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Sample records for behavioral incubation model

  1. Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Willard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene expression studies have investigated changes induced by drug exposure, but few reports describe changes that persist following relapse. In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. As an important modulator of goal-directed behavior, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was the target of genomic analysis. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin during 3 h daily sessions for 14 d. Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. Results Behavioral data demonstrated incubation (increased expression of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior after the 14 d abstinent period. That is, following 14 d of enforced abstinence, animals displayed heightened drug-seeking behavior when returned to the environment where they had previously received heroin. This increased drug-seeking took place despite the fact that they received no drug during this extinction session. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Microarrays identified 66 genes whose expression was identified as changed by at least 1.4 fold (p bdnf, calb1, dusp5, dusp6, egr1, npy, rgs2. Conclusion Ontological analysis indicates that several of the genes confirmed to be changed are important for neuroplasticity, and through that role may impact learning and behavior. The importance of drug-seeking behavior and memory of previous drug-taking sessions suggest that such genes may be important for relapse. The global gene expression analysis adds to the

  2. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  3. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  4. Generating Business Model: the pre-incubation as experimental environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Anderson Paiva; Pimenta, Iris Linhares; Maciel, Raquel Siqueira; Carvalho, Maria Luiza Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to create a model for monitoring and evaluating companies in the pre-incubation stage, in a technology-based incubator located at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). The monitoring and evaluation model was structured according to the program set for the pre-incubation stage. In this stage, the function of the incubator is to support entrepreneurs in transforming innovative ideas into profitable businesses. The incubator offers courses a...

  5. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    -oriented business incubator program in Africa. Insights gained suggest that there is a need for more balanced approaches to establishing incubators, especially when environments are uncertain and the goals of business incubation are not yet clear. We finish our conceptual article with a set of propositions to...

  6. Incubation temperature modulates post-hatching thermoregulatory behavior in the Madagascar ground gecko, Paroedura pictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Lewis, Sean J; Sokoloff, Greta

    2002-09-01

    All vertebrates regulate body temperature within narrow limits, regardless of their physiological capabilities. When do these limits develop, and can they be modified by manipulations of the developmental thermal environment? We addressed these questions by incubating the eggs of the Madagascar ground gecko, Paroedura pictus, at three temperatures and by assessing thermoregulatory behavior in hatchlings. Thermoregulatory behavior was assessed using a two-choice shuttle paradigm, and skin temperatures were measured non-invasively using infrared thermography. The shuttling behavior of hatchlings was systematically affected by the temperature at which they were incubated, and follow-up tests suggested that this effect persisted for at least three weeks post-hatching. The body temperature data from the shuttling experiment were used to model thermoregulatory behavior in a complex thermal environment; the model predicted systematic effects of incubation temperature on thermal preference. The specificity of the alteration in thermoregulatory behavior by incubation temperature is compelling and provides evidence for powerful pre-hatching influences on a fundamental, life-sustaining behavioral process. PMID:12177143

  7. Modeling of Incubation Time for Austenite to Ferrite Phase Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-guang; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Wei; JIAO Si-hai

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the classical nucleation theory, a new model of incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation has been developed, in which the effect of deformation on austenite has been taken into consideration. To prove the precision of modeling, ferrite transformation starting temperature (Ar3) has been calculated using the Scheil′s additivity rule, and the Ar3 values were measured using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The Ar3 values provided by the modeling method coincide with the measured ones, indicating that the model is precise in predicting the incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation in hot deformed steels.

  8. Incubation temperature affects the behavior of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D; Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-06-01

    The leopard gecko has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); females are predominantly produced when incubated at 26 degrees C (100%), 30 degrees C (70%), and 34 degrees C (95%), whereas males are predominantly produced at 32.5 degrees C (75%). Exogenous estradiol can override the effect of temperature on sex determination. To compare temperature-determined females with hormone-determined females, eggs from the male-biased temperature were treated with estradiol benzoate during incubation. As adults, animals from a male-biased incubation temperature were more likely to exhibit aggression than animals from female-biased incubation temperatures. Furthermore, females from a male-biased incubation temperature tended to be less attractive than females from female-biased temperatures. Hormone-determined females were both attractive and aggressive. This suggests that incubation temperature is an important development determinant of adult aggressiveness and attractiveness. The 26 degrees C animals ovariectomized on the day of hatch exhibited more frequent aggression and were unreceptive to males, indicating that postnatal ovarian hormones also play a role in adult sociosexual behaviors. The parallel between incubation temperature and intrauterine position in laboratory mammals is discussed. PMID:8047573

  9. EFFECTS OF METHYL PARATHION ON RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD (AGELIUS PHOENICUES) INCUBATION BEHAVIOR AND NESTING SUCCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living female red-winged blackbirds were captured on their nests and given oral doses of 0,2.37 or 4.21 mg/kg methyl- parathion in a propylene glycol carrier during incubation. irds were released immediately after dosing and observed for 5 h to document behavioral effects, a...

  10. Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

  11. Persistent effect of incubation temperature on stress-induced behavior in the Yucatan banded gecko (Coleonyx elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnik, Marian; Albrechtová, Jana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2011-02-01

    Although variability in behavioral traits within animal populations is well documented, the mechanisms maintaining that variability are still insufficiently known. In this study, we examined whether differences in thermal environment during egg incubation can permanently organize nonsocial behavior across different contexts and situations in a lizard species. We incubated eggs of the Yucatan banded gecko, Coleonyx elegans (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae) at 3 constant temperatures (26, 28, and 30 °C) and raised juveniles separately under the same conditions until adulthood. We then subjected them to 3 behavioral tests within 2 different contexts: an open-field test and a test of antipredator behavior (stressful context) as well as a test of feeding behavior (nonstressful context). Individuals of both sexes incubated at 30 °C were consistently less active and showed lower frequencies of several stereotypic behaviors in the stressful contexts than did individuals incubated at 26 and 28 °C. The test of feeding behavior revealed no significant effect of incubation temperature on geckos' behavior. Thus, our study demonstrates that developmental plasticity may play an important role in producing variability in stress-induced behavior in lizards. PMID:21244135

  12. Using Web2.0 Aspect fro Designing a New Business Incubation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brojeni, Roozbeh Abbasi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work has examined and analyzed a new operating model in business incubation era, based on utilizing the second generation of web. The main objective of this survey is developing a model of representing many of business incubation services, by enlarging the network relationships between entrepreneurs (including innovative start-up firms), in order to let them share their own experiences, business knowledge, and abilities, in a mass-collaborative networking system. Business incubati...

  13. An incubator model based on the territorial value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Contò, Francesco; Adinolfi, Felice; Mariantonietta FIORE; La Sala, Piermichele

    2013-01-01

    Policies to promote and encourage local foods may take many different shapes depending on both the specific targets and strategies. Some policies, especially at a local level, promote supply-chain vertical and horizontal integration as a comprehensive strategy which aims to help firms pursue several of the promoting policies. A business model that focuses its attention on the consumer of the product and territory can be a crucial driver in generating a ‘land fecundation’ as a response to ...

  14. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  15. Night Heron Incubation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  16. An Evaluation and Impact Assessment of Business Incubation Models in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    A business incubator can play an important role in developing and supporting startup companies, and has the potential to stimulate local and regional economies. Incubation is a continuous relationship between the incubator and the early-stage entrepreneur, with graduation as the target and occurring when the early-stage company has reached sufficient maturity. Through the incubation proces...

  17. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention. PMID:26822352

  18. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    OpenAIRE

    Singer Peter A; Masum Hassan; Chakma Justin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular ...

  19. Incubation periods under various anti-retroviral therapies in homogeneous mixing and age-structured dynamical models: A theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Arni S R Srinivasa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We consider previously well-known models in epidemiology where the parameter for incubation period is used as one of the important components to explain the dynamics of the variables. Such models are extended here to explain the dynamics with respect to a given therapy that prolongs the incubation period. A deconvolution method is demonstrated for estimation of parameters in the situations when no-therapy and multiple therapies are given to the infected population. The models and deconvolution method are extended in order to study the impact of therapy in age-structured populations. A generalisation for a situation when n-types of therapies are available is given.

  20. Incubator best practice : A framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bergek, Anna; Norrman, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a ...

  1. Mathematical models for adjustment of in vitro gas production at different incubation times and kinetics of corn silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, with whole plant silage corn at different stages of maturity, aimed to evaluate the mathematical models Exponential, France, Gompertz and Logistic to study the kinetics of gas production in vitro incubations for 24 and 48 hours. A semi-automated in vitro gas production technique was used during one, three, six, eight, ten, 12, 14, 16, 22, 24, 31, 36, 42 and 48 hours of incubation periods. Model adjustment was evaluated by means of mean square of error, mean bias, root mean square prediction error and residual error. The Gompertz mathematical model allowed the best adjustment to describe the gas production kinetics of maize silages, regardless of incubation period. The France model was not adequate to describe gas kinetics of incubation periods equal or lower than 48 hours. The in vitro gas production technique was efficient to detect differences in nutritional value of maize silages from different growth stages. Twenty four hours in vitro incubation periods do not mask treatment effects, whilst 48 hour periods are inadequate to measure silage digestibility.

  2. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  3. Switching from simple to complex dynamics in a predator-prey-parasite model: An interplay between infection rate and incubation delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, N; Adak, D

    2016-07-01

    Parasites play a significant role in trophic interactions and can regulate both predator and prey populations. Mathematical models might be of great use in predicting different system dynamics because models have the potential to predict the system response due to different changes in system parameters. In this paper, we study a predator-prey-parasite (PPP) system where prey population is infected by some micro parasites and predator-prey interaction occurs following Leslie-Gower model with type II response function. Infection spreads following SI type epidemic model with standard incidence rate. The infection process is not instantaneous but mediated by a fixed incubation delay. We study the stability and instability of the endemic equilibrium point of the delay-induced PPP system with respect to two parameters, viz., the force of infection and the length of incubation delay under two cases: (i) the corresponding non-delayed system is stable and (ii) the corresponding non-delayed system is unstable. In the first case, the system populations coexist in stable state for all values of delay if the force of infection is low; or show oscillatory behavior when the force of infection is intermediate and the length of delay crosses some critical value. The system, however, exhibits very complicated dynamics if the force of infection is high, where the system is unstable in absence of delay. In this last case, the system shows oscillatory, stable or chaotic behavior depending on the length of delay. PMID:27091744

  4. Modeling shopping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    SOUBUSTA, Václav

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with modeling agents in multiagent systems, where it will create a java application in program Greenfoot. This application will serve as a simulation of different shopping behavior of customers when choosing a suitable trade for purchase for them. The behavior will be visualized in the program Greenfoot and properly documented on the javadoc level .

  5. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education...

  6. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  7. Behavioral Modeling of Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biolek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two behavioral models of memcapacitor are developed and implemented in SPICE-compatible simulators. Both models are related to the charge-controlled memcapacitor, the capacitance of which is controlled by the amount of electric charge conveyed through it. The first model starts from the state description of memcapacitor whereas the second one uses the memcapacitor constitutive relation as the only input data. Results of transient analyses clearly show the basic fingerprints of the memcapacitor.

  8. Persistent effect of incubation temperature on stress-induced behavior in the Yucatan banded gecko (Coleonyx elegans)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnik, M.; Albrechtová, Jana; Kratochvíl, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 1 (2011), s. 22-30. ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : behavioral syndrome * open-field test * antipredator behavior * personality * phenotypic plasticity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  9. Incubation as a support measure to early stage Entrepreneurship : The Case of Blekinge Business Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Lydia Anibea

    2008-01-01

    Business Incubation has recently attracted increased attention as a model of start-up facilitation. Venture capitalists see incubators as a means to diversify risky investment portfolios, and would-be entrepreneurs approach incubators for start-up support. More than a thousand incubators have been established in the last few years, most of them as regional business incubators. But new types of incubators are emerging. These incubators pursue different strategic objectives, apply different ski...

  10. Application of Adaptive Predictive Control to a Newborn Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Med A. Zermani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an application of Indirect Adaptive Generalized Predictive Control (IAGPC of an incubator for newborn, in order to improve the performance of temperature control. Approach: Analysis of physical phenomena of incubator was involved together knowledge of the dynamic behavior. Incubator was identified by means of Recursive Least Square (RLS technique associated with a projection of the model parameters for robust system identification. Results: Results showed that mathematical model of neonatal incubator predicted coincide with the measured data. A comparative study was made between ON-OFF, PID and IAGPC control in order to provide the performance of each strategy. Conclusion: Results had proved effectiveness of the IAGPC as a control of incubator system.

  11. Comparison of two models in the estimation of nitrogen uptake rates using data from 15-N incubation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavery Tungaraza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two uptake rate models, Dugdale & Goering's (D&G model and Elskens' model. The aim is to provide an insight into how estimates of uptake processes, i.e. regeneration and loss rates from both dissolved and particulate nitrogen pools, influence the total uptake rates when the two models are compared. The uptake rates of three nitrogenous nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and urea from 15-N incubation experimental data were compared. The comparison indicated that the D&G model underestimated nitrate uptake rates by about 34%, implying a significant regeneration and loss rates of the nutrient. Elskens' model further showed that the loss rates from the dissolved phase were about 40% and 25% for the ammonium and urea pools, respectively, indicating that the D&G model underestimated the experimental uptake rates of the nutrients. On average, nitrification made up about 30% of the total ammonium uptake flux, whereas the sinks from particulate nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen were estimated at 36% and 56%, respectively. The D&G model sometimes overestimated the f-ratio values to about 60% and higher as a result of ammonium and urea uptake rates underestimation. This paper also shows that detritus adsorption, bacterial uptake and cell lysis are equally important processes.

  12. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  13. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure...

  14. Night Heron Incubation Data will gulls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  15. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  16. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology is central in promoting economic growth and new firm creation the crucial mechanism in transferring new knowledge to markets, then technology incubators have the biggest potential to contribute to ...

  17. 孵化温度对赤链蛇胚胎代谢和幼体行为的影响%The effects of incubation temperature on embryonic metabolism and hatchling behavior in the Red-banded Snake, Dinodon rufozonatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文佳; 俞霄; 曹梦洁; 林隆慧

    2012-01-01

    We collected adult females of Dinodon rufozonatum (Colubridae) from a population in Zhejiang, Southeast China, to study the effects of incubation temperature on embryonic metabolism and hatchling behavior. We incubated eggs at there constant temperatures ranging from 24 X to 30 X , and weighed containers and eggs at 5-day intervals. The duration of incubation, measured as the number of days to pipping, was recorded for each egg. Eggs were measured for changes in size and embryonic metabolism at 5-day intervals. The response to chemical cues, respiration metabolism and sexual phenotype were determined for each hatchling. Because physiological and behavioral performances are highly sensitive to variation in body temperature in reptiles, we conducted all trials at the body temperature of 28 ℃. This was achieved by placing hatchlings in an incubator at the test temperature for approximately 1 h prior to testing. We presented a cotton-tipped applicator soaked with cologne water to the lip of hatchlings and recorded tongue flicks for 1 min. Tongue flicking was measured because many reptiles flick their tongues frequently to detect both predators and prey and to gather information about other members of their own species. The behavioral character is therefore a potentially important indicator of fitness. Incubation temperature affected incubation length, mass gain and energy consumption of eggs during incubation and locomotor performance of hatchlings, but not the rate of embryonic metabolism, hatchiing success and tongue flicking. Incubation length decreased exponentially as incubation temperature increased. All eggs gained mass during incubation due to absorption of water. Incubation temperature affected water exchanges between eggs and their surroundings, thereby affecting the hydric conditions inside the egg. Eggs incubated at 24 X. gained more mass and comsumed more energy to hatch than did eggs at 30 ℃ , but eggs incubated at these two temperatures did not

  18. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...

  19. Research on Investment and Income Model of Technology Enterprise Incubator%科技企业孵化器的投资收益模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强

    2013-01-01

    科技企业孵化器的投资收益模式一般由组织制度模式决定,是组织制度模式的一种内在要求和外在表现.以孵化器创办及运营所需资金的来源渠道为依据,孵化器分为一元化投资模式和多元化投资模式.而孵化器的收益模式则主要有房地产、中介服务、自办实业和风险投资等四种.%Investment and income model of technology enterprise incubator is generally decided by organization system pattern, it is one of intrinsic requests and external performance. Taking original channel of need fund of incubator origination and operation as the bases, the incubator divides into the unified and multiplex investment models. But the incubator income model mainly has the real estate, the intermediary service, the industry by self and the venture invest and so on.

  20. Masonry behavior and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Angelillo, Maurizio; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Milani, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this Chapter we present the basic experimental facts on masonry materials and introduce simple and refined models for masonry. The simple models are essentially macroscopic and based on the assumption that the material is incapable of sustaining tensile loads (No-Tension assumption). The refined models account for the microscopic structure of masonry, modeling the interaction between the blocks and the interfaces.

  1. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  2. On Business Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2014-01-01

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first part is about the history and development periods of business incubation; the second one is on its three generations defined by scholars; and the third one is on its present situation including various forms of incubators. In the conclusion, a brief reflection is made on its significance in economy and on the value it provides for society.

  3. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  4. Behavior genetics: Bees as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.

  5. Business Incubation in Brazil: Creating an Environment for Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Business incubators, by providing timely help and support to new ventures, hold the potential to create and develop entrepreneurial talent at the micro-level and foster an environment for entrepreneurship at the macro level. Today, with approximately 400 incubators and a well-developed incubation ecosystem, Brazil leads one of the most successful incubation movements in Latin America, through innovation and adaptation of incubator models to suit indigenous needs. Brazilian incubation is very ...

  6. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  7. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  8. An opinion-driven behavioral dynamics model for addictive behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Finley, Patrick D.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Husten, Corinne; Glass, Robert J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a model of behavioral dynamics that combines a social network-based opinion dynamics model with behavioral mapping. The behavioral component is discrete and history-dependent to represent situations in which an individual's behavior is initially driven by opinion and later constrained by physiological or psychological conditions that serve to maintain the behavior. Individuals are modeled as nodes in a social network connected by directed edges. Parameter sweeps illustrate model behavior and the effects of individual parameters and parameter interactions on model results. Mapping a continuous opinion variable into a discrete behavioral space induces clustering on directed networks. Clusters provide targets of opportunity for influencing the network state; however, the smaller the network the greater the stochasticity and potential variability in outcomes. This has implications both for behaviors that are influenced by close relationships verses those influenced by societal norms and for the effectiveness of strategies for influencing those behaviors.

  9. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  10. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  11. Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior Models of Behavioral Intentions and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. DE CANNIÈRE; P. DE PELSMACKER; M. GEUENS

    2008-01-01

    Using real-life purchase behavior data of apparel and survey information, this study compares the Relationship Quality and the Theory of Planned Behavior models. The attitude towards the buying behavior, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control (antecedents of the buying intention in the Theory of Planned Behavior) are better predictors of behavioral intentions than Relationship Quality. In both models intentions fully mediate the impact of attitudinal antecedents on behavior, bot...

  12. Modeling vertical movement of organic matter in a soil incubated for 41 years with "1"4C labeled straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S.; Christensen, B.T.; Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, Erik Steen; Jensen, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of organic matter (OM) in the soil profile reflects the balance between inputs and decomposition at different depths as well as transport of OM within the profile. In this study we modeled movement of OM in the soil profile as a result of mechanisms resulting in dispersive and...... advective movement. The model was used to interpret the distribution of C-14 in the soil profile 41 years after the labeling event. The model fitted the observed distribution of C-14 well (R-2 = 0.988, AIC(c) = -82.6), with a dispersion constant of D = 0.71 cm(2) yr(-1) and an advection constant of v = 0.......0081 cm yr(-1). However, the model consistently underestimated the amount of OM in the soil layers from 27 to 37 cm depth. A possible explanation for this is that different fractions of OM are transported by different mechanisms. For example, particulate OM, organomineral colloids and dissolved OM are not...

  13. Analysis and modeling of parking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the spatial structure of parking behavior and establishes a basic parking behavior model to represent the parking problem in downtown, and establishes a parking pricing model to analyze the parking equilibrium with a positive parking fee and uses a paired combinatorial logit model to analyze the effect of trip integrative cost on parking behavior and concludes from empirical results that the parking behavior model performs well.

  14. Incubation time fracture criterion for FEM simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Bratov

    2011-01-01

    The paper is discussing problems connected with embedment of the incubation time criterion for brittle fracture into finite element computational schemes. Incubation time fracture criterion is reviewed; practical questions of its numerical implementation are extensively discussed. Several examples of how the incubation time fracture criterion can be used as fracture condition in finite element computations are given. The examples include simulations of dynamic crack propagation and arrest,impact crater formation(i.e. fracture in initially intact media),spall fracture in plates,propagation of cracks in pipelines. Applicability of the approach to model initiation,development and arrest of dynamic fracture is claimed.

  15. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species. PMID:26584739

  16. Development of eggs and larvae of Emmelichthys nitidus (Percoidei: Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia, including a temperature-dependent egg incubation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Keane, John P.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Tracey, Sean R.

    2008-08-01

    Reared eggs and field-collected material were employed to describe the development of the pelagic eggs and larvae of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae), a small (36 cm TL) mid-water schooling species common in shelf waters of temperate Australia. Hydrated oocytes from adults trawled from spawning grounds off eastern Tasmania were fertilized and reared to the yolk-sac larval stage, and the data employed to build a temperature-dependent egg incubation model. Embryogenesis lasted 96, 84 and 54 h at mean temperatures of 13.1, 14.4 and 16.5 °C respectively, and was divided into seven stages based on extent of epiboly until blastopore closure (stages I-III) and embryo growth (stages IV-VII). Eggs (1.00-1.05 mm diameter) are spherical with a smooth chorion, small perivitelline space and prominent, unsegmented yolk with a single, posteriorly-located oil globule (0.18-0.20 mm diameter) that becomes pigmented from stage III. Embryos have two distinct snout melanophores, and a paired melanophore row laterally along the trunk and tail. Morphological identification of eggs collected during surveys in October 2005 and 2006 was validated using quantitative PCR amplification of the mtDNA d-loop gene region unique to E. nitidus, producing an 80-100% agreement across all seven stages. Newly-emerged larvae (1.9-3.3 mm) possess a prominent yolk sac with the posteriorly-located, pigmented oil globule, mouth not yet functional and unpigmented eyes. Notochord flexion occurs between 5 and 8 mm while fins are formed by 12 mm. Larvae examined (3.3-17.4 mm) are lightly pigmented and possess percoid features such as an elongate to moderate body, coiled, triangular-shaped gut, preopercular spines and 24-25 myomeres; two prominent pigment patches opposite each other dorsally and ventrally along the tail are diagnostic. Variability of mean egg ages ( y) by temperature ( t) and stage ( i) was best described by the deterministic stage-to-age model y = 35.911exp[-(0.155 t + 0.262 i)] i2

  17. 藏北黑颈鹤孵卵期的昼间时间分配和行为节律∗%Diurnal Time Budget and Behavior Rhythm of Grus Nigricollis during Incubating Phase in Northern Tibeten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝粉良; 仓决卓玛; 李建川; 杨乐; 刘宁

    2015-01-01

    To provide the basic information on adaptability of Black-necked Crane to eco-environ-ment in northern Tibeten and on behavioral difference of monogamous birds, diurnal activity of incubating Black-necked Crane was observed in northern Tibetern from May to June 2006 with focal animal sam-pling. The result showed that breeding behavior of female was more than that of male, but the other four types of behavior were less, especially vigilance. There was a conspicuous variation on the diurnal activity of Black-necked Crane, and foraging behavior, breeding behavior presented asynchronism and synchroni-zation between the males and the females at different time. The result suggested that the female beared breeding task and the male protected resource, although responsibility for the breeding task was undertaken by the both. The behavior-activity pattern of incubating Black-necked Cranes reaches an evolutionarily stable strategy with the environment.%2006年5月8日~6月22日,采用焦点动物取样法,我们对藏北黑颈鹤( Grus nigricollis)孵卵期的行为活动进行了观测。结果表明:雌雄鹤各种行为活动的时间分配存在一定差异,雌鹤繁殖行为较雄鹤高,但警戒较低;雌雄黑颈鹤的行为表现出一定的节律性,雌雄鹤的繁殖和取食行为在不同时段上表现出同步性和异步性;雌雄鹤共同参与繁殖,但雌性担任繁殖的主要任务,雄性重视保护资源。藏北黑颈鹤孵卵期的行为活动方式是对当地环境适应的进化稳定策略。

  18. 孵化温度对双斑锦蛇初生幼体行为和呼吸代谢的影响%Effect of incubation temperature on behavior and metabolism in the Chinese cornsnake, Elaphe bimaculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹梦洁; 祝思; 蔡若茹; 毛飞; 林隆慧

    2012-01-01

    Elaphe bimaculata ( Colubridae) is a small rat snake ( 60—80 cm) found in China. We collected adult E. bimaculata from a population in Jiangsu, Eastern China, to study the effect of incubation temperature on hatchlings' metabolism and behavior. We incubated the eggs at their constant temperatures (24, 27 and 30 X, ). All hatchlings were used to evaluate the response to chemical cues, respiration metabolism and sex determination. Because physiological and behavioral performances are highly sensitive to variation in body temperature in reptiles, we conducted all trials at the body temperature of 28 °C. This was achieved by placing hatchlings in an incubator at the test temperature for approximately 1 h prior to the test. We presented a cotton-tipped applicator soaked with cologne water to the lip of hatchlings and recorded tongue flicks for 1 min. Tongue flicking was measured because many reptiles flick their tongues frequently to detect both predators and prey and to gather information about other members of their own species. This behavioral character is therefore a potentially important indicator of fitness. Selected body temperature was examined in a 100 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm terrarium covered with sand, sward and pieces of clay tiles. The terrarium was placed in constant temperature rooms where the temperature was set at 24 °C. One light bulb (200 W) suspended above one end created a thermal gradient ranging from room temperature to 50 t for 12h daily, and lights were switched on at 07;00 h. Snakes were moved from the cool side into the terrarium at 10:00 h and, 24 h later, they were measured for body temperature ( cloacal temperature, Tb) at 13:00 h using a UT-325 electronic thermometer ( made in Taiwan) individually, which had an external thermal probe and was previously calibrated with astandard thermometer. Great care was taken to avoid heat transfer occurring between hands and the measuring snake. Hereafter, we continuously measured the temperature of

  19. The incubation periods of Dengue viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Chan

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses are major contributors to illness and death globally. Here we analyze the extrinsic and intrinsic incubation periods (EIP and IIP, in the mosquito and human, respectively. We identified 146 EIP observations from 8 studies and 204 IIP observations from 35 studies. These data were fitted with censored Bayesian time-to-event models. The best-fitting temperature-dependent EIP model estimated that 95% of EIPs are between 5 and 33 days at 25°C, and 2 and 15 days at 30°C, with means of 15 and 6.5 days, respectively. The mean IIP estimate was 5.9 days, with 95% expected between days 3 and 10. Differences between serotypes were not identified for either incubation period. These incubation period models should be useful in clinical diagnosis, outbreak investigation, prevention and control efforts, and mathematical modeling of dengue virus transmission.

