The inhibition of histamine release from RBL2H3 cells by the free cetirizine is higher than the intercalated cetirizine both in CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites. The viability in human Chang liver cells at 1000 μg/mL for CTZAN and CTMAN nanocomposites are 74.5 and 91.9%, respectively.

  8. Considerations about using OLAP Cubes and Self-Service BI Tools for BI Systems’ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina MIHAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the decision-making process must be an extremely fast one. This is why any decision-maker in a company must obtain information from the multiple available data source used in its transactional systems as easily and as quickly as possible. Business Intelligence (BI systems are the ones that provide the tools necessary for obtaining this information. In this article, we shall present the strengths and weaknesses regarding data analyses in a BI system using OLAP cubes and self-service BI tools.

  9. Mechanical behavior of a bi-layer glass ionomer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A high-viscosity consistency of the glass-ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to poor adaptation into the cavity. The use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro. In this study we assessed the flexural strength of a two-layered GIC, using a

  10. Quantum interference effects in [Co/Bi]n thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulos P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoconductivity (MC, Δσ(Β, and Hall coefficient, RH(B, measurements have been performed in polycrystalline thin films of Bi(15nm, Bi(10nm/Co(1nm/Bi(10nm trilayer and [Co(0.7nm/Bi(2nm]10 multilayer, grown by magnetron scattering. The temperature dependence of RH(B curves reveal the existence of a second conduction channel below 250K, that can be assigned to surface states. MC measurements between ±0.4T show at 5K an interplay between weak-antilocalization (WAL in Bi and Bi/Co/Bi films and weal-localization (WL in [Co/Bi]10 multilayer.

  11. BI-AMALGAMATION OF SMALL WEAK GLOBAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Tamekkante, Mohammed; Bouba, El Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the bi-Amalgamations of small weakglobal dimension. The new results compare to previous works carried on varioussettings of duplications and amalgamations, and capitalize on recent resultson bi-amalgamations

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum proteins SDF2 and SDF2L1 act as components of the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Tsutomu; Suno, Ryoji; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Wada, Ikuo; Hosokawa, Nobuko

    2017-08-01

    The folding of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is assisted by ER-resident chaperone proteins. BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), a member of the HSP70 family, plays a central role in protein quality control. The chaperone function of BiP is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity, which is stimulated by ER-resident proteins of the HSP40/DnaJ family, including ERdj3. Here, we report that two closely related proteins, SDF2 and SDF2L1, regulate the BiP chaperone cycle. Both are ER-resident, but SDF2 is constitutively expressed, whereas SDF2L1 expression is induced by ER stress. Both luminal proteins formed a stable complex with ERdj3 and potently inhibited the aggregation of different types of misfolded ER cargo. These proteins associated with non-native proteins, thus promoting the BiP-substrate interaction cycle. A dominant-negative ERdj3 mutant that inhibits the interaction between ERdj3 and BiP prevented the dissociation of misfolded cargo from the ERdj3-SDF2L1 complex. Our findings indicate that SDF2 and SDF2L1 associate with ERdj3 and act as components in the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins, partly explaining the broad folding capabilities of the ER under various physiological conditions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effects of current stressing on the p-Bi2Te3/Sn interfacial reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Hsing-Ting; Lin, Chih-Fan; Yen, Yee-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Sn/p-Bi 2 Te 3 /Sn sandwich-type sample was current stressed with a density of 150 A/cm 2 to investigate the effects of current stressing on the p-Bi 2 Te 3 /Sn interfacial reactions. Asymmetrical heating phenomenon was observed at the anodic Sn/p-Bi 2 Te 3 (50 °C) and cathodic p-Bi 2 Te 3 /Sn (120 °C) interfaces due to the Peltier effect. Besides the Peltier effect, the electromigration effect also influenced the growth of the SnTe phase and therefore polarity growth behavior was observed at the two interfaces. The growth of the SnTe phase at the cathodic p-Bi 2 Te 3 /Sn interface was accelerated because Peltier and electromigration effects drove more Sn atoms (dominant diffusion species) for the phase growth. By measuring the electromigration-induced atomic flux of Sn, the product of diffusivity and effective charge number (D × z*) was calculated to be 6.3 × 10 −9 cm 2 s −1 at 120 °C. - Highlights: • Sn/p-Bi 2 Te 3 /Sn sandwich-type sample is current stressed with a density of 150 A/cm 2 . • Passage of an electric current induces Peltier and electromigration effects. • Peltier effect causes asymmetrical heating at the anode and cathode interfaces. • Both effects accelerate the SnTe growth at the cathode interface. • Sn is the dominant diffusion species identified by a marker experiment.

