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Sample records for behavioral incubation model

  1. Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Willard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene expression studies have investigated changes induced by drug exposure, but few reports describe changes that persist following relapse. In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. As an important modulator of goal-directed behavior, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was the target of genomic analysis. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin during 3 h daily sessions for 14 d. Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. Results Behavioral data demonstrated incubation (increased expression of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior after the 14 d abstinent period. That is, following 14 d of enforced abstinence, animals displayed heightened drug-seeking behavior when returned to the environment where they had previously received heroin. This increased drug-seeking took place despite the fact that they received no drug during this extinction session. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Microarrays identified 66 genes whose expression was identified as changed by at least 1.4 fold (p bdnf, calb1, dusp5, dusp6, egr1, npy, rgs2. Conclusion Ontological analysis indicates that several of the genes confirmed to be changed are important for neuroplasticity, and through that role may impact learning and behavior. The importance of drug-seeking behavior and memory of previous drug-taking sessions suggest that such genes may be important for relapse. The global gene expression analysis adds to the

  2. Networking behavior and contracting relationships among entrepreneurs in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Ebbers

    2014-01-01

    Many studies focus on the relationship between social networks and performance. I study networking behavior as an antecedent of tie formation among entrepreneurs in business incubators. I distinguish between two types of networking behavior: individual networking orientation or building potentially

  3. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  4. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    Setting up business incubators has become and industry in its own right. In this article, we return to incubator development studies but focus on the specific process through which involved stakeholders develop the new organization that should deliver services to future incubatees and become a self......-sustaining, dynamic business. In particular, we raise the question of how incubators should be set-up with regard to the context-dependent balance between business planning and venture creation approaches. We illustrate this challenge through providing insight into a case of a project-based and mainly planning...... to inspire further research on incubator development processes....

  5. Modeling of Incubation Time for Austenite to Ferrite Phase Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-guang; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Wei; JIAO Si-hai

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the classical nucleation theory, a new model of incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation has been developed, in which the effect of deformation on austenite has been taken into consideration. To prove the precision of modeling, ferrite transformation starting temperature (Ar3) has been calculated using the Scheil′s additivity rule, and the Ar3 values were measured using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The Ar3 values provided by the modeling method coincide with the measured ones, indicating that the model is precise in predicting the incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation in hot deformed steels.

  6. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  7. Using Web2.0 Aspect fro Designing a New Business Incubation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brojeni, Roozbeh Abbasi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work has examined and analyzed a new operating model in business incubation era, based on utilizing the second generation of web. The main objective of this survey is developing a model of representing many of business incubation services, by enlarging the network relationships between entrepreneurs (including innovative start-up firms), in order to let them share their own experiences, business knowledge, and abilities, in a mass-collaborative networking system. Business incubati...

  8. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  9. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  10. Mathematical models for growth in alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryos developing at different incubation temperatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardsley, W G; Ackerman, R A; Bukhari, N A; Deeming, D.C.; Ferguson, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of model-based (growth models) and model-free (cubic splines, exponentials) equations were fitted using weighted-nonlinear least squares regression to embryonic growth data from Alligator mississippiensis eggs incubated at 30 and 33 degrees C. Goodness of fit was estimated using a chi 2 on the sum of squared, weighted residuals, and run and sign tests on the residuals. One of the growth models used (Preece & Baines, 1978) was found to be superior to the classical growth models (expo...

  11. Night Heron Incubation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  12. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention.

  13. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  14. Incubation periods under various anti-retroviral therapies in homogeneous mixing and age-structured dynamical models: A theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Arni S R Srinivasa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We consider previously well-known models in epidemiology where the parameter for incubation period is used as one of the important components to explain the dynamics of the variables. Such models are extended here to explain the dynamics with respect to a given therapy that prolongs the incubation period. A deconvolution method is demonstrated for estimation of parameters in the situations when no-therapy and multiple therapies are given to the infected population. The models and deconvolution method are extended in order to study the impact of therapy in age-structured populations. A generalisation for a situation when n-types of therapies are available is given.

  15. Mathematical models for adjustment of in vitro gas production at different incubation times and kinetics of corn silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, with whole plant silage corn at different stages of maturity, aimed to evaluate the mathematical models Exponential, France, Gompertz and Logistic to study the kinetics of gas production in vitro incubations for 24 and 48 hours. A semi-automated in vitro gas production technique was used during one, three, six, eight, ten, 12, 14, 16, 22, 24, 31, 36, 42 and 48 hours of incubation periods. Model adjustment was evaluated by means of mean square of error, mean bias, root mean square prediction error and residual error. The Gompertz mathematical model allowed the best adjustment to describe the gas production kinetics of maize silages, regardless of incubation period. The France model was not adequate to describe gas kinetics of incubation periods equal or lower than 48 hours. The in vitro gas production technique was efficient to detect differences in nutritional value of maize silages from different growth stages. Twenty four hours in vitro incubation periods do not mask treatment effects, whilst 48 hour periods are inadequate to measure silage digestibility.

  16. The effects of the duration and onset of light stimulation during incubation on the behavior, plasma melatonin levels, and productivity of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S; Mench, J A

    2014-04-01

    Light stimulation during incubation can affect the behavior, health, and performance of poultry posthatch. However, there has been relatively little work systematically assessing the pattern of light stimulation needed to produce these effects or the mechanism underlying them. We conducted 2 experiments to assess the effects of duration and onset of light exposure during incubation on Cobb 500 broiler chickens. In the first, eggs (n = 1,404) were incubated under photoperiods of either 0 h of light and 24 h of darkness (0 L:24 D), 1 h of light and 23 h of darkness (1 L:23 D), 6 h of light and 18 h of darkness (6L:18D), or 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12L:12D). In the second, eggs (n = 1,008) were incubated in either complete darkness or under 12L:12D, which was applied either for the entire incubation period or with light onset beginning at either 7 or 14 d of incubation. Broilers were then housed in floor pens under a 12L:12D cycle posthatch. Measurements included performance outcomes, plasma melatonin, general behavioral activity assessed using passive infrared detection, and feeding activity assessed using automated continuous monitoring of feed intake at wk 5 of age. There were no treatment differences in hatchability, mortality, growth, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, overall feeding behavior activity, or general behavioral activity over a 24-h period in either experiment. However, broilers incubated under 12L:12D fed more (P lights came on in Exp. 1 and during the first hour after the lights came on in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, general activity levels measured using passive infrared detection at night also differed (P = 0.05), with 0 L:24 D more active than 12L:12D. There was a treatment difference between the 0 L:12 D and 12 L:12 D in their plasma melatonin rhythms during d 19 of incubation, but this difference had disappeared when broilers were sampled at wk 5 posthatch. The results of this study indicate that providing 12 h of light during

  17. An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness: applications to i.v. drug users in Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, M; Loro, R; Milner, F; Pugliese, A; Rabbiolo, G

    1992-07-01

    An AIDS model with distributed incubation and variable infectiousness is considered and simulated via a second-order numerical method. The method is applied to the HIV epidemic among IV drug users in the Latium region of Italy, using available data on the length of the incubation period before the onset of AIDS, on the infectivity of infected individuals during that period, and on the demography of drug users. The contact rate is adjusted to match the actual number of AIDS cases. The sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the parameters is finally investigated, by performing several simulations.

  18. Influence of sterilization on the mineralization of titanium implants induced by incubation in various biological model fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Saramago, B

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the mineralization of titanium implants induced by incubation in various biological model fluids. Titanium samples were submitted to the following sterilization processes used for implant materials: steam autoclaving, glow discharge Ar plasma treatment and gamma-irradiation. The modification of the treated surfaces was evaluated by contact angle determinations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser profilometry and X-ray diffraction. The most significant modifications were detected on the wettability: while the samples treated with Ar plasma became highly hydrophilic (water contact angle approximately 0 degrees), gamma-irradiation and steam sterilization induced an increase in the hydrophobicity. After being sterilized, the samples were incubated for one week in three biological model fluids: Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution, Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) and a fluid, designated by SBF0, with the same composition of SBF but without buffer TRIS. The level of mineralization of the incubated Ti samples, assessed by dynamic contact angle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy and XPS, indicated that the early stages of mineralization are essentially independent of the sterilization method. In contrast, the incubating fluid plays a determinant role, SBFO being the most efficient medium for biomineralization of titanium.

  19. Switching from simple to complex dynamics in a predator-prey-parasite model: An interplay between infection rate and incubation delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, N; Adak, D

    2016-07-01

    Parasites play a significant role in trophic interactions and can regulate both predator and prey populations. Mathematical models might be of great use in predicting different system dynamics because models have the potential to predict the system response due to different changes in system parameters. In this paper, we study a predator-prey-parasite (PPP) system where prey population is infected by some micro parasites and predator-prey interaction occurs following Leslie-Gower model with type II response function. Infection spreads following SI type epidemic model with standard incidence rate. The infection process is not instantaneous but mediated by a fixed incubation delay. We study the stability and instability of the endemic equilibrium point of the delay-induced PPP system with respect to two parameters, viz., the force of infection and the length of incubation delay under two cases: (i) the corresponding non-delayed system is stable and (ii) the corresponding non-delayed system is unstable. In the first case, the system populations coexist in stable state for all values of delay if the force of infection is low; or show oscillatory behavior when the force of infection is intermediate and the length of delay crosses some critical value. The system, however, exhibits very complicated dynamics if the force of infection is high, where the system is unstable in absence of delay. In this last case, the system shows oscillatory, stable or chaotic behavior depending on the length of delay.

  20. Development of a novel rabbit model of abdominal aortic aneurysm via a combination of periaortic calcium chloride and elastase incubation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Bi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel, simple and effective technique for creating a reliable rabbit model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA via a combination of periaortic calcium chloride (CaCl2 and elastase incubation. METHODS: Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups. The AAA model was developed via a 20-minute periaortic incubation of CaCl2 (0.5 mol/L and elastase (1 Unit/µL in a 1.5-cm aortic segment (Group CE. A single incubation of CaCl2 (Group C or elastase (Group E and a sham operation group (Sham Group were used for the controls. Diameter was measured by serial digital subtraction angiography imaging on days 5, 15 and 30. Animals were sacrificed on day 5 and day 30 for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. RESULTS: All animals in Group CE developed aneurysm, with an average dilation ratio of 65.3% ± 8.9% on day 5, 86.5% ± 28.7% on day 15 and 203.6% ± 39.1% on day 30. No aneurysm was found in Group C, and only one aneurysm was seen on day 5 in Group E. Group CE exhibited less intima-media thickness, endothelial recovery, elastin and smooth muscle cell (SMC content, but stronger expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and RAM11 compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The novel rabbit model of AAA created by using a combination of periaortic CaCl2 and elastase incubation is simple and effective to perform and is valuable for elucidating AAA mechanisms and therapeutic interventions in experimental studies.

  1. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures....... On this backdrop, this paper explores the following questions: • How and to what extent do university student incubators collaborate with formal study programmes? • And which factors influence this integration of curricular and extracurricular activities?...

  2. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  3. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    D. Biolek; Z. Biolek; V. Biolkova

    2011-01-01

    Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  4. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  5. BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSISA

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    Parle Milind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing research into schizophrenia has remained highly fragmented, much like the clinical presentation of the disease itself. Differing theories as to the cause and progression of schizophrenia, as well as the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms, have made it difficult to develop a coherent framework suitable for animal modeling. However, a few animal models have been developed to explore various causative theories and to test specific mechanistic hypotheses. Historically, these models have been based on the manipulation of neurotransmitter systems believed to be involved in schizophrenia. In recent years, the emphasis has shifted to targeting relevant brain regions in an attempt to explore potential etiologic hypotheses. In the present review article, we have described in detail various behavioral models available in literature for screening of antipsychotic agents. In the next article, we propose to focus on chemical induced psychosis (Pharmacological models. We have highlighted the principle, end point, brief procedures, merits and demerit of all the behavioral models in the foregoing pages Emphasis is placed on the critical evaluation of currently available models because these models help to shape the direction of future research.

  6. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  7. Night Heron Incubation Data will gulls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  8. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse s...

  9. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...... these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our...

  10. 基于SCP范式的江苏省科技孵化器产业发展研究%Research on the Development of Science and Technology Incubator Industry in Jiangsu Province Based on SCP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静云

    2016-01-01

    基于SCP范式对江苏省科技企业孵化器产业的发展情况进行研究。首先从产业规模与产业集中度对市场结构进行分析,其次从价值主张、价值创造与价值获取三个维度对市场行为进行剖析,之后以累计孵化企业个数、提供就业机会与人才培养三个角度对科技孵化器产业的绩效进行评价,从中发现江苏省科技孵化器建设的特点,找出其成就与不足。%Based on the SCP model, this paper studies the development of science and technology incubator industry in Jiangsu Province. Firstly, it analyzes the market structure from the industry scale and industry concentration degree;secondly, it analyzes the market behavior from three dimensions of value proposition, value creation and value acquisition; and finally, it evaluates the performance of science and technology incubator industry from three aspects of cumulative number of business incubators, employment opportunities and personnel training. It finds the characteristics of the construction of science and technology incubator in Jiangsu Province, and finds out its achievements and shortcomings.

  11. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  12. On Business Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2014-01-01

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first part is about the history and development periods of business incubation; the second one is on its three generations defined by scholars; and the third one is on its present situation including various forms of incubators. In the conclusion, a brief reflection is made on its significance in economy and on the value it provides for society.

  13. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  14. Humidification of incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-03-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir.

  15. Behavior models for software architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Monterey Phoenix (MP) is an approach to formal software system architecture specification based on behavior models. Architecture modeling focuses not only on the activities and interactions within the system, but also on the interactions between the system and its environment, providing an abstraction for interaction specification. The behavior of the system is defined as a set...

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of Cooperative Behavior between Business Incubator and Incubating Enterprise under Taxation and Finance Subsidy Policy%税收和补贴政策影响下孵化器与在孵企业合作行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    台德艺; 徐福缘; 胡伟

    2015-01-01

    为研究政府税收和补贴政策对调控孵化器与在孵企业合作行为的微观作用机理,通过建立演化博弈模型,分析税收征收强度与政府补贴及分配比例对于孵化器服务行为与在孵化企业努力创业行为的促进作用。研究结果表明,税收与补贴政策影响孵化器与在孵化企业的合作行为;在税收全额返还情况下,在孵企业与孵化器间存在最优税收返还分配比例;政府税收外的额外补贴有利于促进合作向着孵化器服务到位与在孵化企业努力创业的方向演化;孵化器收益与在孵企业的行业前景与成正比。%To research on the microscopic mechanism of the cooperation between Business Incubator (BI)and Start -ups in BI under taxation and finance subsidy,an evolutionary model is established to analyze the regulation function of taxation and finance subsidy on the cooperative behavior of BI and IE.The study shows that taxation and finance subsidy impose in-fluence on the cooperative behavior of BI and IE;the optimal distribution ratio is obtained between BI and IE when total ta-xes are retuned to BI and IE;the extra finance subsidy beside total retuned taxation is conducive to improve the cooperative behavior between BI and IE.The income of BI has positive correlation with industry future of high -tech Start -ups.

  18. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  19. Training Programmes as Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Truls; Gjellan, Are

    2003-01-01

    A European technological university conducts quarterly incubator programs in which teams develop ideas into viable business plans. Analysis indicates that 57 of 102 ideas resulted in successful technology-based businesses and more than 400 students received hands-on experience in business start-up. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  20. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  1. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  2. Breeding biology of muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) under natural incubation: the use of the weibull function and a beta-binomial model to predict nest hatchability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun; Draisma; Frankena; Veeneklaas; Van Kampen M

    1999-05-07

    In this paper we tested the Weibull function and beta-binomial distribution to analyse and predict nest hatchability, using empirical data on hatchability in Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) eggs under natural incubation (932 successfully incubated nests and 11 822 eggs). The estimated parameters of the Weibull function and beta-binomial model were compared with the logistic regression analysis. The maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters was used to quantify simultaneously the influence of the nesting behaviour and the duration of the reproduction cycle on hatchability. The estimated parameters showed that the hatchability was not affected in natural dump nests, but in artificial dump nests and in nests with non-term eggs the hatchability was reduced by 10 and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained using logistic regression. Both models provided a satisfactory description of the observed data set, but the beta-binomial model proved to have more parameters with practical and biological meaningful interpretations, because this model is able to quantify and incorporate the unexplained variation in a single parameter theta (which is a variance measure). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the citric acid cycle for the analysis of glutamine isotopomers from cerebellar astrocytes incubated with [1(-13)C]glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, M; Martin, M; Villégier, A; Canioni, P

    1996-08-01

    A mathematical model of the citric acid cycle devoted to the analysis of 13C-NMR data was developed for determining the relative flux of molecules through the anaplerotic versus oxidative pathways and the relative pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase activities. Different variants of the model were considered depending on the reversibility of the conversion of fumarate into malate and oxaloacetate. The model also included the possibility of orientation-conserved transfer of the four-carbon citric acid cycle intermediates, leading to conversion of succinyl-CoA C1 into either malate C1 or C4. It was used to analyse NMR data from glutamine isotopomers produced by cerebellar astrocytes incubated with [1-13C]glucose. Partial cycling (39%) between oxaloacetate and fumarate was evident from the analysis. Application of the model to glutamate isotopomers from granule cells incubated with [1-13C]glucose [Martin, M.. Portais, J.C.. Labouesse. J., Canioni. P, & Merle, M. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 617-625] indicated that total cycling of oxaloacetate into fumarate was, in this case, required to get the best fit. The results emphasized some important differences in carbon metabolism between cerebellar astrocytes and granule cells concerning the sources of carbon fuelling the citric acid cycle and the carbon fluxes on different pathways.

  4. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of GTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Azzouz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analog behavioral model of high power gate turn-off thyristor (GTO is developed in this paper. The fundamental methodology for the modeling of this power electronic circuit is based on the use of the realistic diode consideration of non-linear junctions. This modeling technique enables to perform different simulations taking into account the turn-on and turn-off transient behaviors in real-time. The equivalent circuits were simulated with analog software developed in our laboratory. It was shown that the tested simple and compact model allows the generation of accurate physical characteristics of power thyristors under dynamic conditions. The model understudy was validated with analog simulations based on operational amplifier devices.

  5. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  6. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  7. Research on the operation model of college students' entrepreneurial incubation base%大学生创业孵化基地运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾一帆

    2016-01-01

    Creating business incubator base in universities is the important measures and ways for in-depth implementation of national innovation driven development strategy, deeding the innovation and entrepreneurship education, and stimulating innovation potential and entrepreneurial vitality of the whole society. In the process of construction, colleges should choose the model of operation, design operation mechanism, plan operation process and innovation profit model scientifically and reasonably on the base of the actual investment situation of the incubation platform.%在高校创建创业孵化基地,是深入实施国家创新驱动发展战略、深化高校创新创业教育改革、激发全社会创新潜能和创业活力的重要措施。在创建的过程中,高校要根据孵化平台投资共建的实际情况,科学、合理地选择运作模式、设计运营机制、策划运作流程、创新盈利模式,以探索大学生校内创业孵化基地的运营新模式。

  8. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  9. Modeling vertical movement of organic matter in a soil incubated for 41 years with "1"4C labeled straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S.; Christensen, B.T.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of organic matter (OM) in the soil profile reflects the balance between inputs and decomposition at different depths as well as transport of OM within the profile. In this study we modeled movement of OM in the soil profile as a result of mechanisms resulting in dispersive...

  10. On our best behavior: optimality models in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses problems associated with the use of optimality models in human behavioral ecology. Optimality models are used in both human and non-human animal behavioral ecology to test hypotheses about the conditions generating and maintaining behavioral strategies in populations via natural selection. The way optimality models are currently used in behavioral ecology faces significant problems, which are exacerbated by employing the so-called 'phenotypic gambit': that is, the bet that the psychological and inheritance mechanisms responsible for behavioral strategies will be straightforward. I argue that each of several different possible ways we might interpret how optimality models are being used for humans face similar and additional problems. I suggest some ways in which human behavioral ecologists might adjust how they employ optimality models; in particular, I urge the abandonment of the phenotypic gambit in the human case.

  11. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  12. Modeling software behavior a craftsman's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Paul C

    2009-01-01

    A common problem with most texts on requirements specifications is that they emphasize structural models to the near exclusion of behavioral models-focusing on what the software is, rather than what it does. If they do cover behavioral models, the coverage is brief and usually focused on a single model. Modeling Software Behavior: A Craftsman's Approach provides detailed treatment of various models of software behavior that support early analysis, comprehension, and model-based testing. Based on the popular and continually evolving course on requirements specification models taught by the auth

  13. Nonlinear System Identification and Behavioral Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Huq, Kazi Mohammed Saidul; Kabir, A F M Sultanul

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining a mathematical model for an unknown system by observing its input-output data pair is generally referred to as system identification. A behavioral model reproduces the required behavior of the original analyzed system, such as there is a one-to-one correspondence between the behavior of the original system and the simulated system. This paper presents nonlinear system identification and behavioral modeling using a work assignment.

  14. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  15. A Comprehensive Model of Customers’ Complaint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mousavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the factors influencing the complaint behavior of service customers and suggested a model that gives a dynamic view of customer’s complaint behavior. The conceptual model supported by study and research done in the context of complaint behavior analysis. In addition, numerous science researches in different industries (services and products supported the model. Research findings show that the complaint behavior of customers is a very complex behavior of customer dissatisfaction. Many factors determine the type and severity of complaints and these factors can be classified into four factors such as personal (individual factors, service factors, situational factors and macro element. Different Kinds of people’s coping strategies is an effective factor in the selection of complaint behavior type. Analyzing and identifying different factors that cause the complaint behavior is important for different types of services. This model is a comprehensive one in complaint behavior that identifies important factors.

  16. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  17. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    This paper undertakes a longitudinal examination of the diffusion of a relatively new organizational activity - university student business incubators - by studying the processes through which actors grounded in three different institutional logics interact in the organizational field of higher...... education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  18. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  19. 科技孵化园商业运营模式探讨%Technology Incubator Park and Its Business Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜

    2013-01-01

      科技企业孵化器事业从最初的科技成果转化战术路径,已上升为建立创新型国家战略最为有效的战略性工具和载体。在维持科技转化功能,实施市场化运营,保持企业良性循环发展方面,深圳科技企业孵化园“科技企业孵化+种子期投资+孵化社区(科技地产)”三位一体的服务体系,提供了可持续商业化运营模式。%From the beginning of scientific and technological achievements transformation path, science and technology business incubator has risen to the most strategic tools and carrier for the national innovation strategy, It pushes forward technology transfer, market-oriented operation, and sustainable development. Through the“science and technology business incubator+seed stage investment+incubation community (Technology Real Estate)”service system, shenzhen science and technology business incubator park provides a sustainable business operation mode.

  20. Functional Behavioral Assessment: A School Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Jennifer M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This article begins by discussing requirements for functional behavioral assessment under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and then describes a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the schools. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, and intervention and involves the participation…

  1. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  2. Multiaxial behavior of foams - Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use experiments which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a Hysteretic contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.

  3. Advanced survival models for risk-factor analysis in scrapie. : PrP genotype influence on scrapie infection risk and incubation period.

    OpenAIRE

    Corbière, Fabien; Barillet, Francis; Andréoletti, Olivier; Fidelle, Francis; Laphitz-Bordet, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Joly, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Because of the confounding effects of long incubation duration and flock management, accurate epidemiological studies of scrapie outbreaks are difficult to carry out. In this study, 641 Manech red-faced sheep from six scrapie-affected field flocks in Pyr?es Atlantiques, France, were monitored for clinical scrapie over a 6-9 year period. Over this period, 170 scrapie clinical cases were recorded and half of the culled animals were submitted for post-mortem transmissible...

  4. Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    elasticity, hypoelasticity , plasticity and viscoplasticity. Despite the large number of models , there is no consensus yet within the research community on...Classification) (U) Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular MOWo I... 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Emmanuel Petrakis and Ricardo Dobry 13a. TYPE OF...Institute (RPI) on the behavior and modelling of granular media is summarized. The final objective is to develol a constitutive law for granular soil

  5. Modeling admissible behavior using event signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Luz; Jafari, Mohsen A; Hanisch, Hans-Michael; Zhao, Peng

    2004-06-01

    We describe here how to obtain a model for the admissible behavior of a discrete event system that is represented by a safe Petri net (PN) model. The transitions of this PN model may be controllable or uncontrollable. Also given is a sequential specification which is modeled with a special state machine. Then, using the condition and event arcs of net condition/event systems, a combined model of plant and specification is obtained. We use only the structure of this combined model to develop a method which gives the admissible behavior of the system. Thus, we avoid the complexity of a complete state enumeration.