  20. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  1. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology is central in promoting economic growth and new firm creation the crucial mechanism in transferring new knowledge to markets, then technology incubators have the biggest potential to contribute to ...

  2. Thoughts on Construction Models of Incubators of Science and Technology Enterprises%科技企业孵化器建设模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤桐

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, through analyzing situation of development of incubators of science and technology enterprises in China, the author put forward existent problems in construction and development, and pointed suggestions of putting great ef- fort to construction and development of incubators, strengthening construction of innovative incubators of science and technol- ogy enterprises and vigorously developing professional incubators.%通过分析我国科技企业孵化器发展情况,指出建设和发展中存在的问题,提出政府要高度重视孵化器的建设和发展、加强创意科技企业孵化器建设、大力发展专业孵化器等建议。

  3. Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Wayne P.; King, Joseph B.; Jankura, Richard E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology for the period October 2000 through September 2004. The Lewis Incubator helped the startup and growth of technology based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. Incubating Next -Gen.Edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Given a blank slate, what should the 21st century college classroom look like, and how should it be operated? Answering those questions is the idea behind setting up "incubator classrooms," spaces dedicated to trying out new technologies and new ways of teaching and learning. By incubating new ideas, faculty members and IT staff discover which…

  5. Stream Processing Algorithms that model behavior changes

    OpenAIRE

    Capponi, Agostino; Chandy, Mani

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms that fuse information in multiple event streams to update models that represent system behavior. System behaviors vary over time; for example, an information network varies from heavily loaded to lightly loaded conditions; patterns of incidence of disease change at the onset of pandemics; file access patterns change from proper usage to improper use that may signify insider threat. The models that represent behavior must be updated frequently to adapt to chan...

  6. Oscillating behavior within the social force model

    CERN Document Server

    Chraibi, Mohcine

    2014-01-01

    The social force model belongs to a class of microscopic force-based pedestrian model for which the interaction with the neighbors solely depends on the distance spacings. Yet, distance based models can lead to unrealistic oscillating behaviors with collision and negative peed (especially in 1D scenarios. With appropriate approximations we analyze the behavior of a simplified force-based model and show that with "realistic" parameter values the system oscillates.

  7. Understanding Incubator Value – A Network Approach to University Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Roseira; Carla Ramos; Francisco Maia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Networking represents a cornerstone for entrepreneurial action, nurturing relationships that provide access to necessary resources. Previous research shows that such relationships can be fostered as part of incubation processes. However, there is a lack of understanding of the underlying networking process, particularly in settings aimed at promoting them such as Networked Incubators (NIs). Moreover, little is known about entrepreneurs’ expectations when joining a NI, or about entrep...

  8. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  9. Multiaxial behavior of foams - Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use experiments which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a Hysteretic contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.

  10. Timbali Technology Incubator : South Africa Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...

  11. Biosocial Models of Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes biological influences on criminality. Illustrative data suggest a biological sex difference in criminality and heritable differences in this trait among individuals. Methods of isolating environmental influences are described. Author notes that using environment-friendly behavior genetic research designs is not only proper but would…

  12. An empirical behavioral model of price formation

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Mike; J. Doyne Farmer

    2005-01-01

    Although behavioral economics has demonstrated that there are many situations where rational choice is a poor empirical model, it has so far failed to provide quantitative models of economic problems such as price formation. We make a step in this direction by developing empirical models that capture behavioral regularities in trading order placement and cancellation using data from the London Stock Exchange. For order placement we show that the probability of placing an order at a given pric...

  13. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.

  14. Behavioral modeling of stressed MOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    Gniazdowski, Zenon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper piezoconductivity phenomenon in MOSFET channel is discussed and extension of drain current model with possibility of stress consideration is proposed. Analysis of obtained model combined with examination of stress components inherent in the MOSFET channel as well as distributions of specific piezoconductance coefficients on a plane of channel can show which directions of transistor channel are desirable for improvement of MOSFET performances. This model gives possibility to pred...

  15. A systemic model of doping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior occurs within a system, and as such, so do behaviors in performance-related domains (e.g., athletics, academics). Doping is a performance enhancement behavior that can be problematic because of the negative physical and psychological effects associated with the use of some substances and the common argument that doping is unfair. However, doping continues and may be increasing. Because a firm theoretical or empirical understanding of doping does not exist, this article proposes a conceptual, comprehensive, and innovative systemic model of doping behavior. The model is built from relevant empiricism supporting the idea that contemporary doping behavior is a function of systemic transactions between historical doping practices, the present environment, current antidoping interventions, one's genetic makeup, developmental milestones, social factors, and epigenetics. PMID:21834401

  16. Business incubators in cee countries – new coordinates for development

    OpenAIRE

    Giurca Vasilescu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Business incubators are institutions that support the entrepreneurial process, helping to increase survival rates for innovative startup companies and for small companies. Entrepreneurs with feasible projects are selected and admitted into the incubators, where they are offered business support resources and services. Across Europe, in general, and in Central and Eastern European countries, in particular, there are a variety of business incubator models and precise modalities which reflect th...

  17. Business support within business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a cruci

  18. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres. Within such frame environments, many group interests beyond those of single producers and their immediate clients exist and interfere. Rather generically, important economic outcomes of innovations are sequences of cost reduction events at the level of economic sectors, where the nature of (sector-wise technology is influencing the pace of these events. At the conceptual level, we describe the social learning and social innovation process which leads to sustainable innovation by means of the influence exerted by firms on each other within constrained environments such as business incubators. These environments need not to be organized according to any sector logic. We propose that the influence exerted between firms is increasing in firm similarity, in the degree of product complementarity, and also to depend on (mutual trust relations. We note that, very much in symmetry with the role of sustainability in society as a whole, in the world of firms and markets, the incubation process may be viewed as a moderator, which attempts to overcome the disadvantages of highly paced, short-term oriented capitalist economies. In sections 2 and 3 a concept for representing the societal forces shaping sustainability and incubation for the innovating firm is described and ways of transforming the concept into concrete tools of assessment and valuation are pointed at.

  19. Modeling cell behavior: moving beyond intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jolicoeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the launching of this new journal, we propose a forum to the community of researchers interested and involved in, or even simply questioning the why, what, how, and when of modeling cell or cell culture behavior. To start the discussion, we review some of the usual questions we are routinely asked on the pertinence of modeling cell behavior, and on who might benefit from conducting such work. To draw a global portrait, throughout this text we refer the reader to handbooks introducing the basics of modeling a biosystem, as well as to selected works that can help visualize the broad fields of applications.

  20. Machine Learning Approaches for Modeling Spammer Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Spam is commonly known as unsolicited or unwanted email messages in the Internet causing potential threat to Internet Security. Users spend a valuable amount of time deleting spam emails. More importantly, ever increasing spam emails occupy server storage space and consume network bandwidth. Keyword-based spam email filtering strategies will eventually be less successful to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes their tricks to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics that the spammer uses are patterns and these patterns can be modeled to combat spam. This paper investigates the possibilities of modeling spammer behavioral patterns by well-known classification algorithms such as Na\\"ive Bayesian classifier (Na\\"ive Bayes), Decision Tree Induction (DTI) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Preliminary experimental results demonstrate a promising detection rate of around 92%, which is considerably an enhancement of performance compared to similar spammer behavior modeling research.

  1. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents

  2. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  3. Concept-Oriented Modeling of Dynamic Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.C.; Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the concept-oriented approach to modeling that clearly separates ideal concepts from the physical components of a system when modeling its dynamic behavior for a specific problem context. This is done from a port-based point of view for which the domain-independ

  4. Towards the mathematical modelling of human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jódar Sánchez, Lucas Antonio; Cortés López, Juan Carlos; Acedo Rodríguez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Jódar Sánchez, LA.; Cortés López, JC.; Acedo Rodríguez, L. (2011). Towards the mathematical modelling of human behavior. Mathematical and Computer Modelling. 54(7):1625-1625. doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2010.10.009. Senia 1625 1625 54 7

  5. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  6. Software architecture built from behavior models

    OpenAIRE

    Auguston, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to formal software system architecture specification based on behavior models. The behavior of the system is defined as a set of events (event trace) with two basic relations: precedence and inclusion. The structure of event trace is specified using event grammars and other constraints organized into schemas. The schema framework is amenable to stepwise architecture refinement, reuse, composition, visualization, and application of automated tools for consistenc...

  7. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  8. NON-BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our previous article. In the present review article, the authors have described various non-behavioral models such as pharmacological models (administering specific chemicals, genetic models (through genetic manipulation, lesion models (lesion of selected brain parts and neuro-developmental models employed for screening anti-psychotic agents. All these animal models imitate schizophrenic defects in some manner. Traditionally, pharmacological models (drug/chemical-induced psychosis were the most widely used. These models involve the manipulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, or GABA-ergic systems. In Lesion models, selected area of an animal's brain is damaged, to induce psychosis-like symptoms. Genetic factors also play a prominent role in many psychiatric disorders and numerous putative candidate genes have been identified. Neurodevelopmental models are based on the fact that schizophrenia can be caused due to prenatal exposure to certain viruses. The animals usually employed for the development of these models include rats, mice, and primates. The specific animal models developed within these frameworks are described in this review article.

  9. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  10. NON-BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Kadian Renu; Kaura Sushila

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have become indispensible tools for discovering new medicines and in the analysis of multitude of causes, bio-markers and pathophysiological changes, which bring about symptoms characteristics of a specific disorder. One of the biggest challenges in discovering medicines for psychosis is to find an appropriate animal model of this illness possessing fair face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity. We had explained in detail behavioral models of psychosis in our p...

  11. An investigation of illegal direction change behavior of road users using behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    TRINH, Tu Anh; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Illegal direction change is accounted the highest ratio for road accident causes in Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Illegal direction change is examined through separate behavioral models such theory of planned behavior, health belief model and integrated behavior model. Integrated behavior model including health belief model, theory of planned behavior variables and extended socio-cognitive variables is identified to be one of the best model (with the highest percentage of total variance) that ...

  12. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    . The process was facilitated by the institutional logic of entrepreneurial culture that integrated elements of the commercial and classic university logics. We find that the diffusion and adaptation process were mainly influenced by resources available, organizational constituencies mobilized......This paper undertakes a longitudinal examination of the diffusion of a relatively new organizational activity - university student business incubators - by studying the processes through which actors grounded in three different institutional logics interact in the organizational field of higher...... involving experimentation, demonstration, and integration. Our study shows that universities’ responses changed over the period from initial coercive isomorphism and structural and functional decoupling of incubation from core activities towards a higher degree of integration, although still loosely coupled...

  13. Fundamentals of Business Incubator Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of the European Union, including Romania as a member state, determines the reconfiguration of Romanian way of acting inorder to develop new business. Learning from others with much more experience in the field of regional economic development may be the key toaccomplish the goal of economic and social cohesion. The gap between Romania and EU-27 average in economic development terms may bereduced only by promoting small businesses to enhance. Creating jobs and building wealth is the only solution available to the current problems ofRomanian economy. The paper intends to respond to basic questions of creating a business incubator. Also, it may be a tool to local and regionalpromoters that want to give rise, in a proper manner, to a Business Incubator.

  14. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O;

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for...

  15. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  16. Barriers, Models and Strategies of China Private Capital Embedded Innovation Incubation%我国民营资本嵌入创新孵化的壁垒、模式与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵星; 董晓松

    2011-01-01

    Through qualitative research to explore innovative private capital participation in the incubator industry issues, we should face private capital into innovation incubators of social discrimination, respect the law of private capital allocation of resources develop and optimize bussiness model of operation. The article analyzes the drawbacks of the traditional model of innovation incubator's barriers to entry of private capital, sum based on private capital into the barriers, proposes private capital to participate in innovation incubator of real options-based, service unit type, embedded type and stage of the overall business model embedded in, gives its dimensions and to consider the law of evolution. Research through appropriate design of business model innovation incubator, seeks to achieve regional economic growth, technological progress, benefiting private capital, innovation and enterprise development, win-win situation.%通过定性研究探讨民营资本参与创新孵化产业的问题,发现应当正视民营资本进入创新孵化的社会歧视,尊重民营资本的资源配置规律,以商业化视角制定及优化其运作模式.在分析我国创新孵化传统模式弊端,总结民营资本进入壁垒的基础上,提出民营资本参与创新孵化的实物期权型、服务期股型、整体嵌入型与阶段嵌入型商业模式,并给出其考虑维度及演进规律.研究通过适当的创新孵化商业模式设计,力图达成区域经济增长、行业技术进步、民间资本获益、创新型企业发展的多赢局面.

  17. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  18. Behavioral and Statistical Models of Educational Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how students and their families make educational decisions. We describe three types of behavioral model that might underlie decision-making and we show that they have consequences for what decisions are made. Our study thus has policy implications if we wish to...

  19. 基于扎根理论的孵化器商业模式演进机制研究%Research on the Evolution Mechanism of Incubator Business Model Based on Grounded Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凤岭; 陈颉

    2014-01-01

    孵化器的创新性活动是其商业模式形成及变化的根本动力。基于扎根理论方法,对某孵化器的商业模式形成及演化这一复杂而动态的过程进行了剖析,探讨了推动商业模式发生演化的机制。研究结果表明,孵化器的创新性活动可以分为组织变革、价值链改进、网络位置改进、制度创业四类,这四类活动推动着孵化器由单一商业模式向复合商业模式演进,从而实现了社会效益和经济效益的平衡。%Innovative activities are the fundamental power in forming and changing incubator's business model. Us-ing the grounded theory approach, this paper analyzes the formation and evolution process of incubator's business model, explores the evolution mechanism of business model. The results show that innovative activities can be di-vided into four types: organization change, value chain improvement, network position improvement and institution-al entrepreneurship. These activities promote the incubator business model evolution from single model to complex model, so as to realize the balance of social benefit and economic benefit.

  20. A Behavioral Two-Sex Marriage Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsvik, John K.; Ane S. Flaatten; Brunborg, Helge

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we propose a particular marriage model, i.e., a model for the number of marriages for each age combination as a function of the vectors of the number of single men and women in each age group. The model is based on Dagsvik (2000) where it is demonstrated that a general type of matching behavior imply, under specific assumptions about the distribution of the preferences of the women and men, a convenient expression for the corresponding marriage model. Data from the Norwegian...

  1. Relational Model Conflicts in Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baalen, Peter; van Dalen, Jan; Malsen, Jorina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe distributed nature of organizational knowledge makes that knowledge sharing an important factor for unlocking its potential value. In practice, however, people may have different motivations for not sharing knowledge with colleagues, which in part may be due to the relational context. In this paper, we adopt Fiske’s Relational Model Theory to investigate relational dynamics in knowledge sharing behavior. Our objective is to gain insight into how relational model conflicts affe...

  2. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sehraneh Ghaemi; Sohrab Khanmohammadi; Mohammadali Tinati

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are ...

  3. Behavioral Modeling in Micro Simulation Models. A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Klevmarken, N. Anders

    1997-01-01

    Micro-simulation is an approach to analyze the impact of economic and social policy on the distribution of target variables, not just on the means. It easily includes the true policy instruments and handles highly nonlinear relations. Most models currently used in policy analysis are static and they do not include behavioral response to policy changes, just their first order effects. There is, however, an increasing demand for dynamic models including behavioral responses. This paper surveys ...

  4. Machine Learning Approaches for Modeling Spammer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ISLAM, MD. SAIFUL; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; Islam, Md. Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Spam is commonly known as unsolicited or unwanted email messages in the Internet causing potential threat to Internet Security. Users spend a valuable amount of time deleting spam emails. More importantly, ever increasing spam emails occupy server storage space and consume network bandwidth. Keyword-based spam email filtering strategies will eventually be less successful to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes their tricks to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics t...

  5. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  6. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  7. Behavior computing modeling, analysis, mining and decision

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Includes six case studies on behavior applications Presents new techniques for capturing behavior characteristics in social media First dedicated source of references for the theory and applications of behavior informatics and behavior computing

  8. Incubation temperature causes skewed sex ratios in a precocial bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Sarah E; Hopkins, William A; Carter, Amanda W; Kirkpatrick, Laila T; Navara, Kristin J; Hawley, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Many animals with genetic sex determination are nonetheless capable of manipulating sex ratios via behavioral and physiological means, which can sometimes result in fitness benefits to the parent. Sex ratio manipulation in birds is not widely documented, and revealing the mechanisms for altered sex ratios in vertebrates remains a compelling area of research. Incubation temperature is a key component of the developmental environment for birds, but despite its well-documented effects on offspring phenotype it has rarely been considered as a factor in avian sex ratios. Using ecologically relevant manipulations of incubation temperature within the range 35.0-37.0°C, we found greater mortality of female embryos during incubation than males regardless of incubation temperature, and evidence that more female than male embryos die at the lowest incubation temperature (35.0°C). Our findings in conjunction with previous work in brush turkeys suggest incubation temperature is an important determinant of avian secondary sex ratios that requires additional study, and should be considered when estimating the impact of climate change on avian populations. PMID:27143750

  9. An empirical behavioral model of price formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mike, S

    2005-01-01

    Although behavioral economics has demonstrated that there are many situations where rational choice is a poor empirical model, it has so far failed to provide quantitative models of economic problems such as price formation. We make a step in this direction by developing empirical models that capture behavioral regularities in trading order placement and cancellation using data from the London Stock Exchange. For order placement we show that the probability of placing an order at a given price is well approximated by a Student distribution with less than two degrees of freedom, centered on the best quoted price. This result is surprising because it implies that trading order placement is symmetric, independent of the bid-ask spread, and the same for buying and selling. We also develop a crude but simple cancellation model that depends on the position of an order relative to the best price and the imbalance between buying and selling orders in the limit order book. These results are combined to construct a sto...

  10. Grey Control Model of Input and Output for Business Incubator%科技企业孵化器动态投入与产出的灰色控制模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎明; 谢菲; 吴文清

    2009-01-01

    对科技企业孵化器的投入产出建立灰色控制模型,分析科技企业孵化器投入产出的动态关系,寻求科技企业孵化器再投入规模控制性参数,使科技企业孵化器达到可持续发展.研究表明,对科技企业孵化器的投入产出系统建立灰色控制模型能够对科技企业孵化投入产出进行良好的分析和优化,得到能够指导从事实践工作的关键性参数,为科技企业孵化器的持续发展提供理论支持.%A grey control model is developed to describe the dynamic relationship between input and output for business incubator.With this model,investment can be optimized by making trade-off between hardware and software investment to keep a sustainable development of an incubator.Case study shows that the proposed method is effective and is applicable to practice.

  11. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  12. TOWARDS A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF CORPORATE INCUBATORS

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVER GASSMANN; BARBARA BECKER

    2006-01-01

    Corporate incubators for technology development are a recent phenomenon whose functioning and implications are not yet well understood. The resource-based view can offer an explanatory model on how corporate incubators function as specialised corporate units that hatch new businesses. While tangible resources, such as the financial, physical and even explicit knowledge flow, are all visible, and therefore easy to measure, intangible resources such as tacit knowledge and branding flow are hard...

  13. The Importance of Age Dependent Mortality and the Extrinsic Incubation Period in Models of Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Bellan, Steve E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared acr...

  14. Molecular Modeling of Solid Fluid Phase Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Monson

    2007-12-20

    This report gives a summary of the achievements under DOE contract No. DOE/ER/14150 during the period September 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007. This project was concerned with the molecular modeling of solid-fluid equilibrium. The focus was on understanding how solid-fluid and solid-solid phase behavior are related to molecular structure, and the research program made a seminal contribution in this area. The project led to 34 journal articles, including a comprehensive review article published in Advances in Chemical Physics. The DOE funding supported the work of 5 Ph.D. students, 2 M.S. students and 5 postdoctoral researchers.

  15. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  16. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark H.; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W.; Bodfish, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather t...

  17. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Caprioli, Daniele; Marchant, Nathan J

    2015-09-01

    Cue-induced drug craving progressively increases after prolonged withdrawal from drug self-administration in laboratory animals, a behavioral phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving.' Studies over the years have revealed several important neural mechanisms contributing to incubation of drug craving. In this mini-review, we first discuss three excellent Addiction Biology publications on incubation of drug craving in both human and laboratory animals. We then review several key publications from the past year on behavioral and mechanistic findings related to incubation of drug craving. PMID:25440081

  18. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shahan, Timothy A; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of resurgence based on the augmented model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory. The model suggests that alternative reinforc...

  19. Knowledge Based Incubators In Theory And Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Esad Ahmetagic; Peter Harmath

    2008-01-01

    Incubators of knowledge, entrepreneurial incubators or business incubators are different names and approaches to the same process, improving the entrepreneurial spirit in the company or certain social environment. Entrepreneurial concept involves the creation of ideas that can commercialize the product or service to be profitable in the market. The article is introducing a special approach by linking university experts and their problem solving abilities with company in the need for their hel...

  20. Informal Social Networks and Incubated Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Volney Lagemann; Elizabeth Loiola

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to explore and analyze the relationship between social networks and firm performance, this longitudinal multicase study was developed, interviewing five incubated companies, selected by accessibility and convenience, which were in different stages of incubation, at Softville, a technologically based incubator of Joinville-SC. Managers and employees of these companies answered the sociometric questionnaire, at three moments in the period of a year. The reliability, technical information...

  1. Effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei; Jiang Rui; Hu Mao-Bin; Wu Qing-Song

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in the Barabasi-Albert scale-free network and the Watts-Strogatz small world network by using a Suspectable-Incubated-Infected-Suspectable model.Our analytical investigations show that the epidemic threshold is independent of incubation period in both networks,which is verified by our large-scale simulation results.We also investigate the effect of incubation period on the epidemic dynamics in a supercritical regime.It is found that with the increase of incubation period Ω,a damped oscillation evolution of ρΤ(the ratio of persons in incubated state)appears and the time needed to reach a saturation value increases.Moreover,the steady value of ρI increases and approaches to an asymptotic constant with the value of Ω increasing.As a result,the infected ratio ρΤ decreases with the increase of Ω according to a power law.

  2. Research and Simulation on Drivers Route Choice Behavior Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the behavior-cognitive model of drivers during their travel based on the current research on driver behavior. Firstly, a route choice behavior-cognitive model was proposed for describing the decision-making mechanism of drivers during his travel; then, simulation experiments were carried out on the co-simulation VBc-vissim platform. From the experimental results, dynamic behavior features of drivers during their travel can be properly explained by the behavior-cognitive model, thus optimal path can be obtained from this model.

  3. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  4. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan, E-mail: shashi.thutupalli@ds.mpg.de, E-mail: stephan.herminghaus@ds.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  5. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  6. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  7. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    Full Text Available Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK promoter. Transgenic (Tg mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests. The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help

  8. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, Sara; Maccarinelli, Federica; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  9. Structure-property relations and modeling of small crack fatigue behavior of various magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jairus Daniel

    Lightweight structural components are important to the automotive and aerospace industries so that better fuel economy can be realized. Magnesium alloys in particular are being examined to fulfill this need due to their attractive stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when introducing a material into new roles, one needs to properly characterize its mechanical properties. Fatigue behavior is especially important considering aerospace and automotive component applications. Therefore, quantifying the structure-property relationships and accurately predicting the fatigue behavior for these materials are vital. This study has two purposes. The first is to quantify the structure-property relationships for the fatigue behavior in an AM30 magnesium alloy. The second is to use the microstructural-based MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model in order to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of three magnesium alloys: AM30, Elektron 21, and AZ61. While some studies have previously quantified the MSF material constants for several magnesium alloys, detailed research into the fatigue regimes, notably the microstructurally small crack (MSC) region, is lacking. Hence, the contribution of this work is the first of its kind to experimentally quantify the fatigue crack incubation and MSC regimes that are used for the MultiStage Fatigue model. Using a multi-faceted experimental approach, these regimes were explored with a replica method that used a dual-stage silicone based compound along with previously published in situ fatigue tests. These observations were used in calibrating the MultiStage Fatigue model.

  10. MODELING ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN CONTEMPORARY CONDITIONS OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Zubenko, V.; Tolstova, A.

    2011-01-01

    In article features of economic behaviour in socialist system are investigated, its influence on formation of economic behavior of modern subjects of managing and the basic levers and factors which will allow regulating, model economic behavior are defined.

  11. Behavioral model of visual perception and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Gusakova, Valentina I.

    1993-09-01

    In the processes of visual perception and recognition human eyes actively select essential information by way of successive fixations at the most informative points of the image. A behavioral program defining a scanpath of the image is formed at the stage of learning (object memorizing) and consists of sequential motor actions, which are shifts of attention from one to another point of fixation, and sensory signals expected to arrive in response to each shift of attention. In the modern view of the problem, invariant object recognition is provided by the following: (1) separated processing of `what' (object features) and `where' (spatial features) information at high levels of the visual system; (2) mechanisms of visual attention using `where' information; (3) representation of `what' information in an object-based frame of reference (OFR). However, most recent models of vision based on OFR have demonstrated the ability of invariant recognition of only simple objects like letters or binary objects without background, i.e. objects to which a frame of reference is easily attached. In contrast, we use not OFR, but a feature-based frame of reference (FFR), connected with the basic feature (edge) at the fixation point. This has provided for our model, the ability for invariant representation of complex objects in gray-level images, but demands realization of behavioral aspects of vision described above. The developed model contains a neural network subsystem of low-level vision which extracts a set of primary features (edges) in each fixation, and high- level subsystem consisting of `what' (Sensory Memory) and `where' (Motor Memory) modules. The resolution of primary features extraction decreases with distances from the point of fixation. FFR provides both the invariant representation of object features in Sensor Memory and shifts of attention in Motor Memory. Object recognition consists in successive recall (from Motor Memory) and execution of shifts of attention and

  12. The Stochastic Modeling of Purchase Intentions and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Martin R. Young; DeSarbo, Wayne S, et al; Morwitz, Vicki G

    1998-01-01

    A common objective of social science and business research is the modeling of the relationship between demographic/psychographic characteristics of individuals and the likelihood of certain behaviors for these same individuals. Frequently, data on actual behavior are unavailable; rather, one has available only the self-reported intentions of the individual. If the reported intentions imperfectly predict actual behavior, then any model of behavior based on the intention data should account for...