  14. Architectured Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers: photoenhanced field emission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warule, Sambhaji S.; Kashid, Ranjit V.; Shinde, Deodatta R. [University of Pune, Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics (India); Chaudhari, Nilima S.; Kale, Bharat B., E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Government of India (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.in [University of Pune, Center for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics (India)

    2012-06-15

    In the present investigation, we demonstrate a facile hydrothermal/solvothermal route to fabricate elegant Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers in large scale with highly oriented (001) surfaces. The synthesis route was observed to radically determine the overall morphology of the resultant product. Under hydrothermal conditions (12 h), formation of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flowers on nickel foil composed with the self-assembled tapered nanorods were obtained. Whereas after prolonged reaction time (24 h), formation of ultra long micro belts were observed. Interestingly, the architectured Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flowers obtained by solvothermal route are seen to be composed with self assembled nanorods and it was also observed that the synthesis duration influences their shape, size, and areal density. Finding of such unique nanostructures on nickel foil arose by hydrothermal route exemplify a prominent photoenhanced field emission upon visible light illumination, which is attributed to the photoconductivity of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. It is noteworthy that the field emission studies reveal low turn-on field of {approx}1.04 V/{mu}m, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}0.1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, which is found to be lower than the earlier reports. The average emission current is observed to be stable over the duration of 3 h. In addition, field emission behavior of a single Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} flower (pasted on a tungsten microtip) has also been investigated. The high sensitivity and fast response of photoenhanced emission current switching indicate the Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers as a promising candidate for micro/nano-optoelectronic devices.Graphical abstract.

  15. Behavioral effects of D3 receptor inhibition and 5-HT4 receptor activation on animals undergoing chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboussi, Oualid; Said, Nadia; Fifel, Karim; Lakehayli, Sara; Tazi, Abdelouahhab; El Ganouni, Soumaya

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence results in long-lasting behavioral deficits that match some symptomatologic aspects of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of the emotional and the cognitive effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence, via subsequent modulation of the serotoninergic 5-HT4 and dopaminergic D3 receptors. RS67333 as a 5-HT4 agonist and U-99194A as a D3 antagonist were administered separately at 1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, and in combination at 0.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg to adult animals undergoing chronic treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) during adolescence. Animals were tested for anxiety-like behavior and episodic-like memory in the open field and novel object recognition tests respectively 30 minutes after the last drug administration. Chronic WIN55,212-2 treated animals exhibited a lasting disruption of episodic memory and increased anxiety levels. The effect on episodic-like memory were partially restored by acute administration of RS67333 and U-99194A and completely by administration of both drugs in combination at lower doses. However, only RS67333 (20 mg/kg) improved the anxiogenic-like effect of WIN55,212-2. These findings give further support that chronic exposure to cannabinoids during adolescence may be used as an animal model for schizophrenia, and highlight D3 and 5-HT4 receptors as potential targets for an enhanced treatment of the cognitive aspect of this disease.

  16. Mechanical analysis of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded intelligent micro-beams using modified couple stress theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi Khaniki, Hossein; Rajasekaran, Sundaramoorthy

    2018-05-01

    This study develops a comprehensive investigation on mechanical behavior of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded beam sensors in the framework of modified couple stress theory. Material variation is modelled through both length and thickness directions using power-law, sigmoid and exponential functions. Moreover, beam is assumed with linear, exponential and parabolic cross-section variation through the length using power-law and sigmoid varying functions. Using these assumptions, a general model for microbeams is presented and formulated by employing Hamilton’s principle. Governing equations are solved using a mixed finite element method with Lagrangian interpolation technique, Gaussian quadrature method and Wilson’s Lagrangian multiplier method. It is shown that by using bi-directional functionally graded materials in nonuniform microbeams, mechanical behavior of such structures could be affected noticeably and scale parameter has a significant effect in changing the rigidity of nonuniform bi-directional functionally graded beams.