  6. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres. Within such frame environments, many group interests beyond those of single producers and their immediate clients exist and interfere. Rather generically, important economic outcomes of innovations are sequences of cost reduction events at the level of economic sectors, where the nature of (sector-wise technology is influencing the pace of these events. At the conceptual level, we describe the social learning and social innovation process which leads to sustainable innovation by means of the influence exerted by firms on each other within constrained environments such as business incubators. These environments need not to be organized according to any sector logic. We propose that the influence exerted between firms is increasing in firm similarity, in the degree of product complementarity, and also to depend on (mutual trust relations. We note that, very much in symmetry with the role of sustainability in society as a whole, in the world of firms and markets, the incubation process may be viewed as a moderator, which attempts to overcome the disadvantages of highly paced, short-term oriented capitalist economies. In sections 2 and 3 a concept for representing the societal forces shaping sustainability and incubation for the innovating firm is described and ways of transforming the concept into concrete tools of assessment and valuation are pointed at.

  7. Behavior Models for Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    MP. Existing process modeling frameworks (BPEL, BPMN [Grosskopf et al. 2009], IDEF) usually follow the “single flowchart” paradigm. MP separates...Process: Business Process Modeling using BPMN , Meghan Kiffer Press. HAREL, D., 1987, A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems. Science of Computer

  8. Critical behavior of a dynamical percolation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei-Ling; XU Ming-Mei; LIU Zheng-You; LIU Lian-Shou

    2009-01-01

    The critical behavior of the dynamical percolation model, which realizes the molecular-aggregation conception and describes the crossover between the hadronic phase and the partonic phase, is studied in detail. The critical percolation distance for this model is obtained by using the probability P∞ of the appearance of an infinite cluster. Utilizing the finite-size scaling method the critical exponents γ/v and T are extracted from the distribution of the average cluster size and cluster number density. The influences of two model related factors, I.e. The maximum bond number and the definition of the infinite cluster, on the critical behavior are found to be small.

  9. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  10. Machine Learning Approaches for Modeling Spammer Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Spam is commonly known as unsolicited or unwanted email messages in the Internet causing potential threat to Internet Security. Users spend a valuable amount of time deleting spam emails. More importantly, ever increasing spam emails occupy server storage space and consume network bandwidth. Keyword-based spam email filtering strategies will eventually be less successful to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes their tricks to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics that the spammer uses are patterns and these patterns can be modeled to combat spam. This paper investigates the possibilities of modeling spammer behavioral patterns by well-known classification algorithms such as Na\\"ive Bayesian classifier (Na\\"ive Bayes), Decision Tree Induction (DTI) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Preliminary experimental results demonstrate a promising detection rate of around 92%, which is considerably an enhancement of performance compared to similar spammer behavior modeling research.

  11. Modeling behavioral considerations related to information security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F. (Decision and Information Sciences); (SNL); (Univ. at Albany)

    2011-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model for the identification of threats to security systems. This model integrates judgment, decision-making, and learning theories to provide a unified framework for the behavioral study of upcoming threats.

  12. Concept-Oriented Modeling of Dynamic Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.C.; Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the concept-oriented approach to modeling that clearly separates ideal concepts from the physical components of a system when modeling its dynamic behavior for a specific problem context. This is done from a port-based point of view for which the domain-independ

  13. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O;

    2001-01-01

    Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males...

  14. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  15. NON-BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our previous article. In the present review article, the authors have described various non-behavioral models such as pharmacological models (administering specific chemicals, genetic models (through genetic manipulation, lesion models (lesion of selected brain parts and neuro-developmental models employed for screening anti-psychotic agents. All these animal models imitate schizophrenic defects in some manner. Traditionally, pharmacological models (drug/chemical-induced psychosis were the most widely used. These models involve the manipulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, or GABA-ergic systems. In Lesion models, selected area of an animal's brain is damaged, to induce psychosis-like symptoms. Genetic factors also play a prominent role in many psychiatric disorders and numerous putative candidate genes have been identified. Neurodevelopmental models are based on the fact that schizophrenia can be caused due to prenatal exposure to certain viruses. The animals usually employed for the development of these models include rats, mice, and primates. The specific animal models developed within these frameworks are described in this review article.

  16. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  17. Barriers, Models and Strategies of China Private Capital Embedded Innovation Incubation%我国民营资本嵌入创新孵化的壁垒、模式与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星; 董晓松

    2011-01-01

    Through qualitative research to explore innovative private capital participation in the incubator industry issues, we should face private capital into innovation incubators of social discrimination, respect the law of private capital allocation of resources develop and optimize bussiness model of operation. The article analyzes the drawbacks of the traditional model of innovation incubator's barriers to entry of private capital, sum based on private capital into the barriers, proposes private capital to participate in innovation incubator of real options-based, service unit type, embedded type and stage of the overall business model embedded in, gives its dimensions and to consider the law of evolution. Research through appropriate design of business model innovation incubator, seeks to achieve regional economic growth, technological progress, benefiting private capital, innovation and enterprise development, win-win situation.%通过定性研究探讨民营资本参与创新孵化产业的问题,发现应当正视民营资本进入创新孵化的社会歧视,尊重民营资本的资源配置规律,以商业化视角制定及优化其运作模式.在分析我国创新孵化传统模式弊端,总结民营资本进入壁垒的基础上,提出民营资本参与创新孵化的实物期权型、服务期股型、整体嵌入型与阶段嵌入型商业模式,并给出其考虑维度及演进规律.研究通过适当的创新孵化商业模式设计,力图达成区域经济增长、行业技术进步、民间资本获益、创新型企业发展的多赢局面.

  18. Research on the Evolution Mechanism of Incubator Business Model Based on Grounded Theory%基于扎根理论的孵化器商业模式演进机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凤岭; 陈颉

    2014-01-01

    Innovative activities are the fundamental power in forming and changing incubator's business model. Us-ing the grounded theory approach, this paper analyzes the formation and evolution process of incubator's business model, explores the evolution mechanism of business model. The results show that innovative activities can be di-vided into four types: organization change, value chain improvement, network position improvement and institution-al entrepreneurship. These activities promote the incubator business model evolution from single model to complex model, so as to realize the balance of social benefit and economic benefit.%孵化器的创新性活动是其商业模式形成及变化的根本动力。基于扎根理论方法,对某孵化器的商业模式形成及演化这一复杂而动态的过程进行了剖析,探讨了推动商业模式发生演化的机制。研究结果表明,孵化器的创新性活动可以分为组织变革、价值链改进、网络位置改进、制度创业四类,这四类活动推动着孵化器由单一商业模式向复合商业模式演进,从而实现了社会效益和经济效益的平衡。

  19. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  20. Knowledge Map: Mathematical Model and Dynamic Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Zhuge; Xiang-Feng Luo

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge representation and reasoning is a key issue of the Knowledge Grid. This paper proposes a Knowledge Map (KM) model for representing and reasoning causal knowledge as an overlay in the Knowledge Grid. It extends Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to represent and reason not only simple cause-effect relations, but also time-delay causal relations, conditional probabilistic causal relations and sequential relations. The mathematical model and dynamic behaviors of KM are presented. Experiments show that, under certain conditions, the dynamic behaviors of KM can translate between different states. Knowing this condition, experts can control or modify the constructed KM while its dynamic behaviors do not accord with their expectation. Simulations and applications show that KM is more powerful and natural than FCM in emulating real world.

  1. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  2. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinfo...

  3. A meta-analysis of estimates of the AIDS incubation distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, P C; Myers, L E; Hamill, D N

    1996-06-01

    Information from 12 studies is combined to estimate the AIDS incubation distribution with greater precision than is possible from a single study. The analysis uses a hierarchy of parametric models based on a four-parameter generalized F distribution. This general model contains four standard two-parameter distributions as special cases. The cases are the Weibull, gamma, log-logistic, lognormal distributions. These four special cases subsume three distinct asymptotic hazard behaviors. As time increases beyond the median of approximately 10 years, the hazard can increase to infinity (Weibull), can plateau at some constant level (gamma), or can decrease to zero (log-logistic and lognormal). The Weibull, gamma and 'log-logistic distributions' which represent the three distinct asymptotic hazard behaviors, all fit the data as well as the generalized F distribution at the 25 percent significance level. Hence, we conclude that incubation data is still too limited to ascertain the specific hazard assumption that should be utilized in studies of the AIDS epidemic. Accordingly, efforts to model the AIDS epidemic (e.g., back-calculation approaches) should allow the incubation distribution to take several forms to adequately represent HIV estimation uncertainty. It is recommended that, at a minimum, the specific Weibull, gamma and log-logistic distributions estimated in this meta-analysis should all be used in modeling the AIDS epidemic, to reflect this uncertainty.

  4. A kinetic model for estimating the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers during the gas-boriding of Armco iron: Effect of boride incubation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keddam, M. [Laboratoire de Technologie des Matériaux, Département de Sciences des Matériaux, Faculté de Génie Mécanique et Génie des Procédés, USTHB, B.P N°32, 16111, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Kulka, M., E-mail: michal.kulka@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Pl. M.Sklodowskiej-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Makuch, N.; Pertek, A. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Pl. M.Sklodowskiej-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Małdziński, L. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Machines and Motor Vehicles, Piotrowo Street 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The mass balance equations were formulated for the FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers grown on Fe Armco by gas-boriding. • The effect of boride incubation times was incorporated in the present model. • The boride incubation time was shorter for FeB phase. • The calculated boron activation energies in FeB and Fe{sub 2}B were respectively close to 78.03 and 120.65 kJ mol{sup −1}. • The lower activation energy in FeB phase was characteristic of gas-boriding. - Abstract: The present work deals with a simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers grown on Armco iron substrate. The formed boride layers (FeB + Fe{sub 2}B) are obtained by the gas-boriding in the temperature range of 1073–1273 K during a time duration ranging from 80 to 240 min. The used approach solves the mass balance equations at the two growing fronts: (FeB/Fe{sub 2}B) and (Fe{sub 2}B/Fe) under certain assumptions. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function Φ(T) was incorporated in the model. The following input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower values of boron concentrations in FeB and Fe{sub 2}B and the experimental parabolic growth constants) are needed to determine the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers. The obtained values of boron activation energies were then compared with the values available in the literature. Finally, a good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layers thicknesses and the experimental ones in the temperature range of 1073–1273 K.

  5. Behavior and Design Intent Based Product Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Horváth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge based modeling of mechanical products is presented for industrial CAD/CAM systems. An active model is proposed that comprise knowledge from modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Present day models of mechanical systems do not contain data about the background of human decisions. This situation motivated the authors at their investigations on exchange design intent information between engineers. Their concept was extending of product models to be capable of description of design intent information. Several human-computer and human-human communication issues were considered. The complex communication problem has been divided into four sub-problems, namely communication of human intent source with the computer system, representation of human intent, exchange of intent data between modeling procedures and communication of the represented intent with humans. Paper discusses the scenario of intelligent modeling based engineering. Then key concepts for the application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed including knowledge driven models as well as areas of their application. Next, behavior based models with intelligent content involving specifications and knowledge for the design processes are emphasized and an active part modeling is proposed and possibilities for its application are outlined. Finally, design intent supported intelligent modeling is discussed.

  6. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Polak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA and its analog behavioral model (ABM, which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators. Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equations representing specific functions in the given level of the simulation model. The design of individual levels is always verified using PSpice simulations. The ABM model has been developed based on practically measured values of a number of DACA amplifier samples. The simulation results for proposed levels of the ABM model are shown and compared with the results of the real easurements of the active element DACA.

  7. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of...

  8. Behavioral modeling and analysis of galvanic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei

    2000-10-01

    A new hybrid modeling approach was developed for galvanic devices including batteries and fuel cells. The new approach reduces the complexity of the First Principles method and adds a physical basis to the empirical methods. The resulting general model includes all the processes that affect the terminal behavior of the galvanic devices. The first step of the new model development was to build a physics-based structure or framework that reflects the important physiochemical processes and mechanisms of a galvanic device. Thermodynamics, electrode kinetics, mass transport and electrode interfacial structure of an electrochemical cell were considered and included in the model. Each process of the cell is represented by a clearly-defined and familiar electrical component, resulting in an equivalent circuit model for the galvanic device. The second step was to develop a parameter identification procedure that correlates the device response data to the parameters of the components in the model. This procedure eliminates the need for hard-to-find data on the electrochemical properties of the cell and specific device design parameters. Thus, the model is chemistry and structure independent. Implementation issues of the new modeling approach were presented. The validity of the new model over a wide range of operating conditions was verified with experimental data from actual devices. The new model was used in studying the characteristics of galvanic devices. Both the steady-state and dynamic behavior of batteries and fuel cells was studied using the impedance analysis techniques. The results were used to explain some experimental results of galvanic devices such as charging and pulsed discharge. The knowledge gained from the device analysis was also used in devising new solutions to application problems such as determining the state of charge of a battery or the maximum power output of a fuel cell. With the new model, a system can be designed that utilizes a galvanic device

  9. Complex Behaviors of a Simple Traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xing-Ru

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified traffic model in which a single car moves through a sequence of traffic lights controlled by a step function instead of a sine function. In contrast to the previous work [Phys. Rev. E 70 (2004)016107], we have investigated in detail the dependence of the behavior on four parameters, ω, α, η, and a1, and given three kinds of bifurcation diagrams, which show three kinds of complex behaviors. We have found that in this model there are chaotic and complex periodic motions, as well as special singularities. We have also analyzed the characteristic of the complex period motion and the essential feature of the singularity.

  10. Driver Behavior Modeling: Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah AbuAli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication schemes, mobile cloud and fog computing, and context-aware services boost a growing interest in the design, development, and deployment of driver behavior models for emerging applications. Despite the progressive advancements in various aspects of driver behavior modeling (DBM, only limited work can be found that reviews the growing body of literature, which only targets a subset of DBM processes. Thus a more general review of the diverse aspects of DBM, with an emphasis on the most recent developments, is needed. In this paper, we provide an overview of advances of in-vehicle and smartphone sensing capabilities and communication and recent applications and services of DBM and emphasize research challenges and key future directions.

  11. Grey Control Model of Input and Output for Business Incubator%科技企业孵化器动态投入与产出的灰色控制模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎明; 谢菲; 吴文清

    2009-01-01

    对科技企业孵化器的投入产出建立灰色控制模型,分析科技企业孵化器投入产出的动态关系,寻求科技企业孵化器再投入规模控制性参数,使科技企业孵化器达到可持续发展.研究表明,对科技企业孵化器的投入产出系统建立灰色控制模型能够对科技企业孵化投入产出进行良好的分析和优化,得到能够指导从事实践工作的关键性参数,为科技企业孵化器的持续发展提供理论支持.%A grey control model is developed to describe the dynamic relationship between input and output for business incubator.With this model,investment can be optimized by making trade-off between hardware and software investment to keep a sustainable development of an incubator.Case study shows that the proposed method is effective and is applicable to practice.

  12. Model "Big Five" personality and criminal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Teruel, David; Profesor, Departamento de Psicología-Área de Psicología Social, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, España.; Robles-Bello, Mª Auxiliadora; Profesor, Departamento de Psicología-Área de Psicología Social, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, España.

    2013-01-01

    It reflect on the theoretical issues that currently versa Personality Psychology in general and antisocial or criminal behavior in particular. It discusses how the model can be used personality "Big Five" applied to the field of crime, and shows the variables that the literature presented as more predictive, through one of the most widely used assessment instruments at present. It currently advises finding, meeting points between the various existing theories, for that personality does not be...

  13. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...... countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  14. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  15. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  16. Generalized behavioral framework for choice models of social influence: Behavioral and data concerns in travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maness, M.; Cirillo, C.; Dugundji, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, transportation has begun a shift from an individual focus to a social focus. Accordingly, discrete choice models have begun to integrate social context into its framework. Social influence, the process of having one’s behavior be affected by others, has been one approach t

  17. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  18. Zebra fish: an uncharted behavior genetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2003-09-01

    The zebra fish has been a preferred subject of genetic analysis. It produces a large number of offspring that can be kept in small aquaria, it can be easily mutagenized using chemical mutagens (e.g., ethyl nitrosourea [ENU]), and high-resolution genetic maps exist that aid identification of novel genes. Libraries containing large numbers of mutant fish have been generated, and the genetic mechanisms of the development of zebra fish, whose embryo is transparent, have been extensively studied. Given the extensive homology of its genome with that of other vertebrate species including our own and given the available genetic tools, zebra fish has become a popular model organism. Despite this popularity, however, surprisingly little is known about its behavior. It is argued that behavioral analysis is a powerful tool with which the function of the brain may be studied, and the zebra fish will represent an excellent subject of such analysis. The present paper is a proof of concept study that uses pharmacological manipulation (exposure to alcohol) to show that the zebra fish is amenable to the behavioral genetic analysis of aggression and thus may allow us to reveal molecular mechanisms of this behavioral phenomenon relevant to vertebrates.

  19. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  20. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  1. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  2. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  3. An empirical behavioral model of price formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mike, S

    2005-01-01

    Although behavioral economics has demonstrated that there are many situations where rational choice is a poor empirical model, it has so far failed to provide quantitative models of economic problems such as price formation. We make a step in this direction by developing empirical models that capture behavioral regularities in trading order placement and cancellation using data from the London Stock Exchange. For order placement we show that the probability of placing an order at a given price is well approximated by a Student distribution with less than two degrees of freedom, centered on the best quoted price. This result is surprising because it implies that trading order placement is symmetric, independent of the bid-ask spread, and the same for buying and selling. We also develop a crude but simple cancellation model that depends on the position of an order relative to the best price and the imbalance between buying and selling orders in the limit order book. These results are combined to construct a sto...

  4. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  5. Incubation of food craving is independent of macronutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Rebecca A.; Dingess, Paige M.; Schlidt, Kevin C.; Smith, Erin M.; Brown, Travis E.

    2016-01-01

    Cues previously paired with rewarding stimuli induce a time-dependent increase in the motivational craving state (incubation of craving). Whether there is an increase in craving for high-fat (HF) food over time, which may contribute to overeating and obesity, has not been determined. We hypothesized that cues paired with HF pellets would elicit a greater incubation of craving effect than those paired with standard chow (SC) pellets. Rats exposed to cues associated with either HF or SC pellets demonstrated equivalent levels of craving over an abstinence period of 30 days. Diet preference tests between SC pellets and LabDiet revealed that SC pellets were preferred over LabDiet. Rats reared on SC pellets exclusively, did not display incubation of craving for SC pellets, suggesting that prior history with the food plays an important role in cue-induced seeking behavior. Results identified cues previously associated with food undergo a comparable magnitude of incubation of craving. When ingestive behavior was measured after 30 days of abstinence, rats significantly increased their consumption of HF pellets. Our results indicate that food cues gain importance over time, trigger increased approach behaviors, and increased consumption of HF food following abstinence. This may contribute to overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:27485660

  6. RT 128: New Project Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Lee, et. al., “Online Degradation Assessment and Adaptive Fault Detection using Modified Hidden Markov Model ,” Journal of Manufacturing Science and...computational) and analog (continuous physical) phenomena. There are many examples, ranging from the use of carefully developed physics models to fault ...and benchmark the advantages—of using standardized, three- dimensional ( 3D ) models for electronically exchanging and processing product and

  7. Molecular Modeling of Solid Fluid Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Monson

    2007-12-20

    This report gives a summary of the achievements under DOE contract No. DOE/ER/14150 during the period September 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007. This project was concerned with the molecular modeling of solid-fluid equilibrium. The focus was on understanding how solid-fluid and solid-solid phase behavior are related to molecular structure, and the research program made a seminal contribution in this area. The project led to 34 journal articles, including a comprehensive review article published in Advances in Chemical Physics. The DOE funding supported the work of 5 Ph.D. students, 2 M.S. students and 5 postdoctoral researchers.

  8. Behavioral and Statistical Models of Educational Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how students and their families make educational decisions. We describe three types of behavioral model that might underlie decision-making and we show that they have consequences for what decisions are made. Our study thus has policy implications if we wish...... to encourage students and their families to make better educational choices. We also establish the conditions under which empirical analysis can distinguish between the three sorts of decision-making and we illustrate our arguments using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study....

  9. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  10. Modeling Driver Behavior near Intersections in Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; He, Qinglian; Zhou, Hang; Guan, Yunlin; Dai, Wei

    2016-12-21

    Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in the dilemma zone, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is utilized in this study. With the discrete data processing, the observed dynamic data of vehicles are used for the inference of the Hidden Markov Model. The Baum-Welch (B-W) estimation algorithm is applied to calculate the vehicle state transition probability matrix and the observation probability matrix. When combined with the Forward algorithm, the most likely state of the driver can be obtained. Thus the model can be used to measure the stability and risk of driver behavior. It is found that drivers' behaviors in the dilemma zone are of lower stability and higher risk compared with those in other regions around intersections. In addition to the B-W estimation algorithm, the Viterbi Algorithm is utilized to predict the potential dangers of vehicles. The results can be applied to driving assistance systems to warn drivers to avoid possible accidents.

  11. Behavioral optimization models for multicriteria portfolio selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlawat Mukesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, behavioral construct of suitability is used to develop a multicriteria decision making framework for portfolio selection. To achieve this purpose, we rely on multiple methodologies. Analytical hierarchy process technique is used to model the suitability considerations with a view to obtaining the suitability performance score in respect of each asset. A fuzzy multiple criteria decision making method is used to obtain the financial quality score of each asset based upon investor's rating on the financial criteria. Two optimization models are developed for optimal asset allocation considering simultaneously financial and suitability criteria. An empirical study is conducted on randomly selected assets from National Stock Exchange, Mumbai, India to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. User behavioral model in hypertext environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, Oleksii M.; Sailarbek, Saltanat; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    There is an important role of the users that are traversing Internet resources and their activities which, according to the practice, aren't usually considered by the Internet resource owners so to adjust and optimize hypertext structure. Optimal hypertext structure allows users to locate pages of interest, which are the goals of the informational search, in a faster way. Paper presents a model that conducts user auditory behavior analysis in order to figure out their goals in particular hypertext segment and allows finding out optimal routes for reaching those goals in terms of the routes length and informational value. Potential application of the proposed model is mostly the systems that evaluate hypertext networks and optimize their referential structure for faster information retrieval.

  13. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  14. Effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei; Jiang Rui; Hu Mao-Bin; Wu Qing-Song

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in the Barabasi-Albert scale-free network and the Watts-Strogatz small world network by using a Suspectable-Incubated-Infected-Suspectable model.Our analytical investigations show that the epidemic threshold is independent of incubation period in both networks,which is verified by our large-scale simulation results.We also investigate the effect of incubation period on the epidemic dynamics in a supercritical regime.It is found that with the increase of incubation period Ω,a damped oscillation evolution of ρΤ(the ratio of persons in incubated state)appears and the time needed to reach a saturation value increases.Moreover,the steady value of ρI increases and approaches to an asymptotic constant with the value of Ω increasing.As a result,the infected ratio ρΤ decreases with the increase of Ω according to a power law.

  15. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shahan, Timothy A; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of resurgence based on the augmented model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory. The model suggests that alternative reinforc...

  16. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  17. Embryo temperature during incubation: practice and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.

    2008-01-01

    (Key words: incubation, embryo temperature, embryonic development, heat production, heat loss) Until recently, all incubator studies were performed using a constant machine temperature (MT). But it is embryo temperature (ET) that is of importance to the embryo, and not MT. In practice, MT is often

  18. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  19. [Formaldehyde sediment in incubators following disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartner, R; Kegel, M; Meyer, H D; Schlüter, G; Wegner, J; Werner, E

    1983-12-01

    Measurements in incubators revealed the presence of formaldehyde concentrations involving a health risk for premature and normal newborns kept and cared for in incubators. Prior to measurements, the incubators had been disinfected by means of formaldehyde vapours in an "Aseptor" disinfecting cabinet (Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck) and then ventilated in strict adherence to operating instructions. The elevated formaldehyde concentrations found had been due to residues of paraformaldehyde and urotropin on the surfaces of the disinfected apparatus, liberating formaldehyde by hydrolysis depending on temperature and relative humidity. There should be a basic reconsideration of the present practice of incubator disinfection. From experiments with activated-carbon filters in incubators it would seem that there is a chance of reducing such formaldehyde concentrations.