  13. Mathematical modeling of human behaviors during catastrophic events

    OpenAIRE

    Verdière, Nathalie; Lanza, Valentina; Charrier, Rodolphe; Provitolo, Damienne; Dubos-Paillard, Edwige; Bertelle, Cyrille; Aziz-Alaoui, Moulay

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for modeling the human collective behaviors in the speci c scenario of a sudden catastrophe, this catastrophe can be natural (i.e. earthquake, tsunami) or technological (nuclear event). The novelty of our work is to propose a mathematical model taking into account di erent concurrent behaviors in such situation and to include the processes of transition from one behavior to the other during the event. Here, we focus more on the sequence of behaviors ...

  14. Agribusiness Incubator at ICRISAT : India Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The agribusiness incubator in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India is the result of a partnership between the Indian government and an international crop-research organization that is a member of CGIAR, a global partnership of organizations seeking a food-secure future. As the incubator has developed, it has become relatively independent of its founders, the International Crops Research In...

  15. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review these...

  16. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  17. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  18. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  19. Behavior modeling through CHAOS for simulation of dismounted soldier operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink, E.; Aldershoff, F.; Lotens, W.A.; Woering, A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges in human behavior modeling for military applications is dealing with all factors that can influence behavior and performance. In a military context, behavior and performance are influenced by the task at hand, the internal (cognitive and physiological) and external (clima

  20. Modeling dynamic tactical behaviors in COMBATXXI using Hierarchical Task Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Defining accurate representations of group behaviors in simulations is an expensive, time-consuming task. One reason for this is that previously produced behaviors are often not reusable within other scenarios or simulations. Using Hierarchical Task Networks (HTNs) to model military behaviors is a promising technique for addressing this problem. HTNs provide a methodology for linking tactical behaviors, and offer a potential system for...

  1. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of Switched-Current Building Block Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; WANG Wei; SHI Jianlei; TANG Pushan; D.ZHOU

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a behavioral modeling technique for the second-generation switched-current building block circuits. The proposed models are capable of capturing the non-ideal behavior of switched-current circuits, which includes the charge injection effects and device mismatch effects. As a result, system performance degradations due to the building block imperfections can be detected at the early design stage by fast behavioral simulations. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed models, we developed a time-domain behavioral simulator. Experimental results have shown that compared with SPICE, the behavioral modeling error is less than 2.15%, while behavioral simulation speed up is 4 orders in time-domain.

  2. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. PMID:27144472

  3. Informal Social Networks and Incubated Business Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Volney Lagemann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to explore and analyze the relationship between social networks and firm performance, this longitudinal multicase study was developed, interviewing five incubated companies, selected by accessibility and convenience, which were in different stages of incubation, at Softville, a technologically based incubator of Joinville-SC. Managers and employees of these companies answered the sociometric questionnaire, at three moments in the period of a year. The reliability, technical information and management information networks were mapped, as were their structural features of size, density and cohesion, besides studying the company performance data (team size, number of customers and sales. The companies studied with more cohesive networks have a better performance, confirming that which is indicated by the relevant literature and suggest that practices for supporting incubated companies should emphasize competence in network.

  4. Modeling shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we present a constitutive model to couple the shape memory and dielectric behaviors of polymers. The model adopted multiple relaxation processes and temperature-dependent relaxation time to describe the glass transition behaviors. The model was applied to simulate the thermal-mechanical-electrical behaviors of the dielectric elastomer VHB 4905. We investigated the influence of deformation temperature, voltage rate, relaxation time on the electromechanical and shape-memory behavior of dielectric elastomers. This work provides a method for combining the shape-memory properties and electroactive polymers, which can expand the applications of these soft active materials.

  5. Modeling editing behavior for editors of graphical languages

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that expands upon the idea of a fully model-driven approach to editor development for Graphical Domain Specific Languages (DSL), originally put forth by the Graphical Modeling Framework (GMF). The framework's main component consists of a language for the declarative definition of editing behavior for said editors. We define the Behavioral Definition Language (BDL), and the execution semantics of a BDL-instance, Behavioral Definitions (BD). Inconsi...

  6. Verifying action semantics specifications in UML behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Hortal, Elena; Cabot Sagrera, Jordi; Gómez Seoane, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    MDD and MDA approaches require capturing the behavior of UML models in sufficient detail so that the models can be automatically implemented/executed in the production environment. With this purpose, Action Semantics (AS) were added to the UML specification as the fundamental unit of behavior specification. Actions are the basis for defining the fine-grained behavior of operations, activity diagrams, interaction diagrams and state machines. Unfortunately, current proposals devoted to the veri...

  7. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  8. Behavioral modeling of digital IC input and output ports

    OpenAIRE

    Canavero, Flavio; Stievano, Igor Simone; Maio, Ivano Adolfo

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of accurate and efficient behavioral models of digital integrated circuit input and output ports for signal integrity simulations and timing analyses. The modeling process is described and applied to the characterization of actual devices

  9. BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System -- FUEL Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Burgan, Robert E; Rothermel, Richard C

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE - a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  10. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior. PMID:26363793

  11. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  12. Gaining Leverage Effects from Knowledge Modes with Corporate Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Gassmann, Oliver; Becker, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the kind of knowledge that facilitates hatching and leveraging of technologies through the incubation process. Four corporate incubator types can be distinguished according to their source and type of technology: fast-profit incubators, market incubators, leveraging incubators, and in-sourcing incubators. Applying the knowledge-based view of the firm, four modes of mainly tacit knowledge were identified in respect to the different incubator types: (1) entrepreneurial knowl...

  13. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  14. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  15. The Business Incubator Management Strategy Case study of the Business Incubator Located in Mangalia

    OpenAIRE

    Epure Danut Tiberius; Cusu Dorinela; Teliceanu Claudiu Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Through this paper we intend to analyze the management process of a business incubator. To achieve our aim we will use for example the Business Incubator located in Mangalia developed by the Establishment and Development of Business Incubators Project in Romania, a program initiated by The Agency for Implementing Projects and Programmes for SMEs (AIPPSME) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The main aspects considered in this work are related to the administrator selection proced...

  16. Incubation Push or Business Pull? Investigating the Geography of US Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Qian; Kingsley Haynes

    2010-01-01

    The primary purposes of this paper are to present the geographic distribution of US business incubators and to explore geographically bounded factors that influence the location of business incubators. Our data show that US business incubators are unevenly distributed across the urban/rural division, states, as well as counties. Factor analysis identifies three common factors from 27 demographic, social, and economic variables drawn from publicly available data at the county level. These fact...

  17. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  18. Elastic behavior of corrugated cardboard: Experiments and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Aboura, Zoheir; Talbi, Nabil; Allaoui, Samir; Benzeggagh, Malk

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by computed homogeneous of linear corrugated cardboard behavior, an analytical model related to the assessment of equals behavior is proposed. This model takes into account the geometrical and mechanical properties of the corrugated cardboard constituents. An experimental methodology is also proposed to obtain both the in-plane elastic properties of each constituents and the corrugated cardboard. After model validation by a comparison with the experiment results, a parametric study ...

  19. Information behavior versus communication: application models in multidisciplinary settings

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Morena Maria da Silva; Jonathan Rosa Moreira; Juliana Rocha de Faria Silva

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the information behavior as support for models of communication design in the areas of Information Science, Library and Music. The communication models proposition is based on models of Tubbs and Moss (2003), Garvey and Griffith (1972), adapted by Hurd (1996) and Wilson (1999). Therefore, the questions arose: (i) what are the informational skills required of librarians who act as mediators in scholarly communication process and informational user behavior in the educatio...

  20. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance. PMID:16737360

  1. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-The, Thien; Banos, Oresti; Le, Ba-Vui; Bui, Dinh-Mao; Yoon, Yongik; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM) and support vector machine (SVM) for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG). The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification. PMID:26151213

  2. Traffic Behavior Recognition Using the Pachinko Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Huynh-The

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CCTV-based behavior recognition systems have gained considerable attention in recent years in the transportation surveillance domain for identifying unusual patterns, such as traffic jams, accidents, dangerous driving and other abnormal behaviors. In this paper, a novel approach for traffic behavior modeling is presented for video-based road surveillance. The proposed system combines the pachinko allocation model (PAM and support vector machine (SVM for a hierarchical representation and identification of traffic behavior. A background subtraction technique using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs and an object tracking mechanism based on Kalman filters are utilized to firstly construct the object trajectories. Then, the sparse features comprising the locations and directions of the moving objects are modeled by PAMinto traffic topics, namely activities and behaviors. As a key innovation, PAM captures not only the correlation among the activities, but also among the behaviors based on the arbitrary directed acyclic graph (DAG. The SVM classifier is then utilized on top to train and recognize the traffic activity and behavior. The proposed model shows more flexibility and greater expressive power than the commonly-used latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA approach, leading to a higher recognition accuracy in the behavior classification.

  3. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  4. Modelling Signal Controlled Traffic Based on Driving Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wang; Yanyan Chen; Ning Chen

    2015-01-01

    In urban traffic, of particular interest the traffic breakdown which is primarily resulted from the driving behaviors is emerged to respond to the traffic signal. To investigate the influences of driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown, a cellular automaton model has been developed by incorporating a number of driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicle approaching a traffic light. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a road segment co...

  5. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Program Management Dept.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle`s on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study.

  6. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study

  7. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Karban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  8. Modeling for the Dynamics of Human Innovative Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining with the evolutionary games and information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples' daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on "innovative centers", and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spacial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provide a basic framework on the study of the issue relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  9. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  10. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  11. Modelling the Saving Behavior of Households in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina Olga; Roshchina Yana

    2000-01-01

    The project will provide a comparative analysis of financial behavior of households in Russia in the mid-90's. The data is collected from the authors' own surveys conducted in four regions of Russia. The project will evaluate parameters of regression models and construct typologies of financial behavior, with particular attention being paid to the household saving strategies.

  12. A new approach in modeling the behavior of RPC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of RPC detectors is highly sensitive to environmental variables. A novel approach is presented to model the behavior of RPC detectors in a variety of experimental conditions. The algorithm, based on Artificial Neural Networks, has been developed and tested on the CMS RPC gas gain monitoring system during commissioning.

  13. A Meta-Analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Chan, Daniel W. L.

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 117 studies evaluated the effects of behavior modeling training (BMT) on 6 training outcomes, across characteristics of training design. BMT effects were largest for learning outcomes, smaller for job behavior, and smaller still for results outcomes. Although BMT effects on declarative knowledge decayed over time, training…

  14. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In thi

  15. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  16. Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Survey - Model Intended Angler Behavior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collect and analyze survey data from recreational saltwater fishermen in Oregon and Washington. Model trip demand using stated frequency / contingent behavior data....

  17. On the Behavioral Modeling of Integrated Circuit Output Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Canavero, Flavio; Stievano, Igor Simone; Maio, Ivano Adolfo

    2003-01-01

    The properties of common behavioral macromodels for single ended CMOS integrated circuits output buffers are discussed with the aim of providing criteria for an effective use of possible modeling options

  18. Advanced Multiphysics Modeling of Fast Reactor Fuel Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of fast reactor fuel thermo-mechanical performance using fuel performance codes is a key aspect of advanced fast reactors designs. Those fuel performance codes capture the multiphysics nature of fuel behavior during irradiation where different, mostly interdependent, phenomena are taking place. Existing fuel performance codes do not fully capture those interdependencies and present the different phenomena through de-coupled models. Recent developments in multiphysics simulation capabilities and availability of advanced computing platforms led to advancements in simulation of nuclear fuel behavior. This paper presents current experiences in applying different multiphysics simulation platforms to evaluation of fast reactors metallic fuel behavior. Full 3D finite element simulation platforms that include capabilities to fully couple key fuel behavior models are discussed. Issues associated with coupling metallic fuels phenomena, such as fission gas models and constituent distribution models, with thermo-mechanical finite element platforms, as well as different coupling schemes are also discussed. (author)

  19. A simple generative model of collective online behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, James P; Cellai, Davide; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Porter, Mason A; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2014-07-22

    Human activities increasingly take place in online environments, providing novel opportunities for relating individual behaviors to population-level outcomes. In this paper, we introduce a simple generative model for the collective behavior of millions of social networking site users who are deciding between different software applications. Our model incorporates two distinct mechanisms: one is associated with recent decisions of users, and the other reflects the cumulative popularity of each application. Importantly, although various combinations of the two mechanisms yield long-time behavior that is consistent with data, the only models that reproduce the observed temporal dynamics are those that strongly emphasize the recent popularity of applications over their cumulative popularity. This demonstrates--even when using purely observational data without experimental design--that temporal data-driven modeling can effectively distinguish between competing microscopic mechanisms, allowing us to uncover previously unidentified aspects of collective online behavior. PMID:25002470

  20. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    Chinese government now requires government-sponsored non-for-profit technology-based business incubators (TBIs) to be profitable self-sustainability with less dependent on direct public subsidies, aiming to motivate these TBIs to provide higher quality services for their tenant new technology...

  1. Modeling Customer's Satisfaction Behavior through Uninorms

    OpenAIRE

    Depaire, Benoit; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2006-01-01

    During the last three decades, the focus of customer satisfaction research has shifted from what it was about the product or service that customers found satisfying to how and why customers became satisfied. This resulted into several models that try to explain the customer's satisfaction behaviour, among which the expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm is one of the most prominent models. This model identifies three elements which have an influence on the customer's satisfaction level: i.e perf...

  2. On the unsteady behavior of turbulence models

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Robert; 10.1063/1.3121303

    2010-01-01

    Periodically forced turbulence is used as a test case to evaluate the predictions of two-equation and multiple-scale turbulence models in unsteady flows. The limitations of the two-equation model are shown to originate in the basic assumption of spectral equilibrium. A multiple-scale model based on a picture of stepwise energy cascade overcomes some of these limitations, but the absence of nonlocal interactions proves to lead to poor predictions of the time variation of the dissipation rate. A new multiple-scale model that includes nonlocal interactions is proposed and shown to reproduce the main features of the frequency response correctly.

  3. A technique for modeling and projecting food consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kokodey

    2011-01-01

    Building on the existing findings in the field, this research seeks to develop and test a composite technique for modeling and projecting food consumer behavior in the context of rapidly changing ambiguous environment. At stage one, a model is developed within which the behavioral patterns along with environmental and psychological factors are functionally related qualitative variables attributed with "quantitative images" or metrics indexes. These indexes form a system of regression equation...

  4. Problems in modeling man machine control behavior in biodynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviewed are some current problems in modeling man-machine control behavior in a biodynamic environment. It is given in two parts: (1) a review of the models which are appropriate for manual control behavior and the added elements necessary to deal with biodynamic interfaces; and (2) a review of some biodynamic interface pilot/vehicle problems which have occurred, been solved, or need to be solved.

  5. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowl...

  6. Long-time behavior of MHD shell models

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, P.; Boffetta, G.; Giuliani, P.; Lozhkin, S.; Sokoloff, D.

    2000-01-01

    The long time behavior of velocity-magnetic field alignment is numerically investigated in the framework of MHD shell model. In the stationary forced case, the correlation parameter C displays a nontrivial behavior with long periods of high variability which alternates with periods of almost constant C. The temporal statistics of correlation is shown to be non Poissonian, and the pdf of constant sign periods displays clear power law tails. The possible relevance of the model for geomagnetic d...

  7. SOCIAL ECONOMY INCUBATORS IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE (CV, BACĂU AND CRAIOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polixenia Calagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the strategy that served as the foundation of Social Economy Incubators within the ”Social Economy Model in Romania” project, in three development regions of the country. The article presents the role and the functioning mechanism of the Social Economy incubators and also the activity carried out by the staff employed by these three Social Economy Incubators. The three Social Economy incubators were set up in partnership with the Public Local Authorities from Sfântu Gheorghe (Center Development Region, Bacău (North-East Development Region and Craiova (South-West Oltenia Development Region.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Elementary Robot Behaviors using Associative Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude F. Touzet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is ? by definition ? bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use associative memories (self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not necessarily bad and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior.

  9. Hierarchical Modeling of Sequential Behavioral Data: Examining Complex Association Patterns in Mediation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagne, Getachew A.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Howe, George W.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents new methods for modeling the strength of association between multiple behaviors in a behavioral sequence, particularly those involving substantively important interaction patterns. Modeling and identifying such interaction patterns becomes more complex when behaviors are assigned to more than two categories, as is the case…

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Incubators: The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    I.Semih Akçomak; Erol Taymaz

    2004-01-01

    We assess the effectiveness of technology incubators in Turkey in supporting small and new firms. Information on 48 on-incubator and 41 off-incubator firms is gathered through face-to-face interviews to compare and to contrast those that benefit from incubators with those that do not. Our findings indicate differences between on- and off-incubator firms regarding their economic performance, highly in favor of on-incubator firms, but the same cannot be put forward concerning innovative output....

  11. Stochastic modeling of consumer purchase behavior : II Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bemmaor, Albert C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper tests four alternative composite models of market behavior over a set of consumer panel data for three product categories (margarine, regular coffee and instant coffee). Three of these models are based on various (Condensed) NBD models to describe product purchase distributions. The fourth composite model involves the compound Inverse Gaussian distribution as a purchase timing model. In each case, the beta binomial distribution represents brand choice. The empirical results demonst...

  12. Towards a characterization of behavior-disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Perra

    Full Text Available The last decade saw the advent of increasingly realistic epidemic models that leverage on the availability of highly detailed census and human mobility data. Data-driven models aim at a granularity down to the level of households or single individuals. However, relatively little systematic work has been done to provide coupled behavior-disease models able to close the feedback loop between behavioral changes triggered in the population by an individual's perception of the disease spread and the actual disease spread itself. While models lacking this coupling can be extremely successful in mild epidemics, they obviously will be of limited use in situations where social disruption or behavioral alterations are induced in the population by knowledge of the disease. Here we propose a characterization of a set of prototypical mechanisms for self-initiated social distancing induced by local and non-local prevalence-based information available to individuals in the population. We characterize the effects of these mechanisms in the framework of a compartmental scheme that enlarges the basic SIR model by considering separate behavioral classes within the population. The transition of individuals in/out of behavioral classes is coupled with the spreading of the disease and provides a rich phase space with multiple epidemic peaks and tipping points. The class of models presented here can be used in the case of data-driven computational approaches to analyze scenarios of social adaptation and behavioral change.

  13. Modeling User Behavior in Computer Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantei, Marilyn M.

    Model building techniques from Artifical Intelligence and Information-Processing Psychology are applied to human-computer interface tasks to evaluate existing interfaces and suggest new and better ones. The model is in the form of an augmented transition network (ATN) grammar which is built by applying grammar induction heuristics on a sequential…

  14. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred;

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate sy...

  15. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  16. Synthesizing Behavioral Model of Event-Based Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed M. Babamir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: in the software engineering field, satisfaction of user's requirements by software has been a matter of concern. Therefore, monitoring software behavior against user's high-level requirements has already received a considerable and significant attention. However, the gap between low-level software behavior and high-level requirements has put an obstacle in the way of monitoring. Approach: to overcome the obstacle, we presented a method to synthesize a behavioral model of the event-based requirements in three steps: (1 eliciting event-based requirements; (2 specifying the requirements in event-based formulae and (3 mapping the formulae into a behavioral model. Results: to show effectiveness of the method, it was applied to requirements of a safety critical system, called Railroad Crossing Control (RCC one and a behavioral model was synthesized. The model was used to synthesize monitor of the RCC system. The monitor is responsible for surveillance of software behavior for preventing the collision between the train and some car at the junction of rail and road.Conclusions: we proposed a systematic method started from users' requirements elicitation and concluded with its behavioral specification. Focus of the method was on event-based real-time requirements which were stated by scenarios in a sequence of real-time interactions.

  17. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  18. AND BUSINESS INCUBATORS INTO THE TRIPLE HELIX CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizova, Y.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article’s author endeavors to create a practical model of the Russian economy’s development while integrating such tools of supporting and stimulating entrepreneurship as business incubators and research and technology parks into the Triple Helix concept. The article points out that configurations fusing together the nation-state, business and science/education, possess a greater potential for development.

  19. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  20. Revenue management under general discrete choice model of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Talluri, Kalyan; van Ryzin, Garrett

    2000-01-01

    Customer choice behavior, such as 'buy-up' and 'buy-down', is an important phe-nomenon in a wide range of industries. Yet there are few models or methodologies available to exploit this phenomenon within yield management systems. We make some progress on filling this void. Specifically, we develop a model of yield management in which the buyers' behavior is modeled explicitly using a multi-nomial logit model of demand. The control problem is to decide which subset of fare cl...

  1. Modeling driver intention and behavior at roundabouts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Min; Käthner, David; Jipp, Meike

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modelling driver intention and behaviour at roundabouts in order to provide information on whether or not a driver intends to leave the roundabout when approaching an exit of a roundabout. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems’ effective work depends on adequate driving intention recognition and behaviour prediction, so if the driver intention and behaviour at roundabouts can be modelled and predicted, the roundabout safety and efficiency can be significantly improved. As ...

  2. Standard Fire Behavior Fuel Models : A Comprehensive Set for Use with Rothermel's Surface Fire Spread Model

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Joe H; Burgan, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a new set of standard fire behavior fuel models for use with Rothermel’s surface fire spread model and the relationship of the new set to the original set of 13 fire behavior fuel models. To assist with transition to using the new fuel models, a fuel model selection guide, fuel model crosswalk, and set of fuel model photos are provided.

  3. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  4. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  5. Serotonergic pharmacology in animal models: from behavioral disorders to dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction has been involved in both movement and behavioral disorders. Serotonin pharmacology improves dyskinetic movements as well as depressive, anxious, aggressive and anorexic symptoms. Animal models have been useful to investigate more precisely to what extent 5-HT is involved and whether drugs targeting the 5-HT system can counteract the symptoms exhibited. We review existing rodent and non-human primate (NHP) animal models in which selective 5-HT or dual 5-HT-norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitors, as well as specific 5-HT receptors agonists and antagonists, monoamine oxidase A inhibitors (IMAO-A) and MDMA (Ecstasy) have been used. We review overlaps between the various drug classes involved. We confront behavioral paradigms and treatment regimen. Some but not all animal models and associated pharmacological treatments have been extensively studied in the litterature. In particular, the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been extensively investigated using a variety of pharmacological or genetic rodent models of depression, anxiety, aggressiveness. But the validity of these rodent models is questioned. On the contrary, few studies did address the potential impact of targeting the 5-HT system on NHP models of behavioral disorders, despite the fact that those models may match more closely to human pathologies. Further investigations with carefull behavioral analysis will improve our understanding of neural bases underlying the pathophysiology of movement and behavioral disorders. PMID:24486710

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...

  7. Multicritical behavior in dissipative Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Overbeck, Vincent R; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Weimer, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

  8. Thermohydraulic behavior in an ADS target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The window model of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) target TS-1, under development in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) and Joint Design Bureau 'Gidropress' for accelerator LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory, serves as model for the calculations done with the FLUENT CFD code presented in this paper. The experimental device represents a tube-to-tube structure. Sodium-potassium (NaK) coolant enters through the inlet connection, and then it flows in the annular channel of the model between tubes towards the membrane positioned at the end of the annular channel. Here, in the form of coming together streams the coolant runs to the center of the membrane, then it turns striking against the membrane surface and passes through the distributing grid. This paper shows calculations and conclusions of the numerical simulation of the ADS target model, from a work that began with a benchmark problem presented at the '10th International meetings of the working group on advanced nuclear reactors thermo hydraulics' in Obninsk, Russia in 2001. (author)

  9. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  10. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin;

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...... by incubators, and performance outcomes. We attempt to identify similarities and differences between the two systems, explore the reasons for performance differences, and draw policy implications. Our study shows that the differences between the TBIs in China and India are mainly due the differences...... between the NSIs of China and India, as major components of NSI such as macroeconomic conditions, national S&T policy framework, industrial structure and the nature of financial institutions have played significant role in shaping the nature and rate of TBIs development in both countries. This suggests...

  11. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. PMID:27167040

  12. Fuel behavior modelling code FEMAXI-IV and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FEMAXI-IV is a computer code for the analysis of thermal and mechanical behavior of light water fuel rods during steady-state and transient conditions. It is an extension of the earlier version FEMAXI-III. In the new version, several models were improved and also new models were added. The most difference between the two versions exists in the fission gas release model. In FEMAXI-IV, the fission gas release model was thoroughly revised from the previous empirical model to the mechanistic model. In addition to the fission gas release model, the time dependent models were introduced for heat conduction and axial gas mixing of the released gas with the plenum gas in order to treat the fuel rod behavior during power transient. On the other hand, in the FEM mechanical analysis part, the one-dimensional FEM model was newly incorporated into FEMAXI-IV, in addition to the two-dimensional FEM model. In the one-dimensional FEM model, the integral mechanical behavior of a whole fuel rod is analyzed. FEMAXI-IV code calculations were compared with the experimental data obtained in the Halden Project and Studsvik power ramp experiments. This paper summarizes the models involved in FEMAXI-IV and the results of calculations on the experimental data. (author). 19 refs, 31 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  14. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA; Ramona Anca NICHITA; Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA; Bogdan Andrei MOLDOVAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate) they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociolo...

  15. Complex Behavior in Simple Models of Biological Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    We explore the complex dynamical behavior of simple predator-prey models of biological coevolution that account for interspecific and intraspecific competition for resources, as well as adaptive foraging behavior. In long kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of these models we find quite robust 1/f-like noise in species diversity and population sizes, as well as power-law distributions for the lifetimes of individual species and the durations of quiet periods of relative evolutionary stasis. In one model, based on the Holling Type II functional response, adaptive foraging produces a metastable low-diversity phase and a stable high-diversity phase.

  16. Adaptive Learning Models of Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Ed

    2007-01-01

    In a model of dynamic duopoly, optimal price policies are characterized assuming consumers learn adaptively about the relative quality of the two products. A contrast is made between belief-based and reinforcement learning. Under reinforcement learning, consumers can become locked into the habit of purchasing inferior goods. Such lock-in permits the existence of multiple history-dependent asymmetric steady states in which one firm dominates. In contrast, belief-based learning rules must lead ...

  17. An Ontology-Based Framework for Modeling User Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of user modeling and semantically enhanced representations for personalization. This paper presents a generic Ontology-based User Modeling framework (OntobUMf), its components, and its associated user modeling processes. This framework models the behavior of the users...... characteristics of the users interacting with the system. Concrete examples of how OntobUMf is used in the context of a Knowledge Management (KM) System are provided. This paper discusses some of the implications of ontology-based user modeling for semantically enhanced KM and, in particular, for personal KM. The...... results of this research may contribute to the development of other frameworks for modeling user behavior, other semantically enhanced user modeling frameworks, or other semantically enhanced information systems....

  18. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that…

  19. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Pozna; Fritz Troester

    2006-01-01

    Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  20. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  1. Patterns of Buyer Behavior: Regularities, Models, and Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Uncles; Andrew Ehrenberg; Kathy Hammond

    1995-01-01

    Many empirical regularities in the buying behavior of consumers have been linked together into a comprehensive model, the Dirichlet. In this paper we list some of the well-established regularities, show how they are theoretically intertwined, and illustrate how this approach to modeling can assist the marketing analyst.