  17. Effects of magnetic annealing on structure and multiferroic properties of pure and dysprosium substituted BiFeO 3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia; Yao, Yingbang; Chen, Yao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ma, Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effects of magnetic annealing on crystal structure and multiferroic properties of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 have been investigated. It is found that the X-ray diffraction patterns of pure BiFeO 3 samples are obviously broadened after magnetic annealing, whereas those of Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples are almost unchanged. Magnetic field annealing did not affect the magnetic properties of these two kinds of samples much. However, ferroelectric properties of the two materials exhibited different behaviors after magnetic field annealing. For pure BiFeO 3 samples, the remnant polarizations (P r) are suppressed; in contrast, for Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples, P r is greatly enhanced. Possible mechanisms for the effects of magnetic field annealing have been discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and phase transformation of Bi2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bi2O3-SiO2 (BS glass-ceramics were prepared by melt-quench technique, and the crystallization kinetics and phase transformation behavior were investigated in accordance with Kissinger and Johson-Mehl-Avrami equation, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results show that in the heat treatment process (or termed as re-crystallizing process Bi2SiO5 and Bi4Si3O12 crystals were found consequently. Respectively, the crystallization activation energies of the two crystals are Ep1=14.8kJ/mol and Ep2=34.1kJ/mol. And the average crystallization index of n1=1.73 and n2=1.38 suggested volume nucleation, one-dimensional growth and surface nucleation, one-dimensional growth from surface to the inside respectively. The meta-stable needle-like Bi2SiO5 crystals are easily to be transformed into stable prismatic Bi4Si3O12 crystals. By quenching the melt and hold in 850°C for 1h, the homogenous single Bi4Si3O12 crystals were found in the polycrystalline phase of the BS glassceramics system.

  19. Optical temperature sensing by upconversion luminescence of Er doped Bi5TiNbWO15ferroelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Er3+ doped Bi5TiNbWO15 ceramics have been synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction techniques. The crystal structure, ferroelectric properties, UC emission properties and especially the temperature sensing behaviors were systematically studied. With increasing Er3+ content, the investigation of XRD pattern, the ferroelectric loop and the UC emission indicated that the Er3+ ions dopants preferentially substituted the A sites of Bi3TiNbO9 and then Bi2WO6. Based on fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique, the observed results implied the ceramics were promising candidates for temperature sensors in the temperature range of 175 K −550 K. More importantly, this study provided a contrast of temperature sensitivity between emission from the same part (Bi3TiNbO9 in bismuth layered-structure and emission from the different part (Bi3TiNbO9 and Bi2WO6 in bismuth layered-structure for the first time.

  20. Effects of magnetic annealing on structure and multiferroic properties of pure and dysprosium substituted BiFeO 3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Shuxia

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the effects of magnetic annealing on crystal structure and multiferroic properties of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 have been investigated. It is found that the X-ray diffraction patterns of pure BiFeO 3 samples are obviously broadened after magnetic annealing, whereas those of Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples are almost unchanged. Magnetic field annealing did not affect the magnetic properties of these two kinds of samples much. However, ferroelectric properties of the two materials exhibited different behaviors after magnetic field annealing. For pure BiFeO 3 samples, the remnant polarizations (P r) are suppressed; in contrast, for Bi 0.85Dy 0.15FeO 3 samples, P r is greatly enhanced. Possible mechanisms for the effects of magnetic field annealing have been discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bi-spectrum based-EMD applied to the non-stationary vibration signals for bearing faults diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Lotfi; Ali, Jaouher Ben; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2014-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been widely applied to analyze vibration signals behavior for bearing failures detection. Vibration signals are almost always non-stationary since bearings are inherently dynamic (e.g., speed and load condition change over time). By using EMD, the complicated non-stationary vibration signal is decomposed into a number of stationary intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) based on the local characteristic time scale of the signal. Bi-spectrum, a third-order statistic, helps to identify phase coupling effects, the bi-spectrum is theoretically zero for Gaussian noise and it is flat for non-Gaussian white noise, consequently the bi-spectrum analysis is insensitive to random noise, which are useful for detecting faults in induction machines. Utilizing the advantages of EMD and bi-spectrum, this article proposes a joint method for detecting such faults, called bi-spectrum based EMD (BSEMD). First, original vibration signals collected from accelerometers are decomposed by EMD and a set of IMFs is produced. Then, the IMF signals are analyzed via bi-spectrum to detect outer race bearing defects. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental bearing vibration data. The experimental results show that BSEMD techniques can effectively diagnosis bearing failures. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bi3+–Pr3+ energy transfer processes and luminescent properties of LuAG:Bi,Pr and YAG:Bi,Pr single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Zorenko, T.; Nikl, M.; Mares, J.A.; Beitlerova, A.; Jary, V.