  20. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  1. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan, E-mail: shashi.thutupalli@ds.mpg.de, E-mail: stephan.herminghaus@ds.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  2. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  3. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Modeling human decision making... Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Report Title ABSTRACT Modeling human decision making in strategic problem domains is challenging with...an unknown automated opponent. Behaviorally Modeling Games of Strategy Using Descriptive Q-learning Roi Ceren Department of Computer Science

  4. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...

  5. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...... policies and practices; Services and their impacts; and Performance outcomes; with the national system of innovation (NSI) concept. At the micro (TBI) level, we mainly focus on: objectives, structure and governance of incubators, selection of tenants, funding for incubators and tenants, services provided...

  6. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  7. Sex effects in mouse prion disease incubation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion disease incubation time in mice is determined by many factors including PrP expression level, Prnp alleles, genetic background, prion strain and route of inoculation. Sex differences have been described in age of onset for vCJD and in disease duration for both vCJD and sporadic CJD and have also been shown in experimental models. The sex effects reported for mouse incubation times are often contradictory and detail only one strain of mice or prions, resulting in broad generalisations and a confusing picture. To clarify the effect of sex on prion disease incubation time in mice we have compared male and female transmission data from twelve different inbred lines of mice inoculated with at least two prion strains, representing both mouse-adapted scrapie and BSE. Our data show that sex can have a highly significant difference on incubation time. However, this is limited to particular mouse and prion strain combinations. No sex differences were seen in endogenous PrP(C levels nor in the neuropathological markers of prion disease: PrP(Sc distribution, spongiosis, neuronal loss and gliosis. These data suggest that when comparing incubation times between experimental groups, such as testing the effects of modifier genes or therapeutics, single sex groups should be used.

  8. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model i...

  9. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  10. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  11. A kinetic model for estimating the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers during the gas-boriding of Armco iron: Effect of boride incubation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddam, M.; Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Małdziński, L.

    2014-04-01

    The present work deals with a simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers grown on Armco iron substrate. The formed boride layers (FeB + Fe2B) are obtained by the gas-boriding in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K during a time duration ranging from 80 to 240 min. The used approach solves the mass balance equations at the two growing fronts: (FeB/Fe2B) and (Fe2B/Fe) under certain assumptions. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function Φ(T) was incorporated in the model. The following input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower values of boron concentrations in FeB and Fe2B and the experimental parabolic growth constants) are needed to determine the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers. The obtained values of boron activation energies were then compared with the values available in the literature. Finally, a good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layers thicknesses and the experimental ones in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K.

  12. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  13. Being flexible through customization : The impact of incubator focus and customization strategies on incubate survival and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Matthyssens, P.; Andreassi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increased importance of flexibility in company development models, it is not surprising that start-up support structures such as business incubators give more attention to flexible service offerings. In this paper, we argue that an incubator’s service customization strategy is ideal in sit

  14. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of Switched-Current Building Block Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; WANG Wei; SHI Jianlei; TANG Pushan; D.ZHOU

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a behavioral modeling technique for the second-generation switched-current building block circuits. The proposed models are capable of capturing the non-ideal behavior of switched-current circuits, which includes the charge injection effects and device mismatch effects. As a result, system performance degradations due to the building block imperfections can be detected at the early design stage by fast behavioral simulations. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed models, we developed a time-domain behavioral simulator. Experimental results have shown that compared with SPICE, the behavioral modeling error is less than 2.15%, while behavioral simulation speed up is 4 orders in time-domain.

  15. Modeling shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present a constitutive model to couple the shape memory and dielectric behaviors of polymers. The model adopted multiple relaxation processes and temperature-dependent relaxation time to describe the glass transition behaviors. The model was applied to simulate the thermal-mechanical-electrical behaviors of the dielectric elastomer VHB 4905. We investigated the influence of deformation temperature, voltage rate, relaxation time on the electromechanical and shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers. This work provides a method for combining the shape-memory properties and electroactive polymers, which can expand the applications of these soft active materials.

  16. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  17. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  18. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  19. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.

  20. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  1. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  2. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  3. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnova, Irina N.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeki...

  4. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that m...

  5. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Hung Lin; Yu-Kai Lin; Tzu-Jiun Song; Jong-Tsun Huang; Yao-Chu Chiu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the pr...

  6. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  7. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  8. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance.

  9. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007. Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002 to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the prospect utility (PU models (Ahn et al., 2008 to be more effective than the EU models in the IGT. Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests, we propose that Ahn et al. (2008 PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results between our behavioral and modeling data. This study aims to modify Ahn et al. (2008 PU model to a simplified model and collected 145 subjects’ IGT performance as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly while α approaching zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ , and A in the PU model. Notably, the power of influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical order in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay-loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there still have other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  10. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  11. Modeling for the Dynamics of Human Innovative Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining with the evolutionary games and information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples' daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on "innovative centers", and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spacial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provide a basic framework on the study of the issue relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  12. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  13. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  14. Language Intent Models for Inferring User Browsing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Blanco, R.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling user browsing behavior is an active research area with tangible real-world applications, e.g., organizations can adapt their online presence to their visitors browsing behavior with positive effects in user engagement, and revenue. We concentrate on online news agents, and present a semi-su

  15. A Behavioral Decision Making Modeling Approach Towards Hedging Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Egelkraut, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes a behavioral approach toward the market for hedging services. A behavioral decision-making model is developed that provides insight into how and why owner-managers decide the way they do regarding hedging services. Insight into those choice processes reveals information needed by fi

  16. An Examination of a Model of Anti-Pollution Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Osamu

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study in which Japanese female undergraduates (N=118) responded to an environmental concern scale based upon a model of anti-pollution behavior focusing on: approach to information, confidence in science and technology, appreciation of natural beauty, causes, consequences, and purchasing and coping behaviors. (DC)

  17. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In thi

  18. AND BUSINESS INCUBATORS INTO THE TRIPLE HELIX CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizova, Y.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article’s author endeavors to create a practical model of the Russian economy’s development while integrating such tools of supporting and stimulating entrepreneurship as business incubators and research and technology parks into the Triple Helix concept. The article points out that configurations fusing together the nation-state, business and science/education, possess a greater potential for development.

  19. SOCIAL ECONOMY INCUBATORS IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE (CV, BACĂU AND CRAIOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polixenia Calagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the strategy that served as the foundation of Social Economy Incubators within the ”Social Economy Model in Romania” project, in three development regions of the country. The article presents the role and the functioning mechanism of the Social Economy incubators and also the activity carried out by the staff employed by these three Social Economy Incubators. The three Social Economy incubators were set up in partnership with the Public Local Authorities from Sfântu Gheorghe (Center Development Region, Bacău (North-East Development Region and Craiova (South-West Oltenia Development Region.

  20. The interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R; Dickenson, Janna A; Atkins, David C; Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f₀) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f₀ in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f₀. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages.

  1. Behavioral Model of Photovoltaic Panel in Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAPLATILEK, K.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with creation and application of a model of photovoltaic panel in the MATLAB and Simulink environments. An original model of the real PV panel is applied using the model based design technique. A so-called physical model is also developed using the SimPowerSystems library. The described PV panel model is applied for maximum power optimization in the one-shot and the continuous modes. A few illustrating examples and source code parts are also presented.

  2. Behavioral models as theoretical frames to analyze the business objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Bafico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Pfeffer’s Models of Behavior and connects each of them with attributes of the definition of the firm’s objective, assumed as the maximization of the sustainable, long term valor of the residual claims.Each of the five models of behavior (rational, social, moral, retrospective and cognitive contributes to the decision making and goal setting processes with its particular and complementary elements. From those assuming complete rationality and frictionless markets, to the models emphasizing the role of ethical positions, and the presence of perceptive and cognitive mechanisms. The analysis highlights the main contributions of critical theories and models of behavior, underlining their focus on non-traditional variables, regarded as critical inputs for goal setting processes and designing alternative executive incentive schemes.  The explicit consideration of those variables does not indicate the need for a new definition of corporate objective. The maximization of the long term value of the shareholders’ claims still defines the relevant objective function of the firm, remaining as the main yardstick of corporate performance.Behavioral models are recognized as important tools to help managers direct their attention to long term strategies. In the last part, we comment on the relationship between the objective function and behavioral models, from the practitioners’ perspective.Key words: Firm Objectives, Behavioral Models, Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory.

  3. Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Survey - Model Intended Angler Behavior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collect and analyze survey data from recreational saltwater fishermen in Oregon and Washington. Model trip demand using stated frequency / contingent behavior data....

  4. Developing 'integrative' zebrafish models of behavioral and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Yang, Ester; Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Arnold, Raymond; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the pathophysiological overlap between metabolic and mental disorders has received increased recognition. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism for translational biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, low cost, quick reproductive cycle, and ease of behavioral, pharmacological or genetic manipulation. High homology to mammalian physiology and the availability of well-developed assays also make the zebrafish an attractive organism for studying human disorders. Zebrafish neurobehavioral and endocrine phenotypes show promise for the use of zebrafish in studies of stress, obesity and related behavioral and metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss the parallels between zebrafish and other model species in stress and obesity physiology, as well as outline the available zebrafish models of weight gain, metabolic deficits, feeding, stress, anxiety and related behavioral disorders. Overall, zebrafish demonstrate a strong potential for modeling human behavioral and metabolic disorders, and their comorbidity.

  5. Modeling the predictors of safety behavior in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Phil; Gwak, Han-Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model that quantifies the causal relations among safety variables (latent variables) and workers' safety behavior (indicator) using statistical data and hypotheses obtained from construction workers and existing literatures, respectively. The safety variables that affect workers' safety behaviors are identified from existing studies and operationalized to measure their causal relations with the workers' behaviors. The model identifies the directions and degrees of the effect of every latent variable on the other latent variables and the indicator. Survey questionnaires were administered to construction workers in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach's α and structural equation modeling were performed to test the causal hypotheses using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. This study provides the theoretical model that predicts construction workers' safety behavior on construction sites using path diagram and analysis.

  6. Critical Behavior of the Widom-Rowlinson Lattice Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dickman, R; Dickman, Ronald; Stell, George

    1995-01-01

    We report extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the Widom-Rowlinson lattice model in two and three dimensions. Our results yield precise values for the critical activities and densities, and clearly place the critical behavior in the Ising universality class.

  7. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  8. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  9. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  10. A BEHAVIORAL-APPROACH TO LINEAR EXACT MODELING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ANTOULAS, AC; WILLEMS, JC

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral approach to system theory provides a parameter-free framework for the study of the general problem of linear exact modeling and recursive modeling. The main contribution of this paper is the solution of the (continuous-time) polynomial-exponential time series modeling problem. Both re

  11. Modeling Customer's Satisfaction Behavior through Uninorms

    OpenAIRE

    Depaire, Benoit; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2006-01-01

    During the last three decades, the focus of customer satisfaction research has shifted from what it was about the product or service that customers found satisfying to how and why customers became satisfied. This resulted into several models that try to explain the customer's satisfaction behaviour, among which the expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm is one of the most prominent models. This model identifies three elements which have an influence on the customer's satisfaction level: i.e perf...

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Elementary Robot Behaviors using Associative Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude F. Touzet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is ? by definition ? bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use associative memories (self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not necessarily bad and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior.

  13. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  14. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  15. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism.

  16. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... system models from data in the form of observations of the target system. Common for these approaches is that they assume the data to consist of multiple independent observation sequences. However, for certain types of systems, in particular many running embedded systems, one would only have access...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  17. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  18. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  19. Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P

    2013-11-01

    We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model.

  20. Micromechanical modeling of rate-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2017-03-07

    In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical model for prediction of rate-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The rate-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into model using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered based on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented model parameters are identified based on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive model introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented model at different strain rates for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues.

  1. Animal models of suicide-trait-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel S; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R; Henter, Ioline D; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-04-01

    Although antidepressants are moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents and young adults. Almost no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs might be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels in addition to associations with suicide in humans, animal models might elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability and hopelessness/helplessness. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help to clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population.

  2. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  3. Vibration in metal and non-metal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, J M; Lewandowski, W; Casper, G R; Youngblut, W R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of vibration transmitted to the surface of an incubator mattress. Empty incubators with metal (n = 12) and non-metal (n = 12) bases were monitored for vibration levels when the incubators were turned "off" and when they were turned "on." High levels of low-frequency vibration were detected in both types of incubators in both conditions. The metal incubators transmitted significantly less vibration to the mattress than did the non-metal incubators at several frequencies in the "off," the "on," and the "adjusted" conditions. These results suggest that infants experience significant whole-body vibration while lying in incubators.

  4. Multicritical behavior in dissipative Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Overbeck, Vincent R; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Weimer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

  5. Behavior modification in primary care: the pressure system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D L

    2001-01-01

    The leading causes of death in the United States are predominantly attributable to modifiable behaviors. Patients with behavioral risk factors for premature death and disability, including dietary practices; sexual practices; level of physical activity; motor vehi cle use patterns; and tobacco, alcohol, and illicit sub stance use, are seen far more consistently by primary care providers than by mental health specialists. Yet models of behavior modification are reported, debated, and revised almost exclusively in the psychology literature. While the Stages of Change Model, or Transtheo retical Model, has won application in a broadening array of clinical settings, its application in the primary care setting is apparently quite limited despite evidence of its utility [Prochaska J, Velicer W. Am J Health Promot 1997;12:38-48]. The lack of a rigorous behavioral model developed for application in the primary care setting is an impediment to the accomplishment of public health goals specified in the Healthy People objectives and in the reports of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The Pressure System Model reported here synthesizes elements of established behavior modification theories for specific application under the constraints of the primary care setting. Use of the model in both clinical and research settings, with outcome evaluation, is encouraged as part of an effort to advance public health.

  6. A Social Neuroscientific Model of Vocational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Sullivan, Brandon A.; Luciana, Monica

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the separate literatures of a neurobiologically based approach system and vocational interests are reviewed and integrated into a social neuroscientific model of the processes underlying interests, based upon the idea of selective approach motivation. The authors propose that vocational interests describe the types of stimuli that…

  7. Molecular Modeling of Interfacial Behaviors of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    15 L. Huang, and J. Kieffer, ’Molecular Dynamics Study of Cristobalite Silica Using a Charge Transfer Three- Body Potential Model,’ J. Chem. Phys...8217 Nano Letters in preparation (2006). 20 J. Zhou, and J. Kieffer, ’Simulation of Hexane-Functionalized Polyhedral Oligomeric Silses- quioxanes,’ J

  8. Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond

    1995-01-01

    Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.

  9. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  10. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  11. A New Approach for Magneto-Static Hysteresis Behavioral Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astorino, Antonio; Swaminathan, Madhavan; Antonini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new behavioral modeling approach for magneto-static hysteresis is presented. Many accurate models are currently available, but none of them seems to be able to correctly reproduce all the possible B-H paths with low computational cost. By contrast, the approach proposed...... achieved when comparing the measured and simulated results....

  12. Genetic and Modeling Approaches Reveal Distinct Components of Impulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Wall, Melanie M; Wang, Shuai; Magalong, Valerie M; Ahmari, Susanne E; Balsam, Peter D; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René

    2017-01-18

    Impulsivity is an endophenotype found in many psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two behavioral features often considered in impulsive behavior are behavioral inhibition (impulsive action) and delayed gratification (impulsive choice). However, the extent to which these behavioral constructs represent distinct facets of behavior with discrete biological bases is unclear. To test the hypothesis that impulsive action and impulsive choice represent statistically independent behavioral constructs in mice, we collected behavioral measures of impulsivity in a single cohort of mice using well-validated operant behavioral paradigms. Mice with manipulation of serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) expression were included as a model of disordered impulsivity. A factor analysis was used to characterize correlations between the measures of impulsivity and to identify covariates. Using two approaches, we dissociated impulsive action from impulsive choice. First, the absence of 5-HT1BRs caused increased impulsive action, but not impulsive choice. Second, based on an exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor model described the data well, with measures of impulsive action and choice separating into two independent factors. A multiple-indicator multiple-causes analysis showed that 5-HT1BR expression and sex were significant covariates of impulsivity. Males displayed increased impulsivity in both dimensions, whereas 5-HT1BR expression was a predictor of increased impulsive action only. These data support the conclusion that impulsive action and impulsive choice are distinct behavioral phenotypes with dissociable biological influences that can be modeled in mice. Our work may help inform better classification, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders, which present with disordered impulsivity.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.277.

  13. Modeling pedestrian's conformity violation behavior: a complex network based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuping; Hu, Qizhou; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian injuries and fatalities present a problem all over the world. Pedestrian conformity violation behaviors, which lead to many pedestrian crashes, are common phenomena at the signalized intersections in China. The concepts and metrics of complex networks are applied to analyze the structural characteristics and evolution rules of pedestrian network about the conformity violation crossings. First, a network of pedestrians crossing the street is established, and the network's degree distributions are analyzed. Then, by using the basic idea of SI model, a spreading model of pedestrian illegal crossing behavior is proposed. Finally, through simulation analysis, pedestrian's illegal crossing behavior trends are obtained in different network structures and different spreading rates. Some conclusions are drawn: as the waiting time increases, more pedestrians will join in the violation crossing once a pedestrian crosses on red firstly. And pedestrian's conformity violation behavior will increase as the spreading rate increases.

  14. An analytic model with critical behavior in black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, T; Koike, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytic model is presented which exhibits a critical behavior in black hole formation, namely, collapse of a thin shell coupled with outgoing null fluid. It is seen that the critical behavior is caused by the gravitational nonlinearity near the event horizon. We calculate the value of the critical exponent analytically and find that it is very dependent on the coupling constants of the system.

  15. Animal Models of Suicide Trait-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R.; Henter, Ioline D.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Although antidepressants are at least moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults. Virtually no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs may be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior th...

  16. Modeling of unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting microstrip transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: smh_javadzadeh@ee.sharif.edu [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Avoiding of considering just quadratic or modulus nonlinearity. ► Proposing a nonlinear model to predict unusual nonlinear behaviors at low temperatures. ► Description of temperature dependency of nonlinear behaviors in superconducting lines. ► Analytical formulation for each parameter in our proposed model. ► Obtaining very good results which shows this model can predict unusual nonlinear behavior. -- Abstract: There are unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting materials, especially at low temperatures. This paper describes the procedure to reliably predict this nonlinearity in superconducting microstrip transmission lines (SMTLs). An accurate nonlinear distributed circuit model, based on simultaneously considering of both quadratic and modulus nonlinearity dependences, is proposed. All parameters of the equivalent circuit can be calculated analytically using proposed closed-form expressions. A numerical method based on Harmonic Balance approach is used to predict nonlinear phenomena like intermodulation distortions and third harmonic generations. Nonlinear analyses of the SMTLs at the different temperatures and the input powers have been presented. This proposed model can describe the unusual behaviors of the nonlinearity at low temperatures, which are frequently observed in the SMTLs.

  17. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  18. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

  19. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  20. Conceptual design in electronic product development: case studies in incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Perez Pagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on current market behavior and its trends, the excellence in managing the Product Development Process (PDP is a crucial subject in organizations. Considering an environment with difficult technology access as Brazil, for incubated companies in the electronic industry, the technical innovation and the new product development makes PDP management even more critical. The aim of this study is multiple case studies that identifies the difficulties and explores how these companies execute the Conceptual Design phase of PDP, since it is an important phase for innovative companies. As a result, the research indentifies difficulties as technology access, dependency of public resources for development, substantial dissatisfaction with suppliers, and a lack of use of reference models of PDP.

  1. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  2. The PeerBehavior Model based on Continuous Behavioral Observation P2P Network Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honor-based trust mechanism is an important means to evaluate the behavior of the P2P network node, and it is used to ensure the health of the P2P network application. Trust mechanisms need to evaluate a node to other node local trust value and local trust value because they do not consider the policy node and human evaluation error of two important factors. The calculation is difficult to accurately reflect the characteristics of the nodes of the network. Evaluation models of the behavior of a P2P network neighbor. The PeerBehavior model has used a deterministic finite state machine (DFA depicts the continuous behavior of the neighbor state changes cause a negative evaluation of any continuous behavior by focusing neighbors almost died, both able to more accurately discover policies node in the network, but also be able to tolerate a certain degree of human evaluation error simulation experiment showed that this model was significantly improve the accuracy of the local trust value, and reducing the estimation error of the global trust value, was significantly superior to the calculation method of the current value of the other local trust

  3. Critical-like behavior in a lattice gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Wieloch, A; Lukasik, J; Pawlowski, P; Pietrzak, T; Trautmann, W

    2010-01-01

    ALADIN multifragmentation data show features characteristic of a critical behavior, which are very well reproduced by a bond percolation model. This suggests, in the context of the lattice gas model, that fragments are formed at nearly normal nuclear densities and temperatures corresponding to the Kertesz line. Calculations performed with a lattice gas model have shown that similarly good reproduction of the data can also be achieved at lower densities, particularly in the liquid-gas coexistence region.

  4. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  5. Sleep Regulates Incubation of Cocaine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Zheng; Dong, Yan; Huang, Yanhua H

    2015-09-30

    After withdrawal from cocaine, chronic cocaine users often experience persistent reduction in total sleep time, which is accompanied by increased sleep fragmentation resembling chronic insomnia. This and other sleep abnormalities have long been speculated to foster relapse and further drug addiction, but direct evidence is lacking. Here, we report that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited persistent reduction in nonrapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, as well as increased sleep fragmentation. In an attempt to improve sleep after cocaine withdrawal, we applied chronic sleep restriction to the rats during their active (dark) phase of the day, which selectively decreased the fragmentation of REM sleep during their inactive (light) phase without changing NREM or the total amount of daily sleep. Animals with improved REM sleep exhibited decreased incubation of cocaine craving, a phenomenon depicting the progressive intensification of cocaine seeking after withdrawal. In contrast, experimentally increasing sleep fragmentation after cocaine self-administration expedited the development of incubation of cocaine craving. Incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by progressive accumulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After withdrawal from cocaine, animals with improved REM sleep exhibited reduced accumulation of CP-AMPARs in the NAc, whereas increasing sleep fragmentation accelerated NAc CP-AMPAR accumulation. These results reveal a potential molecular substrate that can be engaged by sleep to regulate cocaine craving and relapse, and demonstrate sleep-based therapeutic opportunities for cocaine addiction. Significance statement: Sleep abnormalities are common symptoms in chronic drug users long after drug withdrawal. These withdrawal-associated sleep symptoms, particularly reduction in total sleep time and deteriorating sleep quality, have been

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the fission gas behavior model in BISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Pastore, Giovanni; Perez, Danielle; Williamson, Richard

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of a new model for the fission gas behavior (release and swelling) in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the new model in BISON, the sensitivity of the calculated fission gas release and swelling to the involved parameters and the associated uncertainties is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of intrinsic uncertainties in the analysis of fission gas behavior in nuclear fuel.

  8. Detection of Unusual Human Activities Based on Behavior Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A type of services that require human physical actions and intelligent decision making exists in various real fields, such as nursing in hospitals and caregiving in nursing homes. In this paper, we propose new formalism for modeling human behavior in such services. Behavior models are estimated from event-logs, and can be used for analysis of human activities. We show two analysis methods: one is to detect unusual human activities that appear in event-logs, and the other is to find staffs tha...

  9. SHEARING AND WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED LOAM WITH MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Yukoh; Kazama, Motoki

    Unsaturated triaxial tests were carried out to study deformation behavior, effective stress path and water retention property of consolidated loam during consolidation and shearing processes. Initial matric suction was set as 0, 50, and 90 kPa, and confining pressures (net normal stresses) were set as 100 kPa. Then shearing processes were done under undrained and drained conditions. We clarified the relation between void ratio and Van Genuchten model parameter by using water retention curve. To predict the unsaturated shearing behavior, a modified Cam Clay model considering void ratio dependent Van Genuchten parameter was proposed. Those numerical test results were agreed well with laboratory tests results.