  2. Modeling Developmental Complexity in Adolescence: Hormones and Behavior in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    The links between endocrine physiological processes and adolescent psychological processes are the focus of this article. Presents a brief history of biopsychosocial research in adolescent development. Discusses four models for conceptualizing hormone-behavior research as illustrative of biopsychosocial models. Concludes with challenges and…

  3. Modelling the behavior of an oil saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments carried out in an earlier study show the oil contamination affects the strength and deformation characteristics of a crushed quartz sand. In the present study, a mathematical soil model is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the same sand. The model parameters are determined for both clean and oil contaminated soil. Simulations are made for the stress-strain behavior of the soil in drained and undrained conventional traixial compression tests. In order to illustrate the effect of changes in the soil properties on the behavior of an engineering structure, a finite element analysis is carried out. In this paper comparative results are presented to show the differences in the behavior of a foundation resting on a clean sand, on an oil contaminated sand, and on a sand contaminated locally

  4. A Measurement Model of Women’s Behavioral Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    VanZILE-TAMSEN, CAROL; Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Harlow, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was designed to gain a better understanding of the nature of the relationship between substance use and sexual risk taking within a community sample of women (N = 1,004). Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors examined the factor structure of sexual risk behaviors and substance use to determine whether they are best conceptualized as domains underlying a single, higher order, risk-taking propensity. A 2 higher order factor model (sexual risk behavior and substance u...

  5. Learning Behavior Models for Interpreting and Predicting Traffic Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gindele, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present Bayesian state estimation and machine learning methods for predicting traffic situations. The cognitive ability to assess situations and behaviors of traffic participants, and to anticipate possible developments is an essential requirement for several applications in the traffic domain, especially for self-driving cars. We present a method for learning behavior models from unlabeled traffic observations and develop improved learning methods for decision trees.

  6. Cross-Cultural Examination of the Fishbein Behavioral Intensions Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chol Lee; Robert T Green

    1991-01-01

    Most of the principal theories associated with consumer behavior have been developed and tested in the United States. A question that has been posed by some consumer researchers concerns the applicability of these theories outside of the United States. The study reported in this paper is a cross-cultural examination of the applicability of the Fishbein behavioral intentions model in Korea and the United States. Korea can be characterized as a collectivist culture that is different from the in...

  7. Workplace Bullying and Unethical Behaviors: A Mediating Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. Aleassa; Omar D. Megdadi

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying and unethical behaviors are increasingly being recognized as serious problems that warrantattention. However, there is no previous research has investigated the possible effect of workplace bullying onemployees unethical behaviors. So, this study is an attempt to fill this void. Moreover, we investigated whetherthis effect is mediated by psychological ownership. The model of this study was tested using survey datacollected from a sample of 295 commercial bank employees. Res...

  8. AN ANIMAL MODEL OF A BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, Daniela D.; Monje, Francisco J.; Zuckerman, Lee; Denny, Christine A.; Drew, Michael R.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    Although conditioned inhibition of fear (or learned safety) is a learning process critical for preventing chronic stress, a predisposing factor for depression and other psychopathologies, little is known about its functional purposes or molecular mechanisms. To obtain better insight into learned safety, we investigated its behavioral and molecular characteristics and found that it acts as a behavioral antidepressant in two animal models. Learned safety promotes the survival of newborn cells i...

  9. Rational compensating model of behavior of elderly consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Astashova Julija Vladimirovna

    2014-01-01

    In article relevance of revision of the upper age brackets of a target segment of business in the conditions of population aging is proved. Practice of domestic and foreign business at interaction with consumers of the senior age group is considered. On the basis of allocation of specific characteristics of behavior of elderly consumers by the author the system of requirements is developed, and also the rational compensating model of the behavior, allowing to build effective processes of inte...

  10. On J.M. Grandmont's Modelling of Behavioral Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildenbrand, K

    1998-01-01

    J.M. Grandmont claims in his paper "Transformations of the Commodity Space, Behavioral Heterogeneity, and the Aggregation Problem" (1992) to model "behavioral heterogeneity". By a specific parametrization he defines a subset of all demand functions and assumes that the distribution of the parameters is getting more dispersed (increasing flatness of the density function). This increasing dispersedness of the parameters is interpreted as "increasing heterogeneity" of the population of household...

  11. Scaling behavior of deposition models with limited downward mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the interface-width scaling behavior of deposition models in which limited downward mobility is introduced. In all the models studied here, there is a maximum allowed slope for the interface at which the growth velocity is zero. The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation is resummed in order to show explicitly this slope constraint, but still incorporates parameters λ measuring the slope dependence of the growth velocity, ν measuring the surface tension, and D measuring the noise amplitude. Increasing mobility naturally smooths the interface, and is associated with a decrease in the magnitude of λeff=λD1/2/ν3/2. A detailed study of a bridge-site deposition model, with one hop of probability p, shows that |λ| increases with p. From an independent assessment of noise-amplitude behavior, we can conclude that ν must also increase with p to ensure the required λeff behavior. Direct determination of ν via the Wolf-Tang procedure of imposing inhomogeneity on some length scale L supports this conclusion. (However ν depends on the inhomogeneity strength, which should be chosen small, and on L.) We comment on anticipated behavior of similar limited-mobility models in d≥2 dimensions, and compare with behavior of limited-mobility ballistic deposition and noise-reduced deposition models

  12. Modeling of unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting microstrip transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Avoiding of considering just quadratic or modulus nonlinearity. ► Proposing a nonlinear model to predict unusual nonlinear behaviors at low temperatures. ► Description of temperature dependency of nonlinear behaviors in superconducting lines. ► Analytical formulation for each parameter in our proposed model. ► Obtaining very good results which shows this model can predict unusual nonlinear behavior. -- Abstract: There are unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting materials, especially at low temperatures. This paper describes the procedure to reliably predict this nonlinearity in superconducting microstrip transmission lines (SMTLs). An accurate nonlinear distributed circuit model, based on simultaneously considering of both quadratic and modulus nonlinearity dependences, is proposed. All parameters of the equivalent circuit can be calculated analytically using proposed closed-form expressions. A numerical method based on Harmonic Balance approach is used to predict nonlinear phenomena like intermodulation distortions and third harmonic generations. Nonlinear analyses of the SMTLs at the different temperatures and the input powers have been presented. This proposed model can describe the unusual behaviors of the nonlinearity at low temperatures, which are frequently observed in the SMTLs

  13. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China:A Case Study of Tuspark Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Chinese government now requires government-sponsored non-for-profit technology-based business incubators (TBIs) to be profitable self-sustainability with less dependent on direct public subsidies, aiming to motivate these TBIs to provide higher quality services for their tenant new technology-based firms (NTBFs). Simultaneously, these TBIs are required to remain social functions to satisfy government demands. Thus the conception "hybrid incubators" derived from hybrid organizations is introdu...

  14. Bogor Agricultural University Agribusiness and Agroindustry Incubator : Indonesia Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The incubator for agribusiness and agroindustry at Bogor agricultural university, Indonesia (IAA-IPB) assists during three stages in the incubation process: early incubation (mentoring creative ideas, assisting in evaluation of market prospects, defining, and outsourcing technology needs);incubation (helping production begin); and post-graduation (consulting on business plan revision and f...

  15. Low-temperature behavior of core-softened models: Water and silica behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A core-softened model of a glass forming fluid is numerically studied in the limit of very low temperatures. The model shows two qualitatively different behaviors depending on the strength of the attraction between particles. For no or low attraction, the changes of density as a function of pressure are smooth, although hysteretic due to mechanical metastabilities. For larger attraction, sudden changes of density upon compressing and decompressing occur. This global mechanical instability is correlated to the existence of a thermodynamic first-order amorphous-amorphous transition. The two different behaviors obtained correspond qualitatively to the different phenomenology observed in silica and water

  16. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  17. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  18. Matching universal behavior with potential models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Deltuva, A.; Gattobigio, M.; Kievsky, A.

    2016-06-01

    Two-, three-, and four-boson systems are studied close to the unitary limit using potential models constructed to reproduce the minimal information given by the two-body scattering length a and the two-body binding energy or virtual-state energy E2. The particular path used to reach the unitary limit is given by varying the potential strength. In this way the energy spectrum in the three- and four-boson systems is computed. The lowest-energy states show finite-range effects absorbed in the construction of level functions that can be used to study real systems. Higher-energy levels are free from finite-range effects, therefore the corresponding level functions tend to the zero-range universal function. Using this property, a zero-range equation for the four-boson system is proposed and the four-boson universal function is computed.

  19. Predicting online purchase behavior : replications and tests of competing models

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, T.G.C.; Verhagen, T.; Creemers, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Online purchase behavior is definitely an interesting and relevant issue for marketeers today. In this paper, we report on a study into the antecedents of online purchase intention for B2C websites. In particular, this research juxtaposes two competing models that explain online purchase intention. The first model is trust-oriented and argues that online purchase intention is primarily predicted by trust in the company. The second model is website-oriented and argues that purchase intention i...

  20. The Dynamics of a Behavioral Two-Sex Demographic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Rune; Dagsvik, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the dynamic properties of a particular demographic model. An essential part of the model is the marriage function which is derived from assumptions about the behavior of women and men in a market where each individual is looking for a suitable partner. By means of simulation experiments we investigate different aspects of the model. Specifically, we find that it is difficult to determine parameters related to preferences, birth and death r...

  1. Estimating a Structural Model of Herd Behavior in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriani, Marco; Guarino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a new methodology for estimating the importance of herd behavior in financial markets. Specifically, we build a structural model of informational herding that can be estimated with financial transaction data. In the model, rational herding arises because of information-event uncertainty. We estimate the model using 1995 stock market data for Ashland Inc., a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Herding occurs often and is particularly pervasive on certain days. In an infor...

  2. Incubation and suppression processes in creative problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhooly, KJ; Georgiou, GJ; Sirota, M; Paphiti-Galeano, A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of thought suppression in incubation, using a delayed incubation paradigm. A total of 301 participants were tested over five conditions, viz., continuous work control, incubation with a mental rotations interpolated task, focussed suppression, unfocussed suppression and a conscious expression condition. Checks were made for intermittent work during the incubation condition. The target task was alternative uses for a brick. In the incubation and suppress...

  3. An Analysis of the Main Features of the Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Danut Tiberius EPURE; Dorinela CUSU; Claudiu TELICEANU

    2011-01-01

    Over time the success of business incubators has been questioned. There were observers who have noticed their beneficial effects (Haugen 1990), but there were also observers who have criticized the incubators and their impact, for example Cote (1991) who was highly critical with the incubators from Canada, funded by the government. Regarding the business incubators we should remember that the objectives of the incubators should be fully taken into account in evaluating their success. If the o...

  4. Modeling Off-Nominal Behavior in SysML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Donahue, Kenneth; Ingham, Michel; Kadesch, Alex; Kennedy, Andrew K.; Post, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Specification and development of fault management functionality in systems is performed in an ad hoc way - more of an art than a science. Improvements to system reliability, availability, safety and resilience will be limited without infusion of additional formality into the practice of fault management. Key to the formalization of fault management is a precise representation of off-nominal behavior. Using the upcoming Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission for source material, we have modeled the off-nominal behavior of the SMAP system during its initial spin-up activity, using the System Modeling Language (SysML). In the course of developing these models, we have developed generic patterns for capturing off-nominal behavior in SysML. We show how these patterns provide useful ways of reasoning about the system (e.g., checking for completeness and effectiveness) and allow the automatic generation of typical artifacts (e.g., success trees and FMECAs) used in system analyses.

  5. Modeling of the Electrical and Thermal Behaviors of an Ultracapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongbin Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the electrical and thermal behaviors of a 2.7 V/650 F ultracapacitor (UC cell from LS Mtron Ltd. (Anyang, Korea. The UC cell is subject to the charge/discharge cycling with constant-current between 1.35 V and 2.7 V. The charge/discharge current values examined are 50, 100, 150, and 200 A. A three resistor-capacitor (RC parallel branch model is employed to calculate the electrical behavior of the UC. The modeling results for the variations of the UC cell voltage as a function of time for various charge/discharge currents are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. A three-dimensional thermal model is presented to predict the thermal behavior of the UC. Both of the irreversible and reversible heat generations inside the UC cell are considered. The validation of the three-dimensional thermal model is provided through the comparison of the modeling results with the experimental infrared (IR image at various charge/discharge currents. A zero-dimensional thermal model is proposed to reduce the significant computational burden required for the three-dimensional thermal model. The zero-dimensional thermal model appears to generate the numerical results accurate enough to resolve the thermal management issues related to the UC for automotive applications without relying on significant computing resources.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.

  7. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  8. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  9. Modeling problem behaviors in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate L; Dolphin, Louise; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Research on multiple problem behaviors has focused on the concept of Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS). Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) is a complex and comprehensive social-psychological framework designed to explain the development of a range of problem behaviors. This study examines the structure of PBS and the applicability of PBT in adolescents. Participants were 6062 adolescents; aged 12-19 (51.3% female) who took part in the My World Survey-Second Level (MWS-SL). Regarding PBS, Confirmatory Factor Analysis established that problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use loaded significantly onto a single, latent construct for males and females. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the PBT framework was found to be a good fit for males and females. Socio-demographic, perceived environment system and personality accounted for over 40% of the variance in problem behaviors for males and females. Our findings have important implications for understanding how differences in engaging in problem behaviors vary by gender. PMID:27161989

  10. Conceptual design in electronic product development: case studies in incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Perez Pagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on current market behavior and its trends, the excellence in managing the Product Development Process (PDP is a crucial subject in organizations. Considering an environment with difficult technology access as Brazil, for incubated companies in the electronic industry, the technical innovation and the new product development makes PDP management even more critical. The aim of this study is multiple case studies that identifies the difficulties and explores how these companies execute the Conceptual Design phase of PDP, since it is an important phase for innovative companies. As a result, the research indentifies difficulties as technology access, dependency of public resources for development, substantial dissatisfaction with suppliers, and a lack of use of reference models of PDP.

  11. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  12. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches. PMID:27347956

  13. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  14. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  15. Modeling Motivational Deficits in Mouse Models of Schizophrenia: Behavior Analysis as a Guide for Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan D Ward; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Balsam, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has become possible to develop animal models of psychiatric disease in genetically modified mice. While great strides have been made in the development of genetic and neurobiological tools with which to model psychiatric disease, elucidation of neural and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie behavioral phenotypes has been hindered by an inadequate analysis of behavior. This is unfortunate given the fact that the experimental analysis of behavior has created powerful met...

  16. Modeling of Human Criminal Behavior using Probabilistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Ramesh Kumar Gopala

    2010-01-01

    Currently, criminals profile (CP) is obtained from investigators or forensic psychologists interpretation, linking crime scene characteristics and an offenders behavior to his or her characteristics and psychological profile. This paper seeks an efficient and systematic discovery of nonobvious and valuable patterns between variables from a large database of solved cases via a probabilistic network (PN) modeling approach. The PN structure can be used to extract behavioral patterns and to gain insight into what factors influence these behaviors. Thus, when a new case is being investigated and the profile variables are unknown because the offender has yet to be identified, the observed crime scene variables are used to infer the unknown variables based on their connections in the structure and the corresponding numerical (probabilistic) weights. The objective is to produce a more systematic and empirical approach to profiling, and to use the resulting PN model as a decision tool.

  17. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiPaola Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  18. Multispace Behavioral Model for Face-Based Affective Social Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a behavioral model for affective social agents based on three independent but interacting parameter spaces: knowledge, personality, and mood. These spaces control a lower-level geometry space that provides parameters at the facial feature level. Personality and mood use findings in behavioral psychology to relate the perception of personality types and emotional states to the facial actions and expressions through two-dimensional models for personality and emotion. Knowledge encapsulates the tasks to be performed and the decision-making process using a specially designed XML-based language. While the geometry space provides an MPEG-4 compatible set of parameters for low-level control, the behavioral extensions available through the triple spaces provide flexible means of designing complicated personality types, facial expression, and dynamic interactive scenarios.

  19. Scaling Behavior of an Aggregation-Migration Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHUANG You-Yi

    2004-01-01

    We study the kinetic behavior of a two-species aggregation-migration model in which an irreversible aggregation occurs between any two clusters of the same species and a reversible migration occurs simultaneously between two different species. For a simple model with constant aggregation rates and with the migration rates KA(i;j) =K'A (i;j) ∝ijv1 and KB(i; j) = K'B (i; j) ∝ ijv2, we find that the evolution behavior of the system depends crucially on the values of the indexes v1 and v2. The aggregate size distribution of either species obeys a conventional scaling law for most cases. Moreover, we also generalize the two-species system to the multi-species case and analyze its kinetic behavior under the symmetrical conditions.PACS numbers: 82.20.-w, 05.40.-a, 68.43.Jk, 89.75.Da

  20. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Bensley; Nelda Mercer; Brusk, John J.; Ric Underhile; Jason Rivas; Judith Anderson; Deanne Kelleher; Melissa Lupella; de Jager, André C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here at the point of stage-specific information ...

  1. Extended Cann Model for Behavioral Modeling of Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    model. This work addresses these modeling challenges proposing a solution to improve model accuracy and generality including the modulated supply voltage Venv as an independent variable. The model typology proposed in this work is in the form of an equivalent baseband behavioral model and it is achieved...

  2. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model...... is built upon a fixed number of overlapping word sequences (n-grams). But it would be difficult to decide what kind of representation of gaze data (unit of n-grams) would correlate more with cognitive effort associated with reading. Moreover, the randomness associated with gaze data also accounts for data...... sparsity, making it difficult for gaze based n-gram models to handle real test scenarios. It has already been seen that some important eye-movement phenomena are captured better by scanpaths than considering individual fixations, saccades and pauses. In this talk, we propose and validate an n-gram based...

  3. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  4. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  5. Detailed behavioral modeling of bang-bang phase detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Andreani, Pietro; Keil, U. D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the metastability of current-mode logic (CML) latches and flip-flops is studied in detail. Based on the results of this analysis, a behavioral model of bang-bang phase detectors (BBPDs) is proposed, which is able to reliably capture the critical deadzone effect. The impact of jitter...

  6. Relapse Prevention Model of Behavioral Maintenance: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Colley, Mary; Cinelli, Bethann

    1992-01-01

    Describes Relapse Prevention as therapeutic modality, based on Social Learning Theory, used to prevent relapse for individuals who have completed treatment for substance abuse behaviors. Outlines relapse prevention theory and suggests various components of model be incorporated into alcohol education curricula. Outlines teaching strategies to…

  7. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  8. Information behavior versus communication: application models in multidisciplinary settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Morena Maria da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the information behavior as support for models of communication design in the areas of Information Science, Library and Music. The communication models proposition is based on models of Tubbs and Moss (2003, Garvey and Griffith (1972, adapted by Hurd (1996 and Wilson (1999. Therefore, the questions arose: (i what are the informational skills required of librarians who act as mediators in scholarly communication process and informational user behavior in the educational environment?; (ii what are the needs of music related researchers and as produce, seek, use and access the scientific knowledge of your area?; and (iii as the contexts involved in scientific collaboration processes influence in the scientific production of information science field in Brazil? The article includes a literature review on the information behavior and its insertion in scientific communication considering the influence of context and/or situation of the objects involved in motivating issues. The hypothesis is that the user information behavior in different contexts and situations influence the definition of a scientific communication model. Finally, it is concluded that the same concept or a set of concepts can be used in different perspectives, reaching up, thus, different results.

  9. A Cylindrical Model of Communication Behavior in Crisis Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Integrates existing theoretical perspectives on message content and negotiator motivation to formulate a comprehensive definitional model of the interrelationships among communication behaviors in crisis negotiation. Finds that the intensity of communication plays a polarizing role in the cylinder, with intense, functionally discrete behaviors…

  10. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power Electronics,"…

  11. AN GROUP BEHAVIOR MOBILITY MODEL FOR OPPORTUNISTIC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuoDong KANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is regarded as a network transport mechanism for distributing data in many networks. However, many mobility models ignore the fact that peer nodes often carried by people and thus move in group pattern according to some kind of social relation. In this paper, we propose one mobility model based on group behavior character which derives from real movement scenario in daily life. This paper also gives the character analysis of this mobility model and compares with the classic Random Waypoint Mobility model.

  12. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  13. A Novel Behavioral Fish Model of Nociception for Testing Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    E. Don Stevens; Cunha, Sérgio R.; Martin Scholze; Correia, Ana D.

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person's quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal models that faithfully represent relevant hallmarks associated with human pain. Here we propose zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a novel short-term behavioral model of nociception, and analyse its sensitivity and ...

  14. A Stochastic Model of Consumer Behavior and Optimal Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLES S. TAPIERO

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic consumer behavior model is constructed transforming Nicosia's (Nicosia, F. M., 1966. Consumer Decision Processes. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.) postulates into probability hypotheses. Nicosia's deterministic model is obtained in the mean evolutions and variance-covariances, defined by a system of linear differential equations obtained. This system, forming together with mean evolutions a closed system of five simultaneous differential equations is studied for stab...

  15. Modeling active muscle behavior for emergency braking simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, M.; ARNOUX,PJ; T. Serre; Kayvantash, K.; Brunet, C

    2005-01-01

    Numerical and physical models used in car crash simulations hardly take into account the active behavior of car occupants, in terms of positions and muscular contractions. However, muscles seem to have a significant influence on kinematics and energy dissipation at least up to a reasonable acceleration level. We present in this paper a finite element musculoskeletal model developed for the RADIOSS crash code [14], focusing on lower limbs, which offers the possibility to reproduce muscular act...

  16. Stochastic Models Predict User Behavior in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, Tad; Lerman, Kristina; Smith, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    User response to contributed content in online social media depends on many factors. These include how the site lays out new content, how frequently the user visits the site, how many friends the user follows, how active these friends are, as well as how interesting or useful the content is to the user. We present a stochastic modeling framework that relates a user's behavior to details of the site's user interface and user activity and describe a procedure for estimating model parameters fro...

  17. Role of Incubation in Women Entrepreneurship Development in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shahid A. Zia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation is one of the implementation tools of government’s strategy for facilitating women entrepreneurship development in Pakistan. Purpose of this study was to measure the importance and effectiveness of incubation services for women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Study was carried out by using survey method. Tenants from a women specific incubator participated in this survey. Self-administered questionnaire measuring the importance and effectiveness of 34 incubation services was incorporated in this study. Results revealed that tenants perceived all the investigated incubation services very important for the success of their businesses. However, difference in perceived importance and perceived effectiveness, for majority of the incubation services, has been found.

  18. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  19. Modeling Temporal Behavior in Large Networks: A Dynamic Mixed-Membership Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R; Gallagher, B; Neville, J; Henderson, K

    2011-11-11

    Given a large time-evolving network, how can we model and characterize the temporal behaviors of individual nodes (and network states)? How can we model the behavioral transition patterns of nodes? We propose a temporal behavior model that captures the 'roles' of nodes in the graph and how they evolve over time. The proposed dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is scalable, fully automatic (no user-defined parameters), non-parametric/data-driven (no specific functional form or parameterization), interpretable (identifies explainable patterns), and flexible (applicable to dynamic and streaming networks). Moreover, the interpretable behavioral roles are generalizable, computationally efficient, and natively supports attributes. We applied our model for (a) identifying patterns and trends of nodes and network states based on the temporal behavior, (b) predicting future structural changes, and (c) detecting unusual temporal behavior transitions. We use eight large real-world datasets from different time-evolving settings (dynamic and streaming). In particular, we model the evolving mixed-memberships and the corresponding behavioral transitions of Twitter, Facebook, IP-Traces, Email (University), Internet AS, Enron, Reality, and IMDB. The experiments demonstrate the scalability, flexibility, and effectiveness of our model for identifying interesting patterns, detecting unusual structural transitions, and predicting the future structural changes of the network and individual nodes.

  20. Attacking and Defending Covert Channels and Behavioral Models

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, Valentino; Giani, Annarita

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present methods for attacking and defending $k$-gram statistical analysis techniques that are used, for example, in network traffic analysis and covert channel detection. The main new result is our demonstration of how to use a behavior's or process' $k$-order statistics to build a stochastic process that has those same $k$-order stationary statistics but possesses different, deliberately designed, $(k+1)$-order statistics if desired. Such a model realizes a "complexification" of the process or behavior which a defender can use to monitor whether an attacker is shaping the behavior. By deliberately introducing designed $(k+1)$-order behaviors, the defender can check to see if those behaviors are present in the data. We also develop constructs for source codes that respect the $k$-order statistics of a process while encoding covert information. One fundamental consequence of these results is that certain types of behavior analyses techniques come down to an {\\em arms race} in the sense that th...

  1. Modeling behavior dynamics using computational psychometrics within virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In case of fire in a building, how will people behave in the crowd? The behavior of each individual affects the behavior of others and, conversely, each one behaves considering the crowd as a whole and the individual others. In this article, I propose a three-step method to explore a brand new way to study behavior dynamics. The first step relies on the creation of specific situations with standard techniques (such as mental imagery, text, video, and audio) and an advanced technique [Virtual Reality (VR)] to manipulate experimental settings. The second step concerns the measurement of behavior in one, two, or many individuals focusing on parameters extractions to provide information about the behavior dynamics. Finally, the third step, which uses the parameters collected and measured in the previous two steps in order to simulate possible scenarios to forecast through computational models, understand, and explain behavior dynamics at the social level. An experimental study was also included to demonstrate the three-step method and a possible scenario. PMID:26594193

  2. Microscopic phase-field simulation for nucleation incubation time of Ni75AlxV25-x alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-sheng; CHEN Zheng; LU Yan-li; WANG Yong-xin; ZHANG Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    With the microscopic phase-field dynamic model, the effects of temperature and concentration on the nucleation incubation time of Ni75AlxV25-x alloy were studied and the relation between the incubation time and precipitation mechanism was investigated by using the atomic occupation probability picture and average order parameter curve. The simulation results demonstrate that there exists the incubation time for different precipitation mechanisms, such as non-classical nucleation, the mixed style of non-classical nucleation and spinodal decomposition, and spinodal ordering; and the incubation time shortens in turn for the three kinds of mechanisms. With the increase of Al content of Ni75AlxV25-x alloy, the incubation time of L12 phases shortens continuously and that of D022 phases is prolonged. The effects of temperature on the incubation time of L12 and D022 phases are accordant, i.e. the incubation time is greatly prolonged with the temperature rising.

  3. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  4. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  5. Scale invariant behavior in a large N matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Eigenvalue distributions of properly regularized Wilson-loop operators are used to study the transition from UV behavior to IR behavior in gauge theories coupled to matter that potentially have an IR fixed point. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of scale invariance in a matrix model that describes S U (N ) gauge theory coupled to two flavors of massless adjoint fermions in the large N limit. The eigenvalue distribution of Wilson loops of varying sizes cannot be described by a universal lattice beta function connecting the UV to the IR.