    2013-01-01

    Absorption, cathodoluminescence, excitation spectra of photoluminescence (PL) and PL decay kinetics were studied at 300 K for the double doped with Bi 3+ –Pr 3+ and separately doped with Bi 3+ and Pr 3+ Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (LuAG) and Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) single crystalline film (SCF) phosphors grown by the liquid phase epitaxy method. The emission bands in the UV range arising from the intrinsic radiative transitions of Bi 3+ based centers, and emission bands in the visible range, related to the luminescence of excitons localized around Bi 3+ based centers, were identified both in Bi–Pr and Bi-doped LuAG and YAG SCFs. The energy transfer processes from the host lattice simultaneously to Bi 3+ and Pr 3+ ions and from Bi 3+ to Pr 3+ ions were investigated. Competition between Pr 3+ and Bi 3+ ions in the energy transfer processes from the LuAG and YAG hosts was evidenced. The strong decrease of the intensity of Pr 3+ luminescence both in LuAG:Pr and YAG:Pr SCFs phosphors, grown from Bi 2 O 3 flux, is observed due to the quenching influence of Bi 3+ flux related impurity. Due to overlap of the UV emission band of Bi 3+ centers with the f–d absorption bands of Pr 3+ ions in the UV range and the luminescence of excitons localized around Bi ions with the f–f absorption bands of Pr 3+ ions in the visible range, an effective energy transfer from Bi 3+ ions to Pr 3+ ions takes place in LuAG:Bi,Pr and YAG:Bi,Pr SCFs, resulting in the appearance of slower component in the decay kinetics of the Pr 3+ d–f luminescence. -- Highlights: • Bi and Pr doped film phosphor grown by liquid phase epitaxy method. • Energy transfer from Bi 3+ to Pr 3+ ions. • Strong quenching of the Pr 3+ luminescence by Bi 3+ co-dopant

  3. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  4. The Crystal Structure of Cu4Bi4Se9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, E.; Søtofte, Inger; Karup-Møller, S.

    2002-01-01

    contains three square pyramidal Bi sites, an octahedrally coordinated Bi site as well as two tetrahedrally and two irregularly coordinated Cu sites. The structure is an intergrowth of PbS-like slabs with irregularly configured slabs of Bi pyramids and Cu tetrahedra. It contains covalently bonded Se-2...

  5. Cell death triggered by alpha-emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates in HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells is different from apoptotic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Christof; Schroeck, Hedwig; Seidenschwang, Sabine; Beck, Roswitha; Schwaiger, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schmid, Ernst; Abend, Michael; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Apostolidis, Christos; Nikula, Tuomo K.; Kremmer, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy with α-particle-emitting nuclides, such as 213 Bi, is a promising concept for the elimination of small tumour nodules or single disseminated tumour cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular damage and the mode of cell death triggered by 213 Bi-immunoconjugates. Human gastric cancer cells (HSC45-M2) expressing d9-E-cadherin were incubated with different levels of activity of 213 Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin and 213 Bi-d8MAb, which does not bind to d9-E-cadherin. Micronucleated (M) cells, abnormal (A) cells and apoptotic (A) [(MAA)] cells were scored microscopically in the MAA assay following fluorescent staining of nuclei and cytoplasm. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed microscopically following Giemsa staining. The effect of z-VAD-fmk, known to inhibit apoptosis, on the prevention of cell death was investigated following treatment of HSC45-M2 cells with sorbitol as well as 213 Bi-d9MAb. Activation of caspase 3 after incubation of HSC45-M2 cells with both sorbitol and 213 Bi-d9MAb was analysed via Western blotting. Following incubation of HSC45-M2 human gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin with 213 Bi-d9MAb the number of cells killed increased proportional to the applied activity concentration. Microscopically visible effects of α-irradiation of HSC45-M2 cells were formation of micronuclei and severe chromosomal aberrations. Preferential induction of these lesions with specific 213 Bi-d9MAb compared with unspecific 213 Bi-d8MAb (not targeting d9-E-cadherin) was not observed if the number of floating, i.e. unbound 213 Bi-immunoconjugates per cell exceeded 2 x 10 4 , most likely due to intense crossfire. In contrast to sorbitol-induced cell death, cell death triggered by 213 Bi-immunoconjugates was independent of caspase 3 activation and could not be inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, known to suppress the apoptotic pathway. 213 Bi-immunoconjugates seem to induce a mode of cell death different from apoptosis in HSC45-M2 cells