  10. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  11. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  12. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  13. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-06-24

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.

  14. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  15. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  16. Numerical investigation for erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Gil; Yi, Seul Gi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Im [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Kriging model is one of popular spatial/temporal interpolation models in engineering field since it could reduce the time resources for the expensive analysis. But generation of the Kriging model is hardly a sinecure because internal semi-variogram structure of the Kriging often reveals numerically unstable or erratic behaviors. In present study, the issues in the maximum likelihood estimation which are the vital-parts of the construction of the Kriging model, is investigated. These issues are divided into two aspects; Issue I is for the erratic response of likelihood function itself, and Issue II is for numerically unstable behaviors in the correlation matrix. For both issues, studies for specific circumstances which might raise the issue, and the reason of that are conducted. Some practical ways further are suggested to cope with them. Furthermore, the issue is studied for practical problem; aerodynamic performance coefficients of two-dimensional airfoil predicted by CFD analysis. Result shows that such erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model can be effectively resolved by proposed solution. In conclusion, it is expected this paper could be helpful to prevent such an erratic and unstable behavior.

  17. Role model behaviors of nursing faculty members in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Areewan; Sawasdisingha, Piyawan; Viseskul, Nongkran; Funashima, Naomi; Kameoka, Tomomi; Nomoto, Yuriko; Nakayama, Toshiko

    2011-03-01

    Being a role model is very important in order for nurse teachers to promote students' competence and confidence. This descriptive study aimed at exploring the role model behavior of nursing faculty members in Thailand. The Self-Evaluation Scale on Role Model Behaviors for Nursing Faculty (Thai version) was used to collect data from 320 nursing faculty members in eight schools of nursing, four university nursing schools, one college under the Ministry of Public Health, one under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, and two private schools of nursing. The results revealed that the mean score of the overall items in the role model behaviors of nursing faculty members in Thailand, as perceived by themselves, was at a high level. The scores on each subscale of the role model behaviors also were high and related to respect for students, enthusiastic and high-quality teaching activities, showing the value of nursing practice and the nursing profession, social appropriateness, and ongoing professional development. The results can be used to further develop nurse professionals and to improve the effectiveness of clinical teaching in Thailand.

  18. Anyonic behavior of an intermediate-statistics fermion gas model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algin, Abdullah; Irk, Dursun; Topcu, Gozde

    2015-06-01

    We study the high-temperature behavior of an intermediate-statistics fermionic gas model whose quantum statistical properties enable us to effectively deduce the details about both the interaction among deformed (quasi)particles and their anyonic behavior. Starting with a deformed fermionic grand partition function, we calculate, in the thermodynamical limit, several thermostatistical functions of the model such as the internal energy and the entropy by means of a formalism of the fermionic q calculus. For high temperatures, a virial expansion of the equation of state for the system is obtained in two and three dimensions and the first five virial coefficients are derived in terms of the model deformation parameter q. From the results obtained by the effect of fermionic deformation, it is found that the model parameter q interpolates completely between bosonlike and fermionic systems via the behaviors of the third and fifth virial coefficients in both two and three spatial dimensions and in addition it characterizes effectively the interaction among quasifermions. Our results reveal that the present deformed (quasi)fermion model could be very efficient and effective in accounting for the nonlinear behaviors in interacting composite particle systems.

  19. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  20. Continuous High Technology Business Incubation : cross-sectoral comparison of approaches to high technology business incubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davey, Todd; Kliewe, Thorsten; Sijde, van der Peter; McIntyre, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how organisations can foster high technology businesses in an incubation-type environment. We compare the approaches taken by a large private firm with a successful University entrepreneurial program to outline successful elements in creating a successful high te

  1. Scaling Behavior of an Aggregation-Migration Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHUANG You-Yi

    2004-01-01

    We study the kinetic behavior of a two-species aggregation-migration model in which an irreversible aggregation occurs between any two clusters of the same species and a reversible migration occurs simultaneously between two different species. For a simple model with constant aggregation rates and with the migration rates KA(i;j) =K'A (i;j) ∝ijv1 and KB(i; j) = K'B (i; j) ∝ ijv2, we find that the evolution behavior of the system depends crucially on the values of the indexes v1 and v2. The aggregate size distribution of either species obeys a conventional scaling law for most cases. Moreover, we also generalize the two-species system to the multi-species case and analyze its kinetic behavior under the symmetrical conditions.PACS numbers: 82.20.-w, 05.40.-a, 68.43.Jk, 89.75.Da

  2. Modeling of Human Criminal Behavior using Probabilistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Ramesh Kumar Gopala

    2010-01-01

    Currently, criminals profile (CP) is obtained from investigators or forensic psychologists interpretation, linking crime scene characteristics and an offenders behavior to his or her characteristics and psychological profile. This paper seeks an efficient and systematic discovery of nonobvious and valuable patterns between variables from a large database of solved cases via a probabilistic network (PN) modeling approach. The PN structure can be used to extract behavioral patterns and to gain insight into what factors influence these behaviors. Thus, when a new case is being investigated and the profile variables are unknown because the offender has yet to be identified, the observed crime scene variables are used to infer the unknown variables based on their connections in the structure and the corresponding numerical (probabilistic) weights. The objective is to produce a more systematic and empirical approach to profiling, and to use the resulting PN model as a decision tool.

  3. Log-periodic behavior in a forest-fire model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Malamud

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores log-periodicity in a forest-fire cellular-automata model. At each time step of this model a tree is dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is unoccupied, the tree is planted. Then, for a given sparking frequency, matches are dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is occupied by a tree, the tree ignites and an 'instantaneous' model fire consumes that tree and all adjacent trees. The resultant frequency-area distribution for the small and medium model fires is a power-law. However, if we consider very small sparking frequencies, the large model fires that span the square grid are dominant, and we find that the peaks in the frequency-area distribution of these large fires satisfy log-periodic scaling to a good approximation. This behavior can be examined using a simple mean-field model, where in time, the density of trees on the grid exponentially approaches unity. This exponential behavior coupled with a periodic or near-periodic sparking frequency also generates a sequence of peaks in the frequency-area distribution of large fires that satisfy log-periodic scaling. We conclude that the forest-fire model might provide a relatively simple explanation for the log-periodic behavior often seen in nature.

  4. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  5. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  6. Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.

    2004-01-01

    . Special attention is paid to elastoviscoplastic models that combine inviscid elastic and time-dependent plastic behavior. Various general elastoviscoplastic models can roughly be divided into two categories: Models based on the concept of overstress and models based on nonstationary flow surface theory......  Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part...... is a review of the empirical relations, which apply only to problems of specific boundary conditions and frequently involve natural time alone. The second part deals with different rheological models used for describing the viscous effects in the field of solid mechanics. The rheological models are typically...

  7. Academic and Behavioral Planning Through an Alternative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Nancy E.; Dworkin, Yehoash S.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests an alternative universe in which failure is identified as a systems concern, instead of a human breakdown. The model presents successful behavior in terms of growth in process efficiency, rather than the +/- (right/wrong) matrix associated with achievement orientation. (Editor)

  8. Hysteresis behavior of the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2013-10-15

    The effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the hysteresis loops within the anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model has been investigated with the effective field theory for two spin cluster. Particular attention has been devoted on the behavior of the hysteresis loop area, coercive field and remanent magnetization with the anisotropy in the exchange interaction for both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases.

  9. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was se

  10. Information behavior versus communication: application models in multidisciplinary settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Morena Maria da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the information behavior as support for models of communication design in the areas of Information Science, Library and Music. The communication models proposition is based on models of Tubbs and Moss (2003, Garvey and Griffith (1972, adapted by Hurd (1996 and Wilson (1999. Therefore, the questions arose: (i what are the informational skills required of librarians who act as mediators in scholarly communication process and informational user behavior in the educational environment?; (ii what are the needs of music related researchers and as produce, seek, use and access the scientific knowledge of your area?; and (iii as the contexts involved in scientific collaboration processes influence in the scientific production of information science field in Brazil? The article includes a literature review on the information behavior and its insertion in scientific communication considering the influence of context and/or situation of the objects involved in motivating issues. The hypothesis is that the user information behavior in different contexts and situations influence the definition of a scientific communication model. Finally, it is concluded that the same concept or a set of concepts can be used in different perspectives, reaching up, thus, different results.

  11. Testing the habituation assumption underlying models of parasitoid foraging behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abram, Paul K.; Cusumano, Antonino; Abram, Katrina; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    Background. Habituation, a form of non-associative learning, has several well-defined characteristics that apply to a wide range of physiological and behavioral responses in many organisms. In classic patch time allocation models, habituation is considered to be a major mechanistic component of para

  12. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power Electronics,"…

  13. Modelling the behavior of systems : Basic concepts and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotroneo, T; Willems, JC; Powell, MJD; Scholtes, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the behavioral approach as a mathematical language for describing dynamical systems, in particular systems modeled by high order constant coefficient linear differential equations. We investigate what data have to be added in order to express the influence of the environme

  14. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  15. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  16. Multislice behavioral modeling based on envelope domain for power amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huadong; Bao Jingfu; Wu Zhengde

    2009-01-01

    An envelope domain multislice behavioral modeling is introduced. The tradition AM-AM and AM-PM characteristics of power amplifiers are extended to envelope domain and base-band filter is applied to distortion complex envelope signal for description of the envelope memory effect. Using traditional one and two-tone tests, the coefficients of nonlinear model and the FIR filter can be extracted. At last the model has been applied to a 10 W WCDMA power amplifier to predict its output signal. And simulation results show that the model output conforms very well to the traditional transistor level simulation results.

  17. Modeling Temporal Behavior in Large Networks: A Dynamic Mixed-Membership Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R; Gallagher, B; Neville, J; Henderson, K

    2011-11-11

    Given a large time-evolving network, how can we model and characterize the temporal behaviors of individual nodes (and network states)? How can we model the behavioral transition patterns of nodes? We propose a temporal behavior model that captures the 'roles' of nodes in the graph and how they evolve over time. The proposed dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is scalable, fully automatic (no user-defined parameters), non-parametric/data-driven (no specific functional form or parameterization), interpretable (identifies explainable patterns), and flexible (applicable to dynamic and streaming networks). Moreover, the interpretable behavioral roles are generalizable, computationally efficient, and natively supports attributes. We applied our model for (a) identifying patterns and trends of nodes and network states based on the temporal behavior, (b) predicting future structural changes, and (c) detecting unusual temporal behavior transitions. We use eight large real-world datasets from different time-evolving settings (dynamic and streaming). In particular, we model the evolving mixed-memberships and the corresponding behavioral transitions of Twitter, Facebook, IP-Traces, Email (University), Internet AS, Enron, Reality, and IMDB. The experiments demonstrate the scalability, flexibility, and effectiveness of our model for identifying interesting patterns, detecting unusual structural transitions, and predicting the future structural changes of the network and individual nodes.

  18. Academic spin-offs incubation strategies: the case of the Andalusian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rafael Cáceres Carrasco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the incubation strategies developed in the universities of Andalusia, a relatively low-income region of Spain, to promote the creation of university spin-offs. These strategies are also compared to the incubation models noted in the literature. The performance of the university spin-offs created and its relation to the incubation strategies developed by the university are also analysed. The analysis is based on data from a survey of nine public universities that carry out strategies for the promotion of university spin-offs. The result of the analysis shows that university spin-off incubation strategies in Andalusia present specific characteristics not covered by certain models that are well-known in the literature on innovation. Then, a new stage in the process of the university spin-off incubation is proposed. We consider it to be a pre-strategic stage to the academic spin-off incubation strategies. The analysis also finds certain environmental factors associated to those spin-offs promoted by Andalusian universities that achieve the highest level of performance. This result suggests that previous to making any decision involving investment into developing incubation strategies, universities should gauge whether they have sufficient resources and the possibilities of connecting with a Technology Park.

  19. Attacking and Defending Covert Channels and Behavioral Models

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, Valentino; Giani, Annarita

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present methods for attacking and defending $k$-gram statistical analysis techniques that are used, for example, in network traffic analysis and covert channel detection. The main new result is our demonstration of how to use a behavior's or process' $k$-order statistics to build a stochastic process that has those same $k$-order stationary statistics but possesses different, deliberately designed, $(k+1)$-order statistics if desired. Such a model realizes a "complexification" of the process or behavior which a defender can use to monitor whether an attacker is shaping the behavior. By deliberately introducing designed $(k+1)$-order behaviors, the defender can check to see if those behaviors are present in the data. We also develop constructs for source codes that respect the $k$-order statistics of a process while encoding covert information. One fundamental consequence of these results is that certain types of behavior analyses techniques come down to an {\\em arms race} in the sense that th...

  20. Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video, and audio) and an advanced technique [Virtual Reality (VR)] to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two, or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand, and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario.

  1. Modeling Behavior Dynamics using Computational Psychometrics within Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eCipresso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video and audio and an advanced technique (Virtual Reality to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario.

  2. Testing the habituation assumption underlying models of parasitoid foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Katrina; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    Background Habituation, a form of non-associative learning, has several well-defined characteristics that apply to a wide range of physiological and behavioral responses in many organisms. In classic patch time allocation models, habituation is considered to be a major mechanistic component of parasitoid behavioral strategies. However, parasitoid behavioral responses to host cues have not previously been tested for the known, specific characteristics of habituation. Methods In the laboratory, we tested whether the foraging behavior of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis shows specific characteristics of habituation in response to consecutive encounters with patches of host (Nezara viridula) chemical contact cues (footprints), in particular: (i) a training interval-dependent decline in response intensity, and (ii) a training interval-dependent recovery of the response. Results As would be expected of a habituated response, wasps trained at higher frequencies decreased their behavioral response to host footprints more quickly and to a greater degree than those trained at low frequencies, and subsequently showed a more rapid, although partial, recovery of their behavioral response to host footprints. This putative habituation learning could not be blocked by cold anesthesia, ingestion of an ATPase inhibitor, or ingestion of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Discussion Our study provides support for the assumption that diminishing responses of parasitoids to chemical indicators of host presence constitutes habituation as opposed to sensory fatigue, and provides a preliminary basis for exploring the underlying mechanisms. PMID:28321365

  3. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  4. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  5. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative model for breakfast behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eHarvey-Golding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, research examining the effectiveness of school breakfast is still within relative stages of infancy, and findings to date have been rather mixed. Moreover, previous evaluations of school breakfast schemes have been predominantly quantitative in their methodologies. Presently there are few qualitative studies examining the subjective perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, and thereby an absence of knowledge regarding the sociocultural impacts of school breakfast. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs, views and attitudes, and breakfast consumption behaviors, among key stakeholders, served by a council-wide universal free school breakfast initiative, within the North West of England, UK. A sample of children, parents and school staff were recruited from three primary schools, participating in the universal free school breakfast scheme, to partake in semi-structured interviews and small focus groups. A Grounded Theory analysis of the data collected identified a theoretical model of breakfast behaviors, underpinned by the subjective perceptions and experiences of these key stakeholders. The model comprises of three domains relating to breakfast behaviors, and the internal and external factors that are perceived to influence breakfast behaviors, among children, parents and school staff. Findings were validated using triangulation methods, member checks and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting this theoretically grounded model for breakfast behaviors, this paper provides a unique qualitative insight into the breakfast consumption behaviors and barriers to breakfast consumption, within a socioeconomically deprived community, participating in a universal free school breakfast intervention program.

  6. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  7. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  8. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  9. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  10. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  11. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  12. A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, E.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.

  13. Iterative learning control algorithm for spiking behavior of neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunan; Li, Donghui; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao

    2016-11-01

    Controlling neurons to generate a desired or normal spiking behavior is the fundamental building block of the treatment of many neurologic diseases. The objective of this work is to develop a novel control method-closed-loop proportional integral (PI)-type iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm to control the spiking behavior in model neurons. In order to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, two single-compartment standard models of different neuronal excitability are specifically considered: Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model for class 1 neural excitability and Morris-Lecar (ML) model for class 2 neural excitability. ILC has remarkable advantages for the repetitive processes in nature. To further highlight the superiority of the proposed method, the performances of the iterative learning controller are compared to those of classical PI controller. Either in the classical PI control or in the PI control combined with ILC, appropriate background noises are added in neuron models to approach the problem under more realistic biophysical conditions. Simulation results show that the controller performances are more favorable when ILC is considered, no matter which neuronal excitability the neuron belongs to and no matter what kind of firing pattern the desired trajectory belongs to. The error between real and desired output is much smaller under ILC control signal, which suggests ILC of neuron’s spiking behavior is more accurate.

  14. Modeling and simulation of dust behaviors behind a moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfang

    Simulation of physically realistic complex dust behaviors is a difficult and attractive problem in computer graphics. A fast, interactive and visually convincing model of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles is very useful in computer simulation, training, education, art, advertising, and entertainment. In my dissertation, an experimental interactive system has been implemented for the simulation of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles. The system includes physically-based models, particle systems, rendering engines and graphical user interface (GUI). I have employed several vehicle models including tanks, cars, and jeeps to test and simulate in different scenarios and conditions. Calm weather, winding condition, vehicle turning left or right, and vehicle simulation controlled by users from the GUI are all included. I have also tested the factors which play against the physical behaviors and graphics appearances of the dust particles through GUI or off-line scripts. The simulations are done on a Silicon Graphics Octane station. The animation of dust behaviors is achieved by physically-based modeling and simulation. The flow around a moving vehicle is modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. I implement a primitive variable and pressure-correction approach to solve the three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations in a volume covering the moving vehicle. An alternating- direction implicit (ADI) method is used for the solution of the momentum equations, with a successive-over- relaxation (SOR) method for the solution of the Poisson pressure equation. Boundary conditions are defined and simplified according to their dynamic properties. The dust particle dynamics is modeled using particle systems, statistics, and procedure modeling techniques. Graphics and real-time simulation techniques, such as dynamics synchronization, motion blur, blending, and clipping have been employed in the rendering to achieve realistic appearing dust

  15. A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.

  16. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  17. Tourist Behavior Pattern Mining Model Based on Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized travel experience and service of tourist has been a hot topic research in the tourism service supply chain. In this paper, we take the context into consideration and propose an analyzed method to the tourist based on the context: firstly, we analyze the context which influences the tourist behavior patterns, select the main context factors, and construct the tourist behavior pattern model based on it; then, we calculate the interest degree of the tourist behavior pattern and mine out the rules with high interest degree with the association rule algorithm; we can make some recommendations to the tourist with better personalized travelling experience and services. At last, we make an experiment to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our method.

  18. A Behavior-Based Remote Trust Attestation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huanguo; WANG Fan

    2006-01-01

    While remote trust attestation is a useful concept to detect unauthorized changes to software, the current mechanism only ensures authenticity at the start of the operating system and cannot ensure the action of running software. Our approach is to use a behavior-based monitoring agent to make remote attestation more flexible, dynamic, and trustworthy. This approach was mostly made possible by extensive use of process information which is readily available in Unix. We also made use of a behavior tree to effectively record predictable behaviors of each process. In this paper, we primarily focus on building a prototype implementation of such framework, presenting one example built on it, successfully find potential security risks in the run time of a ftp program and then evaluate the performance of this model.

  19. Hysteretic behavior of prestressed concrete bridge pier with fiber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-li; Feng, Guang-qi; Qin, Si-feng

    2014-01-01

    The hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier were researched. The effects of the prestressed tendon ratio, the longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and the stirrup reinforcement ratio on the hysteretic behavior and seismic characteristics of the prestressed concrete bridge pier have been obtained with the fiber model analysis method. The analysis show some results about the prestressed concrete bridge pier. Firstly, greater prestressed tendon ratio and more longitudinal reinforcement can lead to more obvious pier's hysteresis loop "pinching effect," smaller residual displacement, and lower energy dissipation capacity. Secondly, the greater the stirrup reinforcement ratio is, the greater the hysteresis loop area is. That also means that bridge piers will have better ductility and stronger shear capacity. The results of the research will provide a theoretical basis for the hysteretic behavior analysis of the prestressed concrete pier.

  20. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  1. Modeling the behavior of an earthquake base-isolated building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coveney, V. A.; Jamil, S.; Johnson, D. E.; Kulak, R. F.; Uras, R. A.

    1997-11-26

    Protecting a structure against earthquake excitation by supporting it on laminated elastomeric bearings has become a widely accepted practice. The ability to perform accurate simulation of the system, including FEA of the bearings, would be desirable--especially for key installations. In this paper attempts to model the behavior of elastomeric earthquake bearings are outlined. Attention is focused on modeling highly-filled, low-modulus, high-damping elastomeric isolator systems; comparisons are made between standard triboelastic solid model predictions and test results.

  2. A cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG WenGuo; YUAN HongYong; FAN WeiCheng

    2007-01-01

    The research of evacuation in some emergencies, e.g. fire, is of great benefit to reducing the injuries of persons. In this paper, a cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors is presented. Each person is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas, including move-to-goal, avoid-obstacle, swirl-obstacle and nervous-motion, drive persons to interact with their environment. The motor schemas are combined with cellular automaton theory, and an evacuation model is built. Evacuation simulation of persons with different move velocities shows that the presented model can predict accurately the evacuation phenomena in some emergencies.

  3. Reliability and validation of a behavioral model of clinical behavioral formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Muñoz-Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and content and predictive validity of a clinical case formulation, developed from a behavioral perspective. A mixed design integrating levels of descriptive analysis and A-B case study with follow-up was used. The study established the reliability of the following descriptive and explanatory categories: (a problem description, (b predisposing factors, (c precipitating factors, (d acquisition and (e inferred mechanism (maintenance. The analysis was performed on cases from 2005 to 2008 formulated with the model derived from the current study. With regards to validity, expert judges considered that the model had content validity. The predictive validity was established across application of model to three case studies. Discussion shows the importance of extending the investigation with the model in other populations and to establish the clinical and concurrent validity of the model.

  4. Analysis of the Characteristics of an Entrepreneur in Incubation Process and Non Incubated

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This article first, analyzes and identifies a successful entrepreneur from the characteristics of the entrepreneur who made the incubation process and those acting individually. On the other hand, secondary data and an empirical study of this paper intends to contrast according to studies by different authors how an entrepreneur contributes to the development of the regions from the point of view of identifying opportunity and what is the type of entrepreneur who arises in the context of incu...

  5. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  6. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Basso

    Full Text Available In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major, and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  7. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  8. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of multirobot cooperative hunting behavior. Multiple robots try to search for and surround a prey. When a robot detects a prey it forms a following team. When another “searching” robot detects the same prey, the robots form a new following team. Until four robots have detected the same prey, the prey disappears from the simulation and the robots return to searching for other prey. If a following team fails to be joined by another robot within a certain time limit the team is disbanded and the robots return to searching state. The mathematical model is formulated by a set of rate equations. The evolution of robot collective hunting behaviors represents the transition between different states of robots. The complex collective hunting behavior emerges through local interaction. The paper presents numerical solutions to normalized versions of the model equations and provides both a steady state and a collaboration ratio analysis. The value of the delay time is shown through mathematical modeling to be a strong factor in the performance of the system as well as the relative numbers of the searching robots and the prey.

  9. Modeling the viscoplastic behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, M. S.; Eftis, J.; Jones, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of tests, including tensile, creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue were performed to characterize the mechanical properties of Inconel 718 (a nickel based superalloy) at 1200 F, the operating temperature for turbine blades. In addition, a few attempts were made to model the behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F using viscoplastic theories. The Chaboche theory of viscoplasticity can model a wide variety of mechanical behavior, including monotonic, sustained, and cyclic responses of homogeneous, initially-isotropic, strain hardening (or softening) materials. It is shown how the Chaboche theory can be used to model the viscoplastic behavior of Inconel 718 at 1200 F. First, an algorithm was developed to systematically determine the material parameters of the Chaboche theory from uniaxial tensile, creep, and cyclic data. The algorithm is general and can be used in conjunction with similar high temperature materials. A sensitivity study was then performed and an optimal set of Chaboche's parameters were obtained. This study has also indicated the role of each parameter in modeling the response to different loading conditions.