  6. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  7. Modeling Inertia and Variety Seeking Tendencies in Brand Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Bawa

    1990-01-01

    Theories of exploratory behavior suggest that inertia and variety-seeking tendencies may coexist within the individual, implying that the same individual may exhibit inertia and variety-seeking at different times depending on his/her choice history. Past research has not allowed for such -consumer variability in these tendencies. The purpose of this study is to present a choice model that allows us to identify such “hybrid” behavior (i.e., a mixture of inertia and variety-seeking), and to dis...

  8. Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

  9. Scale invariant behavior in a large N matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Eigenvalue distributions of properly regularized Wilson loop operators are used to study the transition from ultra-violet (UV) behavior to infra-red (IR) behavior in gauge theories coupled to matter that potentially have an IR fixed point (FP). We numerically demonstrate emergence of scale invariance in a matrix model that describes $SU(N)$ gauge theory coupled to two flavors of massless adjoint fermions in the large $N$ limit. The eigenvalue distribution of Wilson loops of varying sizes cannot be described by a universal lattice beta-function connecting the UV to the IR.

  10. Rational compensating model of behavior of elderly consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astashova Julija Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article relevance of revision of the upper age brackets of a target segment of business in the conditions of population aging is proved. Practice of domestic and foreign business at interaction with consumers of the senior age group is considered. On the basis of allocation of specific characteristics of behavior of elderly consumers by the author the system of requirements is developed, and also the rational compensating model of the behavior, allowing to build effective processes of interaction with elderly consumers is offered and proved.

  11. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  12. Compressive behavior of a turtle's shell: experiment, modeling, and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, R; Rhee, H; Hwang, Y; Park, S J; Hammi, Y; Lim, H; Horstemeyer, M F

    2012-02-01

    The turtle's shell acts as a protective armor for the animal. By analyzing a turtle shell via finite element analysis, one can obtain the strength and stiffness attributes to help design man-made armor. As such, finite element analysis was performed on a Terrapene carolina box turtle shell. Experimental data from compression tests were generated to provide insight into the scute through-thickness behavior of the turtle shell. Three regimes can be classified in terms of constitutive modeling: linear elastic, perfectly inelastic, and densification regions, where hardening occurs. For each regime, we developed a model that comprises elasticity and densification theory for porous materials and obtained all the material parameters by correlating the model with experimental data. The different constitutive responses arise as the deformation proceeded through three distinctive layers of the turtle shell carapace. Overall, the phenomenological stress-strain behavior is similar to that of metallic foams. PMID:22301179

  13. Academic spin-offs incubation strategies: the case of the Andalusian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rafael Cáceres Carrasco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the incubation strategies developed in the universities of Andalusia, a relatively low-income region of Spain, to promote the creation of university spin-offs. These strategies are also compared to the incubation models noted in the literature. The performance of the university spin-offs created and its relation to the incubation strategies developed by the university are also analysed. The analysis is based on data from a survey of nine public universities that carry out strategies for the promotion of university spin-offs. The result of the analysis shows that university spin-off incubation strategies in Andalusia present specific characteristics not covered by certain models that are well-known in the literature on innovation. Then, a new stage in the process of the university spin-off incubation is proposed. We consider it to be a pre-strategic stage to the academic spin-off incubation strategies. The analysis also finds certain environmental factors associated to those spin-offs promoted by Andalusian universities that achieve the highest level of performance. This result suggests that previous to making any decision involving investment into developing incubation strategies, universities should gauge whether they have sufficient resources and the possibilities of connecting with a Technology Park.

  14. Numerical modeling of underground openings behavior with a viscoplastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature is complex and must be approached in total modesty by engineers seeking to predict the behavior of underground openings. The engineering of industrial projects in underground situations, with high economic and social stakes (Alpine mountain crossings, nuclear waste repository), mean striving to gain better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms of the openings to be designed. This improvement necessarily involves better physical representativeness of macroscopic mechanisms and the provision of prediction tools suited to the expectations and needs of the engineers. The calculation tools developed in this work is in step with this concern for satisfying industrial needs and developing knowledge related to the rheology of geo-materials. These developments led to the proposing of a mechanical constitutive model, suited to lightly fissured rocks, comparable to continuous media, while integrating more particularly the effect of time. Thread of this study, the problematics ensued from the subject of the thesis is precisely about the rock mass delayed behavior in numerical modeling and its consequences on underground openings design. Based on physical concepts of reference, defined in several scales (macro/meso/micro), the developed constitutive model is translated in a mathematical formalism in order to be numerically implemented. Numerical applications presented as illustrations fall mainly within the framework of nuclear waste repository problems. They concern two very different configurations of underground openings: the AECL's underground canadian laboratory, excavated in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and the GMR gallery of Bure's laboratory (Meuse/Haute-Marne), dug in argillaceous rock. In this two cases, this constitutive model use highlights the gains to be obtained from allowing for delayed behavior regarding the accuracy of numerical tunnel behavior predictions in the short, medium and long terms. (author)

  15. Modeling and simulation of dust behaviors behind a moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfang

    Simulation of physically realistic complex dust behaviors is a difficult and attractive problem in computer graphics. A fast, interactive and visually convincing model of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles is very useful in computer simulation, training, education, art, advertising, and entertainment. In my dissertation, an experimental interactive system has been implemented for the simulation of dust behaviors behind moving vehicles. The system includes physically-based models, particle systems, rendering engines and graphical user interface (GUI). I have employed several vehicle models including tanks, cars, and jeeps to test and simulate in different scenarios and conditions. Calm weather, winding condition, vehicle turning left or right, and vehicle simulation controlled by users from the GUI are all included. I have also tested the factors which play against the physical behaviors and graphics appearances of the dust particles through GUI or off-line scripts. The simulations are done on a Silicon Graphics Octane station. The animation of dust behaviors is achieved by physically-based modeling and simulation. The flow around a moving vehicle is modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. I implement a primitive variable and pressure-correction approach to solve the three dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations in a volume covering the moving vehicle. An alternating- direction implicit (ADI) method is used for the solution of the momentum equations, with a successive-over- relaxation (SOR) method for the solution of the Poisson pressure equation. Boundary conditions are defined and simplified according to their dynamic properties. The dust particle dynamics is modeled using particle systems, statistics, and procedure modeling techniques. Graphics and real-time simulation techniques, such as dynamics synchronization, motion blur, blending, and clipping have been employed in the rendering to achieve realistic appearing dust

  16. A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, R.R.

    1997-07-01

    Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.

  17. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  18. A Behavior-Based Remote Trust Attestation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huanguo; WANG Fan

    2006-01-01

    While remote trust attestation is a useful concept to detect unauthorized changes to software, the current mechanism only ensures authenticity at the start of the operating system and cannot ensure the action of running software. Our approach is to use a behavior-based monitoring agent to make remote attestation more flexible, dynamic, and trustworthy. This approach was mostly made possible by extensive use of process information which is readily available in Unix. We also made use of a behavior tree to effectively record predictable behaviors of each process. In this paper, we primarily focus on building a prototype implementation of such framework, presenting one example built on it, successfully find potential security risks in the run time of a ftp program and then evaluate the performance of this model.

  19. Emergent collective decision-making: Control, model and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian

    In this dissertation we study emergent collective decision-making in social groups with time-varying interactions and heterogeneously informed individuals. First we analyze a nonlinear dynamical systems model motivated by animal collective motion with heterogeneously informed subpopulations, to examine the role of uninformed individuals. We find through formal analysis that adding uninformed individuals in a group increases the likelihood of a collective decision. Secondly, we propose a model for human shared decision-making with continuous-time feedback and where individuals have little information about the true preferences of other group members. We study model equilibria using bifurcation analysis to understand how the model predicts decisions based on the critical threshold parameters that represent an individual's tradeoff between social and environmental influences. Thirdly, we analyze continuous-time data of pairs of human subjects performing an experimental shared tracking task using our second proposed model in order to understand transient behavior and the decision-making process. We fit the model to data and show that it reproduces a wide range of human behaviors surprisingly well, suggesting that the model may have captured the mechanisms of observed behaviors. Finally, we study human behavior from a game-theoretic perspective by modeling the aforementioned tracking task as a repeated game with incomplete information. We show that the majority of the players are able to converge to playing Nash equilibrium strategies. We then suggest with simulations that the mean field evolution of strategies in the population resemble replicator dynamics, indicating that the individual strategies may be myopic. Decisions form the basis of control and problems involving deciding collectively between alternatives are ubiquitous in nature and in engineering. Understanding how multi-agent systems make decisions among alternatives also provides insight for designing

  20. Geography of Business Incubator Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Yu; Mark Middleton; Randall Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The geography of business incubators has seldom been examined against the public aspirations and beliefs that incubators should either inhabit economically distressed areas to alleviate unemployment and poverty (in the case of empowerment business incubators) or proliferate in technologically capable regions to adequately unleash and exploit local high-technology potentials (in the case of technology business incubators). In this paper, the geographic distribution of 719 U.S. business incubat...

  1. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    OpenAIRE

    AB Traldi; Menten JFM; CS Silva; PV Rizzo; PWZ Pereira; J Santarosa

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval...

  2. Critical role and screening practices of European business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Kris; Matthyssens, P; Vandenbempt, K

    2005-01-01

    Business incubators guide starting enterprises through their growth process and as such constitute a strong instrument to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. In this article we sketch the European business incubator landscape. Then we describe screening practices by European business incubators in 2003 and compare these results with the American incubators in the eighties. In the last phase a cautious link between screening practices and performance, measured in terms of tenant failure, ...

  3. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  4. Controlling droplet incubation using close-packed plug flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mary, Pascaline; Abate, Adam R.; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling droplet incubation is critical for droplet-based microfluidic applications; however, current techniques are either of limited precision or place strict limits on the incubation times that can be achieved. Here, we present a simple technique to control incubation time by exploiting close-packed plug flow. In contrast to other techniques, this technique is applicable to very short and very long incubation times.

  5. Five models of players' rule behavior for game balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungkeun; Kim, Mijin

    2012-09-01

    We present a five-part model of players' rule behaviors in a multiplayer online game (utilization, emergence, usefulness, usefulness-balance, and balance-usefulness). The model was identified through a pilot study involving nine expert players. The model fitness was then verified in a main experiment involving eighteen regular players. Our results showed that the utilization (4 players) and emergence (4 players) models were most frequently used, followed by the balance-usefulness (3 players), usefulness (3 players), and usefulness-balance (2 players) models. The coding scheme for this research was built from video observations and a literature review. We suggest this model is applicable for the implementation of a human-like virtual character's artificial intelligence algorithm in the game editors and the server loader for quality assurance. PMID:22817612

  6. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of multirobot cooperative hunting behavior. Multiple robots try to search for and surround a prey. When a robot detects a prey it forms a following team. When another “searching” robot detects the same prey, the robots form a new following team. Until four robots have detected the same prey, the prey disappears from the simulation and the robots return to searching for other prey. If a following team fails to be joined by another robot within a certain time limit the team is disbanded and the robots return to searching state. The mathematical model is formulated by a set of rate equations. The evolution of robot collective hunting behaviors represents the transition between different states of robots. The complex collective hunting behavior emerges through local interaction. The paper presents numerical solutions to normalized versions of the model equations and provides both a steady state and a collaboration ratio analysis. The value of the delay time is shown through mathematical modeling to be a strong factor in the performance of the system as well as the relative numbers of the searching robots and the prey.

  7. Extended timescale atomistic modeling of crack tip behavior in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are limited not only by their spatial domain, but also by the time domain that they can examine. Considering that many of the events associated with plasticity are thermally activated, and thus rare at atomic timescales, the limited time domain of traditional MD simulations can present a significant challenge when trying to realistically model the mechanical behavior of materials. A wide variety of approaches have been developed to address the timescale challenge, each having their own strengths and weaknesses dependent upon the specific application. Here, we have simultaneously applied three distinct approaches to model crack tip behavior in aluminum at timescales well beyond those accessible to traditional MD simulation. Specifically, we combine concurrent multiscale modeling (to reduce the degrees of freedom in the system), parallel replica dynamics (to parallelize the simulations in time) and hyperdynamics (to accelerate the exploration of phase space). Overall, the simulations (1) provide new insight into atomic-scale crack tip behavior at more typical timescales and (2) illuminate the potential of common extended timescale techniques to enable atomic-scale modeling of fracture processes at typical experimental timescales. (paper)

  8. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, S J; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.

  9. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its metabolites in hepatic microsomal incubations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is reported for the determination of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolites in in vitro metabolism studies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis allows separation of 18 by-products of DEHP metabolism. On the basis of retention time and specific mass spectra m/z values, three classes of compounds can be identified: (i) alcohols as hydrolysis product; (ii) acids produced by alcohol oxidation; (iii) compounds retaining phthalic moiety. The chromatogram can also be acquired in SIM mode at m/z 149 resulting in 13 well-separated chromatographic peaks: from retention time and mass spectra it can be inferred that the main peaks correspond to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and (ω-1)-hydroxyl-MEHP. The kinetics of DEHP metabolism was studied using an S9 Aroclor-induced liver fraction as in vitro model and following incubation assay after 20, 40, 60 and 90 min. The composition of incubation mixtures can be quantitatively evaluated from selected ion monitoring chromatograms at m/z 149: the by-product concentration increases during the incubation time, as a consequence of DEHP degradation. During the incubation test a significant conversion of DEHP into MEHP is observed: a conversion yield of 10, 13, 16 and 20% of the original DEHP is obtained after 20, 40, 60 and 90 min, respectively. The metabolic conversion of DEHP to MEHP explains the endocrine-disrupting activity of the original DEHP; moreover, it has been demonstrated that MEHP and its (ω-1)-oxidation metabolite induce peroxisome proliferation. This result strengthens the suggestion that the study of DEHP metabolic pathway is fundamental to better understanding its toxicological behavior

  10. Dopamine enhances model-based over model-free choice behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderlich, K; Smittenaar, P.; Dolan, R J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Decision making is often considered to arise out of contributions from a model-free habitual system and a model-based goal-directed system. Here, we investigated the effect of a dopamine manipulation on the degree to which either system contributes to instrumental behavior in a two-stage Markov decision task, which has been shown to discriminate model-free from model-based control. We found increased dopamine levels promote model-based over model-free choice.

  11. Genetical Genomics of Behavior: A Novel Chicken Genomic Model for Anxiety Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Williams, Michael J; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The identification of genetic variants responsible for behavioral variation is an enduring goal in biology, with wide-scale ramifications, ranging from medical research to evolutionary theory on personality syndromes. Here, we use for the first time a large-scale genetical genomics analysis in the brains of chickens to identify genes affecting anxiety as measured by an open field test. We combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in 572 individuals and expression QTL (eQTL) analysis in 129 individuals from an advanced intercross between domestic chickens and Red Junglefowl. We identify 10 putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior. These genes were tested for an association in the mouse Heterogeneous Stock anxiety (open field) data set and human GWAS data sets for bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. Although comparisons between species are complex, associations were observed for four of the candidate genes in mice and three of the candidate genes in humans. Using a multimodel approach we have therefore identified a number of putative quantitative trait genes affecting anxiety behavior, principally in chickens but also with some potentially translational effects as well. This study demonstrates that chickens are an excellent model organism for the genetic dissection of behavior. PMID:26733665

  12. A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bree Cummins

    Full Text Available Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

  13. The Extreme Walking Behavior in a 331-TC Model

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, A

    2015-01-01

    It is quite possible that the Technicolor problems are related to the poorly known self-energy expression, or the way chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) is realized in non-abelian gauge theories. Actually, the only known laboratory to test the CSB mechanism is QCD. The TC dynamics may be quite different from the QCD , this fact has led to the walking TC proposal making the new strong interaction almost conformal and changing appreciably its dynamical behavior. There are different ways to obtain of extreme walking (or quasi-conformal) technicolor theories, in this paper we propose an scheme to obtain this behavior based on an extension of the electroweak sector of the standard model, in the context of so called 331-TC model.

  14. Modeling unusual tritium release behavior from Li2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diffusion-desorption tritium release model in which the unusual tritium-release behavior observed in the CRITIC experiment is accounted for by an activation energy of desorption that is surface coverage dependent. Desorption and adsorption activation energies which are dependent on the amount of surface coverage have been reported. The current model is capable of reproducing both the unusual and the normal tritium release observed in CRITIC and predicts other regions where the surface-coverage-dependent release behavior may be observed. Results from the CRITIC experiment and our calculations imply that the details of the surface phenomena must be known to accurately predict the tritium inventory and changes in inventory that occur with changes in the breeder-material environment. 29 refs., 4 figs

  15. The extreme walking behavior in a 331-TC model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR-DAFIS, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    It is quite possible that the technicolor problems are related to the poorly known self-energy expression, or the way chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) is realized in non-abelian gauge theories. Actually, the only known laboratory to test the CSB mechanism is QCD. The TC dynamics may be quite different from the QCD, this fact has led to the walking TC proposal making the new strong interaction almost conformal and changing appreciably its dynamical behavior. There are different ways to obtain extreme walking (or quasi-conformal) technicolor theories, in this paper we propose a scheme to obtain this behavior based on an extension of the electroweak sector of the standard model, in the context of so-called 331-TC model. (orig.)

  16. Characteristics of Behavior of Robots with Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigehiko; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    Cooperated multi robots system has much dominance in comparison with single robot system. It is able to adapt to various circumstances and has a flexibility for variation of tasks. However it has still problems to control each robot, though methods for control multi robots system have been studied. Recently, the robots have been coming into real scene. And emotion and sensitivity of the robots have been widely studied. In this study, human emotion model based on psychological interaction was adapt to multi robots system to achieve methods for organization of multi robots. The characteristics of behavior of multi robots system achieved through computer simulation were analyzed. As a result, very complexed and interesting behavior was emerged even though it has rather simple configuration. And it has flexiblity in various circumstances. Additional experiment with actual robots will be conducted based on the emotion model.

  17. Robustness of Power-law Behavior in Cascading Failure Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sloothaak, F; Zwart, A P

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by reliability issues in electric transmission networks, we use a probabilistic approach to study the occurrence of large failures in a stylized cascading failure model. In this model, lines have random capacities that initially meet the load demands imposed on the network. Every single line failure changes the load distribution in the surviving network, possibly causing further lines to become overloaded and trip as well. An initial single line failure can therefore potentially trigger massive cascading effects, and in this paper we measure the risk of such cascading events by the probability that the number of failed lines exceeds a certain large threshold. Under particular critical conditions, the exceedance probability follows a power-law distribution, implying a significant risk of severe failures. We examine the robustness of the power-law behavior by exploring under which assumptions this behavior prevails.

  18. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Alves Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a structured interview that was designed based on the Health Belief Model, from March to December 2013. Participants perceived the disease’s severity and felt susceptible to develop complications from hypertension. They reported receiving treatment correctly; however, the values ​​of blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were high. Thus, it is necessary that health professionals implement strategies that favor hypertensive patients who are undergoing treatment to have healthy behavior.

  19. Block voter model: phase diagram and critical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio-Filho, C I N; Moreira, F G B

    2011-11-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of N(PCS) spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighboring counterparts. We consider the collective behavior of the entire system with varying PCS size. When N(PCS)>2, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter q(c) which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that a larger PCS has more power of persuasion, when compared to a smaller one. It also seems that the resulting critical behavior is Ising-like independent of the range of interaction. PMID:22181394

  20. Modeling driver behavior on motorways: Description of the SiMoNe model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, M.M.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Driver behavior on motorways is subject of study. It is essential to model driver behavior realistically in order to study traffic flow characteristics. Impacts of foreseen road geometry changes, vehicle characteristic adaptations or vehicle fleet composition changes on road capacity can be assessed

  1. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Basso

    Full Text Available In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major, and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  2. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research. PMID:25830223

  3. Stochastic Models Predict User Behavior in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad; Smith, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    User response to contributed content in online social media depends on many factors. These include how the site lays out new content, how frequently the user visits the site, how many friends the user follows, how active these friends are, as well as how interesting or useful the content is to the user. We present a stochastic modeling framework that relates a user's behavior to details of the site's user interface and user activity and describe a procedure for estimating model parameters from available data. We apply the model to study discussions of controversial topics on Twitter, specifically, to predict how followers of an advocate for a topic respond to the advocate's posts. We show that a model of user behavior that explicitly accounts for a user transitioning through a series of states before responding to an advocate's post better predicts response than models that fail to take these states into account. We demonstrate other benefits of stochastic models, such as their ability to identify users who a...

  4. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-ming Wang; Zeng-hui Zhao; Yong-ji Wang; Xin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was establis...

  5. Characterizing the Freeze–Drying Behavior of Model Protein Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Lavinia M.; Johnson, Robert E.; Oldroyd, Megan E.; Ahmed, Saleem S.; Joseph, Liji; Saracovan, Ilie; Sinha, Sandipan

    2010-01-01

    The freeze–drying behavior of three model proteins, namely, lysozyme, BSA, and IgG, has been studied using a variety of techniques under two different primary drying conditions (shelf temperatures of −25°C and +25°C, respectively) in an amorphous formulation. Manometric temperature measurements were used to characterize product temperature (Tpr), sublimation rates, and product resistance (Rp) during primary drying. Biophysical techniques such as circular dichroism, fluorescence, and Fourier t...

  6. Using Interactive Simulation to Model Driver Behavior Under ATIS

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jeffery L.; Recker, Wilfred W.; McNally, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of FASTCARS (Freeway and Arterial Street Traffic Conflict Arousal and Resolution Simulator), an interactive microcomputer-based animated simulator designed for in-laboratory experimentation and data collection to assist in the estimation and calibration of predictive models of driver behavior under the influence or real-time information. Limited real-world implementation of Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) technologi...

  7. A nude mouse model of endometriosis and its biological behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan-bo; ZHANG Shu-lan; NIU Hui-yan; LU Jing-ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM) as a common and intractable gynecological disease is characterized by unknown etiology and complex pathologic changes. Many factors of the disease are uncertain at the molecular level and it is difficult to study clinically. In this study, we attempted to establish a nude mice model of EM for dynamical observation of the genesis and development of the disease, morphological changes in tissue, and biological behaviors.

  8. Modeling the theory of planned behavior for intention to improve oral health behaviors : the impact of attitudes, knowledge, and current behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L.; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health ...

  9. Recording Lifetime Behavior and Movement in an Invertebrate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Cruz-Enriquez, Janeth; Morice, Amy; Ingram, Donald K.; Kaub, Kevin; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Carey, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of lifetime behavioral changes is essential for understanding aging and aging-related diseases. However, such studies are scarce partly due to the lack of efficient tools. Here we describe and provide proof of concept for a stereo vision system that classifies and sequentially records at an extremely fine scale six different behaviors (resting, micro-movement, walking, flying, feeding and drinking) and the within-cage (3D) location of individual tephritid fruit flies by time-of-day throughout their lives. Using flies fed on two different diets, full sugar-yeast and sugar-only diets, we report for the first time their behavioral changes throughout their lives at a high resolution. We have found that the daily activity peaks at the age of 15–20 days and then gradually declines with age for flies on both diets. However, the overall daily activity is higher for flies on sugar-only diet than those on the full diet. Flies on sugar-only diet show a stronger diurnal localization pattern with higher preference to staying on the top of the cage during the period of light-off when compared to flies on the full diet. Clustering analyses of age-specific behavior patterns reveal three distinct young, middle-aged and old clusters for flies on each of the two diets. The middle-aged groups for flies on sugar-only diet consist of much younger age groups when compared to flies on full diet. This technology provides research opportunities for using a behavioral informatics approach for understanding different ways in which behavior, movement, and aging in model organisms are mutually affecting. PMID:21559058

  10. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: A Stage-based Approach to Behavior Change and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Bensley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here — at the point of stage-specific information — that behavioral intent in moving toward more active stages of change occurs. The eHealth Behavior Management Model is applied in three demonstration projects that focus on behavior management issues: parent-child nutrition education among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; asthma management among university staff and students; and human immunodeficiency virus prevention among South African women. Preliminary results have found the eHealth Behavior Management Model to be promising as a model for Internet-based behavior change programming. Further application and evaluation among other behavior and disease management issues are needed.

  11. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  12. Single crystal plasticity by modeling dislocation density rate behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Benjamin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beyerlein, Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, E. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-23

    The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive model for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation rates within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive models relies on thermally-activated models which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain rates of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal model to the strain rate region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic model includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic model transitions from the low-rate thermally-activated regime to the high-rate drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions rates adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive model is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-rate response in fcc systems. The proposed material model incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening model tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance based on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain rates. The material model is fit to copper.

  13. Modeling creep behavior in a directionally solidified nickel base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Alejandro R.

    Directionally solidified (DS) nickel-base superalloys provide significant improvements relative to the limitations inherent to equiaxed materials in the areas of creep resistance, oxidation, and low and high cycle fatigue resistance. Since these materials are being pushed to the limits of their capability in gas turbine applications, accurate mathematical models are needed to predict the service lives of the hot-section components to prevent unscheduled outages due to sudden mechanical failures. The objectives of this study are to perform critical experiments and investigate the high temperature tensile, fracture toughness, creep deformation, creep rupture and creep crack growth behavior of DS GTD111 as well as to apply creep deformation, rupture and crack growth models that will enable the accurate representation of the life times of the DS GTD111 superalloy gas turbine components that are exposed to high temperatures under sustained tensile stresses. The applied models will be capable of accurately representing the creep deformation, rupture and crack growth behavior as a function of stress, time and temperature. The yield strength and fracture toughness behavior with temperature is governed by the gamma particles. The longitudinal direction showed higher ductility and strength than the transverse direction. The TL direction exhibited higher fracture toughness than the LT orientation because the crack follows a more tortuous path. The longitudinal direction showed higher creep ductility, lower minimum strain rates and longer creep rupture times than the transverse direction. The results in the transverse direction were similar to the ones for the equiaxed version of this superalloy. Two models for creep deformation have been evaluated. The power-law model includes a secondary and a tertiary creep term with the primary creep represented by a constant. A theta-projection model has also been evaluated and it appears to provide a more accurate representation of creep

  14. Modeling of the viscoelastic mechano-sorptive behavior in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédéric; Husson, Jean-Marie; Sauvat, Nicolas; Manfoumbi, Nicaise

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling of linearly viscoelastic, mechano-sorptive behavior and its effects during moisture content changes in timber. A generalized Kelvin-Voigt model integrating specific hygro-lock springs is developed and associated, in series, with a shrinkage-swelling element. The coupling between moisture content state and mechanical state implies an evolution in rheological parameters. This alternative approach leads to incorporating strain blockings during the drying period as well as memory effects during wetting phases after unloading. An incremental formulation is also established using a finite-element software, and, moreover, an experimental validation from tensile creep-recovery tests is presented.