  6. Cell death triggered by alpha-emitting {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates in HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells is different from apoptotic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Christof; Schroeck, Hedwig; Seidenschwang, Sabine; Beck, Roswitha; Schwaiger, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schmid, Ernst [National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Biology, GSF, Neuherberg (Germany); Abend, Michael [German Armed Forces, Institute of Radiobiology, Munich (Germany); Becker, Karl-Friedrich [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Pathology, GSF, Neuherberg (Germany); National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Immunology, GSF, Munich (Germany); Apostolidis, Christos; Nikula, Tuomo K. [European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Immunology, GSF, Munich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Radioimmunotherapy with {alpha}-particle-emitting nuclides, such as{sup 213}Bi, is a promising concept for the elimination of small tumour nodules or single disseminated tumour cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular damage and the mode of cell death triggered by {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates. Human gastric cancer cells (HSC45-M2) expressing d9-E-cadherin were incubated with different levels of activity of {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin and {sup 213}Bi-d8MAb, which does not bind to d9-E-cadherin. Micronucleated (M) cells, abnormal (A) cells and apoptotic (A) [(MAA)] cells were scored microscopically in the MAA assay following fluorescent staining of nuclei and cytoplasm. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed microscopically following Giemsa staining. The effect of z-VAD-fmk, known to inhibit apoptosis, on the prevention of cell death was investigated following treatment of HSC45-M2 cells with sorbitol as well as {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb. Activation of caspase 3 after incubation of HSC45-M2 cells with both sorbitol and {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb was analysed via Western blotting. Following incubation of HSC45-M2 human gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin with {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb the number of cells killed increased proportional to the applied activity concentration. Microscopically visible effects of {alpha}-irradiation of HSC45-M2 cells were formation of micronuclei and severe chromosomal aberrations. Preferential induction of these lesions with specific {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb compared with unspecific {sup 213}Bi-d8MAb (not targeting d9-E-cadherin) was not observed if the number of floating, i.e. unbound {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates per cell exceeded 2 x 10{sup 4}, most likely due to intense crossfire. In contrast to sorbitol-induced cell death, cell death triggered by {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates was independent of caspase 3 activation and could not be inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, known to suppress the apoptotic pathway. {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates seem

  7. Magneto-transport studies on Bi2Te2+xSe1–x (x = 0.05 and 0.10 topological insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Irfan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi2Te2Se is one of the most promising three dimensional topological insulators, for the study of surface states. In this work, we report the results of transport and magneto-transport behavior of Bi2Te2+xSe1–x (x=0.05 and 0.10 single crystals grown using modified Bridgeman technique. Resistance versus temperature measurements show semiconducting behavior for x = 0.05 and 0.10 crystals. Linear magnetoresistance is observed for Bi2Te2.05Se0.95 (i.e. x=0.05 whereas, Bi2Te2.10Se0.90 (x=0.10 single crystal shows a conductance fluctuations at low magnetic field.