  10. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  11. a Model Study of Complex Behavior in the Belousov - Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, David Mark

    1988-12-01

    We have studied the complex oscillatory behavior in a model of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction in a continuously-fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The model consisted of a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from a reduced mechanism of the chemical system. These equations were integrated numerically on a computer, which yielded the concentrations of the constituent chemicals as functions of time. In addition, solutions were tracked as functions of a single parameter, the stability of the solutions was determined, and bifurcations of the solutions were located and studied. The intent of this study was to use this BZ model to explore further a region of complex oscillatory behavior found in experimental investigations, the most thorough of which revealed an alternating periodic-chaotic (P-C) sequence of states. A P-C sequence was discovered in the model which showed the same qualitative features as the experimental sequence. In order to better understand the P-C sequence, a detailed study was conducted in the vicinity of the P-C sequence, with two experimentally accessible parameters as control variables. This study mapped out the bifurcation sets, and included examination of the dynamics of the stable periodic, unstable periodic, and chaotic oscillatory motion. Observations made from the model results revealed a rough symmetry which suggests a new way of looking at the P-C sequence. Other nonlinear phenomena uncovered in the model were boundary and interior crises, several codimension-two bifurcations, and similarities in the shapes of areas of stability for periodic orbits in two-parameter space. Each earlier model study of this complex region involved only a limited one-parameter scan and had limited success in producing agreement with experiments. In contrast, for those regions of complex behavior that have been studied experimentally, the observations agree qualitatively with our model results. Several new predictions of the model

  12. A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bree Cummins

    Full Text Available Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

  13. Modeling driver behavior on motorways: Description of the SiMoNe model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, M.M.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Driver behavior on motorways is subject of study. It is essential to model driver behavior realistically in order to study traffic flow characteristics. Impacts of foreseen road geometry changes, vehicle characteristic adaptations or vehicle fleet composition changes on road capacity can be assessed

  14. Genetical Genomics of Behavior: A Novel Chicken Genomic Model for Anxiety Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Williams, Michael J; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants responsible for behavioral variation is an enduring goal in biology, with wide-scale ramifications, ranging from medical research to evolutionary theory on personality syndromes. Here, we use for the first time a large-scale genetical genomics analysis in the brains of chickens to identify genes affecting anxiety as measured by an open field test. We combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in 572 individuals and expression QTL (eQTL) analysis in 129 individuals from an advanced intercross between domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl. We identify 10 putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior. These genes were tested for an association in the mouse Heterogeneous Stock anxiety (open field) data set and human GWAS data sets for bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. Although comparisons between species are complex, associations were observed for four of the candidate genes in mice and three of the candidate genes in humans. Using a multimodel approach we have therefore identified a number of putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior, principally in chickens but also with some potentially translational effects as well. This study demonstrates that chickens are an excellent model organism for the genetic dissection of behavior.

  15. Robustness of Power-law Behavior in Cascading Failure Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sloothaak, F; Zwart, A P

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by reliability issues in electric transmission networks, we use a probabilistic approach to study the occurrence of large failures in a stylized cascading failure model. In this model, lines have random capacities that initially meet the load demands imposed on the network. Every single line failure changes the load distribution in the surviving network, possibly causing further lines to become overloaded and trip as well. An initial single line failure can therefore potentially trigger massive cascading effects, and in this paper we measure the risk of such cascading events by the probability that the number of failed lines exceeds a certain large threshold. Under particular critical conditions, the exceedance probability follows a power-law distribution, implying a significant risk of severe failures. We examine the robustness of the power-law behavior by exploring under which assumptions this behavior prevails.

  16. Behavioral modeling of rf VCO circuit with MEMS LC resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal; Elsimary, Hamed; Ismail, Mohammed

    2001-04-01

    In this work, a behavioral Modeling of RF VCO circuit which has a tank designed by Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology is presented emphasizing robust design that can obtain the parametric variable of the suspended spiral inductor and the MEMS tunable capacitor to high performance and reliable design of the VCO circuit. The MEMS spiral inductor has a low phase noise effect on the VCO output, and the MEMS tunable capacitance has very high quality factor with enabling 20% change of oscillation frequency. The designed monolithic RF VCO circuit and the high-Q MEMS inductor and tunable capacitor are modeled using specter-s simulator in the CADENCE design framework and (Verilog-A) behavioral simulator. Complete monolithic fabrication of RF VCO with high-Q MEMS devices using standard CMOS process (MOSIS, AMI 1.2 micrometer).

  17. Characteristics of Behavior of Robots with Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigehiko; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    Cooperated multi robots system has much dominance in comparison with single robot system. It is able to adapt to various circumstances and has a flexibility for variation of tasks. However it has still problems to control each robot, though methods for control multi robots system have been studied. Recently, the robots have been coming into real scene. And emotion and sensitivity of the robots have been widely studied. In this study, human emotion model based on psychological interaction was adapt to multi robots system to achieve methods for organization of multi robots. The characteristics of behavior of multi robots system achieved through computer simulation were analyzed. As a result, very complexed and interesting behavior was emerged even though it has rather simple configuration. And it has flexiblity in various circumstances. Additional experiment with actual robots will be conducted based on the emotion model.

  18. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Alves Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a structured interview that was designed based on the Health Belief Model, from March to December 2013. Participants perceived the disease’s severity and felt susceptible to develop complications from hypertension. They reported receiving treatment correctly; however, the values ​​of blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were high. Thus, it is necessary that health professionals implement strategies that favor hypertensive patients who are undergoing treatment to have healthy behavior.

  19. Transient and permanent effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on growth, metabolic rate, immune function and adrenocortical responses in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Haruka; Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Allen, Natalie; Schmidt, Kimberly L; Soma, Kiran K; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    In birds, incubation temperature can vary by several degrees Celsius among nests of a given species. Parents may alter incubation temperature to cope with environmental conditions and/or to manipulate embryonic development, and such changes in incubation behavior could have long-lasting effects on offspring phenotype. To investigate short- and long-term effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on survival and physiological functions in zebra finches, eggs were incubated at 36.2, 37.4 or 38.4 °C for the entire incubation period. The post-hatch environment was identical among the treatment groups. We found that hatching success was lowest in the 38.4 °C group, while post-hatch survival was lowest in the 36.2 °C group. Incubation temperature had sex-specific effects on offspring phenotype: incubation temperatures affected body mass (Mb) but not physiological parameters of males and conversely, the physiological parameters but not Mb of females. Specifically, males from the 38.4 °C group weighed significantly less than males from the 36.2 °C group from the nestling period to adulthood, whereas females from different incubation temperature groups did not differ in Mb. In contrast, females incubated at 36.2 °C had transient but significantly elevated basal metabolic rate and adrenocortical responses during the nestling and fledgling periods, whereas no treatment effect was observed in males. Innate immunity was not affected by incubation temperature in either sex. These results suggest that a 1 °C deviation from what is considered an optimal incubation temperature can lower offspring performance and offspring survival.

  20. Analytic modeling of the subthreshold behavior in MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. W.; Hsieh, T. X.

    2000-09-01

    An analytic model is derived to describe the bias-dependent behavior of the subthreshold swing in MOSFETs for the uniform channel and the ion-implanted channel, and is compared to two-dimensional simulation, Tsividis' model and Brews' model. This simple analytical model confirms that the subthreshold swing is a function of the gate-source bias and exhibits a global minimum in the weak inversion region. This model is based on Tsividis' current equations and assumes that the surface potential difference between the drain and the source is small for the gate-source voltage below the threshold voltage. This yields a conventional exponential form of the subthreshold current, and the subthreshold swing can be obtained analytically from this current equation.

  1. Stochastic Models Predict User Behavior in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad; Smith, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    User response to contributed content in online social media depends on many factors. These include how the site lays out new content, how frequently the user visits the site, how many friends the user follows, how active these friends are, as well as how interesting or useful the content is to the user. We present a stochastic modeling framework that relates a user's behavior to details of the site's user interface and user activity and describe a procedure for estimating model parameters from available data. We apply the model to study discussions of controversial topics on Twitter, specifically, to predict how followers of an advocate for a topic respond to the advocate's posts. We show that a model of user behavior that explicitly accounts for a user transitioning through a series of states before responding to an advocate's post better predicts response than models that fail to take these states into account. We demonstrate other benefits of stochastic models, such as their ability to identify users who a...

  2. School Attendance and Child Labor - A Model of Collective Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates how community approval or disapproval affects school attendance and child labor and how aggregate behavior of the community feeds back towards the formation and persistence of an anti- (or pro-) schooling norm. The proposed community-model continues to take aggregate and idiosyncratic poverty into account as an important driver of low school attendance and child labor. But it provides also an explanation for why equally poor villages or regions can displa...

  3. Modeling of cyclists acceleration behavior using naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, many cities have witnessed the increasing popularity of cycling, especially among ordinary commuters. Accordingly, there has also been a fast growing demand for the knowledge of cycling performance as well as cyclist behavior, which can be valuable for both traffic planners and policy makers when it comes to the bicycle-related issues. The aim of this study, hence, is to investigate the cycling performance in detail and to further develop proper models which can be im...

  4. A nude mouse model of endometriosis and its biological behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan-bo; ZHANG Shu-lan; NIU Hui-yan; LU Jing-ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM) as a common and intractable gynecological disease is characterized by unknown etiology and complex pathologic changes. Many factors of the disease are uncertain at the molecular level and it is difficult to study clinically. In this study, we attempted to establish a nude mice model of EM for dynamical observation of the genesis and development of the disease, morphological changes in tissue, and biological behaviors.

  5. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Alves Barros; Maria Vilaní Cavalcante Guedes; Denizielle de Jesus Moreira Moura; Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes; Letícia Lima Aguiar; Gleudson Alves Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a struct...

  6. Multinomial Logit Model of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes, making up a large proportion of road casualties, are more likely to occur at signalized intersections in China. This paper aims to study the different pedestrian behaviors of regular users, late starters, sneakers, and partial sneakers. Behavior information was observed manually in the field study. After that, the survey team distributed a questionnaire to the same participant who has been observed, to acquire detailed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as attitude and preference indicators. Totally, 1878 pedestrians were surveyed at 16 signalized intersections in Nanjing. First, correlation analysis is performed to analyze each factor’s effect. Then, five latent variables including safety, conformity, comfort, flexibility, and fastness are obtained by structure equation modeling (SEM. Moreover, based on the results of SEM, a multinomial logit model with latent variables is developed to describe how the factors influence pedestrians’ behavior. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the model: (1 for the choice of being late starters, arrival time, the presence of oncoming cars, and crosswalk length are the most important factors; (2 gender has the most significant effect on the pedestrians to be sneakers; and (3 age is the most important factor when pedestrians choose to be partial sneakers.

  7. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, S A; Lucas, D; Kleven, G A

    2015-04-15

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multicolored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To ensure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism.

  8. Recording Lifetime Behavior and Movement in an Invertebrate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Cruz-Enriquez, Janeth; Morice, Amy; Ingram, Donald K.; Kaub, Kevin; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Carey, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of lifetime behavioral changes is essential for understanding aging and aging-related diseases. However, such studies are scarce partly due to the lack of efficient tools. Here we describe and provide proof of concept for a stereo vision system that classifies and sequentially records at an extremely fine scale six different behaviors (resting, micro-movement, walking, flying, feeding and drinking) and the within-cage (3D) location of individual tephritid fruit flies by time-of-day throughout their lives. Using flies fed on two different diets, full sugar-yeast and sugar-only diets, we report for the first time their behavioral changes throughout their lives at a high resolution. We have found that the daily activity peaks at the age of 15–20 days and then gradually declines with age for flies on both diets. However, the overall daily activity is higher for flies on sugar-only diet than those on the full diet. Flies on sugar-only diet show a stronger diurnal localization pattern with higher preference to staying on the top of the cage during the period of light-off when compared to flies on the full diet. Clustering analyses of age-specific behavior patterns reveal three distinct young, middle-aged and old clusters for flies on each of the two diets. The middle-aged groups for flies on sugar-only diet consist of much younger age groups when compared to flies on full diet. This technology provides research opportunities for using a behavioral informatics approach for understanding different ways in which behavior, movement, and aging in model organisms are mutually affecting. PMID:21559058

  9. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  10. Single crystal plasticity by modeling dislocation density rate behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Benjamin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beyerlein, Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, E. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-23

    The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive model for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation rates within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive models relies on thermally-activated models which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain rates of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal model to the strain rate region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic model includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic model transitions from the low-rate thermally-activated regime to the high-rate drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions rates adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive model is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-rate response in fcc systems. The proposed material model incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening model tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance based on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain rates. The material model is fit to copper.

  11. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussemart, Yves

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles operations are examples of such systems. In this context, the role of the operators is typically highly proceduralized due to the time and mission-critical nature of the tasks. Therefore, the ability to continuously monitor operator behavior so as to detect and predict anomalous situations is a critical safeguard for proper system operation. In particular, such models can help support the decision J]l8king process of a supervisor of a team of operators by providing alerts when likely anomalous behaviors are detected By exploiting the operator behavioral patterns which are typically reinforced through standard operating procedures, this thesis proposes a methodology that uses statistical learning techniques in order to detect and predict anomalous operator conditions. More specifically, the proposed methodology relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to generate predictive models of unmanned vehicle systems operators. Through the exploration of the resulting HMMs in two distinct single operator scenarios, the methodology presented in this thesis is validated and shown to provide models capable of reliably predicting operator behavior. In addition, the use of HSMMs on the same data scenarios provides the temporal component of the predictions missing from the HMMs. The final step of this work is to examine how the proposed methodology scales to more complex scenarios involving teams of operators. Adopting a holistic team modeling approach, both HMMs and HSMMs are learned based on two team-based data sets. The results show that the HSMMs can provide valuable timing information in the single operator case, whereas HMMs tend to be more robust to increased team complexity. In addition, this thesis discusses the

  12. Simulation of rheological behavior of asphalt mixture with lattice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣枫; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional(3D) lattice model for predicting the rheological behavior of asphalt mixtures was presented.In this model asphalt mixtures were described as a two-phase composite material consisting of asphalt sand and coarse aggregates distributed randomly.Asphalt sand was regarded as a viscoelastic material and aggregates as an elastic material.The rheological response of asphalt mixture subjected to different constant stresses was simulated.The calibrated overall creep strain shows a good approximation to experimental results.

  13. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  14. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  15. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  16. A Financial Data Mining Model for Extracting Customer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K.Y. Mak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Facing the problem of variation and chaotic behavior of customers, the lack of sufficient information is a challenge to many business organizations. Human analysts lacking an understanding of the hidden patterns in business data, thus, can miss corporate business opportunities. In order to embrace all business opportunities, enhance the competitiveness, discovery of hidden knowledge, unexpected patterns and useful rules from large databases have provided a feasible solution for several decades. While there is a wide range of financial analysis products existing in the financial market, how to customize the investment portfolio for the customer is still a challenge to many financial institutions. This paper aims at developing an intelligent Financial Data Mining Model (FDMM for extracting customer behavior in the financial industry, so as to increase the availability of decision support data and hence increase customer satisfaction. The proposed financial model first clusters the customers into several sectors, and then finds the correlation among these sectors. It is noted that better customer segmentation can increase the ability to identify targeted customers, therefore extracting useful rules for specific clusters can provide an insight into customers' buying behavior and marketing implications. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, a simple dataset is collected from a financial company in Hong Kong. The simulation experiments show that the proposed method not only can improve the workflow of a financial company, but also deepen understanding of investment behavior. Thus, a corporation is able to customize the most suitable products and services for customers on the basis of the rules extracted.

  17. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  18. A Data Flow Behavior Constraints Model for Branch Decisionmaking Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the attacks to decision-making variable, this paper presents a data flow behavior constraint model for branch decision-making variables. Our model is expanded from the common control flow model, itemphasizes on the analysis and verification about the data flow for decision-making variables, so that to ensure the branch statement can execute correctly and can also detect the attack to branch decision-making variableeasily. The constraints of our model include the collection of variables, the statements that the decision-making variables are dependent on and the data flow constraint with the use-def relation of these variables. Our experimental results indicate that it is effective in detecting the attacks to branch decision-making variables as well as the attacks to control-data.

  19. Heterogeneous individuals' behavioral biases model and numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-yong; LIANG Guo-wei

    2010-01-01

    A model of the relationships between individual cognitive biases and individual decision-making based on the analysis of cognitive biases of bonded rationality individual,has been established in this paper by introducing a set of new variables callod overconfidence coefficient and attribution bias coefficient to the sentiment model.The irrational expectation and irrational risk aversion as two inseparable aspects of bonded rationality are expressed in an unified model,and a method of measuring individual cognitive biases is proposed,which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional normative models that can not describe the differences of behaviors among heterogeneous individuals.As a result,numerical simulations show that individual cognitive risk is a positive interaction with overconfidence coefficient,and a negative interaction with attribution bias coefficient.

  20. Viscoelastoplastic constitutive model for creep deformation behavior of asphalt sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A uniaxial viscoelastoplastic model that can describe whole creep behaviors of asphalt sand at different temperatures was presented.The model was composed of three submodels in series,which describe elastoplastic,viscoelastic and viscoplastic characteristics respectively.The constitutive equation was established for uniaxial loading condition,and the creep representation was also obtained.The constitutive parameters were determined by uniaxial compression tests under controlled-stress of 0.1 MPa with five different test temperatures of 20,40,45,50 and 60 ℃.Expressions of the model parameters in terms of temperatures were also given.The model gave prediction at various temperatures consistent with the experimental results,and can reflect the total deformation characterization of asphalt sands.

  1. Predicting Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior: An Application and Test of the Fishbein Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Sonstegard, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a test of the Fishbein model of behavior prediction applied to predict the pregnancy risk-taking behavior of adolescent females (N=244). Analyses of data showed that the Fishbein model of attitude-behavior consistency seems to be applicable to the fertility-related behavior of adolescent females. (LLL)

  2. A New Model for the Collective Behavior of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Diep, H T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new model in order to study behaviors of self-organized system such as a group of animals. We assume that the individuals have two degrees of freedom corresponding one to their internal state and the other to their external state. The external state is characterized by its moving orientation. The rule of the interaction between the individuals is determined by the internal state which can be either in the non-excited state or in the excited state. The system is put under a source of external perturbation called "noise". To study the behavior of the model with varying noise, we use the Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The result clearly shows two first-order transitions separating the system into three phases: with increasing noise, the system undergoes a phase transition from a frozen dilute phase to an ordered compact phase and then to the disordered dispersed phase. These phases correspond to behaviors of animals: uncollected state at low noise, flocking at medium noise and runaway at high noi...

  3. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = -1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.

  4. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Escofet, Anna

    2015-01-01

    After a short review of the state of the art in Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity, several illustrative examples are introduced and a few original dark energy models with quite interesting properties are discussed which exhibit, in a unified way, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence, and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state parameter, $w$, is a function of time is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with $w=-1$. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are found and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and the accelerated expansion at present which, as a consequence, may be explained by means of a dark energy model inspired by fundamental physics (string theory) a...

  5. Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Shukla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

  6. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  7. Formal Behavior Modeling: Business Processes Based on Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From a macro level, cloud computing is gathering all the distributed resources originally, and then provided them as a service to the users. Current research focuses the cloud architecture and local small-scale grid computing mainly. The researchers are ignoring to provide a channel to help users to understand the business processes of the entire platform. This article focuses the communication and business links and abstracts them into business processes behaviors. At the same time, this article provides a modeling method to help these behaviors being visual depiction at the initial design of the cloud computing. We combine the SOA architecture and cloud computing together. At last the transferring and the dynamic processing of the service\\data of the business processes can be shown to the stakeholders to verify whether the cloud platform was meeting their requirements which are regarded as simulation of cloud services.

  8. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION STORAGE TIME OF OSTRICH EGGS ON THEIR INCUBATION AND HATCHING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  9. Neutral temperature range in incubators: performance of equipment in current use and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, J P; Bach, V; Farges, G

    1997-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates should be nursed at thermoneutrality inside incubators. Thermoneutrality control is essential to enhance body growth and to reduce neonatal illnesses and mortality. Guidelines have been published to provide the thermoneutral range, but the recommendations did not always take into account all ambient and physiological parameters influencing thermoneutrality. In most marketed incubators, the heat supply is controlled through convective air flow (closed incubators) or through radiant power density (radiant warmer beds). The heating unit (on/off cycling or adjustable proportional control) is activated by an error signal calculated from the difference between a controlled temperature and a reference value preset by the clinician. The controlled variable can be either the incubator air or the skin temperature of the anterior abdominal region of the neonate. The neonate's size, thermal properties of the mattress and of incubator walls, air temperature and humidity, air velocity, incubator wall temperatures all influence the heat exchanges between the neonate and the surroundings, and, consequently, modify the obtention of thermoneutrality. Moreover, studies of the physiological mechanisms by which the neonate regulates body heat storage suggest that metabolic rate, behavior, vigilance level, nursing care, and heater control processes should also be taken into account. Little attention has been paid to these factors, and incubator performances are often disappointing. This article reviews the different factors that modify thermoneutral condition. An attempt is made to suggest new ways to design equipment incorporating these factors in algorithms controlling heater processes in order to reach the optimal thermal environment in which the neonate should be nursed.

  10. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James E

    2015-04-15

    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  11. THM Model Validation: Integrated Assessment of Measured and Predicted Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Wagoner, J; Wagner, R; Vogt, T

    2001-10-10

    This paper presents results of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) simulations of two field-scale tests that are part of the thermal testing program being conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The two tests analyzed are the Drift-Scale Test (DST) which is sited in an alcove of the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the Large Block Test (LBT) which is sited at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Both of these tests were designed to investigate coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) behavior in a fractured, densely welded ash-flow tuff. The geomechanical response of the rock mass forming the DST and the LBT is analyzed using a coupled THM model. A coupled model for analysis of the DST and LBT has been formulated by linking the 3DEC distinct element code for thermal-mechanical analysis and the NUFT finite element code for thermal-hydrologic analysis. The TH model (NUFT) computes temperatures at preselected times using a model that extends from the surface to the water table. The temperatures computed by NUFT are input to 3DEC, which then computes stresses and deformations. The distinct element method was chosen to permit the inclusion of discrete fractures and explicit modeling of fracture deformations. Shear deformations and normal mode opening of fractures are expected to increase fracture permeability and thereby alter thermal hydrologic behavior in these tests. We have collected fracture data for both the DST and the LBT and have used these data in the formulation of the model of the test. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation, along with comparison of simulated and observed deformations at selected locations within the tests.

  12. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  13. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  14. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-03-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior.

  15. Modeling the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline alloy with hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongxi; Zhou, Jianqiu, E-mail: zhouj@njtech.edu.cn [Nanjing Tech University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Zhao, Yonghao, E-mail: yhzhao@njust.edu.cn [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanostructural Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-02-15

    A mechanism-based plasticity model based on dislocation theory is developed to describe the mechanical behavior of the hierarchical nanocrystalline alloys. The stress–strain relationship is derived by invoking the impeding effect of the intra-granular solute clusters and the inter-granular nanostructures on the dislocation movements along the sliding path. We found that the interaction between dislocations and the hierarchical microstructures contributes to the strain hardening property and greatly influence the ductility of nanocrystalline metals. The analysis indicates that the proposed model can successfully describe the enhanced strength of the nanocrystalline hierarchical alloy. Moreover, the strain hardening rate is sensitive to the volume fraction of the hierarchical microstructures. The present model provides a new perspective to design the microstructures for optimizing the mechanical properties in nanostructural metals.