  15. A Multi-Dimensional Model of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez-Pons

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A model of violence (Multidimensional Model of Violent Behavior; MMVB was tested. Approach: 416 university students were surveyed to ascertain the difficulty they experience in coping with different forms of violence, violence forms they are prone to exhibit and their levels of psychopathology. Results: Factor analysis disclosed evidence of the MMVB’s construct validity; and correlational analysis shed light on a difficulty in handling aggression as a function of the violence forms of the MMVB and b relations that exist among psychopathology and the MMVB’s violence forms. Conclusion: Implications for the treatment of violence were discussed and recommendations were made for further study.

  16. Simulation of rheological behavior of asphalt mixture with lattice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣枫; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional(3D) lattice model for predicting the rheological behavior of asphalt mixtures was presented.In this model asphalt mixtures were described as a two-phase composite material consisting of asphalt sand and coarse aggregates distributed randomly.Asphalt sand was regarded as a viscoelastic material and aggregates as an elastic material.The rheological response of asphalt mixture subjected to different constant stresses was simulated.The calibrated overall creep strain shows a good approximation to experimental results.

  17. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  18. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  19. Mechanical Model for Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanxiang

    Concrete is a geo-material which is used substantively in the civil building and military safeguard. One coupled model of damage and plasticity to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loading is proposed in this research work. The concrete is assumed as homogeneous continuum with pre-existing micro-cracks and micro-voids. Damage to concrete is caused due to micro-crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, and defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density. It induces a decrease of strength and stiffness of concrete. Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material voids. It produces the plastic strain in the concrete and, at the same time, an increase of the bulk modulus. In terms of crack growth model, micro-cracks are activated, and begin to propagate gradually. When crack density reaches a critical value, concrete takes place the smashing destroy. The model parameters for mortar are determined using plate impact experiment with uni-axial strain state. Comparison with the test results shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the impact behavior of concrete. The proposed model may be used to design and analysis of concrete structures under impact and shock loading. This work is supported by State Key Laboratory of Explosion science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology (YBKT14-02).

  20. Modelling for the mechanical behavior of cementitious granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoxiong

    Crack damages due to load application are commonly observed in cementitious granular materials such as concrete, cemented sand, and ceramic materials. Previous analytical models for these types of materials have been developed based on continuum mechanics using a phenomenological approach. However, the theories of continuum mechanics have limitations when used for analyzing fracture mechanism and localized damages at a micro-scale level. Therefore, a microstructural approach is desirable for the analysis of these types of materials. In this dissertation, a contact law was derived for the inter-particle behavior of two particles connected by a cement binder. Microcracking process within binder was fully taken into account by regarding crack length as a basic damage factor. The binder initially contains small-size cracks which propagate and grow under external loading. As a result the binder is weakened with lower strength in shear and tension. Theory of fracture mechanics was employed to model the propagation and growth of these microcracks for both the shear fracture mode and normal fracture mode. The contact law was then incorporated in the analysis for the overall damage behaviors of cementitious granular material using the statistical micromechanics approach and the distinct element method. These overall damage behaviors include the stress-strain relationship, fracture strength, development of damage zone, and fatigue deformation. The micro-parameters affecting these behaviors are mainly the microcrack length and density, binder toughness, and binder elastic constants. In the numerical simulations, the cementitious granular materials were represented by 2-D random assemblies of rods bonded by cement binders with preexisting microcracks. Stress-strain relationships were modeled and validated for the uniaxial tension and compression tests, biaxial tension and compression tests, and double cantilever beam test. Force-deflection relationship and fatigue deformation

  1. A Financial Data Mining Model for Extracting Customer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark K.Y. Mak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Facing the problem of variation and chaotic behavior of customers, the lack of sufficient information is a challenge to many business organizations. Human analysts lacking an understanding of the hidden patterns in business data, thus, can miss corporate business opportunities. In order to embrace all business opportunities, enhance the competitiveness, discovery of hidden knowledge, unexpected patterns and useful rules from large databases have provided a feasible solution for several decades. While there is a wide range of financial analysis products existing in the financial market, how to customize the investment portfolio for the customer is still a challenge to many financial institutions. This paper aims at developing an intelligent Financial Data Mining Model (FDMM for extracting customer behavior in the financial industry, so as to increase the availability of decision support data and hence increase customer satisfaction. The proposed financial model first clusters the customers into several sectors, and then finds the correlation among these sectors. It is noted that better customer segmentation can increase the ability to identify targeted customers, therefore extracting useful rules for specific clusters can provide an insight into customers' buying behavior and marketing implications. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, a simple dataset is collected from a financial company in Hong Kong. The simulation experiments show that the proposed method not only can improve the workflow of a financial company, but also deepen understanding of investment behavior. Thus, a corporation is able to customize the most suitable products and services for customers on the basis of the rules extracted.

  2. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  3. The e-Incubator: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Mini Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Shadi F.; Wartella, Karin; Khalilzad Sharghi, Vahid; Xu, Huihui

    2014-01-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniatur...

  4. Business Incubation Success in Biotechnology : How Should Bio-incubator Performance be Assessed?

    OpenAIRE

    NÄTTERLUND, LINA; Sigerud Lärkert, Julia

    2014-01-01

    University business incubators (UBIs) are organizations that provide new startup companies with a support environment. However, there are split opinions on the UBIs’ contributions to the startups and the regional economy and, consequently, there are also split opinions on  how to assess UBI performance. According to the resource-based view (RBV), a company’s competitive advantage results from the various resources the company has access to. The biotechnology industry is characterized by high ...

  5. Modelling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Deems Egbert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit hasbeen reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we usea computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophicalimplications, where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that shareproperties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complexecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanicalautomatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominatingatomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness,embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex rolein the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel iterant deformable sensorimotormedium (IDSM, designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increasethe likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensorsand motors of a simulated body and environment and show that under certain conditions,the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the body,and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form inthem. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor meso-scalebetween microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally,we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioralself-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporaryrepresentationalist frameworks.

  6. Heterogeneous individuals' behavioral biases model and numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-yong; LIANG Guo-wei

    2010-01-01

    A model of the relationships between individual cognitive biases and individual decision-making based on the analysis of cognitive biases of bonded rationality individual,has been established in this paper by introducing a set of new variables callod overconfidence coefficient and attribution bias coefficient to the sentiment model.The irrational expectation and irrational risk aversion as two inseparable aspects of bonded rationality are expressed in an unified model,and a method of measuring individual cognitive biases is proposed,which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional normative models that can not describe the differences of behaviors among heterogeneous individuals.As a result,numerical simulations show that individual cognitive risk is a positive interaction with overconfidence coefficient,and a negative interaction with attribution bias coefficient.

  7. A Data Flow Behavior Constraints Model for Branch Decisionmaking Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the attacks to decision-making variable, this paper presents a data flow behavior constraint model for branch decision-making variables. Our model is expanded from the common control flow model, itemphasizes on the analysis and verification about the data flow for decision-making variables, so that to ensure the branch statement can execute correctly and can also detect the attack to branch decision-making variableeasily. The constraints of our model include the collection of variables, the statements that the decision-making variables are dependent on and the data flow constraint with the use-def relation of these variables. Our experimental results indicate that it is effective in detecting the attacks to branch decision-making variables as well as the attacks to control-data.

  8. Case study: modeling the phase behavior of solvent diluted bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, P.; Schoeggl, F.F.; Yarranton, H.W. [University of Calgary (Canada); Satyro, M.A. [Virtual Materials Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    To recover heavy oil and bitumen, thermal recovery methods such as cyclic steam stimulation and steam assisted gravity drainage are widely used in western Canada. Accurate predictions of phase behavior are required for the design of solvent-based and solvent-assisted heavy oil recovery. This paper presents the phase behavior modeling of solvent-diluted bitumen. The saturation pressures of live and dead bitumen were measured in a JEFRI PVT cell at various concentrations and temperatures. The onset of asphaltene precipitation was also measured for bitumen diluted with n-pentane by titrating bitumen with pentane and constantly circulating the mixture around a high-pressure microscope. The data were modeled using the advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). By adjusting the binary interaction parameter between the solvent and the pseudo-components, the APR EoS was tuned to match the saturation pressures. The unrealistic phase behavior predictions were made based on the extrapolated SimDist data characterizations.

  9. A New Model for the Collective Behavior of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Diep, H T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new model in order to study behaviors of self-organized system such as a group of animals. We assume that the individuals have two degrees of freedom corresponding one to their internal state and the other to their external state. The external state is characterized by its moving orientation. The rule of the interaction between the individuals is determined by the internal state which can be either in the non-excited state or in the excited state. The system is put under a source of external perturbation called "noise". To study the behavior of the model with varying noise, we use the Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The result clearly shows two first-order transitions separating the system into three phases: with increasing noise, the system undergoes a phase transition from a frozen dilute phase to an ordered compact phase and then to the disordered dispersed phase. These phases correspond to behaviors of animals: uncollected state at low noise, flocking at medium noise and runaway at high noi...

  10. Critical behavior of a model for catalyzed autoamplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Warmflash, Aryeh; Dinner, Aaron R

    2009-04-01

    We examine the critical behavior of a model of catalyzed autoamplification inspired by a common motif in genetic networks. Similar to models in the directed percolation (DP) universality class, a phase transition between an absorbing state with no copies of the autoamplifying species A and an active state with a finite amount of A occurs at the point at which production and removal of A are balanced. A suitable coordinate transformation shows that this model corresponds to one with three fields, one of which relaxes exponentially, one of which displays critical behavior, and one of which has purely diffusive dynamics but exerts an influence on the critical field. Using stochastic simulations that account for discrete molecular copy numbers in one, two, and three dimensions, we show that this model has exponents that are distinct from previously studied reaction-diffusion systems, including the few with more than one field (unidirectionally coupled DP processes and the diffusive epidemic process). Thus the requirement of a catalyst changes the fundamental physics of autoamplification. Estimates for the exponents of the diffusive epidemic process in two dimensions are also presented. PMID:19355779

  11. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Escofet, Anna

    2015-01-01

    After a short review of the state of the art in Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity, several illustrative examples are introduced and a few original dark energy models with quite interesting properties are discussed which exhibit, in a unified way, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence, and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state parameter, $w$, is a function of time is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with $w=-1$. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are found and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and the accelerated expansion at present which, as a consequence, may be explained by means of a dark energy model inspired by fundamental physics (string theory) a...

  12. Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = ‑1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.

  13. Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Shukla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

  14. Stochastic modeling of driver behavior by Langevin equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    A procedure based on stochastic Langevin equations is presented and shows how a stochastic model of driver behavior can be estimated directly from given data. The Langevin analysis allows the separation of a given data-set into a stochastic diffusion- and a deterministic drift field. Form the drift field a potential can be derived. In particular the method is here applied on driving data from a simulator. We overcome typical problems like varying sampling rates, low noise levels, low data amounts, inefficient coordinate systems, and non-stationary situations. From the estimation of the drift- and diffusion vector-fields derived from the data, we show different ways how to set up Monte-Carlo simulations for the driver behavior.

  15. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  16. Modeling thermal-mechanical behavior of networks with reconfigurable crosslinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeh-Chang; Meng, Yuan; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    Actively moving polymers nearly always involve the storage or release of mechanical energy using external stimuli. Thermomechanical experiments were conducted on well-defined chemical networks bearing both permanent and light-reconfigurable covalent junctions. Experimental data include stress relaxation and mechanical creep during photoinduced network reconfiguration as well as equilibrium stress-strain behavior of reprogrammed networks. Physical models of elastic networks were applied to describe thermomechanical behavior during and after bond re-formation while under external stress. The role of dangling ends in influencing competitive network mechanics is evaluated to explain observed phenomena and discrepancies between theory and data. Understanding how process path is related to the equilibrium thermomechanics of such reprogrammed networks is important to engineering shape actuator driven by crystallization. Nsf ECCS-1530540.

  17. Formal Behavior Modeling: Business Processes Based on Cloud Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From a macro level, cloud computing is gathering all the distributed resources originally, and then provided them as a service to the users. Current research focuses the cloud architecture and local small-scale grid computing mainly. The researchers are ignoring to provide a channel to help users to understand the business processes of the entire platform. This article focuses the communication and business links and abstracts them into business processes behaviors. At the same time, this article provides a modeling method to help these behaviors being visual depiction at the initial design of the cloud computing. We combine the SOA architecture and cloud computing together. At last the transferring and the dynamic processing of the service\\data of the business processes can be shown to the stakeholders to verify whether the cloud platform was meeting their requirements which are regarded as simulation of cloud services.

  18. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs. PMID:23185126

  19. Mechanical behavior of the ATLAS B0 model coil

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Acerbi, E; Alessandria, F; Berthier, R; Broggi, F; Daël, A; Dudarev, A; Mayri, C; Miele, P; Reytier, M; Rossi, L; Sorbi, M; Sun, Z; ten Kate, H H J; Vanenkov, I; Volpini, G

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been developed and constructed to verify the design parameters and the manufacture techniques of the Barrel Toroid coils (BT) that are under construction for the ATLAS Detector. Essential for successful operation is the mechanical behavior of the superconducting coil and its support structure. In the ATLAS magnet test facility, a magnetic mirror is used to reproduce in the model coil the electromagnetic forces of the BT coils when assembled in the final Barrel Toroid magnet system. The model coil is extensively equipped with mechanical instrumentation to monitor stresses and force levels as well as contraction during a cooling down and excitation up to nominal current. The installed set up of strain gauges, position sensors and capacitive force transducers is presented. Moreover the first mechanical results in terms of expected main stress, strain and deformation values are presented based on detailed mechanical analysis of the design. (7 refs).

  20. Modeling the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline alloy with hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongxi; Zhou, Jianqiu, E-mail: zhouj@njtech.edu.cn [Nanjing Tech University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Zhao, Yonghao, E-mail: yhzhao@njust.edu.cn [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanostructural Materials Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-02-15

    A mechanism-based plasticity model based on dislocation theory is developed to describe the mechanical behavior of the hierarchical nanocrystalline alloys. The stress–strain relationship is derived by invoking the impeding effect of the intra-granular solute clusters and the inter-granular nanostructures on the dislocation movements along the sliding path. We found that the interaction between dislocations and the hierarchical microstructures contributes to the strain hardening property and greatly influence the ductility of nanocrystalline metals. The analysis indicates that the proposed model can successfully describe the enhanced strength of the nanocrystalline hierarchical alloy. Moreover, the strain hardening rate is sensitive to the volume fraction of the hierarchical microstructures. The present model provides a new perspective to design the microstructures for optimizing the mechanical properties in nanostructural metals.

  1. Behavior of asphaltene model compounds at w/o interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, Erland L; Sørland, Geir; Sjöblom, Johan

    2010-02-16

    Asphaltenes, present in significant amounts in heavy crude oil, contains subfractions capable of stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. Still, the composition of these subfractions is not known in detail, and the actual mechanism behind emulsion stability is dependent on perceived interfacial concentrations and compositions. This study aims at utilizing polyaromatic surfactants which contains an acidic moiety as model compounds for the surface-active subfraction of asphaltenes. A modified pulse-field gradient (PFG) NMR method has been used to study droplet sizes and stability of emulsions prepared with asphaltene model compounds. The method has been compared to the standard microscopy droplet counting method. Arithmetic and volumetric mean droplet sizes as a function of surfactant concentration and water content clearly showed that the interfacial area was dependent on the available surfactant at the emulsion interface. Adsorption of the model compounds onto hydrophilic silica has been investigated by UV depletion, and minor differences in the chemical structure of the model compounds caused significant differences in the affinity toward this highly polar surface. The cross-sectional areas obtained have been compared to areas from the surface-to-volume ratio found by NMR and gave similar results for one of the two model compounds. The mean molecular area for this compound suggested a tilted geometry of the aromatic core with respect to the interface, which has also been proposed for real asphaltenic samples. The film behavior was further investigated using a liquid-liquid Langmuir trough supporting the ability to form stable interfacial films. This study supports that acidic, or strong hydrogen-bonding fractions, can promote stable water-in-oil emulsion. The use of model compounds opens up for studying emulsion behavior and demulsifier efficiency based on true interfacial concentrations rather than perceived interfaces. PMID:19852481

  2. Modeling Behavior of Geographic Objects: An Experience with the Object Modeling Technique (96-11)

    OpenAIRE

    Tryfona, Nectaria; Pfoser, Dieter; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    1996-01-01

    Behavior of geographic objects holds a critical role in spatial databases. This, along with objects’ position and space-varying attributes, form a minimal set of concepts sufficient to capture spatialpeculiarities in terms of the object-oriented rational. This paper presents the semantics and the graphical notation of a prototypical object-oriented model for the conceptual design of spatial databases: by extending the Object Model of the Object Modeling Technique to the Geographic ObjectModel...

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given that they have been detected, how do such associations inform cognitive-level theories? To investigate this question, we employed a multiscale computational model of development, using a sample domain drawn from the field of language acquisition. The model comprised an artificial neural network model of past-tense acquisition trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm, extended to incorporate population modeling and genetic algorithms. It included five levels of description-four internal: genetic, network, neurocomputation, behavior; and one external: environment. Since the mechanistic assumptions of the model were known and its operation was relatively transparent, we could evaluate whether cross-level associations gave an accurate picture of causal processes. We established that associations could be detected between artificial genes and behavioral variation, even under polygenic assumptions of a many-to-one relationship between genes and neurocomputational parameters, and when an experience-dependent developmental process interceded between the action of genes and the emergence of behavior. We evaluated these associations with respect to their specificity (to different behaviors, to function vs. structure), to their developmental stability, and to their replicability, as well as considering issues of missing heritability and gene-environment interactions. We argue that gene-behavior

  4. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ming Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage.

  5. Modeling the atomistic growth behavior of gold nanoparticles in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C. Heath; Lei, Yu; Bao, Yuping

    2016-04-01

    The properties of gold nanoparticles strongly depend on their three-dimensional atomic structure, leading to an increased emphasis on controlling and predicting nanoparticle structural evolution during the synthesis process. In order to provide this atomistic-level insight and establish a link to the experimentally-observed growth behavior, a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation (KMC) approach is developed for capturing Au nanoparticle growth characteristics. The advantage of this approach is that, compared to traditional molecular dynamics simulations, the atomistic nanoparticle structural evolution can be tracked on time scales that approach the actual experiments. This has enabled several different comparisons against experimental benchmarks, and it has helped transition the KMC simulations from a hypothetical toy model into a more experimentally-relevant test-bed. The model is initially parameterized by performing a series of automated comparisons of Au nanoparticle growth curves versus the experimental observations, and then the refined model allows for detailed structural analysis of the nanoparticle growth behavior. Although the Au nanoparticles are roughly spherical, the maximum/minimum dimensions deviate from the average by approximately 12.5%, which is consistent with the corresponding experiments. Also, a surface texture analysis highlights the changes in the surface structure as a function of time. While the nanoparticles show similar surface structures throughout the growth process, there can be some significant differences during the initial growth at different synthesis conditions.

  6. Getting 'Whole Picture' Behavior in a Use Case Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Mencl, V.

    Grandview : Society for Design and Process Science, 2003, s. 1-11. ISSN 1090-9389. - (IDPT. 2). [IDPT'03. Bienall World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology /7./. Austin (US), 03.12.2003-06.12.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0911; GA ČR GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : use case model * genetic UC view * pro-case * behavior protocols Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  7. Asymptotic behavior of CLS estimators for unstable INAR(2) models

    CERN Document Server

    Barczy, Matyas; Pap, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the asymptotic behavior of the conditional least squares estimators of the autoregressive parameters $(\\alpha, \\beta)$ and of the stability parameter $\\varrho := \\alpha + \\beta$ for an unstable integer-valued autoregressive process $X_k = \\alpha \\circ X_{k-1} + \\beta \\circ X_{k-2} + \\varepsilon_k$, $k\\in\\NN$, is described. The limit distributions and the scaling factors are different according to the following three cases: (i) decomposable, (ii) indecomposable but not positively regular, and (iii) positively regular models.

  8. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26[degree]C and downshifted 30-26-30[degree]C) and females (constant 30[degree]C and upshifted 26-30-26[degree]C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26[degree]C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30[degree]C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26[degree]C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30[degree]C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25[degree]C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30[degree]C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  9. Effects of egg incubation condition on the post-hatching growth and performance of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K.M.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth and performance capacities of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina was investigated in the laboratory. Turtle eggs were collected from four sites in New York State and randomly assigned to four incubation temperature treatments to produce males (constant 26{degree}C and downshifted 30-26-30{degree}C) and females (constant 30{degree}C and upshifted 26-30-26{degree}C) under constant and altered temperature regimes. The incubation conditions resulted in 92% males from the constant 26{degree}C group and 93% males from the downshifted group. 100% females resulted from both the constant 30{degree}C group and the upshifted group. Turtles hatching from eggs incubated constantly at 26{degree}C were significantly larger than hatchlings from eggs incubated at a constant 30{degree}C or downshifted. Hatchlings were raised in individual aquaria at 25{degree}C and fed earthworms and fish. After a 9-month growth period, turtles which had been incubated at a constant 30{degree}C gained significantly more mass than did turtles from eggs which had been downshifted or upshifted. There was no extended effect of incubation condition on Post-hatching performance and learning ability as measured by righting and feeding responses. Thus, the mass gain differences seen in this study suggest that physiological differences do result as the consequence of incubation condition. However, these physiological differences are not reflected in normal locomotive or feeding behavior.

  10. Incubators Best Practices in Developed and Developing Countries: Qualitative Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Hanadi Mubarak AL-MUBARAKI; Michael BUSLER; Rashed AL-AJMEI; M. Aruna

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate and identify the best practices of incubators in developed and developing countries based on the incubators outcomes such as economic growth, fostering innovation and entrepreneurship. The study nature of this research is mainly qualitative approaches (multi-case studies, literature review). This investigation uses ten case studies, and the data was mainly collected by direct interview with four international incubator managers and organizational documents from ...

  11. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  12. VENTURE CAPITAL AND THE INCUBATION OF SMALL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Bajmoczy, Zoltan; Kosztopulosz, Andreasz; Imreh, Szabolcs

    2008-01-01

    The present paper has reviewed the potential interpretations of the incubation process and examined in detail the basic types of corporate incubators having an increasing role in everyday practice together with the main objectives of the different types. We have also mapped how the different types of enterprises can join the incubation process and highlighted that for-profit organisations can also play a significant role within financing solutions. We made an attempt to prove that – under a...

  13. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorian, A; Ratinho, T.; Harms, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region (Armenia) and we chose to research solely the IT industry. We employed a two stage procedure: first, we conducted interviews with pivotal people familiar with business incubation in Armenia; second, an...

  14. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  15. Activity Diagrams for DEVS Models: A Case Study Modeling Health Care Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Event Systems Specification (DEVS) is a widely used formalism for modeling and simulation of discrete and continuous systems. While DEVS provides a sound mathematical representation of discrete systems, its practical use can suffer when models become complex. Five main functions, which construct the core of atomic modules in DEVS, can realize the behaviors that modelers want to represent. The integration of these functions is handled by the simulation routine, however modelers can implement each function in various ways. Therefore, there is a need for graphical representations of complex models to simplify their implementation and facilitate their reproduction. In this work, we illustrate the use of activity diagrams for this purpose in the context of a health care behavior model, which is developed with an agent-based modeling paradigm.

  16. Modeling Pacing Behavior and Test Speededness Using Latent Growth Curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Cuddy, Monica M.; Clauser, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the usefulness of latent growth curve modeling in the study of pacing behavior and test speededness. Examinee response times from a high-stakes, computerized examination, collected before and after the examination was subjected to a timing change, were analyzed using a series of latent growth curve models to detect…

  17. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  18. HDM model magnet mechanical behavior with high manganese steel collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) is presently under contract to the SSCL to design, develop, fabricate, and deliver superconducting dipole magnets for the High Energy Booster (HEB). As a first step toward these objectives SSCL supplied a design for short model magnets of 1.8 m in length (DSB). This design was used as a developmental tool for all phases of engineering and fabrication. Mechanical analysis of the HDM (High Energy Booster Dipole Magnets) model magnet design as specified by SSCL was performed with the following objectives: (1) to develop a thorough understanding of the design; (2) to review and verify through analytical and numerical analyses the SSCL model magnet design; (3) to identify any deficiencies that would violate design parameters specified in the HDM Design Requirements Document. A detailed analysis of the model magnet mechanical behavior was pursued by constructing a quarter section finite element model and solving with the ANSYS finite element code. Collar materials of Nitronic-40 and High-Manganese steel were both considered for the HEB model magnet program with the High-Manganese being the final selection. The primary mechanical difference in the two materials is the much lower thermal contraction of the High-Manganese steel. With this material the collars will contract less than the enclosing yoke producing an increased collar yoke interference during cooldown

  19. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to executive inhibition, and decision-making that involves weighing the pros and cons of engaging in motivated behaviors. Based on this model, we propose how behavioral therapies might target these domains in the treatment of IGD. PMID:25062755

  20. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR ON ECOLOGICAL PRODUCT BUYING BEHAVIOR THROUGH STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Veysel Yilmaz; H.Eray Celik; Ceren Yagizer

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness and motivation to preserve environment for the next generations, more and more consumers are choosing ecological products. This research investigated the effects of university students’ environmental sensitivity and environmental behavior on their ecological product buying behavior, through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). Results of this study indicate that although the relationship between environmental behavior and ecological product b...

  1. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  2. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h

  3. A Model for the Behavior of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan John Baker

    2003-08-05

    A magnetic tunnel junction is a device that changes its electrical resistance with a change in an applied magnetic field. A typical junction consists of two magnetic electrodes separated by a nonmagnetic insulating layer. The magnetizations of the two electrodes can have two possible extreme configurations, parallel and antiparallel. The antiparallel configuration is observed to have the higher measured resistance and the parallel configuration has the lower resistance. To switch between these two configurations a magnetic field is applied to the device which is primarily used to change the orientation of the magnetization of one electrode usually called the free layer, although with sufficient high magnetic field the orientation of the magnetizations of both of the electrodes can be changed. The most commonly used models for describing and explaining the electronic behavior of tunnel junctions are the Simmons model and the Brinkman model. However, both of these models were designed for simple, spin independent tunneling. The Simmons model does not address the issue of applied magnetic fields nor does it address the form of the electronic band structure in the metallic electrodes, including the important factor of spin polarization. The Brinkman model is similar, the main difference between the two models being the shape of the tunneling barrier potential between the two electrodes. Therefore, the research conducted in this thesis has developed a new theoretical model that addresses these important issues starting from basic principles. The main features of the new model include: the development of equations for true spin dependent tunneling through the insulating barrier, the differences in the orientations of the electrode magnetizations on either side of the barrier, and the effects of the density of states function on the behavior of the junction. The present work has explored densities of states that are more realistic than the simplified free electron density

  4. Modeling driver behavior on motorways: Description of the SiMoNe model

    OpenAIRE

    Minderhoud, M.M.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Driver behavior on motorways is subject of study. It is essential to model driver behavior realistically in order to study traffic flow characteristics. Impacts of foreseen road geometry changes, vehicle characteristic adaptations or vehicle fleet composition changes on road capacity can be assessed quite easily with such a simulation tool. Background of the study is the expected introduction of longitudinal driver support systems, or socalled Intelligent Cruise Control. This report gives, am...