  8. BiOI/TiO{sub 2}-nanorod array heterojunction solar cell: Growth, charge transport kinetics and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingyun; Daoud, Walid A., E-mail: wdaoud@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BiOI/TiO{sub 2} photoanodes were fabricated by a simple solvothermal/hydrothermal method. • BiOI/TiO{sub 2} (PVP) showed a 13-fold increase in photocurrent density compared to TiO{sub 2}. • Charge transport kinetics within the BiOI/TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions are discussed. - Abstract: A series of BiOI/TiO{sub 2}-nanorod array photoanodes were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using a simple two-step solvothermal/hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal process, such as TiO{sub 2} nanorod growth time, BiOI concentration and the role of surfactant, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the growth of BiOI, were investigated. The heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical properties of the as-grown junctions, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) behavior, photocurrent response and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) under Xenon lamp illumination, are presented. The cell with BiOI/TiO{sub 2} (PVP) as photoanode can reach a short current density (J{sub sc}) of 0.13 mA/cm{sup 2} and open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.46 V vs. Ag/AgCl under the irradiation of a 300 W Xenon lamp. Compared to bare TiO{sub 2}, the IPCE of BiOI/TiO{sub 2} (PVP) increased 4–5 times at 380 nm. Furthermore, the charge transport kinetics within the heterojunction is also discussed.

  9. BiOI/TiO2-nanorod array heterojunction solar cell: Growth, charge transport kinetics and photoelectrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lingyun; Daoud, Walid A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BiOI/TiO 2 photoanodes were fabricated by a simple solvothermal/hydrothermal method. • BiOI/TiO 2 (PVP) showed a 13-fold increase in photocurrent density compared to TiO 2 . • Charge transport kinetics within the BiOI/TiO 2 heterojunctions are discussed. - Abstract: A series of BiOI/TiO 2 -nanorod array photoanodes were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using a simple two-step solvothermal/hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal process, such as TiO 2 nanorod growth time, BiOI concentration and the role of surfactant, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the growth of BiOI, were investigated. The heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical properties of the as-grown junctions, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) behavior, photocurrent response and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) under Xenon lamp illumination, are presented. The cell with BiOI/TiO 2 (PVP) as photoanode can reach a short current density (J sc ) of 0.13 mA/cm 2 and open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.46 V vs. Ag/AgCl under the irradiation of a 300 W Xenon lamp. Compared to bare TiO 2 , the IPCE of BiOI/TiO 2 (PVP) increased 4–5 times at 380 nm. Furthermore, the charge transport kinetics within the heterojunction is also discussed

  10. Role of vanadium in Bi-2223 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previous reports ([1–7] and also, [9]) on V-substituted samples of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Os have mostly pointed out that V ... Two series of V-substituted samples were prepared by partial replacement of V at two different sites; viz. the ..... also evaluated the phase composition on the basis of our susceptibility plots. This has also.

  11. Business Intelligence: Magnum B.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Linda L.

    2007-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) tools offer schools the ability to look beyond a routine statistic, such as what percentage of students have passed a given test. Through data analysis, schools can view specific scores for a select group of students, for example, and compare that data to other groups, classes, or teachers. That is the kind of…

  12. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  13. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  14. Method of producing superconducting fibers of bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (Bi(2212) and Bi(2223))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Louis A.

    1991-10-01

    Fibers of Bi(2212) have been produce by pendant drop melt extraction. This technique involves the end of a rod of Bi(2212) melted with a hydrogen-oxygen torch, followed by lowering onto the edge of a spinning wheel. The fibers are up to 15 cm in length with the usual lateral dimensions, ranging from 20 um to 30 um. The fibers require a heat treatment to make them superconducting.

  15. DIALIGN: multiple DNA and protein sequence alignment at BiBiServ.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    DIALIGN is a widely used software tool for multiple DNA and protein sequence alignment. The program combines local and global alignment features and can therefore be applied to sequence data that cannot be correctly aligned by more traditional approaches. DIALIGN is available online through Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server (BiBiServ). The downloadable version of the program offers several new program features. To compare the output of different alignment programs, we developed the program AltA...