  16. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  17. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26{degree}C and downshifted 30-26-30{degree}C) and females (constant 30{degree}C and upshifted 26-30-26{degree}C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26{degree}C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30{degree}C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26{degree}C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30{degree}C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25{degree}C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30{degree}C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  18. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given that they have been detected, how do such associations inform cognitive-level theories? To investigate this question, we employed a multiscale computational model of development, using a sample domain drawn from the field of language acquisition. The model comprised an artificial neural network model of past-tense acquisition trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm, extended to incorporate population modeling and genetic algorithms. It included five levels of description-four internal: genetic, network, neurocomputation, behavior; and one external: environment. Since the mechanistic assumptions of the model were known and its operation was relatively transparent, we could evaluate whether cross-level associations gave an accurate picture of causal processes. We established that associations could be detected between artificial genes and behavioral variation, even under polygenic assumptions of a many-to-one relationship between genes and neurocomputational parameters, and when an experience-dependent developmental process interceded between the action of genes and the emergence of behavior. We evaluated these associations with respect to their specificity (to different behaviors, to function vs. structure), to their developmental stability, and to their replicability, as well as considering issues of missing heritability and gene-environment interactions. We argue that gene-behavior

  20. A computational model that predicts behavioral sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungshin; Callier, Thierri; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is a powerful tool to investigate the neural mechanisms of perception and can be used to restore sensation for patients who have lost it. While sensitivity to ICMS has previously been characterized, no systematic framework has been developed to summarize the detectability of individual ICMS pulse trains or the discriminability of pairs of pulse trains. Approach. We develop a simple simulation that describes the responses of a population of neurons to a train of electrical pulses delivered through a microelectrode. We then perform an ideal observer analysis on the simulated population responses to predict the behavioral performance of non-human primates in ICMS detection and discrimination tasks. Main results. Our computational model can predict behavioral performance across a wide range of stimulation conditions with high accuracy (R 2 = 0.97) and generalizes to novel ICMS pulse trains that were not used to fit its parameters. Furthermore, the model provides a theoretical basis for the finding that amplitude discrimination based on ICMS violates Weber’s law. Significance. The model can be used to characterize the sensitivity to ICMS across the range of perceptible and safe stimulation regimes. As such, it will be a useful tool for both neuroscience and neuroprosthetics.

  1. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  2. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  3. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to executive inhibition, and decision-making that involves weighing the pros and cons of engaging in motivated behaviors. Based on this model, we propose how behavioral therapies might target these domains in the treatment of IGD.

  4. Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  5. Internal Behavioral Modeling of Embedded Systems through State Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clean Room Software Engineering (CRSE methodology is intended for the development of high quality systems. The methodology is centered on three structures which include Black Box (BB, State Box (SB and Clear Box (CB and it assures high quality through implementation of Verification and Validation models at every stage of development. The models, suggested earlier, are built using the Mathematics for implementing the formalism which is needed to assure high quality. The mathematical way of implementing the formalism has been proved to be complex, unwieldy and impracticable. The Verification and Validation methods suggested are classical and do not support formalism which is the key element of CRSE. In this paper, three UML models and the associated algorithms have been proposed that help developing state box structures in more formal way and also to automate the process of generating State Box Structures. The refined CRSE model incorporating the suggested models is also presented. The models are used to develop the internal behavior of a Pilot Project called “Temperature Monitoring and Controlling of Nuclear Reactor System” (TMCNRS which is an embedded system designed in more formal and automated way.

  6. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  7. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations.

  8. Steel fiber reinforced concrete behavior, modelling and design

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses design aspects of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) members, including the behavior of the SFRC and its modeling. It also examines the effect of various parameters governing the response of SFRC members in detail. Unlike other publications available in the form of guidelines, which mainly describe design methods based on experimental results, it describes the basic concepts and principles of designing structural members using SFRC as a structural material, predominantly subjected to flexure and shear. Although applications to special structures, such as bridges, retaining walls, tanks and silos are not specifically covered, the fundamental design concepts remain the same and can easily be extended to these elements. It introduces the principles and related theories for predicting the role of steel fibers in reinforcing concrete members concisely and logically, and presents various material models to predict the response of SFRC members in detail. These are then gradually extended to d...

  9. Conductive polymer foams with carbon nanofillers – Modeling percolation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maxian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical model considering nanofiller random distribution in a porous polymeric matrix was developed to predict electrical percolation behavior in systems incorporating 1D-carbon nanotubes (CNTs and/or 2D-graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs. The numerical model applies to porous systems with closed-cell morphology. The percolation threshold was found to decrease with increasing porosity due to filler repositioning as a result of foaming. CNTs were more efficient in forming a percolative network than GNPs. High-aspect ratio (AR and randomly oriented fillers were more prone to form a network. Reduced percolation values were determined for misaligned fillers as they connect better in a network compared to aligned ones. Hybrid CNT-GNP fillers show synergistic effects in forming electrically conductive networks by comparison with single fillers.

  10. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  12. Fracture and ductile vs. brittle behavior -- Theory, modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltz, G.E. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Selinger, R.L.B. [ed.] [Catholic Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Kim, K.S. [ed.] [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Marder, M.P. [ed.] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The symposium brought together the many communities that investigate the fundamentals of fracture, with special emphasis on the ductile/brittle transition across a broad spectrum of material classes, fracture at interfaces, and modelling fracture over various length scales. Theoretical techniques discussed ranged from first-principles electronic structure theory to atomistic simulation to mesoscale and continuum theories, along with studies of fractals and scaling in fracture. Experimental and theoretical talks were interspersed throughout all sessions, rather than being segregated. The contributions to this volume generally follow the topical outline upon which the symposium was organized. The first part, dealing with ductile vs. brittle behavior in metals, concerns itself with investigations of high-strength steel, magnesium alloys, ordered intermetallics, and Fe-Cr-Al alloys. The development of analytical methods based on micromechanical models, such as dislocation mechanics and cohesive/contact zone models, are covered in a follow-up section. Nonmetals, including silicon, are considered in Parts 3 and 4. Fractals, chaos, and scaling theories are taken up in Part 5, with a special emphasis on fracture in heterogeneous solids. Modelling based on large populations of dislocations has substantially progressed during the past three years; hence, a section devoted to crystal plasticity and mesoscale dislocation modelling appears next. Finally, the technologically significant area of interfacial fracture, with applications to composites and intergranular fracture, is taken up in Part 7. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this book.

  13. Social Network Analyses and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair McNair Senior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent advances in nutrition research, combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models of systems biology, show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a tangible and practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit agent-based models that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition. Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interaction in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  14. Pedestrians’ behavior in emergency evacuation: Modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jie-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Jian-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Zhen; Zhang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    The social force model has been widely used to simulate pedestrian evacuation by analyzing attractive, repulsive, driving, and fluctuating forces among pedestrians. Many researchers have improved its limitations in simulating behaviors of large-scale population. This study modifies the well-accepted social force model by considering the impacts of interaction among companions and further develops a comprehensive model by combining that with a multi-exit utility function. Then numerical simulations of evacuations based on the comprehensive model are implemented in the waiting hall of the Wulin Square Subway Station in Hangzhou, China. The results provide safety thresholds of pedestrian density and panic levels in different operation situations. In spite of the operation situation and the panic level, a larger friend-group size results in lower evacuation efficiency. Our study makes important contributions to building a comprehensive multi-exit social force model and to applying it to actual scenarios, which produces data to facilitate decision making in contingency plans and emergency treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71471163).

  15. Extended Cann Model for Behavioral Modeling of Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with behavioral modeling of power amplifiers (PAs) for envelope tracking (ET) applications. In such a scenario, the power supply modulation brings in several additional challenges for the system design and, similarly, it becomes more difficult to obtain an accurate and general PA...... by the ET operation. The model performance is tested modeling data-sets acquired from an ET test bench including a commercial RFMD PA and an envelope modulator designed using a commercial IC from TI....

  16. Markov chain modeling of policyholder behavior in life insurance and pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Frederik Brandt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann; Steffensen, Mogens;

    2014-01-01

    We calculate reserves regarding expected policyholder behavior. The behavior is modeled to occur incidentally similarly to insurance risk. The focus is on multi-state modelling of insurance risk and behavioral risk in terms of free policy risk and surrender risk. We discuss valuation techniques...... in the cases where behavior is modeled to occur independently or dependently of insurance risk, respectively. Ordinary differential equations make it easier to work with dependence between insurance risk and behavior risk. We analyze the effects of the underlying behavioral assumptions for two contracts...

  17. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed. PMID:24782742

  18. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  19. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  20. Model-free execution monitoring in behavior-based robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Ola; Karlsson, Lars; Saffiotti, Alessandro

    2007-08-01

    In the near future, autonomous mobile robots are expected to help humans by performing service tasks in many different areas, including personal assistance, transportation, cleaning, mining, or agriculture. In order to manage these tasks in a changing and partially unpredictable environment without the aid of humans, the robot must have the ability to plan its actions and to execute them robustly and safely. The robot must also have the ability to detect when the execution does not proceed as planned and to correctly identify the causes of the failure. An execution monitoring system allows the robot to detect and classify these failures. Most current approaches to execution monitoring in robotics are based on the idea of predicting the outcomes of the robot's actions by using some sort of predictive model and comparing the predicted outcomes with the observed ones. In contrary, this paper explores the use of model-free approaches to execution monitoring, that is, approaches that do not use predictive models. In this paper, we show that pattern recognition techniques can be applied to realize model-free execution monitoring by classifying observed behavioral patterns into normal or faulty execution. We investigate the use of several such techniques and verify their utility in a number of experiments involving the navigation of a mobile robot in indoor environments.

  1. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to identify promising message strategies to promote healthy sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention.

  2. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J

    1992-01-01

    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  3. Pre-incubation and low temperatures in quantitative radioreceptor assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, K.; de Zeeuw, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The detection limits of drugs in quantitative RRA are primarily determined by their affinities towards the receptor. Yet, the concentration of radiolabeled ligand, necessary for quantification of receptor-bound drug, increases the theoretical detection limit. Therefore the influences of low temperatures and pre-incubation on the detection limit was studied. Analysis of experimental data suggests that when a well-defined incubation procedure is used, pre-incubation and low temperatures will increase sensitivity without loss of accuracy and precision. 6 references, 2 figures.

  4. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  5. Complex transition to cooperative behavior in a structured population model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miranda

    Full Text Available Cooperation plays an important role in the evolution of species and human societies. The understanding of the emergence and persistence of cooperation in those systems is a fascinating and fundamental question. Many mechanisms were extensively studied and proposed as supporting cooperation. The current work addresses the role of migration for the maintenance of cooperation in structured populations. This problem is investigated in an evolutionary perspective through the prisoner's dilemma game paradigm. It is found that migration and structure play an essential role in the evolution of the cooperative behavior. The possible outcomes of the model are extinction of the entire population, dominance of the cooperative strategy and coexistence between cooperators and defectors. The coexistence phase is obtained in the range of large migration rates. It is also verified the existence of a critical level of structuring beyond that cooperation is always likely. In resume, we conclude that the increase in the number of demes as well as in the migration rate favor the fixation of the cooperative behavior.

  6. A Behavior-Based Circuit Model of How Outcome Expectations Organize Learned Behavior in Larval "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael; Saumweber, Timo; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Fischer, Benjamin; von Alpen, Desiree; Pauls, Dennis; Thum, Andreas; Gerber, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila larvae combine a numerically simple brain, a correspondingly moderate behavioral complexity, and the availability of a rich toolbox for transgenic manipulation. This makes them attractive as a study case when trying to achieve a circuit-level understanding of behavior organization. From a series of behavioral experiments, we suggest a…

  7. Decreased prolactin levels reduce parental commitment, egg temperatures, and breeding success of incubating male Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Brajon, Sophie; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Chastel, Olivier; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Hormones regulate many aspects of an individual's phenotype, including various physiological and behavioral traits. Two hormones have been described as important players in the regulation of parental investment in birds: the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone and prolactin, a pituitary hormone, widely involved in mediating parental behavior. In comparison with corticosterone, the role of prolactin on parental investment remains poorly documented, and most studies so far have been correlative. In this study, the effects of an experimental decrease of prolactin levels on the incubation behavior of a long-lived seabird species were assessed. Male Adélie penguins were treated with self-degradable bromocriptine pellets, inhibiting prolactin secretion. Filming and subsequent video analysis allowed the determination of a behavioral time budget for birds and their position on the nest, while dummy eggs recorded incubation parameters. Incubation duration and breeding success at hatching were also monitored. As expected, bromocriptine-treatment significantly decreased plasma prolactin levels, but did not affect corticosterone levels. The behavioral time budget of penguins was not affected by the treatment. However, treated birds spent significantly more time in an upright position on the nest. These birds also incubated their eggs at lower temperatures and turned their eggs more frequently than controls, resulting in a lengthened incubation period. Despite this, the treatment was insufficient to trigger nest desertion and eggs of treated birds still hatched, indicating that several endocrine signals are required for the induction of nest abandonment. We suggest that the decreased prolactin levels in treated birds offset their timeline of breeding, so that birds displayed behavior typical of early incubation.

  8. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  9. Magnetic critical behavior of the Ising model on fractal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Pascal; Perreau, Michel; Hébert, Frédéric

    1998-09-01

    The critical temperature and the set of critical exponents (β,γ,ν) of the Ising model on a fractal structure, namely the Sierpiński carpet, are calculated from a Monte Carlo simulation based on the Wolff algorithm together with the histogram method and finite-size scaling. Both cases of periodic boundary conditions and free edges are investigated. The calculations have been done up to the seventh iteration step of the fractal structure. The results show that, although the structure is not translationally invariant, the scaling behavior of thermodynamical quantities is conserved, which gives a meaning to the finite-size analysis. Although some discrepancies in the values of the critical exponents occur between periodic boundary conditions and free edges, the effective dimension obtained through the Rushbrooke and Josephson's scaling law have the same value in both cases. This value is slightly but significantly different from the fractal dimension.

  10. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  11. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  12. Dynamical behavior of the Niedermayer algorithm applied to Potts models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, D.; Penna, T. J. P.; Branco, N. S.

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we make a numerical study of the dynamic universality class of the Niedermayer algorithm applied to the two-dimensional Potts model with 2, 3, and 4 states. This algorithm updates clusters of spins and has a free parameter, E0, which controls the size of these clusters, such that E0=1 is the Metropolis algorithm and E0=0 regains the Wolff algorithm, for the Potts model. For -1clusters of equal spins can be formed: we show that the mean size of the clusters of (possibly) turned spins initially grows with the linear size of the lattice, L, but eventually saturates at a given lattice size L˜, which depends on E0. For L≥L˜, the Niedermayer algorithm is in the same dynamic universality class of the Metropolis one, i.e, they have the same dynamic exponent. For E0>0, spins in different states may be added to the cluster but the dynamic behavior is less efficient than for the Wolff algorithm (E0=0). Therefore, our results show that the Wolff algorithm is the best choice for Potts models, when compared to the Niedermayer's generalization.

  13. Modeling Transverse Behavior of Kevlar® KM2 Single Fibers with Deformation-induced Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming; Chen, Weinong

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A phenomenological continuum model is adapted to describe the transverse mechanical behavior of Kevlar? KM2 single fibers in compression. This model could be used for numerical simulations of the mechanical behaviors of fabrics made of Kevlar? KM2 fibers. An equivalent fiber model is used to form the phenomenological model in terms of nominal stress and nominal stretch ratio. Thi...

  14. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  15. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    . Aggregate formation in these microwells motivated us to develop a templating technique to create hollow cyst-like epithelial structures within PEG hydrogels. Photodegradable microspheres were used to form spherical epithelial layers, which were then encapsulated in a PEG hydrogel followed by template erosion with cytocompatible light. With these model alveoli, we investigated the interplay between the epithelium and mesenchyme by co-encapsulating healthy and diseased pulmonary fibroblasts with healthy and diseased epithelial cysts and measuring important cellular behaviors (i.e. proliferation, migration, and protein expression). This model of alveolar tissue represents a significant advance in culture platforms available to researchers interested in identifying the mechanisms involved in disease progression and for testing potential therapeutics in a controlled, tissue-appropriate setting.

  16. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  17. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible...... and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow......-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid–gas–rock-interactions in relation to carbon...

  18. Analysis on E-consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Based on Data-driving Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Huang

    2011-01-01

    It is the Internet world with vasty purchasing data sea online that makes research model of e-consumers’ purchasing behavior very different from traditional ones. Firstly this paper proposes three kinds of research models of consumers’ purchasing behavior, and then pointed out that data-driving model is the best one to analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior on the Internet. Secondly, it adopts the improved SOFM Neural Network as the tool of data-driving model to detailedly...

  19. Study on Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model for RF power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Jingchang; Liu Yuanan; Tang Bihua

    2007-01-01

    Volterra series behavioral model for radio frequency(RF)power amplifier(PA)has been widely used in system-level simulation,however,high computational complexity makes this kind of model limited to"weak"nonlinearity.In order to reduce the computational complexity and the number of coefficients of Volterra series kernels,a Volterra series improved behavioral model based on Lasuerre orthogonal polynomials function,namely Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model,is proposed.Mathematical expressions of Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model is derived.and accuracy of the model is verified through comparison of measured and simulation output data from a freescale PA using MRF21030 transistor.Mathematical analysis and simulation results show that Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model has a simple structure,much less coefficients and better modeling performance than general Volterra series model.The model can be used more correctly for system-level simulation of RF PA with wideband signal.

  20. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...... incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three...

  1. Computational Modeling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human purchasing behavior is affected by many influential factors. Culture at macro-level and personality at micro-level influence consumer purchasing behavior. People of different cultures tend to accept the values of their own group and consequently have different purchasing behavior. Also, people

  2. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative…

  3. Latent Growth Curve Modeling of Child Behavior in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Kamphaus, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated child behavioral change during the early years of elementary school. Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992) teacher ratings of child behavior were collected over a three-year period. The sample consisted of 162 children measured yearly between first and third grade.…

  4. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  5. Critical behavior of the random-bond clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Raymond P. H.; Lo, Veng-cheong; Huang, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The critical behavior of the clock model in two-dimensional square lattice is studied numerically using Monte Carlo method with Wolff algorithm. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition is observed in the 8-state clock model, where an intermediate phase exists between the low-temperature ordered phase and the high-temperature disordered phase. The bond randomness is introduced to the system by assuming a Gaussian distribution for the coupling coefficients with the mean μ = 1 and different values of variance: from σ2 = 0.1 to σ2 = 3.0. An abrupt jump in the helicity modulus at the transition, which is the key characteristic of the KT transition, is verified with a stability argument. Our results show that, a small amount of disorder (small σ) reduces the critical temperature of the system, without altering the nature of transition. However, a larger amount of disorder changes the transition from the KT-type into that of non-KT-type.

  6. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, E.; Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2016-06-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation.

  7. Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

    Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

  8. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: statistical behavior and its modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  9. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of new mouse model of hyperphenylalaninemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pascucci

    Full Text Available Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA refers to all clinical conditions characterized by increased amounts of phenylalanine (PHE in blood and other tissues. According to their blood PHE concentrations under a free diet, hyperphenylalaninemic patients are commonly classified into phenotypic subtypes: classical phenylketonuria (PKU (PHE > 1200 µM/L, mild PKU (PHE 600-1200 µM/L and persistent HPA (PHE 120-600 µM/L (normal blood PHE < 120 µM/L. The current treatment for hyperphenylalaninemic patients is aimed to keep blood PHE levels within the safe range of 120-360 µM/L through a PHE-restricted diet, difficult to achieve. If untreated, classical PKU presents variable neurological and mental impairment. However, even mildly elevated blood PHE levels, due to a bad compliance to dietary treatment, produce cognitive deficits involving the prefrontal cortical areas, extremely sensible to PHE-induced disturbances. The development of animal models of different degrees of HPA is a useful tool for identifying the metabolic mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits induced by PHE. In this paper we analyzed the behavioral and biochemical phenotypes of different forms of HPA (control, mild-HPA, mild-PKU and classic-PKU, developed on the base of plasma PHE concentrations. Our results demonstrated that mice with different forms of HPA present different phenotypes, characterized by increasing severity of behavioral symptoms and brain aminergic deficits moving from mild HPA to classical PKU forms. In addition, our data identify preFrontal cortex and amygdala as the most affected brain areas and confirm the highest susceptibility of brain serotonin metabolism to mildly elevated blood PHE.

  10. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  11. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  12. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  13. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  14. Modeling metro users' travel behavior in Tehran: Frequency of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transit-oriented development (TOD, as a sustainable supporting strategy, emphasizes the improvement of public transportation coverage and quality, land use density and diversity of around public transportation stations and priority of walking and cycling at station areas. Traffic, environmental and economic problems arising from high growth of personal car, inappropriate distribution of land use, and car-orientation of metropolitan area, necessitate adoption of TOD. In recent years, more researches on urban development and transportation have focused on this strategy. This research considering metro stations as base for development, aims to model metro users' travel behavior and decision-making procedures. In this regard, research question is: what are the parameters or factors affecting in the frequency of travel by metro in half-mile radius from stations. The radius was determine based on TOD definitions and 5 minute walking time to metro stations.  A questionnaire was designed in three sections that including travel features by metro, attitudes toward metro, economic and social characteristics of respondents. Ten stations were selected based on their geographic dispersion in Tehran and a sample of 450 respondents was determined. The questionnaires were surveyed face to face in (half-mile vicinity of metro stations. Based on a refined sample on 400 questionnaires ordered discrete choice models were considered. Results of descriptive statistics show that 38.5 percent of the sample used metro more than 4 times per week. Trip purpose for 45.7 percent of metro users is work. Access mode to the metro stations for nearly half of the users (47.6 percent is bus. Results of ordered logit models show a number of significant variables including: habit of using the metro, waiting time in station, trip purpose (working, shopping and recreation, personal car access mode to the metro station, walking access mode to the metro station and being a housewife.

  15. Modeling the triaxial behavior of riverbed and blasted quarried rockfill materials using hardening soil model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.P. Honkanadavar; K.G. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax) of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stressestrainevolume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC) and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elasto-plastic hardening soil (HS) constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stressestrainevolume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD), and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experi-mentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and ma-terial strength parameters (dilatancy angle, j, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model) of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the predicted material parameters

  16. Modeling the triaxial behavior of riverbed and blasted quarried rockfill materials using hardening soil model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Honkanadavar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stress–strain–volume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elastoplastic hardening soil (HS constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stress–strain–volume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD, and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experimentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and material strength parameters (dilatancy angle, ψ, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the

  17. Predicting Behavior from Normative Influences: What Insights Can the Fishbein Model Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walster, Dian E.

    The Fishbein Model is an attitude behavior consistency model which is used in both laboratory and field settings for predicting and understanding attitudinal and normative influences on behavior. This paper examines controversy surrounding the Fishbein Model's normative component in the context of a study of library and information science (LIS)…

  18. Approximating Behavioral Equivalence of Models Using Top-K Policy Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Chen, Yingke; Prashant, Doshi

    2011-01-01

    Decision making and game play in multiagent settings must often contend with behavioral models of other agents in order to predict their actions. One approach that reduces the complexity of the unconstrained model space is to group models that tend to be behaviorally equivalent. In this paper, we...

  19. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  20. Spatial and Temporal Behaviors in a Modified Evolution Model Based on Small World Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-Wei; ZHOU Li-Ming; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new modified evolution model on a small world network. In our model,the spatial and temporal correlations and the spatial-temporal evolve pattern of mutating nodes exhibit some particular behaviors different from those of the original BS evolution model. More importantly, these behaviors will change with φ, the density of short paths in our network.

  1. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD.