  5. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. PMID:26433568

  6. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; SMOLENSKI, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J.; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals’ sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior v...

  7. Modeling alternative clad behavior for accident tolerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has a key goal of helping develop accident tolerant fuels (ATF) through investigating fuel and clad forms. In the current work thermochemical modeling and experiment are being used to assess fuel and clad alternatives. Cladding alternatives that have promise to improve fuel performance under accident conditions include the FeCrAl family of alloys and SiC-based composites. These are high strength and radiation resistant alloys and ceramics that have increased resistance to oxidation as compared to zirconium alloys. Accident modeling codes have indicated substantially increased time to failure and resulting effects. In the current work the thermochemical behavior of these materials are being assessed and the work reported here. (author)

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Model Seabed Behavior under Water Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the behavior of a model seabed subjected to water wave excitation is presented. The experiments were performed in the wave flume at the Danish Technological University in Lyngby. Such experiments are unique in engineering sciences and therefore provide unique empirical data for testing various models of the seabed. A controversial explanation of the experiments is presented in the literature. The goal of this research was to study pore pressure changes caused by water waves and the subsequent liquefaction of the seabed. The authors of the present contribution offer their own theoretical explanation of the wave flume experiments and discuss errors found in the literature cited. The analysis is based on the classical soil mechanics, including the Biot type approach

  9. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21166326

  10. Scheduling Model for Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture Based on Process Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousa Alrahahleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for scheduling of symmetric multiprocessing (SMP architecture based on process behavior. The method takes advantage of process behavior, which includes system calls to create groups of similar processes using machine-learning techniques like clustering or classification, and then makes process distribution decisions based on classification or clustering groups. The new method is divided into three stages: the first phase is collecting data about process and defining subset of data is to be used in further processing. The second phase is using data collected in classification or clustering to create classification/clustering models by applying common techniques similar to those used in machine learning, such as a decision tree for classification or EM for clustering. System training classification should be done in this phase, and after that, classification or clustering models should be applied on a running system to find out in which group each process belongs. The third phase is using process groups as a parameter of scheduling on SMP (sympatric Multi Processor systems when doing distribution over multi-processor cores. Another advantage can be achieved by letting the end user train the system to classify a specific type of process and assign it to a specific process core, targeting real-time response or performance gain. The new method increases process performance and decreases response time based on different kinds of distribution.

  11. Using Difference Equation to Model Discrete-time Behavior in System Dynamics Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hesan, R.; A. Ghorbani; Dignum, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    In system dynamics modeling, differential equations have been used as the basic mathematical operator. Using difference equation to build system dynamics models instead of differential equation, can be insightful for studying small organizations or systems with micro behavior. In this paper we explain how we can use difference equations to build system dynamics models. We illustrate the use of this method through its application to a case study in supply chain management.

  12. Propensity to search: common, leisure, and labor models of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the propensity to search specifies the “common” or the ordinary model of consumer behavior based on the synthesis of the neoclassical approach with satisficing concept, and “leisure” and “labor” models of behavior that represent different combinations of conspicuous consumption, leisure, and labor. While the “common model” of behavior demonstrates a moderate propensity to search, “leisure” and “labor” models of consumer behavior exhibit vigorous propensities to search that res...

  13. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: Theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to ex...

  14. Three-dimensional visualization of air flow in infant incubators using computational fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, T; Horio, H; Okino, H; Taylor, T W; Yamaguchi, T

    1993-01-01

    An application of three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid mechanics to the air flow in infant incubators is presented. The air flows in two numerical models were simulated by directly solving the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible gases. The method used was a finite-volume method incorporating a body-fitted coordinate system. The basic model was based on a real infant incubator, which was slightly simplified and included a model of a baby. The number of computation grids was 56 (width) x 21 (depth) x 21 (height) = 24,696. There were several very-large-scale eddies in the incubator free space. In addition to the global structure, small-scale eddies were shown to be produced at many locations scattered in the free space. From these results, it is evident that the conventional assumption of steady and uniform flows in incubators is not always justified when considering heat loss from the body of a baby in an incubator. PMID:8369866

  15. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  16. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  17. CENTEV/UFV Technology Incubator : Brazil Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    A professor at Brazil's prestigious Federal University of Vicosa saw a need on campus for an incubator to support technologically-oriented businesses, including agribusinesses. This resulted in the CENTEV Technology Incubator, which is partially funded by the university but which also receives state and private grants. Its function is to nurture entrepreneurs to develop viable technology b...

  18. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Molenaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature, egg weight loss, and CO2 concentration on hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance are discussed from an embryonic point of view. In addition, new insights related to the incubation process are described. Several studies have shown that a constant eggshell temperature (EST of 37.5 to 38.0°C throughout incubation results in the highest hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance. Egg weight loss must be between 6.5 and 14.0% of the initial egg weight, to obtain an adequate air cell size before the embryo internally pips. An increased CO2 concentration during the developmental phase of incubation (first 10 days can accelerate embryonic development and hatchability, but the physiological mechanisms of this acceleration are not completely understood. Effects of ar increased CO2 concentration during late incubation also need further investigation. The preincubation warming profile, thermal manipulation, and in ovo feeding are new insights related to the incubation process and show that the optimal situation for the embryo during incubation highly depends on the conditions of the eggs before (storage duration and during incubation (environmental conditions and on the conditions of the chickens after hatching (environmental temperature.

  19. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorian, A.; Ratinho, T.; Harms, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region (Arm

  20. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  1. Modeling and Analysis for Obstacle Avoidance of a Behavior-Based Robot with Objected Oriented Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Object Modeling Technique is widely applied in the field of software engineering; and in this paper we applied this technique to model a mobile robot including its behaviors and interactions with environment. The paper first describes key background knowledge about object oriented analysis in software engineering, behavior based robotics and their similarities. Then, based on these similarities, the paper uses object oriented methods of software engineering, such as unified modeling language (UML, to analyze and model the architecture; and to design behaviors for a behavior-based robot, which is expected to wander with autonomous obstacle avoidance in unknown environment. Object oriented methods permit a translation from conceptual behavior models to computer programming representations, and separate concrete control algorithms from robot modeling. With this approach, the paper implements a fuzzy algorithm for obstacle avoidance behavior of the constructed behavior models in a physical robot, and made experiments in the given indoor environment.

  2. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to identify promising message strategies to promote healthy sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention. PMID:24446927

  3. Modeling the viscoplastic and damage behavior in deep argillaceous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souley, Mountaka; Armand, Gilles; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a radioactive waste repository in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone formation, the French national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) started in 2000 to build an underground research laboratory at Bure (East of France). One of the key issues is to understand long term behavior of the drifts. More than 400 m horizontal galleries at the main level of -490 m have been instrumented since April 2005. The continuous measurements of convergence of the galleries are available, allowing a better understanding of the time-dependent response of the claystone at natural scale. Results indicate that the viscoplastic strain rates observed in the undamaged area far from the gallery walls are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained on rock samples, whereas those recorded in the damaged or fractured zone near the gallery walls are one to two orders of magnitude higher, indicating the significant influence of damage or/and macro-fractures on the viscoplastic strains. Based on these observations, a macroscopic viscoplastic model which aims to improve the viscoplastic strain prediction in the EDZ is proposed and implemented in FLAC3 D©. Both the instantaneous and the time-dependent behavior are considered in the model. The short term response is assumed to be elactoplastic with strain hardening/softening whereas the time-dependent behavior is based on the concepts of viscoplasticity (Lemaıˆtre’s model). Finally, the damage-induced viscoplastic strains changes is examined through the plastic deformation (assumed to approach the damage rate). In order to verify both constitutive equations and their implementations, several simulations are performed: (a) triaxial tests at different confining pressures; (b) single- and multi-stage creep tests; (c) relaxation tests with different total axial strain levels, etc. Finally, an example of a blind prediction of the excavation of a drift parallel to the horizontal minor stress,

  4. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  5. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  6. Lead induced behavioral dysfunction: an animal model of hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Goldberg, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Although clinically lead poisoning is thought to cause several serious behavioral problems, a causal relationship between lead ingestion and behavioral dysfunction has not been shown. An animal model of lead poisoning was developed in which suckling mice were exposed to lead acetate from birth indirectly through their mothers and then directly after weaning. For the first 60 days, no deaths of offspring occurred due to lead but their growth and development were significantly retarded. Epidemiological evidence exists for the coincidence of lead exposure and hyperactivity syndromes in children. Activity of offspring was measured between 40 and 60 days of age. Treated mice were more than three times as active as agematched controls. Treated and control animals were given drugs used in the treatment and diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity in children: d- and l-amphetamine, methylphenidate, phenobarbital, and chloral hydrate. Lead-treated hyperactive mice responded paradoxically to all drugs except chloral hydrate: that is, d- and l-amphetamine and methylphenidate suppressed hyperactivity, while phenobarbital increased their levels of motor activity. Chloral hydrate was an effective sedative. Implications of these findings are discussed for the study of the central effects of lead poisoning and for the relationship between lead poisoning and minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity.

  7. Markov chain modeling of policyholder behavior in life insurance and pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Frederik Brandt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann; Steffensen, Mogens; Svensson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We calculate reserves regarding expected policyholder behavior. The behavior is modeled to occur incidentally similarly to insurance risk. The focus is on multi-state modelling of insurance risk and behavioral risk in terms of free policy risk and surrender risk. We discuss valuation techniques i...

  8. Nonprofit equity: a behavioral model and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, H P; Chang, C F

    1992-01-01

    This article assumes that nonprofit decisionmakers have an incentive to earn and accumulate surpluses, and it suggests six reasons for this being the case. Based on the assumption that both the program outputs and the equity of a nonprofit yield satisfaction to its decisionmakers, a behavioral model is developed. This is used to derive a demand function for equity, which is then applied to a national sample of 6168 charitable nonprofits drawn by the Internal Revenue Service for the 1985 taxable year. The results substantiate the hypothesis that nonprofit decisionmakers consciously plan to increase their organization's equity. Currently, evidence of continued equity buildup is not sufficient to call into question a nonprofit's exempt status, because federal tax laws assume that surplus accumulations will ultimately be used in support of program mission. However, equity accumulation can become excessive. We present several criteria to define excessive equity accumulation and discuss why large equity accumulations may not be in the best interest of society. PMID:10116416

  9. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  10. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  11. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable. PMID:25460097

  12. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health. PMID:26086606

  13. Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents' Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Doornwaard

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM] and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS] sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys and SNS use (among boys and girls predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.

  14. An information theory based behavioral model for agent-based crowd simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Turkay, Çağatay; Turkay, Cagatay; Koç, Emre; Koc, Emre; Balcısoy, Selim; Balcisoy, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Crowds must be simulated believable in terms of their appearance and behavior to improve a virtual environment’s realism. Due to the complex nature of human behavior, realistic behavior of agents in crowd simulations is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel behavioral model which builds analytical maps to control agents’ behavior adaptively with agent-crowd interaction formulations. We introduce information theoretical concepts to construct analytical maps automatical...

  15. Testing Behavioral Ecology Models with Historical Individual-Based Human Demographic Data from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skjærvø, Gine Roll

    2015-01-01

    Behavior varies widely among animals, both within and between species. An evolutionary perspective may help us understand the origin of this diversity. Behavioral ecology models seek to explain much of variation in behavior as adaptations formed by natural selection. In addition to provide answers why behavior varies under different ecological conditions, behavioral ecology also provides insight into the underlying proximate mechanisms. Although theory has made enormous prog...

  16. Structural analysis and modeling of water reactor fuel rod behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactor is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system under normal and emergency operating conditions. To achieve these objectives and in order to provide a suitable computer code based on fundamental material properties for design and study of the thermal-mechanical behavior of water reactor fuel rods during their irradiation life and also to demonstrate the fuel rod design and modeling for students, The KIANA-1 computer program has been developed by the writer at Amir-Kabir university of technology with support of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. KIANA-1 is an integral one-dimensional computer program for the thermal and mechanical analysis in order to predict fuel rods performance and also parameter study of Zircaloy-clad UO2 fuel rod during steady state conditions. The code has been designed for the following main objectives: To give a solution for the steady state heat conduction equation for fuel as a heat source and clad by using finite difference, control volume and semi-analytical methods in order to predict the temperature profile in the fuel and cladding. To predict the inner gas pressures due to the filling gases and released gaseous fission products. To predict the fission gas production and release by using a simple diffusion model based on the Booth models and an empirical model. To calculate the fuel-clad gap conductance for cracked fuel with partial contact zones to a closed gap with strong contact. To predict the distribution of stress in three principal directions in the fuel and sheet by assuming one-dimensional plane strain and asymmetric idealization. To calculate the strain distribution in three principal directions and the corresponding deformation in the fuel and cladding. For this purpose the permanent strain such as creep or plasticity as well as the thermoelastic deformation and also the swelling, densification, cracking

  17. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.

    1993-01-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualis...

  18. A Structural Model with Discrete-Choice Variables for Predicting Enroute Behavior under ATIS

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jeffrey L.; Golob, Thomas F.; McNally, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing efforts in Advanced Traveler Information Systems has emphasized the need to develop more robust models of enroute driver behavior. The complexity in modeling driver behavior stems from the need to capture the day-to-day dynamics of choice, model diversion and active information acquisition, and account for individual preferences and needs. Previous papers by the authors discussed a conflict arousal methodology for modeling driver behavior in the presence of real-time information. I...

  19. Analysis on E-consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Based on Data-driving Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Huang

    2011-01-01

    It is the Internet world with vasty purchasing data sea online that makes research model of e-consumers’ purchasing behavior very different from traditional ones. Firstly this paper proposes three kinds of research models of consumers’ purchasing behavior, and then pointed out that data-driving model is the best one to analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior on the Internet. Secondly, it adopts the improved SOFM Neural Network as the tool of data-driving model to detailedly...

  20. Agent-Based Model for Pedestrians’ Evacuation after a Blast Integrated with a Human Behavior Model

    OpenAIRE

    PLUCHINO Salvatore; TRIBOLATO Chiara; CAVERZAN ALESSIO; MC QUILLAN Alexandro; Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; MAHIN Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a powerful tool for model complex and heterogeneous systems as pedestrian evacuation after extreme events. Several studies on Emergency Management exist in literature, but the majority of them do not consider how human behavior impacts the evacuation plan. Indeed, these can change drastically a critical scenario because are driven by emotions, knowledge and perception which are unpredictable. The aim of this study is to develop an ABM of an evacuation scenario du...

  1. Model Checking of Software Components: Combining Java PathFinder and Behavior Protocol Model Checker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízek, P.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, s. 133-141. ISBN 0-7695-2624-1. [SEW 2006. Annual IEEE/NASA Software Engineering Workshop /30./. Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia (US), 24.04.2006-28.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * model checking * cooperation of model checkers Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  2. Study on Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model for RF power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Jingchang; Liu Yuanan; Tang Bihua

    2007-01-01

    Volterra series behavioral model for radio frequency(RF)power amplifier(PA)has been widely used in system-level simulation,however,high computational complexity makes this kind of model limited to"weak"nonlinearity.In order to reduce the computational complexity and the number of coefficients of Volterra series kernels,a Volterra series improved behavioral model based on Lasuerre orthogonal polynomials function,namely Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model,is proposed.Mathematical expressions of Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model is derived.and accuracy of the model is verified through comparison of measured and simulation output data from a freescale PA using MRF21030 transistor.Mathematical analysis and simulation results show that Volterra-Laguerre behavioral model has a simple structure,much less coefficients and better modeling performance than general Volterra series model.The model can be used more correctly for system-level simulation of RF PA with wideband signal.

  3. Geophysical Characterization and Reactive Transport Modeling to Quantify Plume Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H.; Bea, S. A.; Spycher, N.; Li, L.; Sassen, D.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of subsurface contaminant plume mobility and remediation often fail due to the inability to tractably characterize heterogeneous flow-and-transport properties and monitor critical geochemical transitions over plume-relevant scales. This study presents two recently developed strategies to quantify and predict states and processes across scales that govern plume behavior. Development of both strategies takes advantage of multi-scale and disparate datasets and has involved the use of reactive transport models, geophysical methods, and stochastic integration approaches. The first approach, called reactive facies, exploits coupled physiochemical heterogeneity to characterize subsurface flow and transport properties that impact plume sorption and thus mobility. We develop and test the reactive facies concept within uranium contaminated Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments that underlie the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, F-Area, South Carolina. Through analysis of field data (core samples, geophysical well logs, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar and seismic datasets) coupled with laboratory sorption studies, we have identified two reactive facies that have unique distributions of mineralogy, texture, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and geophysical attributes. We develop and use facies-based relationships with geophysical data in a Bayesian framework to spatially distribute reactive facies and their associated transport properties and uncertainties along local and plume-scale geophysical transects. To illustrate the value of reactive facies, we used the geophysically-obtained reactive facies properties to parameterize reactive transport models and simulate the migration of an acidic-U(VI) plume through the 2D domains. Modeling results suggest that each identified reactive facies exerts control on plume evolution, highlighting the usefulness of the reactive facies concept and approach for spatially distributing properties that control flow and

  4. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  5. Binary models of people's behavior during financial instability

    OpenAIRE

    D. Piatnytskyi

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the people's behavior during financial instability. Within the theory of behavioral finance, the author provides the main behavioral biases, which are the basis of the subjective factors shaping people's irrational behavior during financial instability and further aggravate the crisis. The article shows the results of logit and probit regressive equation built to estimate the influence on the development of the crisis in Ukraine of the part of households' expectations a...

  6. A Proposed Model for Selecting Measurement Procedures for the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E

    2016-03-01

    Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment. PMID:27606232

  7. Computational Modeling of Uncertainty Avoidance in Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human purchasing behavior is affected by many influential factors. Culture at macro-level and personality at micro-level influence consumer purchasing behavior. People of different cultures tend to accept the values of their own group and consequently have different purchasing behavior. Also, people

  8. A Model of Resurgence Based on Behavioral Momentum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative…

  9. Modelling of the rheological behavior of metallic alloys during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During alloy processing technologies such as DC casting, mould casting or laser welding, thermally induced deformations occur arising from both solidification shrinkage and thermal contraction of the solid skeleton. Although relatively small, these thermal strains can lead to severe casting defects such as macrosegregation, porosity and hot tears. In order to understand the formation of these defects, the rheological behavior of the alloy has to be modeled during solidification and particularly at the end of the process when the volume fraction of the liquid becomes very small. The approach that has been developed is to consider the mushy zone as a compressible porous medium saturated with liquid. This means that the solid skeleton is not considered as a Von Mises material, but is a pressure dependent medium. The effect of the liquid pressure on the solid skeleton is taken into account together with the very different mechanical response of the material between tensile and compressive stress states. Moreover, the partial cohesion of the mushy zone is introduced in the constitutive model as an internal variable to account for the apparent strain hardening that occurs during deformation at small strains. This approach has been validated for pure shear in a recent study. The present work extends the investigation to the entire stress space. The necessary simplifications that might be needed for the experimental identification are discussed. Various types of experiments have been designed for the identification of the model in the case of Al-alloys including tensile and shear experiments together with drained compression. Tests have been carried out both at constant temperature or during the course of solidification to investigate the effect of the strain rate (in the low strain rate range) and solid fraction. Analysis of the results is in progress to identify the various parameters of the model. Refs. 1 (author)

  10. Critical behavior in a stochastic model of vector mediated epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, E.; Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.

    2016-06-01

    The extreme vulnerability of humans to new and old pathogens is constantly highlighted by unbound outbreaks of epidemics. This vulnerability is both direct, producing illness in humans (dengue, malaria), and also indirect, affecting its supplies (bird and swine flu, Pierce disease, and olive quick decline syndrome). In most cases, the pathogens responsible for an illness spread through vectors. In general, disease evolution may be an uncontrollable propagation or a transient outbreak with limited diffusion. This depends on the physiological parameters of hosts and vectors (susceptibility to the illness, virulence, chronicity of the disease, lifetime of the vectors, etc.). In this perspective and with these motivations, we analyzed a stochastic lattice model able to capture the critical behavior of such epidemics over a limited time horizon and with a finite amount of resources. The model exhibits a critical line of transition that separates spreading and non-spreading phases. The critical line is studied with new analytical methods and direct simulations. Critical exponents are found to be the same as those of dynamical percolation.

  11. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  12. Testing Behavioral Hypotheses Using an Integrated Model of Grocery Store Shopping Path and Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Sam K.; Bradlow, Eric T; Peter S. Fader

    2009-01-01

    We examine three sets of established behavioral hypotheses about consumers' in-store behavior using field data on grocery store shopping paths and purchases. Our results provide field evidence for the following empirical regularities. First, as consumers spend more time in the store, they become more purposeful--they are less likely to spend time on exploration and more likely to shop/buy. Second, consistent with "licensing" behavior, after purchasing virtue categories, consumers are more lik...

  13. A critical assessment of the occurrence and extend of oxygen contamination during anaerobic incubations utilizing commercially available vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brabandere, Loreto; Thamdrup, Bo; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Foadi, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    For rate determinations of anaerobic metabolism it is essential to maintain strictly anoxic conditions throughout the experiment. However, even if oxygen contamination can be avoided while preparing the incubation containers, it is still possible that the incubation containers themselves contaminate the samples by oxygen diffusing from or through their plastic or rubber components. In this study, we investigated the sources and extent of oxygen contamination during anoxic incubations, and present solutions to minimize oxygen contamination. In particular, we investigated oxygen contamination in Labco® Exetainers, glass vials with a butyl rubber septum in the screw cap, which are frequently used in microbiological experiments. Our results show that significant oxygen contamination occurred at different stages during the incubation. Contamination occurred when Exetainers were either filled or incubated for more than 16h under oxic atmosphere, but also under an oxygen-free atmosphere due to diffusion of oxygen out of the butyl rubber septum. Therefore, to avoid oxygen contamination during incubations, we suggest (1) filling and incubating the incubation containers under anoxic atmosphere (glove bag) and (2) deoxygenating all elastomers in sample processing and incubation equipment. If initial oxygen contamination cannot be avoided, introduction of an anoxic headspace might help extract oxygen from the incubated sample and present a buffer against oxygen diffusing out of the septum. We modeled the amount of oxygen diffusing out of butyl rubber septa under different conditions, and results fitted well with the observed oxygen contamination. Thus, the model can be used to predict oxygen contamination under varying conditions and for differently sized septa. PMID:22101311

  14. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  15. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of new mouse model of hyperphenylalaninemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pascucci

    Full Text Available Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA refers to all clinical conditions characterized by increased amounts of phenylalanine (PHE in blood and other tissues. According to their blood PHE concentrations under a free diet, hyperphenylalaninemic patients are commonly classified into phenotypic subtypes: classical phenylketonuria (PKU (PHE > 1200 µM/L, mild PKU (PHE 600-1200 µM/L and persistent HPA (PHE 120-600 µM/L (normal blood PHE < 120 µM/L. The current treatment for hyperphenylalaninemic patients is aimed to keep blood PHE levels within the safe range of 120-360 µM/L through a PHE-restricted diet, difficult to achieve. If untreated, classical PKU presents variable neurological and mental impairment. However, even mildly elevated blood PHE levels, due to a bad compliance to dietary treatment, produce cognitive deficits involving the prefrontal cortical areas, extremely sensible to PHE-induced disturbances. The development of animal models of different degrees of HPA is a useful tool for identifying the metabolic mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits induced by PHE. In this paper we analyzed the behavioral and biochemical phenotypes of different forms of HPA (control, mild-HPA, mild-PKU and classic-PKU, developed on the base of plasma PHE concentrations. Our results demonstrated that mice with different forms of HPA present different phenotypes, characterized by increasing severity of behavioral symptoms and brain aminergic deficits moving from mild HPA to classical PKU forms. In addition, our data identify preFrontal cortex and amygdala as the most affected brain areas and confirm the highest susceptibility of brain serotonin metabolism to mildly elevated blood PHE.

  16. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance. PMID:23679383

  17. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Ellen Reitz; Regina J J M van den Eijnden

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer...

  18. Behavioral and Neurobiological Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation in a Mouse Model of High Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuckermair, Claudia; Gaburro, Stefano; Sah, Anupam; Landgraf, Rainer; Sartori, Simone B.; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-frequency deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb-DBS) may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for individuals suffering from treatment-resistant depression, although the underlying mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. In this study, using a unique mouse model of enhanced depression- and anxiety-like behavior (HAB), we investigated behavioral and neurobiological effects of NAcb-DBS. HAB mice either underwent chronic treatment wit...

  19. Science incubators: synthesis centers and their role in the research ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodrigo

    Full Text Available How should funding agencies enable researchers to explore high-risk but potentially high-reward science? One model that appears to work is the NSF-funded synthesis center, an incubator for community-led, innovative science.

  20. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so afte...... three. The theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental data from the literature...

  1. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...