  16. Programmable Oligomers Targeting 5′-GGGG-3′ in the Minor Groove of DNA and NF-κB Binding Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, David M.; Poposki, Julie A.; Marques, Michael A.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    A series of hairpin oligomers containing benzimidazole (Bi) and imidazopyridine (Ip) rings were synthesized and screened to target 5′-WGGGGW-3′, a core sequence in the DNA binding site of NF-κB, a prolific transcription factor important in biology and disease. Five Bi and Ip containing oligomers bound to the 5′-WGGGGW-3′ site with high affinity. One of the oligomers (Im-Im-Im-Im-γ-PyBi-PyBi-β-Dp) was able to inhibit DNA binding by the transcription factor NF-κB. PMID:17095230

  17. Tetra point wetting at the free surface of liquid Ga-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O.G.; Pershan, P.S.; Ocko, B.M.; Di Masi, E.; Deutsch, M.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous surface wetting transition, pinned to a solid-liquid-liquid-vapor tetra coexistence point, is studied by x-ray reflectivity in liquid Ga-Bi binary alloys. The short-range surface potential is determined from the measured temperature evolution of the wetting film. The thermal fluctuations are shown to be insufficient to induce a noticeable breakdown of mean-field behavior, expected in short-range-interacting systems due to their d u =3 upper critical dimensionality

  18. Electronic structure of single crystalline Bi2(Sr,Ca,La)3Cu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.X.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Borg, A.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-01-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission experiments on single crystals of Bi 2 (Sr,Ca,La) 3 Cu 2 O 8 are reported. The data show a dispersionless behavior of the valence band states as a function of the perpendicular component of the wave vector (along the c-axis), while as a function of the parallel component (in the a-b plane) clear dispersion occurs. Furthermore, polarization-dependent excitations reveal information on the symmetry of the unoccupied states

  19. Observation of Dirac state in half-Heusler material YPtBi

    OpenAIRE

    Hosen, M. Mofazzel; Dhakal, Gyanendra; Dimitri, Klauss; Choi, Hongchul; Kabir, Firoza; Sims, Christopher; Pavlosiuk, Orest; Wisniewski, Piotr; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Kaczorowski, Dariusz; Neupane, Madhab

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of non-trivial topological electronic states hosted by half-Heusler compounds makes them prime candidates for discovering new physics and devices as they harbor a variety of electronic ground states including superconductivity, magnetism, and heavy fermion behavior. Here we report normal state electronic properties of a superconducting half-Heusler compound YPtBi using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Our data reveal the presence of a Dirac state at the zone c...

  20. Specific heat (1-330K), magnetic susceptiblity and Meissner effect Bi-(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Eckert, D.; Triscone, G.; Brunner, O.; Muller, J.; Zhao, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Five samples in the Bi 2 - y Pb y Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 + x system selected for their sharp diamagnetic transitions are characterized with particular emphasis on the specific heat. The behavior of the magnetic susceptibility upon doping with holes (Pb) is similar to that of the La 1 - y Sr y CuO 4 system

  1. Fuzzy Bi-level Decision-Making Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangquan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi-level decision-making techniques aim to deal with decentralized management problems that feature interactive decision entities distributed throughout a bi-level hierarchy. A challenge in handling bi-level decision problems is that various uncertainties naturally appear in decision-making process. Significant efforts have been devoted that fuzzy set techniques can be used to effectively deal with uncertain issues in bi-level decision-making, known as fuzzy bi-level decision-making techniques, and researchers have successfully gained experience in this area. It is thus vital that an instructive review of current trends in this area should be conducted, not only of the theoretical research but also the practical developments. This paper systematically reviews up-to-date fuzzy bi-level decisionmaking techniques, including models, approaches, algorithms and systems. It also clusters related technique developments into four main categories: basic fuzzy bi-level decision-making, fuzzy bi-level decision-making with multiple optima, fuzzy random bi-level decision-making, and the applications of bi-level decision-making techniques in different domains. By providing state-of-the-art knowledge, this survey paper will directly support researchers and practitioners in their understanding of developments in theoretical research results and applications in relation to fuzzy bi-level decision-making techniques.

  2. Strain reduced critical current in Bi-2223/Ag superconductors under axial tension and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haken, B. ten; Godeke, A.; Kate, H.H.J. ten

    1997-01-01

    The critical current of Ag sheathed Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO-2223 tape conductors is investigated as a function of various strain components. A reduction of the critical current occurs due to both tensile or a compressive strain. The critical current reduction is qualitatively similar with the results as observed in Bi-2212 conductors. An axial compression leads to an immediate critical current reduction. The critical current in an axially elongated sample remains nearly constant up to a certain limit typically close to 0.3% strain. For a larger elongation the critical current reduces rapidly. A transverse pressure acting on the tape surface leads also to an irreversible critical current reduction. This behavior is compared with the influence of an axial compression with an effective Young's modulus. The deformation induced critical current reductions in Bi-2223 conductors can be described by a model that is already proposed for Bi-2212 conductors. This model is based on the irreversible nature of the critical current reduction due to a certain deformation

  3. Electrical Field Effect Dependence of Hall Constant in Bi-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Sandomirsky, V.; Schlesinger, Y.; Shvarts, Dm.