  2. Signaling Game Model of Government and Incubator based on the Subsidy Policy for Purchase of Public Service%公共服务购买补贴政策下的企业孵化器与政府信号博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 童洪志

    2015-01-01

    在考虑科技企业孵化器为科技中小企业提供公共服务取得一定效果的情况下,构建了企业孵化器与政府购买信号博弈模型,分析了信息不对称、信息完全和政府失灵3种类型的有成本信号博弈均衡状态,且均衡效率受到了企业孵化器伪装沉没成本和期望风险成本的影响,故在完全信息时实现分离均衡的关键条件是提高孵化器的伪装沉没成本和风险成本,由此得出相应的解决措施,即致力于严格孵化器评判标准、细化政策,建立多方参与的评价机制;提高孵化器公共服务效果核查效率,加强做假惩罚力度,建立综合性的科技金融服务平台和透明的资源共享数据平台;发挥社会公众、媒体第三方的质询和监督等途径来提高孵化器公共服务质量和效率,从而实现财政资源优化配置,更好地服务于科技企业实现社会效益最大化。%China implements the innovation subsidy policy in different w ays to develop science and technology business incu‐bator .Based on the consideration of technology business incubator ,providing service for technology innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises and achieved certain results ,the paper constructs signal game model of government and incuba‐tor to discuss the action strategy selection mechanism and influencing factors .In view of the market information uncertain‐ties ,the article analyzes three types of cost signal game equilibrium of asymmetric information ,complete information , government failure ,and the equilibrium efficiency effected by enterprise incubator camouflage sunk cost and the expected risk cost ,so in the symmetric information to realize the key condition of separation equilibrium is to improve the hatching the camouflage sunk cost and risk cost .The corresponding solving measures should be committed to strict standards ,incu‐bator refinement policy ,establish the evaluation

  3. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  4. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  5. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  6. Animal models of behavioral dysfunctions: basic concepts and classifications, and an evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In behavioral neurosciences, such as neurobiology and biopsychology, animal models make it possible to investigate brain-behavior relations, with the aim of gaining insight into normal and abnormal human behavior and its underlying neuronal and neuroendocrinological processes. Different types of ani

  7. Exploring the Utility of Self-Modeling in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities can exhibit a wide array of challenging behaviors in the classroom that pose disruptions to the learning milieu and management problems for those involved in their education. Self-modeling, a behavioral intervention that involves viewing edited videotapes of oneself depicting exemplary behavior, has had…

  8. Learning and production of movement sequences: Behavioral, neurophysiological, and modelling perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, Bradley J.; Bullock, Daniel; Verwey, Willem B.; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Page, Michael P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A wave of recent behavioral studies has generated a new wealth of parametric observations about serial order behavior. What was a trickle of neurophysiological studies has grown to a steady stream of probes of neural sites and mechanisms underlying sequential behavior. Moreover, simulation models of

  9. Ontology-based modeling of product functionality and use part 2: considering use and unintended behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Kitamura, Y.; Mizoguchi, R.; Horváth, I.

    2002-01-01

    the function-behavior representation language FBRL was originally devised for modeling and knowledge management of intended product behavior. This paper explores its potential for application to other-than-intended behavior in a use context, introducing consideration of the user and the environment.

  10. Latent Curve Modeling of Internalizing Behaviors and Interpersonal Skills through Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Sander, Janay B.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The trajectories of internalizing and interpersonal behaviors from kindergarten through fifth grade were studied using univariate and bivariate latent curve models. Internalizing behaviors demonstrated a small, yet statistically significant, linear increase over time, while interpersonal behaviors showed a small, yet statistically significant,…

  11. Filipino Nursing Students' Behavioral Intentions toward Geriatric Care: A Structural Equation Model (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Jimenez, Benito Christian B.; Jocson, Kathlyn P.; Junio, Aileen R.; Junio, Drazen E.; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N.; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F.

    2013-01-01

    Anchored on the key constucts of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1985), this paper seeks to test a model that explores the influence of knowledge, attitude, and caring behavior on nursing students' behavioral intention toward geriatric care. A five-part survey-questionnaire was administered to 839 third and fourth year nursing students from a…

  12. Modeling behavior: the quest to link mechanisms to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, C; Dubnau, J

    2003-02-01

    T. Dobzhansky (1973) has been credited with saying: 'nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution'. The evolutionary conservation of gene function, as well as remarkable conservation of elemental behavioral mechanisms, guarantees that much of what we learn in one organism will inform our understanding of behavior in all animals, including humans. This insight has permitted behavior-geneticists to choose organisms based on experimental tractability for a given scientific question. IBANGS as a society has clearly embraced this Dobzhanskian worldview. As a result, the intellectual synergy of cross-species behavior-genetic analysis was palpable at the IBANGS meeting in Tours, France.

  13. Structural model for osteoporosis preventing behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Margaret O; Sedlak, Carol A; Hall, Rosalie J; Estok, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    This longitudinal study evaluates the effect of bone mineral density screening on calcium intake and daily exercise of 196 healthy men older than 50 years over a period of 1 year. In this randomized clinical trial, the experimental group received personal bone density information via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The men completed measures addressing knowledge, health beliefs, calcium intake, and exercise behaviors. Outcome measures were collected by a questionnaire at three time points: initial (Time 1 [T1]; pre-DXA), 6 months (Time 2 [T2]), and 12 months (Time 3 [T3]). Using structural equation modeling for data analysis, results indicated that men in the experimental group had a significantly higher T2 calcium intake than the control group, with no additional direct effect at T3. T1 daily calcium intake was significantly predicted by T1 health beliefs. Men with higher levels of health motivation tended to have higher initial levels of daily calcium intake. Personal knowledge of DXA results relate significantly to increased calcium intake.

  14. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-29

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.

  15. A Cellular Automaton Model for Heterogeneous and Incosistent Driver Behavior in Urban Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUMing-Zhe; ZHAO Shi-Bo; WANG Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a cellular automaton model is proposed to describe driver behavior at a single-lane urban roundabout. Driver behavior has been considered as heterogeneous and inconsistent. Most traffic papers in the literature just discussed heterogeneous driver behavior, to our best knowledge. Two truncated Caussian distributions are used to model heterogeneous and inconsistent driver behavior, respectively. The physical meanings of two truncated distributions are indicated. This method may help enhance a better understanding of driver behavior at roundabout traffic, and even possibly provide references for roundabout design and management.

  16. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  17. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  18. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  19. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress.

  20. Modeling of Habitat and Foraging Behavior of Beaked Whales in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT Modeling of Habitat and Foraging Behavior of...whale distribution and foraging behavior and to describe inter-specific differences. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns for Cuvier’s beaked whale...distribution and foraging behavior and to describe inter-specific differences. Knowledge about foraging behavior and habitat preference and

  1. An Ontology-Based Framework for Modeling User Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana

    2011-01-01

    and classifies its users according to their behavior. The user ontology is the backbone of OntobUMf and has been designed according to the Information Management System Learning Information Package (IMS LIP). The user ontology includes a Behavior concept that extends IMS LIP specification and defines...

  2. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  3. Learning online community citizenship behavior: a socio-cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sheng-Wuu; Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2008-06-01

    This study postulates personal and environmental factors as key drivers of online community citizenship behavior (OCCB). OCCB reveals that the individual chooses to perform a behavior that is beneficial to others. Empirical results confirm the applicability of social cognitive theory (SCT) in online communities.

  4. Estimating the Distribution of the Incubation Periods of Human Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlogeux, Victor; Li, Ming; Tsang, Tim K.; Feng, Luzhao; Fang, Vicky J.; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Peng; Zheng, Jiandong; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Cao, Yu; Qin, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel avian influenza virus, influenza A(H7N9), emerged in China in early 2013 and caused severe disease in humans, with infections occurring most frequently after recent exposure to live poultry. The distribution of A(H7N9) incubation periods is of interest to epidemiologists and public health officials, but estimation of the distribution is complicated by interval censoring of exposures. Imputation of the midpoint of intervals was used in some early studies, resulting in estimated mean incubation times of approximately 5 days. In this study, we estimated the incubation period distribution of human influenza A(H7N9) infections using exposure data available for 229 patients with laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infection from mainland China. A nonparametric model (Turnbull) and several parametric models accounting for the interval censoring in some exposures were fitted to the data. For the best-fitting parametric model (Weibull), the mean incubation period was 3.4 days (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.7) and the variance was 2.9 days; results were very similar for the nonparametric Turnbull estimate. Under the Weibull model, the 95th percentile of the incubation period distribution was 6.5 days (95% confidence interval: 5.9, 7.1). The midpoint approximation for interval-censored exposures led to overestimation of the mean incubation period. Public health observation of potentially exposed persons for 7 days after exposure would be appropriate. PMID:26409239

  5. Understanding HIV Testing Behaviors of Minority Adolescents: A Health Behavior Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIVinfection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangu...

  6. Antidepressants reduce extinction-induced withdrawal and biting behaviors: a model for depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, J P; van den Brink, J; Komorowski, M; Huq, Y; Topic, B

    2012-05-17

    The withholding of expected rewards results in extinction of behavior and, hypothetically, to depression-like symptoms. In a test of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of extinction of food-reinforced lever-pressing on collateral behaviors that might be indices of depression. Operant extinction is known to be aversive to the organism and results in avoidance behavior. We hypothesized that avoidance of, or withdrawal from, the former source of reward may serve as a marker for "despair." Adult male Wistar rats (n=6-7 animals per group) were exposed to a Skinner box attached to a second compartment of the same size, providing opportunity for the animals to leave the operant chamber and to enter the "withdrawal" compartment. The animals spent a portion of the time during the extinction trials in this second chamber. To assess the predictive validity of this behavior as a potential marker of "despair," we tested the effects of chronic administration of two common antidepressant drugs on this measure. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg/kg) reduced the number of entries and time spent in the withdrawal compartment. We propose that entries into and time spent in the withdrawal compartment may operationalize "avoidance," a core symptom of major depression. Rearing as well as biting behaviors during the extinction trials were also attenuated by the antidepressant treatment. These results lend support to the hypothesis that extinction of positively reinforced operants evokes behaviors that reflect elements of "despair/depression" because these behaviors are modulated by antidepressant treatment. The avoidance of the operant chamber as a consequence of extinction, together with rearing and biting behaviors, may serve as useful measures for the testing of antidepressant treatments.

  7. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed.

  8. Preliminary assessment of the behavioral activation model in Japanese undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Koki; Okajima, Isa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Shun; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Sakano, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have reported that behavioral activation is an effective intervention for depression. The behavioral activation model is based on several formulations. For example, depressive mood leads to avoidant behaviors, avoidance negatively affects social contacts, decreased socialization lessens opportunities for positive reinforcement, and a decrease in positive reinforcement results in more depressive mood. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among avoidant behavior, social contact, frequency of positive reinforcement, and depressive mood by using structural equation modeling to assess support for aspects of this behavioral activation model. Participants were 630 Japanese undergraduate students and vocational school students. Results provided preliminary support for the model. Treating both avoidance and activating behavior might contribute to decreased impairment.

  9. Understanding the Behavior of Systems Pharmacology Models Using Mathematical Analysis of Differential Equations: Prolactin Modeling as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S; de Lange, E C; van der Graaf, P H; Danhof, M; Peletier, L A

    2016-07-01

    In this tutorial, we introduce basic concepts in dynamical systems analysis, such as phase-planes, stability, and bifurcation theory, useful for dissecting the behavior of complex and nonlinear models. A precursor-pool model with positive feedback is used to demonstrate the power of mathematical analysis. This model is nonlinear and exhibits multiple steady states, the stability of which is analyzed. The analysis offers insight into model behavior and suggests useful parameter regions, which simulations alone could not.

  10. Understanding the Behavior of Systems Pharmacology Models Using Mathematical Analysis of Differential Equations: Prolactin Modeling as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S; de Lange, EC; Danhof, M; Peletier, LA

    2016-01-01

    In this tutorial, we introduce basic concepts in dynamical systems analysis, such as phase‐planes, stability, and bifurcation theory, useful for dissecting the behavior of complex and nonlinear models. A precursor‐pool model with positive feedback is used to demonstrate the power of mathematical analysis. This model is nonlinear and exhibits multiple steady states, the stability of which is analyzed. The analysis offers insight into model behavior and suggests useful parameter regions, which simulations alone could not. PMID:27405001

  11. Structural Equation Model of Health Promoting Behaviors for Health Information Seekers with Mobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Kim, Jeongeun; Byun, Ahjung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on verifying whether variables such as prior health related behaviors, health literacy, interpersonal influence, perceived ease of use and usefulness of health information, and behavioral intention could predict actual health promoting behaviors of consumers using health information with mobile in the future. The research model was based on Technology Acceptance Model. Data were collected from 199 mobile health information seekers. Participants' actual health promoting behaviors were checked after 3 months from pre-data collection. The final modified model had good fit indices.

  12. Identifying and Quantifying Emergent Behavior Through System of Systems Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    EMERGENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS MODELING AND SIMULATION by Mary Ann Cummings September 2015 Dissertation Supervisor: Man-Tak Shing...COVERED Ph.D. Dissertation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING EMERGENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS MODELING AND SIMULATION 5...functionality and interfaces in these SoSs. An inherent deficiency of existing M&S approaches, however, lies in the emergent behavior that occurs as a result of

  13. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  14. Modeling the tensile behavior of human Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Shaw, K M

    1997-01-01

    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile stress, sigma versus strain, epsilon, data were obtained from 29 cadaveric Achilles tendons (donor ages: 36 to 100 years), at a strain rate of either 10 or 100%/s. These results were then used in modeling the elastic component of the tensile deformational behavior of this tissue. Two approaches were taken. In the first, it was shown that the following constitutive relation provided an excellent fit to the elastic section of the sigma-epsilon curve, sigma = C epsilon exp[D epsilon + F epsilon 2], with C, D and F being material constants, whose values for the present dataset were found to be C = 2.00 +/- 0.99, D = 0.089 +/- 0.087 and F = -0.0047 +/- 0.0095. The values of these coefficients were not statistically significantly affected by either donor age or test strain rate. In the second approach, the value of the modulus of elasticity of a filamentary polymer matrix composite material was computed as a function of various combinations of values of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber, the modulus of elasticity of the matrix, and angle of orientation of the principal material axes with respect to the reference coordinate axes (theta) for a fiber volume fraction of 0.6 and a material Poisson's ratio of 0.4. By comparing these results with the experimentally-obtained values of the tangent modulus of elasticity of the tendons (defined as the slope of the linear section of the post-toe zone in the sigma-epsilon plot), and assuming that the tendon may be idealized as a filamentary polymer matrix composite material, the suggestion is made that the winding angle of the fibers (collagen fibrils) in the tendon (taken to be equal to theta) is about 6 degrees.

  15. Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model. For the most part, 5 studies focusing on a variety of prosocial intentions and behavior support the NAM as a mediator model. Furthermore, these studies validate past research by showing that variables included in the NAM are powerful in explaining a diversity of prosocial intentions and behavior in the social and environmental contexts.

  16. Attitude Scales an Congeneric Tests: A Re-Examination of an Attitude-Behavior Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, Duane F.

    1976-01-01

    A structural equation model for attitude-behavior relationships is presented which conceptualizes attitude scales as congeneric measurements. The model represents a re-parameterization of an earlier one. (Author/RC)

  17. Why more is better: Simultaneous modeling of EEG, fMRI, and behavioral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M; Rodriguez, Christian A; Norcia, Tony M; McClure, Samuel M; Steyvers, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The need to test a growing number of theories in cognitive science has led to increased interest in inferential methods that integrate multiple data modalities. In this manuscript, we show how a method for integrating three data modalities within a single framework provides (1) more detailed descriptions of cognitive processes and (2) more accurate predictions of unobserved data than less integrative methods. Specifically, we show how combining either EEG and fMRI with a behavioral model can perform substantially better than a behavioral-data-only model in both generative and predictive modeling analyses. We then show how a trivariate model - a model including EEG, fMRI, and behavioral data - outperforms bivariate models in both generative and predictive modeling analyses. Together, these results suggest that within an appropriate modeling framework, more data can be used to better constrain cognitive theory, and to generate more accurate predictions for behavioral and neural data.

  18. On the Implementation of AM/AM AM/PM Behavioral Models in System Level Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.; Tauritz, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of nonlinear device behavioral models offers an economical way of simulating the performance of complex communication systems. A concrete method for implementing the AM/AM AM/PM behavioral model in system level simulation using ADS is developed. This method seamlessly tansfers the data from

  19. Behavioral Change as a Result of Videotaped Playback: An Examination of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Don; Ripple, Richard E.

    The literature on the behavior effects of videotaped playback reveals that little theoretical formulation has been offered to explain the positive results which have been reported. Two theoretical models are considered in regard to these results. The first, a reinforcement model, suggests that some behaviors are reinforced positively and some…

  20. Method and Process for the Creation of Modeling and Simulation Tools for Human Crowd Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    measurements under controlled conditions. These methods and measures include motion capture of subjects in a laboratory environment to derive coefficients for...Experimentation, Empirical Data, Behavioral Models, Target Behavioral Response Laboratory, Crowds, Predictive Crowd Modeling, Motion Capture 16...MRAD – Handheld stand-off NLW operated by Control Force • Simulated Projectile Weapon • Simulated Handheld Directed Energy NLW (VDE) – Simulated

  1. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on convective heat transfer in a neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Kwon, C H; Yoo, S C

    2002-01-01

    Thermo-neutrality is one of the major environmental factors affecting a premature or low-birth-weight neonate inside an incubator. Severe temperature differences inside an incubator lead to neonate heat loss, hypothermia and apnoea, which are closely related to air flow and air velocity. In the study, flow visualisations, hot-wire velocity measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulate the airflow inside a neonatal incubator. An anatomically correct neonate model is designed using a three-dimensional laser scanner system and a rapid prototyping machine. Flow visualisations demonstrate that large-scale rotating airflow is produced inside the chamber, and a number of small, stationary eddies are found in regions between the air inlet and the neonate. Hot-wire measurements show that air velocities along the long inlets are not uniform. Computational fluid dynamics show relatively uniform temperatures of about 34 degrees C on the neonate's anterior aspect and the highest temperature of 36.1 degrees C at the right armpit and the crotch. Flow fields from airflow visualisations, hot-wire measurements and computational fluid dynamics are very similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The small eddies produced between the neonate and the mattress could interfere with convective and evaporative heat transfers from the neonate. Therefore it is important to eliminate eddies around the neonate in future designs of neonatal incubators.

  3. The correlation between infectivity and incubation period of measles, estimated from households with two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Don; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2011-09-07

    The generation time of an infectious disease is the time between infection of a primary case and infection of a secondary case by the primary case. Its distribution plays a key role in understanding the dynamics of infectious diseases in populations, e.g. in estimating the basic reproduction number. Moreover, the generation time and incubation period distributions together characterize the effectiveness of control by isolation and quarantine. In modelling studies, a relation between the two is often not made specific, but a correlation is biologically plausible. However, it is difficult to establish such correlation, because of the unobservable nature of infection events. We have quantified a joint distribution of generation time and incubation period by a novel estimation method for household data with two susceptible individuals, consisting of time intervals between disease onsets of two measles cases. We used two such datasets, and a separate incubation period dataset. Results indicate that the mean incubation period and the generation time of measles are positively correlated, and that both lie in the range of 11-12 days, suggesting that infectiousness of measles cases increases significantly around the time of symptom onset. The correlation between times from infection to secondary transmission and to symptom onset could critically affect the predicted effectiveness of isolation and quarantine.

  4. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  5. Understanding Social-Force Model in Psychological Principles of Collective Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of mass evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.

  6. Applying the "Model of recovering alcoholics' behavior stages and goal setting" to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, D M

    1993-08-01

    In 1990, the author developed the Model of Recovering Alcoholics' Behavior Stages and Goal Setting as a result of grounded theory research. The model explains the natural progression of recovery through four behavior stages. Each stage is characterized by specific patient goals. Application of the model provides a framework for nursing care planning that is both stage-focused and patient-centered. In this article, the author discusses nursing intervention in relation to the model.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models p...

  8. The effect of synchronized area on SOC behavior in a kind of Neural Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiao Wei; Chen, Tian Lun

    2000-01-01

    Based on the LISSOM model and the OFC earthquake model, we introduce a self-organized feature map Neural Network model . It displays a "Self Organized Criticality"(SOC) behavior. It can be seen that the feature area (synchronized area) produced by self-organized process brings about some definite effect on SOC behavior and the system evolves into a "partly-synchronized" state. For explaining this phenomena, a quasi-OFC earthquake model is simulated.

  9. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  10. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...... without interfering with the atmosphere inside the chamber....

  11. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  12. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  13. Longer incubation times for yeast fungemia: importance for presumptive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, André; Ancelle, Thierry; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Isolation rates of Candida glabrata at ≤2 days were 8.9% and 34.8% at >2 days; for Cryptococcus neoformans, they were 0.9% and 8.6%, respectively (1741 fungemia analyzed). An incubation time >2 days supports candins as presumptive treatment for C. glabrata, keeping in mind the risk of Cryptococcus fungemia.

  14. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  15. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature,

  16. Application of the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors amongst male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Zahra; Zarani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. For this purpose, a group of 151 male students was sampled using a multistage random sampling method to complete the quality of HIV information questionnaire, national AIDS questionnaire, international AIDS questionnaire and global positive attitude to AIDS questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the perception of HIV infection risk and sexual behavior. Thus, the perception of risk is considered the first step toward modifying sexual behaviors from risk-taking behaviors to safer behaviors.

  17. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  18. Modeling the thermotaxis behavior of C.elegans based on the artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxu; Deng, Xin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Qiaosong; Tang, Yun

    2016-07-03

    ASBTRACT This research aims at modeling the thermotaxis behavior of C.elegans which is a kind of nematode with full clarified neuronal connections. Firstly, this work establishes the motion model which can perform the undulatory locomotion with turning behavior. Secondly, the thermotaxis behavior is modeled by nonlinear functions and the nonlinear functions are learned by artificial neural network. Once the artificial neural networks have been well trained, they can perform the desired thermotaxis behavior. Last, several testing simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the model for thermotaxis behavior. This work also analyzes the different performances of the model under different environments. The testing results reveal the essence of the thermotaxis of C.elegans to some extent, and theoretically support the research on the navigation of the crawling robots.

  19. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  20. Attentional Resource Allocation and Cultural Modulation in a Computational Model of Ritualized Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    ritualized behaviors are perceptually similar across a range of behavioral domains, symbolically mediated experience-dependent information (so-called cultural priors) modulate perception such that communal ceremonies appear coherent and culturally meaningful, while compulsive behaviors remain incoherent and......How do cultural and religious rituals influence human perception and cognition, and what separates the highly patterned behaviors of communal ceremonies from perceptually similar precautionary and compulsive behaviors? These are some of the questions that recent theoretical models and empirical......, in some cases, pathological. In this study, we extend a qualitative model of human action perception and understanding to include ritualized behavior. Based on previous experimental and computational studies, the model was simulated using instrumental and ritualized representations of realistic motor...

  1. Importance of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen in the embryo's response to turning of the egg during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of removal of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen on the development of the fowl embryo were investigated. 2. A deficiency of sub-embryonic fluid on day 7 of incubation resulted in a reduction in the volume of the yolk sac and of allantoic fluid, and a reduction in the mass of the embryo later in incubation. 3. A deficiency of albumen on day 3 of incubation led to a reduction in allantoic fluid and embryo mass after day 12 incubation. 4. The results suggest that the physiology of embryos in unturned eggs is better modelled by eggs deprived of albumen than by eggs deprived of sub-embryonic fluid.

  2. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  3. A Dynamic Object Behavior Model and Implementation Based on Computational Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-wan; HE Fei; HE Ke-qing

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic object behavior model based on computational reflection is proposed. This model consists of function level and meta level, the meta objects in meta level manage the base objects and behaviors in function level, including dynamic binding and unbinding of base object and behavior.We implement this model with RoleJava Language, which is our self linguistic extension of the Java Language. Meta Objects are generated automatically at compile-time, this makes the reflecton mechanism transparent to programmers. Finally an example applying this model to a banking system is presented.

  4. A Multidimensional Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Model for Retweeting Behavior Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today microblogging has increasingly become a means of information diffusion via user’s retweeting behavior. As a consequence, exploring on retweeting behavior is a better way to understand microblog’s transmissibility in the network. Hence, targeted at online microblogging, a directed social network, along with user-based features, this paper first built content-based features, which consisted of URL, hashtag, emotion difference, and interest similarity, based on time series of text information that user posts. And then we measure relationship-based factor in social network according to frequency of interactions and network structure which blend with temporal information. Finally, we utilize nonnegative matrix factorization to predict user’s retweeting behavior from user-based dimension and content-based dimension, respectively, by employing strength of social relationship to constrain objective function. The results suggest that our proposed method effectively increases retweeting behavior prediction accuracy and provides a new train of thought for retweeting behavior prediction in dynamic social networks.

  5. Business incubators as support mechanisms for the economic development: Case of Maringá's Technology Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Helen Mansano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where competition is increasingly fierce, it is essential to create an innovation system, that ranges from basic research to the transfer of developments for the companies and the whole society. To verify this process, the most of the works are using the record number of patents as a proxy, given the difficulty of measuring new products, services and process for the market. Based in incubators of technology-based enterprises, in this article this problem was overcome, by measuring their products, services and processes. Thus, we developed this work with the main objective to assess whether there is interaction between the resident enterprises in technological incubator of Maringá, external companies and university.   The methodology includes a literature review on the subject, the development of variables related to incubator´s characteristics, the application of a questionnaire to the companies linked to Technological Incubator of Maringá, in order to verify the new products, services and process related to research that hit the market. The results point indicates the need for facilitating the process of innovation and interaction with university and industry by developed innovations.

  6. Analysis on E-consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Based on Data-driving Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Huang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the Internet world with vasty purchasing data sea online that makes research model of e-consumers’ purchasing behavior very different from traditional ones. Firstly this paper proposes three kinds of research models of consumers’ purchasing behavior, and then pointed out that data-driving model is the best one to analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior on the Internet. Secondly, it adopts the improved SOFM Neural Network as the tool of data-driving model to detailedly analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior of Internet marketing. Lastly experiment results demonstrate that the method has more visualization, exactness and robustness. Because consumers’ purchasing behavior analysis based on the SOFM Neural Network is a comparatively novel method, the research fruit in this paper is just for reference.

  7. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  8. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  9. Correlated Node Behavior Model based on Semi Markov Process for MANETS

    CERN Document Server

    Azni, A H; Noh, Zul Azri Muhamad; Basari, Abd Samad Hasan; Hussin, Burairah

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model for node behavior namely Correlated Node Behavior Model which is an extension of Node Behavior Model. The model adopts semi Markov process in continuous time which clusters the node that has correlation. The key parameter of the process is determined by five probabilistic parameters based on the Markovian model. Computed from the transition probabilities of the semi-Markov process, the node correlation impact on network survivability and resilience can be measure quantitatively. From the result, the quantitative analysis of correlated node behavior on the survivability is obtained through mathematical description, and the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed model are verified through numerical analysis. The analytical results show that the effect from correlated failure nodes on network survivability is much severer than other misbehaviors.

  10. Using GOMS and Bayesian plan recognition to develop recognition models of operator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; DeKoven, Elyon; Piegdon, Nicholas; Wood, Scott D.; Huber, Marcus J.

    2006-05-01

    Trends in combat technology research point to an increasing role for uninhabited vehicles in modern warfare tactics. To support increased span of control over these vehicles human responsibilities need to be transformed from tedious, error-prone and cognition intensive operations into tasks that are more supervisory and manageable, even under intensely stressful conditions. The goal is to move away from only supporting human command of low-level system functions to intention-level human-system dialogue about the operator's tasks and situation. A critical element of this process is developing the means to identify when human operators need automated assistance and to identify what assistance they need. Toward this goal, we are developing an unmanned vehicle operator task recognition system that combines work in human behavior modeling and Bayesian plan recognition. Traditionally, human behavior models have been considered generative, meaning they describe all possible valid behaviors. Basing behavior recognition on models designed for behavior generation can offers advantages in improved model fidelity and reuse. It is not clear, however, how to reconcile the structural differences between behavior recognition and behavior modeling approaches. Our current work demonstrates that by pairing a cognitive psychology derived human behavior modeling approach, GOMS, with a Bayesian plan recognition engine, ASPRN, we can translate a behavior generation model into a recognition model. We will discuss the implications for using human performance models in this manner as well as suggest how this kind of modeling may be used to support the real-time control of multiple, uninhabited battlefield vehicles and other semi-autonomous systems.

  11. Reliability and validation of a behavioral model of clinical behavioral formulation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and content and predictive validity of a clinical case formulation, developed from a behavioral perspective. A mixed design integrating levels of descriptive analysis and A-B case study with follow-up was used. The study established the reliability of the following descriptive and explanatory categories: (a) problem description, (b) predisposing factors, (c) precipitating factors, (d) acquisition and (e) inferred mechanism (maintenance). ...

  12. A conditional process model of children's behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Thomas; Hill, Andrew P; Niemiec, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    The potential benefits of children's engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children's self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes' basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches' providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes' volition (i.e., autonomy support).

  13. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGDuan-Ming; SUNHong-Zhang; LIZhi-Hua; PANGui-Jun; YUBo-Ming; LIRui; YINYan-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  14. Thermomechanical Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys with Rate Dependency on the Pseudoelastic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Roh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading-rate dependency on the pseudoelastic behaviors of shape memory alloy (SMA wires is experimentally and numerically investigated. The results are analyzed to estimate the parameters for a thermomechanical constitutive model of SMA wire with strain-rate dependency of the hysteresis behavior. An analytical model of SMAs is developed by using nonconstant parameters during various strain rates. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved model.

  15. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  16. Behavioral electromagnetic models of high‐speed p‐i‐n photodiodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for developing small‐signal behavioral electromagnetic (EM) models of p‐i‐n photodiodes (PDs) for high‐speed applications. The EM model includes RC bandwidth limitation effect and transit‐time effect. The model is capable of accurately modeling arbitrary complex...

  17. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim

  18. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  19. Fund choice behavior and estimation of switching models: an experiment*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Bao, T.; Tuinstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    We run a laboratory experiment that contributes to the finance literature on "return chasing behavior" studying how investors switch between mutual funds driven by past performance of the funds. The subjects in this experiment make discrete choices between several (2, 3 or 4) experimental funds in m

  20. Using Intent Information to Model User Behavior in Diversified Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chuklin; P. Serdyukov; M. de Rijke

    2013-01-01

    A result page of a modern commercial search engine often contains documents of different types targeted to satisfy different user intents (news, blogs, multimedia). When evaluating system performance and making design decisions we need to better understand user behavior on such result pages. To addr

  1. Formal modeling and analysis of cognitive agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, Alexei; Treur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    From an external perspective, cognitive agent behavior can be described by specifying (temporal) correlations of a certain complexity between stimuli (input states) and (re)actions (output states) of the agent. From an internal perspective the agent’s dynamics can be characterized by direct (causa

  2. The behavioral approach as a paradigm for modeling interconnected systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, HL; Willems, JC

    2003-01-01

    This article contains the outline of a 3-h course that will be given by the authors at the ECC 2003. The course consists of four parts: 1. The basic concepts, 2. Linear differential systems, 3. Control in a behavioral setting, and 4. The synthesis of dissipative systems.

  3. Phenomenological Behavior-Exchange Models of Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, John; And Others

    The objective of two studies was to devise an assessment procedure for the evaluation of therapy with distressed marriages. An extension of behavior exchange theory was proposed to include phenomenological ratings by the couple of the intent of messages sent and the impact of messages received. Convergent criteria were used to select 14…

  4. Future Orientation, Impulsivity, and Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, based on a sample of 1,873 adolescents between 11.4 and 20.9 years of age from the first 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the longitudinal effects of future orientation on levels of and developmental changes in problem behaviors, while controlling for the effects by impulsivity;…

  5. Constitutive Behavior and Modeling of Al-Cu Alloy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    34Dislocation Mechanics Based Analysis Of Material Dynamics Behavior." Journal De Physique , 1988. Banerjee, Biswajit. "The Mechanical Threshold...Mechanical Threshold of Dynamically Deformed Copper and Nitronic 40." Journal de Physique , 1985: 25- 34. Gama, B. A., S. L. Lopatnikov, and J. W. G

  6. The development of affective behavioral complexes: a level-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardyshevskaya M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses sources for, problems in, and ways of forming a hierarchical model of the development of whole affective behavioral complexes, not just mechanisms of emotional regulation, as was done in the original level-based model elaborated by Victor Lebedinsky. The author describes specific traits of affective behavioral complexes and types of links between them on different levels. Primitive affective behavioral complexes, either isolated or rigidly linked, dominate on the lower three levels. On the fourth level attachment behavior plays a “star” role, mediating and regulating all vital behaviors. On the fifth level symbolic activity permanently rebuilds the experience obtained on the lower levels. The author discusses links between affective behavioral complexes and nuclear personality formations.

  7. Counterconformity: an attribution model of adolescents' uniqueness-seeking behaviors in dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, I-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an attribution model will illustrate uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing in the Taiwanese adolescent subculture. The study employed 443 senior high school students. Results show that the tendency of uniqueness-seeking behavior in dressing is moderate. However, using cluster analysis to segment the counterconformity behavior of the subjects, the study demonstrates that there are two conspicuous types of segmentation "markets": rubber stamp and self-determined. The attribution models investigate the susceptibilities to informational and normative influence which have different direction impacts and weights on the adolescents' counterconformity behavior. More interestingly, path analyses indicate that consumer self-confidence mediates the relationship between informational influence and counterconformity behavior only on the rubber stamp type. This study then discusses how the adolescent consumers' need for uniqueness could be used in better understanding consumer behavior and the role consumption plays in their expression of identity.

  8. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  9. Understanding exercise behavior among Korean adults: a test of the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Cardinal, Bradley J; Lee, JongYoung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the theorized association of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change constructs by stage of change for exercise behavior among Korean adults. A total of 1,335 Korean adults were recruited and surveyed from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to identify the stage of exercise behavior and psychological attributes of adolescents. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis, MANOVA, correlation analysis, and discriminant analysis. Multivariate F tests indicated that behavioral and cognitive processes of change, exercise efficacy, and pros differentiated participants across the stages of exercise behavior. Furthermore, the findings revealed that adults' exercise behavior was significantly correlated with the TTM constructs and that overall classification accuracy across the stages of change was 50.6%. This study supports the internal and external validity of the TTM for explaining exercise behavior.

  10. Health behavior models in the age of mobile interventions: are our theories up to the task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T; Rivera, Daniel E; Atienza, Audie A; Nilsen, Wendy; Allison, Susannah M; Mermelstein, Robin

    2011-03-01

    Mobile technologies are being used to deliver health behavior interventions. The study aims to determine how health behavior theories are applied to mobile interventions. This is a review of the theoretical basis and interactivity of mobile health behavior interventions. Many of the mobile health behavior interventions reviewed were predominately one way (i.e., mostly data input or informational output), but some have leveraged mobile technologies to provide just-in-time, interactive, and adaptive interventions. Most smoking and weight loss studies reported a theoretical basis for the mobile intervention, but most of the adherence and disease management studies did not. Mobile health behavior intervention development could benefit from greater application of health behavior theories. Current theories, however, appear inadequate to inform mobile intervention development as these interventions become more interactive and adaptive. Dynamic feedback system theories of health behavior can be developed utilizing longitudinal data from mobile devices and control systems engineering models.

  11. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  12. Nitrification Potential of Soils Under Liquid Incubation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; RAN Wei; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    A red soil, a fluvo-aquic soil and a permeable paddy soil were used in a long-term investigation to study changes in nitrification with treatments: 1) soil incubation, 2) liquid incubation inoculated with soil samples, and 3) liquid incubation inoculated with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from the soils. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) in nitrification rates among the three soils when measured for 28 days by adding (NH4)2SO4 at the rate of 154 mg N kg-1 dry soil to fresh soil. However, the amounts of nitrifying bacteria in the three soils were not related to soil nitrification capacity. When the soil samples or the isolates of AOB enriched from the corresponding soil were incubated in liquid with pH 5.8, 7.0 and 8.0 buffers and 10 mmol L-1 ammonium nitrogen, there were no significant nitrification differences in the same soil type at each pH. The ability to oxidize ammonia through AOB from different types of soils in a homogeneous culture medium was similar, and the soil nitrification capacity could reflect the inherent properties of a soil. Altering the culture medium pH of individual soil type also showed that acidification of an alkaline fluvo-aquic soil decreased nitrification capacity, whereas alkalinization of the acidic red soil and permeable paddy soil increased their nitrification. For a better insight into factors influencing soil nitrification processes, soil properties including texture and clay composition should be considered.

  13. A Study on Bipedal and Mobile Robot Behavior Through Modeling and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala Nirmala; Prianggada Indra Tanaya; Maralo Sinaga

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study and analyze mobile robot behavior. In performing this, a framework is adopted and developed for mobile and bipedal robot. The robots are design, build, and run as proceed from the development of mechanical structure, electronics and control integration, and control software application. The behavior of those robots are difficult to be observed and analyzed qualitatively. To evaluate the design and behavior quality, modeling and simulation of robot structur...

  14. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development.

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic incubation: Biological indexes of soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Mirjana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our researches have been made on brown forest soil that had been used in long-term experiments set up according to specified fertilization system for over 30 years. We have chosen those experiment variants in which quantities of nitrogen fertilizers were gradually increased. The soil samples taken from 0 cm to 30 cm depth were used to determine biological indexes of nitrogen availability (aerobic and anaerobic incubation. The same samples were also used for pot experiments with oat. Plant and soil parameters obtained in controlled conditions were used for determination of biological indexes reliability in measuring the soil nitrogen availability. On the grounds of correlation analysis, it can be concluded that biological index of nitrogen availability achieved by the anaerobic incubation (without substraction of the initial content of available nitrogen of the investigated brown forest soil is the reliable indicator of soil nitrogen availability. That is not the case with the aerobic incubation in which reliability has not been established.

  16. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  17. Social learning theory and cognitive behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neziroglu, Fugen; Khemlani-Patel, Sony; Veale, David

    2008-03-01

    Contemporary cognitive behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder are reviewed, whereby the first by Neziroglu and colleagues emphasizes conditioning processes and relational frame theory and the latter by Veale emphasizes information processing. A brief review of the existing cognitive behavioral therapy research follows the presentation of the models. The majority of publications on BDD continue to deal with phenomenology and epidemiology, and much more research on cognitive behavioral treatment is needed. Treatment research should be geared towards testing elements of the models explicated in this article, and randomized controlled trials are greatly needed.

  18. Effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Silva, Napoleão C; Patrício, Janini J; Palmas, Daphne; Mendonça, Bruna P; Bittencourt, Mariana O; Cassol-Jr, Omar J; Barichello, Tatiana; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-04-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sepsis on behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia. Male Wistar rats underwent Cecal Ligation and Perporation (CLP) with "basic support" or were sham-operated. After 30 days, the animals were submitted to a model of schizophrenia by injection of Ketamine. The behavior tests were performed after 30 min of the injection of Ketamine or saline. Ketamine in doses of 15 and 25mg/kg increased locomotor activity, latency to first contact in the social interaction and stereotyped behavior. Some changes caused by sepsis may be associated with a predisposition to develop schizophrenia in the animal model.

  19. Electromechanical coupling model and analysis of transient behavior for inertial vibrating machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ji-yun; YU Cui-ping; YIN Xue-gang

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of electromechanical coupling system for a planar inertial vibrating machine is built by setting up dynamical equations of discrete systems with a matrix methodology proposed. The substance of the transient behavior of the machine is unveiled by analyzing the results of the computer simulation to the model, and new methods are presented for diminishing the transient amplitude of the vibrating machine and improving the transient behavior. The reliable mathematical model is provided for intelligent control of the transient behavior of the equipment.

  20. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  1. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  2. Prediction of Individual Buying Behavior: A Poisson-Bernoulli Model with Arbitrary Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, S. R.; Lee, J. C.; D. J. Sabavala

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of customer purchases are often modeled as discrete behavioral events following some probability law. These stochastic models have been applied separately to the phenomena of product class purchase incidence and brand choice (conditional on the products being purchased). Most of these models are probability mixture models where the parameters of an individual customer model vary across the population according to some distribution. This paper proposes a simple model of purchase behav...

  3. Sexual protection behavior in HIV-positive gay men: testing a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Nideröst, Sibylle; Platteau, Tom; Müller, Matthias C; Staneková, Danica; Gredig, Daniel; Roulin, Christophe; Rickenbach, Martin; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study on determinants of sexual protection behavior among HIV-positive gay men used the empirically tested information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. HIV-specific variables were added to the model to determine factors decisive for condom use with steady and casual partners. Data were collected using an anonymous, standardized self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were recruited at HIV outpatient clinics associated with the Eurosupport Study Group and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. To identify factors associated with condom use, backward elimination regression analyses were performed. Overall, 838 HIV-infected gay men from 14 European countries were included in this analysis. About 53% of them reported at least one sexual contact with a steady partner; 62.5% had sex with a casual partner during the last 6 months. Forty-three percent always used condoms with steady partners and 44% with casual partners. High self-efficacy and subjective norms in favor of condom-use were associated with increased condom use with casual and steady partners, whereas feeling depressed was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. Condoms were used less often with HIV-positive partners. Self-efficacy as an important behavioral skill to perform protection behavior was influenced by lower perceived vulnerability, higher subjective norms, and more positive safer sex attitudes. The IMB-model constructs appeared to be valid; however, not all the model predictors could be determined as hypothesized. Besides the original IMB constructs, HIV-specific variables, including sexual partners' serostatus and mental health, explained condom use. Such factors should be considered in clinical interventions to promote "positive prevention."

  4. Systematic comparison of the behaviors produced by computational models of epileptic neocortex.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warlaumont, A. S.; Lee, H. C.; Benayoun, M.; Stevens, R. L.; Hereld, M. (CLS-CI); ( MCS); (Univ. of Chicago); (Univ. of Memphis)

    2010-12-01

    Two existing models of brain dynamics in epilepsy, one detailed (i.e., realistic) and one abstract (i.e., simplified) are compared in terms of behavioral range and match to in vitro mouse recordings. A new method is introduced for comparing across computational models that may have very different forms. First, high-level metrics were extracted from model and in vitro output time series. A principal components analysis was then performed over these metrics to obtain a reduced set of derived features. These features define a low-dimensional behavior space in which quantitative measures of behavioral range and degree of match to real data can be obtained. The detailed and abstract models and the mouse recordings overlapped considerably in behavior space. Both the range of behaviors and similarity to mouse data were similar between the detailed and abstract models. When no high-level metrics were used and principal components analysis was computed over raw time series, the models overlapped minimally with the mouse recordings. The method introduced here is suitable for comparing across different kinds of model data and across real brain recordings. It appears that, despite differences in form and computational expense, detailed and abstract models do not necessarily differ in their behaviors.

  5. Universal Behavior of Few-Boson Systems Using Potential Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Gattobigio, M.; Deltuva, A.

    2017-03-01

    The universal behavior of a three-boson system close to the unitary limit is encoded in a simple dependence of many observables in terms of few parameters. For example the product of the three-body parameter κ _* and the two-body scattering length a, κ _* a depends on the angle ξ defined by E_3/E_2=tan ^2ξ . A similar dependence is observed in the ratio a_{AD}/a with a_{AD} the boson-dimer scattering length. We use a two-parameter potential to determine this simple behavior and, as an application, to compute a_{AD} for the case of three ^4He atoms.

  6. Modeling Dynamic Tactical Behaviors in Combatxxi using Hierarchical Task Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Simulation Office AI artificial intelligence BFTB Battles from the Bulge BT behavior tree CE command element CNA Center for Naval Analysis COA course of...an RTS game released in 2006 and set during the World War II (WWII) Greek Campaign. Battles from the Bulge (BFTB) was released in 2010 and “covers the...www.plannedassault.com/faqs [33] D. O’Connor. (2011, May.). Strategic War Game AI in Battles from the Bulge . AiGameDev. [Online]. Available: http

  7. Mitigating Insider Threat Using Human Behavior Influence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis , persuasion, and/or coercion.” [6] The theory behind human behavior is humans react to “definite objective...how often companies face attacks from within are 11 difficult to make. Many believe that insider attacks are under-reported to law enforcement...agencies or prosecutors. Companies fear the negative publicity or increased liability that arises because of the incidents. Or, they believe that the harm

  8. A Survey of Economic Models of Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Theoretic Analysis of the Criminal Choice. American Economic Review , vol. 65, no. 3 (June), 314-325. Cobb, William E. (1973). Theft And The Two...Deterrence, American Economic Review , June. Ehrlich, Isaac (1986). Crime and Punishment, preprint of chapter in John Eaton, Murray Milgate and Peter...Academic Press, pp. 166-171. Sjoquist, D. L. (1973). Property Crime And Economic Behavior: Some Empirical Results. American Economic Review , vol. 63

  9. EOF cold model-study of bath behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Totti Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The EOF reactor was developed in Brazil in the eighties with unique features. The preheating of scrap and distribution of injection points oxidizing gases and fuels make up these features. This paper aims to reproduce the behavior of the metal bath an EOF of 45 tons comparing their top three gas injection equipment: supersonic lances, atmospheric injectors and tuyeres. The lances and tuyeres promoted greater agitation of the bath with atmospheric injectors a great opportunity for improvement.

  10. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  11. Analysis of Breast Self-Examination Practice Using Fishbein's Model of Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Deborah A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which Fishbein's Model of Behavioral Intentions was able to predict breast self-examination behavior. A questionnaire was administered to 350 women who were classified according to frequency of breast self-examination. Results are set forth. Implications for health educators are considered. (MT)

  12. Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sonia D.; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention…

  13. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  14. Bridging Design and Behavioral Research With Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Advertising research is a scientific discipline that studies artifacts (e.g., various forms of marketing communication) as well as natural phenomena (e.g., consumer behavior). Empirical advertising research therefore requires methods that can model design constructs as well as behavioral constructs,

  15. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  16. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-30

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

  17. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    of the needs of early stage start-ups since they: i) do not have a well-articulated business model but work towards establishing one; ii) operate under conditions of significantly high risks and uncertainties; and iii) have not developed the minimum viable set of partners that would enable them to demonstrate......The paper focuses on conceptualizing the value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups that are typical of university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems. The challenge of such conceptualization consists in two main issues. The first issue is taking into account the specificity...... that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...

  18. Mentoring Entrepreneurial Networks: mapping conceptions of participants in technological-based business incubators in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Regis, Helder

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent entrepreneurship research agenda includes the analysis of cognitive structures of successful entrepreneurs, revealing an important tool for the examination of an entrepreneurial career. Using techniques of cognitive maps, this study explores the concepts of a successful career and the network itself, as a whole, for career development. Fifty-three entrepreneurs were studied, in seven technological incubators in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Specifically, this study aimed to map the shared meanings of the incubated entrepreneurs regarding informal support networks. Such networks support the entrepreneurial career and the present study explores the characteristics and the conceptual model that underlies the networks. The data collection was achieved through interviews through a free evocation technique. The shared meanings indicate the existence of inherent thought categories that support network context in the incubator environment, mainly the mentoring networks. The results endorse the interpretation of an informal mentoring model emerging from the dominant evocations concerning a successful career and of the network itself as promoter of career development.

  19. A Model of Rapid Radicalization Behavior Using Agent-Based Modeling and Quorum Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Noah; Drucker, Nick; Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of radicalization, especially rapid radicalization, has become increasingly important to US policy in the past several years. Traditionally, radicalization is considered a slow process, but recent social and political events demonstrate that the process can occur quickly. Examining this rapid process, in real time, is impossible. However, recreating an event using modeling and simulation (M&S) allows researchers to study some of the complex dynamics associated with rapid radicalization. We propose to adapt the biological mechanism of quorum sensing as a tool to explore, or possibly explain, rapid radicalization. Due to the complex nature of quorum sensing, M&S allows us to examine events that we could not otherwise examine in real time. For this study, we employ Agent Based Modeling (ABM), an M&S paradigm suited to modeling group behavior. The result of this study was the successful creation of rapid radicalization using quorum sensing. The Battle of Mogadishu was the inspiration for this model and provided the testing conditions used to explore quorum sensing and the ideas behind rapid radicalization. The final product has wider applicability however, using quorum sensing as a possible tool for examining other catalytic rapid radicalization events.

  20. Modeling Land-Use Decision Behavior with Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Aalders

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to incorporate and manage the different drivers of land-use change in a modeling process is one of the key challenges because they are complex and are both quantitative and qualitative in nature. This paper uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN to incorporate characteristics of land managers in the modeling process and to enhance our understanding of land-use change based on the limited and disparate sources of information. One of the two models based on spatial data represented land managers in the form of a quantitative variable, the area of individual holdings, whereas the other model included qualitative data from a survey of land managers. Random samples from the spatial data provided evidence of the relationship between the different variables, which I used to develop the BBN structure. The model was tested for four different posterior probability distributions, and results showed that the trained and learned models are better at predicting land use than the uniform and random models. The inference from the model demonstrated the constraints that biophysical characteristics impose on land managers; for older land managers without heirs, there is a higher probability of the land use being arable agriculture. The results show the benefits of incorporating a more complex notion of land managers in land-use models, and of using different empirical data sources in the modeling process. Future research should focus on incorporating more complex social processes into the modeling structure, as well as incorporating spatio-temporal dynamics in a BBN.