    1998-01-01

    The Electrical Field Effect (EFE) was investigated on the capacitive structure Aumica (ns 10 μm ) - Bi films (L ∼ 350≥≥500 angstrem) in the temperature region 15 - 100 K. The thicknesses of Bi films lay in the region of the Quantum Size Effect (QSE). The transverse electric fields reach the value of 106 V/cm. The corresponding surface carrier concentrations are ns ∼ 10 13 [e]/cm 2 , i.e. the average change of carrier concentration in the 500 angstrem film is n s /L ∼ 10 17 cm -3 . The latter value is comparable with the original carrier concentration in Bi film, 3 f 1017 cm-3. However, EEE, the film resistance change Δ R is 0.5 %. On the other hand EFE change of Hall constant (2ΔR H ), that was observed for the first time in this work, is 5 - 30 % (depending on the film thickness). These results point to a small carrier mobility and to an essential change of carrier concentration in the EEE influence region (of the order of the screening length). The interpretation takes into account both classical and quantum versions of Bi film behavior under EFE conditions. A procedure to determine the surface charge carrier mobilities and concentrations from EFE-data (both ΔR and ORE) is propose

  4. Multiferroic properties of nanocrystalline BiFe1−xNixO3 (x=0.0–0.15) perovskite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Yogesh; Mahajan, Chandrashekhar M.; Singh, Amrita; Jagtap, Prashant; Chatterjee, Ratnamala; Bendre, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Ni doped BiFeO 3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) nanocrystalline ceramics were synthesized by the solution combustion method (SCM) to obtain optimal multiferroic properties. The effect of Ni doping on structural, morphological, ferroelectric, magnetic and dielectric properties of BiFeO 3 was studied. The structural investigations by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed that BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 ceramics have rhombhohedral perovskite structure. The ferroelectric hysteresis measurements for BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15) compound at room temperature found to exhibit unsaturated behavior and presents partial reversal of polarization. The magnetic measurements demonstrated an enhancement of ferromagnetic property due to Ni doping in BiFeO 3 when compared with undoped BiFeO 3 . The variation of dielectric constant with temperature in BiFe 0.9 Ni 0.1 O 3 and BiFe 0.85 Ni 0.15 O 3 samples evidenced an apparent dielectric anomaly around 350 °C and 300 °C which corresponds to antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition of (T N ) of BiFeO 3 . The dependence of room temperature dielectric properties on frequency signifies that both dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tan δ) are the strong function of frequency. The results show that solution combustion method leads to synthesis of an excellent and reproducible BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 multiferroic ceramics. - Highlights: • Synthesis of BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) multiferroic ceramics. • Solution Combustion Method (SCM). • Ferroelectric and dielectric properties of undoped and Ni doped BiFeO 3 ceramics. • High temperature synthesis of BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 multiferroic ceramics. • First detailed report about SCM synthesized the BiFe 1−x Ni x O 3 ceramics

  5. Facile synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide photocatalyst with highly efficient and stable natural sunlight photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Feng, Jinglan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jingyu, E-mail: sunjy-cnc@pku.edu.cn [Center for Nanochemistry (CNC), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • A dual Bi-based ball-shaped material BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were facilely synthesized. • The composition effect of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO hybrid were probed for the first time. • The photocatalytic performances were evaluated upon natural sunlight irradiation. • The composites showed a twofold augmentation in the degradation efficiency. • The hybrid photocatalyst can be easily recycled for three times. - Abstract: A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures by hydrolysis method was reported, where the as-prepared BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was subsequently incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to form BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites. The obtained BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical and optical properties. Photocatalytic capacities of the pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have been investigated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB)-contained wastewater under natural sunlight irradiation. A twofold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites compared with that of pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} under the natural sunlight irradiation. The optimum conditions, the effects of the active species and stabilities in photocatalytic performances of the BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have also been probed.