  2. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  3. Modeling the triaxial behavior of riverbed and blasted quarried rockfill materials using hardening soil model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.P. Honkanadavar; K.G. Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax) of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stressestrainevolume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC) and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elasto-plastic hardening soil (HS) constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stressestrainevolume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD), and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experi-mentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and ma-terial strength parameters (dilatancy angle, j, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model) of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the predicted material parameters

  4. Modeling the triaxial behavior of riverbed and blasted quarried rockfill materials using hardening soil model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Honkanadavar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stress–strain–volume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elastoplastic hardening soil (HS constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stress–strain–volume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD, and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experimentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and material strength parameters (dilatancy angle, ψ, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the

  5. Estimating the delay between host infection and disease (incubation period and assessing its significance to the epidemiology of plant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melen Leclerc

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the incubation period of infectious diseases (time between host infection and expression of disease symptoms is crucial to our epidemiological understanding and the design of appropriate prevention and control policies. Plant diseases cause substantial damage to agricultural and arboricultural systems, but there is still very little information about how the incubation period varies within host populations. In this paper, we focus on the incubation period of soilborne plant pathogens, which are difficult to detect as they spread and infect the hosts underground and above-ground symptoms occur considerably later. We conducted experiments on Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet, as an example patho-system, and used modelling approaches to estimate the incubation period distribution and demonstrate the impact of differing estimations on our epidemiological understanding of plant diseases. We present measurements of the incubation period obtained in field conditions, fit alternative probability models to the data, and show that the incubation period distribution changes with host age. By simulating spatially-explicit epidemiological models with different incubation-period distributions, we study the conditions for a significant time lag between epidemics of cryptic infection and the associated epidemics of symptomatic disease. We examine the sensitivity of this lag to differing distributional assumptions about the incubation period (i.e. exponential versus Gamma. We demonstrate that accurate information about the incubation period distribution of a pathosystem can be critical in assessing the true scale of pathogen invasion behind early disease symptoms in the field; likewise, it can be central to model-based prediction of epidemic risk and evaluation of disease management strategies. Our results highlight that reliance on observation of disease symptoms can cause significant delay in detection of soil-borne pathogen epidemics and mislead

  6. The Arts Incubators, Influence on the Development of System Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the arts incubators’ influence on the development of system innovations and on the ensuring the sustainability of the creativity process in the creative industries’ enterprises. The influence of cultural and creative industries on the economy development is analysed in the article. The analysis of system innovations’ specific features and importance for creative industries is presented. The paper analyses the arts incubators as a part of creative city and as a creative cluster. The factors for the sustainability of creativity process are identified as well as the role of the arts incubators when ensuring the sustainability of system innovations development. Clustering analysis of Vilnius arts incubators was made and the proposals how the existing arts incubators can contribute to the development of system innovations in creative industries were presented.

  7. Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: Evidence from a Colombian Business Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the important body of research on entrepreneurship and social capital. Most previous work on social capital and business incubators has analyzed how the structure of personal networks (measured by network size or density and their quality (measured by tie strength influence venture performance. However, few studies have focused on the mobilization of partners’ resources. This paper analyses how these three dimensions of social capital —defined in this article as the structural dimension, the relational dimension and the resource dimension— are closely linked to the three types of interactions in a business incubator: networking, counseling and resourcing. An Ordinary Least Squares regression was applied to a sample made up of incubating firms in Colombia. Results from the data analysis show that resourcing interactions constitute the most significant aspect of business incubators for entrepreneurs.

  8. Oxidative damage increases intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i concentration in human erythrocytes incubated with lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González-Martínez, M T; del Pilar, Intriago-Ortega Ma; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2010-08-01

    One important effect of lead toxicity in erythrocytes consists of increasing [Ca(2+)](i) which in turn may cause alterations in cell shape and volume and it is associated with cellular rigidity, hemolysis, senescence and apoptosis. In this work, we proposed the use of erythrocytes incubated with Pb(2+) to assess association of the mechanisms of lead erythrocyte oxidative damage and calcium homeostasis. Lead incubation produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) dose- and time-dependent, which mainly involved Ca(2+) entry mechanism. Additionally, in this in vitro model alterations similar to erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers were produced: Increase in Ca(2+) influx, decrease in (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase activity and GSH/GSGG ratio; increase in lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and osmotic fragility accompanied of dramatic morphological changes. Co-incubation with trolox, a soluble vitamin-E analog is able to prevent these alterations indicating that lead damage mechanism is strongly associated with oxidative damage with an intermediate toxic effect via [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, erythrocytes oxidation induced with a free radical generator (APPH) showed effects in [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative damage similar to those found in erythrocytes incubated with lead. Co-incubation with trolox prevents the oxidative effects induced by AAPH in erythrocytes. These results suggest that increase of [Ca(2+)](i) depends on the oxidative status of the erythrocytes incubated with lead. We consider that this model contributes in the understanding of the relation between oxidative damage induced by lead exposure and Ca(2+) homeostasis, the consequences related to these phenomena and the molecular basis of lead toxicity in no excitable cells. PMID:20460147

  9. Approximating Behavioral Equivalence of Models Using Top-K Policy Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Chen, Yingke; Prashant, Doshi

    2011-01-01

    Decision making and game play in multiagent settings must often contend with behavioral models of other agents in order to predict their actions. One approach that reduces the complexity of the unconstrained model space is to group models that tend to be behaviorally equivalent. In this paper, we...... seek to further compress the model space by introducing an approximate measure of behavioral equivalence and using it to group models.......Decision making and game play in multiagent settings must often contend with behavioral models of other agents in order to predict their actions. One approach that reduces the complexity of the unconstrained model space is to group models that tend to be behaviorally equivalent. In this paper, we...

  10. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea F. Şchiopu; Dragoş C. Vasile; Claudia E. Ţuclea

    2015-01-01

    The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from aroun...

  11. BUSINESS INCUBATORS. EFFECTIVE MEANS TO SUPPORT PRIVATE INITIATIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dănuţ Tiberius EPURE; Dorinela CUŞU

    2010-01-01

    The Romanian Business Incubators are financed from private and public sources. The Business Incubatorsfinanced from public funds, are part of The National and Multiannual Program of Establishment and Development ofTechnological and Business Incubators in Romania (2002-2012). This Program is coordinated by The Agency ofImplementation of Projects and Programs for Small and Medium Enterprises (A.I.P.P.SME’s), and implemented byThe United Nations Development Program (P.N.U.D.), Romania. The main ...

  12. Introducing Strategic Sustainable Development in a business incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenship, Heidi; Kulhavý, Viktor; Lagneryd, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative action research explores integration of Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD) at Inova business incubator (Karlstad, Sweden). Researchers and incubator agreed that planning with sustainability in mind at a very early stage of company development may have important impacts on future business success and societal welfare. The objective was to answer how SSD could be integrated into the processes at Inova and how Inova staff’s and entrepreneurs’ understanding of sustainability...

  13. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  14. Extended incubation of culture plates improves recovery of Bordetella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Katzko, G; Hofmeister, M; Church, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extended incubation of culture plates was studied to see if the recovery of Bordetella spp. from nasopharyngeal swabs could be improved. Forty-eight Bordetella isolates were recovered from 103 children (overall positive-culture rate, 46.6%) who met the clinical case definition of pertussis. Seven of 44 (16%) B. pertussis isolates and 2 of 4 (50%) B. parapertussis isolates were recovered only after extended incubation of nasopharyngeal cultures up to 12 days.

  15. Dynamic modeling of web purchase behavior and e-mailing impact by Petri net

    OpenAIRE

    BALAGUE, Christine; LEE, Janghyuk

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce Petri nets to model the dynamics of web site visits and purchase behaviors in the case of wish list systems. They describe web site activities and their transition with probability distributions and model the sequential impact of influential factors through links that better explain web purchase behavior dynamics. The basic model, which analyzes site connections and purchases to explain visit and purchase behavior, performs better than a classical negati...

  16. Evaluating Behavior in Mouse Models of the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia: Which Test for Which Symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernay, Aurélia; Sellal, François; René, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting people in their early sixties, characterized by dramatic changes in individual and social behavior. Despite the heterogeneity in the presentation of the clinical symptoms of bvFTD, some characteristic changes can be highlighted. Social disinhibition, changes in food preferences as well as loss of empathy and apathy are commonly described. This is accompanied by a characteristic and dramatic atrophy of the prefrontal cortex with the accumulation of protein aggregates in the neurons in this area. Several causative mutations in different genes have been discovered, allowing the development of transgenic animal models, especially mouse models. In mice, attention has been focused on the histopathological aspects of the pathology, but now studies are taking interest in assessing the behavioral phenotype of FTD models. Finding the right test corresponding to human symptoms is quite challenging, especially since the frontal cortex is much less developed in mice than in humans. Although challenging, the ability to detect relevant prefrontal cortex impairments in mice is crucial for therapeutic approaches. In this review, we aim to present the approaches that have been used to model the behavioral symptoms of FTD and to explore other relevant approaches to assess behavior involving the prefrontal cortex, as well as the deficits associated with FTD. PMID:26517704

  17. A Dynamical Systems Model for Understanding Behavioral Interventions for Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    We propose a dynamical systems model that captures the daily fluctuations of human weight change, incorporating both physiological and psychological factors. The model consists of an energy balance integrated with a mechanistic behavioral model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); the latter describes how important variables in a behavioral intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The model can be used to inform behavioral scientists in the design of optimized interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  18. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes. PMID:26821940

  19. A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval; Grossman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25919364

  20. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  1. Filipino Nursing Students' Behavioral Intentions toward Geriatric Care: A Structural Equation Model (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Jimenez, Benito Christian B.; Jocson, Kathlyn P.; Junio, Aileen R.; Junio, Drazen E.; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N.; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F.

    2013-01-01

    Anchored on the key constucts of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1985), this paper seeks to test a model that explores the influence of knowledge, attitude, and caring behavior on nursing students' behavioral intention toward geriatric care. A five-part survey-questionnaire was administered to 839 third and fourth year nursing students from a…

  2. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis" is a type of behavioral therapy that initially focuses on discrete trials: brief periods of one-on-one instruction, during which a teacher cues a behavior, prompts the appropriate response, and provides reinforcement to the child. Children in the program receive an average of 35 to 40 hours of…

  3. A Discriminant Model of Network Anomaly Behavior Based on Fuzzy Temporal Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this paper is to provide an active inference algorithm for anomalous behavior. As a main concept we introduce fuzzy temporal consistency covering set, and put forward a fuzzy temporal selection model based on temporal inference and covering technology. Fuzzy set is used to describe network anomaly behavior omen and character, as well as the relations between behavior omen and character. We set up a basic monitoring framework of anomalous behaviors by using causality inference of network behaviors, and then provide a recognition method of network anomaly behavior character based on hypothesis graph search. As shown in the example, the monitoring algorithm has certain reliability and operability.

  4. A Cellular Automaton Model for Heterogeneous and Incosistent Driver Behavior in Urban Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Zhe; Zhao, Shi-Bo; Wang, Rui-Li

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a cellular automaton model is proposed to describe driver behavior at a single-lane urban roundabout. Driver behavior has been considered as heterogeneous and inconsistent. Most traffic papers in the literature just discussed heterogeneous driver behavior, to our best knowledge. Two truncated Gaussian distributions are used to model heterogeneous and inconsistent driver behavior, respectively. The physical meanings of two truncated distributions are indicated. This method may help enhance a better understanding of driver behavior at roundabout traffic, and even possibly provide references for roundabout design and management.

  5. A Cellular Automaton Model for Heterogeneous and Incosistent Driver Behavior in Urban Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUMing-Zhe; ZHAO Shi-Bo; WANG Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a cellular automaton model is proposed to describe driver behavior at a single-lane urban roundabout. Driver behavior has been considered as heterogeneous and inconsistent. Most traffic papers in the literature just discussed heterogeneous driver behavior, to our best knowledge. Two truncated Caussian distributions are used to model heterogeneous and inconsistent driver behavior, respectively. The physical meanings of two truncated distributions are indicated. This method may help enhance a better understanding of driver behavior at roundabout traffic, and even possibly provide references for roundabout design and management.

  6. Joint modeling of intercourse behavior and human fecundability using structural equation models

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Human fecundability is defined as the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle among couples at risk for pregnancy. It is highly relevant for understanding human reproduction and represents a series of highly interrelated and timed processes. The statistical literature has recognized the need to incorporate both biological and behavioral factors (Barrett and Marshall, 1969; Dunson and Stanford, 2005) when modeling conception probabilities, given that intercourse during the fertile w...

  7. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  8. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  9. Antidepressants reduce extinction-induced withdrawal and biting behaviors: a model for depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, J P; van den Brink, J; Komorowski, M; Huq, Y; Topic, B

    2012-05-17

    The withholding of expected rewards results in extinction of behavior and, hypothetically, to depression-like symptoms. In a test of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of extinction of food-reinforced lever-pressing on collateral behaviors that might be indices of depression. Operant extinction is known to be aversive to the organism and results in avoidance behavior. We hypothesized that avoidance of, or withdrawal from, the former source of reward may serve as a marker for "despair." Adult male Wistar rats (n=6-7 animals per group) were exposed to a Skinner box attached to a second compartment of the same size, providing opportunity for the animals to leave the operant chamber and to enter the "withdrawal" compartment. The animals spent a portion of the time during the extinction trials in this second chamber. To assess the predictive validity of this behavior as a potential marker of "despair," we tested the effects of chronic administration of two common antidepressant drugs on this measure. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg/kg) reduced the number of entries and time spent in the withdrawal compartment. We propose that entries into and time spent in the withdrawal compartment may operationalize "avoidance," a core symptom of major depression. Rearing as well as biting behaviors during the extinction trials were also attenuated by the antidepressant treatment. These results lend support to the hypothesis that extinction of positively reinforced operants evokes behaviors that reflect elements of "despair/depression" because these behaviors are modulated by antidepressant treatment. The avoidance of the operant chamber as a consequence of extinction, together with rearing and biting behaviors, may serve as useful measures for the testing of antidepressant treatments. PMID:22410342

  10. A Discriminant Model of Network Anomaly Behavior Based on Fuzzy Temporal Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Ping He

    2012-01-01

    he aim of this paper is to provide an active inference algorithm for anomalous behavior. As a main concept we introduce fuzzy temporal consistency covering set, and put forward a fuzzy temporal selection model based on temporal inference and covering technology. Fuzzy set is used to describe network anomaly behavior omen and character, as well as the relations between behavior omen and character. We set up a basic monitoring framework of anomalous behaviors by using causality inference of net...

  11. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF SOLAR OPERATOR INCUBATOR FOR EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh W. Zungare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the project was to design a solar poultry egg incubator using locally available material in order to improve its thermal performance. Egg incubators enable large production of chicken. Cost of this production is getting out of hand lately due to the energy crisis being experienced globally. In order to surmount this challenge and even encourage the rural farmer to go into chicken production, it is necessary to look at other ways of generating energy for egg incubation. Hence, solar energy is chosen because it is free, abundant and clean and can be tapped anywhere in the country. A sample analysis of solar radiation in Nagpur was done for the 10th January of 2013 in order to obtain solar incidence radiation on the collector surface. This solar incidence radiation was then found to be 837.641(W/m2. Thermal efficiency of the solar collector design was determined as 13%. Solar collector plate was also inclined at 170 in order to facilitate natural convection, but it can also be used with forced convection with a fan blower according to the need. The poultry incubator also consists of an incubating unit where 50 eggs are placed to hatch, and has a built-in heat storage facility that supplies heat to the incubating chamber during the period of the day that there is no solar energy. Fins were also incorporated into the design of solar collector in order to improve the heat retention capacity of the collector. finally, then overall costing of the solar poultry incubator was calculated as Rs 12,000 inclusive of the materials prices as well as the labor costs.

  12. Reaching Entrepreneurs through Alternate Models : Lessons from Virtual Incubation Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is an essential component of a growing and dynamic economy. It is a key driver of competition, innovation, and net job creation. The founders of these enterprises can innately gravitate toward cities or hubs that provide them with the resources needed to start or grow their businesses. A 2013 report by Endeavor on what attracts entrepreneurs to cities (What Do the Best Ent...

  13. A modeling method for hybrid energy behaviors in flexible machining systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly environmental and economic pressures have led to great concerns regarding the energy consumption of machining systems. Understanding energy behaviors of flexible machining systems is a prerequisite for improving energy efficiency of these systems. This paper proposes a modeling method to predict energy behaviors in flexible machining systems. The hybrid energy behaviors not only depend on the technical specification related of machine tools and workpieces, but are significantly affected by individual production scenarios. In the method, hybrid energy behaviors are decomposed into Structure-related energy behaviors, State-related energy behaviors, Process-related energy behaviors and Assignment-related energy behaviors. The modeling method for the hybrid energy behaviors is proposed based on Colored Timed Object-oriented Petri Net (CTOPN). The former two types of energy behaviors are modeled by constructing the structure of CTOPN, whist the latter two types of behaviors are simulated by applying colored tokens and associated attributes. Machining on two workpieces in the experimental workshop were undertaken to verify the proposed modeling method. The results showed that the method can provide multi-perspective transparency on energy consumption related to machine tools, workpieces as well as production management, and is particularly suitable for flexible manufacturing system when frequent changes in machining systems are often encountered. - Highlights: • Energy behaviors in flexible machining systems are modeled in this paper. • Hybrid characteristics of energy behaviors are examined from multiple viewpoints. • Flexible modeling method CTOPN is used to predict the hybrid energy behaviors. • This work offers a multi-perspective transparency on energy consumption

  14. Signaling Game Model of Government and Incubator based on the Subsidy Policy for Purchase of Public Service%公共服务购买补贴政策下的企业孵化器与政府信号博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 童洪志

    2015-01-01

    在考虑科技企业孵化器为科技中小企业提供公共服务取得一定效果的情况下,构建了企业孵化器与政府购买信号博弈模型,分析了信息不对称、信息完全和政府失灵3种类型的有成本信号博弈均衡状态,且均衡效率受到了企业孵化器伪装沉没成本和期望风险成本的影响,故在完全信息时实现分离均衡的关键条件是提高孵化器的伪装沉没成本和风险成本,由此得出相应的解决措施,即致力于严格孵化器评判标准、细化政策,建立多方参与的评价机制;提高孵化器公共服务效果核查效率,加强做假惩罚力度,建立综合性的科技金融服务平台和透明的资源共享数据平台;发挥社会公众、媒体第三方的质询和监督等途径来提高孵化器公共服务质量和效率,从而实现财政资源优化配置,更好地服务于科技企业实现社会效益最大化。%China implements the innovation subsidy policy in different w ays to develop science and technology business incu‐bator .Based on the consideration of technology business incubator ,providing service for technology innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises and achieved certain results ,the paper constructs signal game model of government and incuba‐tor to discuss the action strategy selection mechanism and influencing factors .In view of the market information uncertain‐ties ,the article analyzes three types of cost signal game equilibrium of asymmetric information ,complete information , government failure ,and the equilibrium efficiency effected by enterprise incubator camouflage sunk cost and the expected risk cost ,so in the symmetric information to realize the key condition of separation equilibrium is to improve the hatching the camouflage sunk cost and risk cost .The corresponding solving measures should be committed to strict standards ,incu‐bator refinement policy ,establish the evaluation

  15. Analysis of business incubators in Galicia according to their technologic or generalist orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jesús Ferreiro Seoane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the presented article is to analyze Galician business incubators and their impact on Galicia´s economy from a technological or general point of view and the study if technological business incubators have a greater impact in the region´s economy than the general ones. First, literature will be revised to conceptualize innovation, technological innovation and technology-base companies, then the criteria followed so it can be categorized the types of Galician business incubators in technological or generalist, it will also be analyzed their characteristics, specification, management models, locations, entry requirements, services available, web site offer, years of operation, also economic resources, own revenues, reliance on public funding, physical space for the entrepreneur according to the star-up model, type of activity, gender, age, education and difficulty to enterprising. Finally, the contributions made by each type of incubator will be analyzed according to the suggested indicators, entrepreneurship creation, employment generation and business sustainability using the comparison of independent samples’ method, and Levene´s test to calculate the equality of variances carried out with the statistical package SPSS 22.0.0.0 version, to finally present the main conclusions of this study.

  16. Understanding the Behavior of Systems Pharmacology Models Using Mathematical Analysis of Differential Equations: Prolactin Modeling as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S; de Lange, E C; van der Graaf, P H; Danhof, M; Peletier, L A

    2016-07-01

    In this tutorial, we introduce basic concepts in dynamical systems analysis, such as phase-planes, stability, and bifurcation theory, useful for dissecting the behavior of complex and nonlinear models. A precursor-pool model with positive feedback is used to demonstrate the power of mathematical analysis. This model is nonlinear and exhibits multiple steady states, the stability of which is analyzed. The analysis offers insight into model behavior and suggests useful parameter regions, which simulations alone could not. PMID:27405001

  17. On the penultimate tail behavior of Weibull-type models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The Gumbel max-domain of attraction corresponds to a null tail index which do not distinguish the different tail weights that might exist between distributions within this class. The Weibull-type distributions form an important subgroup of this latter and includes the so-called \\emph{Weibull-tail coefficient}, usually denoted $\\theta$, that specifies the tail behavior, with larger values indicating slower tail decay. Here we shall see that the Weibull-type distributions present a penultimate tail behavior Fr\\'echet if $\\theta>1$ and a penultimate tail behavior Weibull whenever $\\theta<1$.

  18. A Model for Relating Advertising Media Exposures to Purchase Incidence Behavior Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fred S. Zufryden

    1987-01-01

    A stochastic model is proposed to study the effect of advertising on consumer purchase dynamics by specifically relating the distribution of exposures, from a brand's media schedule, to brand purchase incidence behavior patterns over time. The approach is based on underlying individual consumer behavior assumptions that reflect the dynamics of exposures to advertising and brand purchase behavior, conditional on the level of advertising exposure received. Moreover, a population-based model is ...

  19. How to Model a Likely Behavior of a Pedagogical Agent from a Real Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamedade Farouk NANNE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to model the behavior verbal and nonverbal behavior of a Pedagogical Agent (PA) can be integrated into an Intelligent Tutoring System. The following research questions were posed: what is the nonverbal component of an educational communication? How to study this component for a computational model of plausible behavior of a virtual agent? What correlations between educational actions and the direction of gaze of a human agent? To carry out exploratory work, a methodolo...

  20. Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SEM model

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Topa; Juan Antonio Moriano

    2010-01-01

    Gabriela Topa, Juan Antonio MorianoDepartment of Social and Organizational Psychology, UNED, Madrid, SpainAbstract: To examine if the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicts smoking behavior, 35 data sets (N = 267,977) have been synthesized, containing 219 effect sizes between the model variables, using a meta-analytic structural equation modeling approach (MASEM). Consistent with the TPB's predictions, 1) smoking behavior was related to smoking intentions (weighted mean r = 0.30), ...

  1. Testing a Multi-Group Model of Culturally Competent Behaviors Among Underrepresented Nurse Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Diversifying the health professional workforce and enhancing cultural competence are recommended for decreasing health disparities. We tested a structural equation model of the predictors of culturally competent behaviors in a mailed survey of three groups of underrepresented nurse practitioners (n = 474). Our model had good fit and accounted for 29% of the variance in culturally competent behaviors. Life experiences with diversity had direct effects on awareness/sensitivity and behaviors, an...

  2. Testing the Behavioral Life-Cycle Model for Saving and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, YANJUN

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The conflict between behavioral finance and standard finance came to the attention of economists since they recognized the importance of psychology in finance. This paper focuses on the empirical study of the behavioral life-cycle model that is a derivative model based on three concepts of behavioral finance, including self-control, mental accounting, and frame dependence. Through testing the differential marginal propensity to consume (MPC) hypothesis and the magnitude of the of...

  3. Testing the Behavioral Life-Cycle Model fore Saving and Consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, YANJUN

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The conflict between behavioral finance and standard finance came to the attention of economists since they recognized the importance of psychology in finance. This paper focuses on the empirical study of the behavioral life-cycle model that is a derivative model based on three concepts of behavioral finance, including self-control, mental accounting, and frame dependence. Through testing the differential marginal propensity to consume (MPC) hypothesis and the magnitude of the offset...

  4. Sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms and adolescents' experience with sexual behavior : Testing an integrative model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-01-01

    Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explain

  5. A Mediational Model for the Impact of Exposure to Community Violence on Early Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Heeren, Timothy; Bronfman, Elisa

    2001-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine how maternal distress mediated the link between exposure to community violence (CV) and development of early child behavior problems. Findings indicated that direct CV-early child behavior problems path diminished when maternal distress was included in the model, after controlling for maternal SES…

  6. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  7. Role Model Behavior and Youth Violence: A Study of Positive and Negative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how role models' behavior may positively or negatively influence African American early adolescents' attitudes toward violence and violent behavior. Participants in this study included 331 African American seventh and eighth graders from low-income neighborhoods in an urban, Midwestern city. The study used a model developed…

  8. Cross-Cultural Comparison of American and Finnish College Students' Exercise Behavior Using Transtheoretical Model Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Tuominen, Kaisa J.; Rintala, Pauli

    2004-01-01

    Although the benefits of exercise are well documented, an international problem of physical inactivity exists. More research, especially theory based, has been recommended. One promising approach for studying exercise behavior is that proposed in the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. This model, however; has received minimal…

  9. Antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations: An empirical study based on norm activation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior

  10. Understanding Social-Force Model in Psychological Principles of Collective Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of mass evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.

  11. An approach to modeling operator's cognitive behavior using artificial intelligence techniques in emergency operating event sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer modeling of an operator's cognitive behavior is a promising approach for the purpose of human factors study and man-machine systems assessment. In this paper, the states of the art in modeling operator behavior and the current status in developing an operator's model (MINERVA - NPP) are presented. The model is constructed as a knowledge-based system of a blackboard framework and is simulated based on emergency operating procedures

  12. Top-Down Behavioral Modeling Methodology of a Piezoelectric Microgenerator For Integrated Power Harvesting Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boussetta, Hela; Marzencki, M

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we developed a top/down methodology for behavioral and structural modeling of multi-domain microsystems. Then, we validated this methodology through a study case : a piezoelectric microgenerator. We also proved the effectiveness of VHDL-AMS language not only for modeling in behavioral and structural levels but also in writing physical models that can predict the experimental results. Finally, we validated these models by presenting and discussing simulations results.

  13. The Effects of Behavior Modeling Training upon Managers' Behaviors and Employees' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnaska, Robert F.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates a training program to determine if it improved interpersonal skills of managers, how long the effects of the training could be expected to last, and if employees of the trained managers could perceive changes in their managers' overall behavior. (Author/RK)

  14. Summary of Research Report Lewis Incubator for Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Wayne P.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done to establish and operate the Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) for the period July 1996 through September 2000. The Lewis Incubator helps the startup and growth of technology-based businesses with the potential to incorporate technology from the NASA Glenn Research Center. During the grant period, LIFT began operation, met or exceeded all key performance measures, and continues its operation through a new cooperative agreement with NASA Glenn and also through continued funding from the State of Ohio.

  15. Romanian Framework for Creative Industries and Virtual Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote creative industries in Romania, as partners of VIC, we propose an application project related to a personalized guide ofSouth-East Region of Romania as a result of creative firms cooperation. This guide should be a demand of assistance and cooperation with theEuropean partners and must be a signal that Romanian creative firms exist and want to growth up. On the other hand, we try to realize a newframework for virtual incubators in Romania. We have to realize this because there are only information technology incubators in Romania.

  16. Single-incubation immunoassay for a multivalent ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a two-site immunoassay method for a multivalent ligand using a single incubation, the ligand, labelled receptor for the ligand and unlabelled receptor for the ligand covalently bound to a solid-phase support are incubated as a stable suspension to produce a solid and liquid phase. The solid and liquid phases are separated from each other and the labelled receptor in either phase is quantified. The method has particular application as an assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone using purified, radioactively labelled antibodies and unlabelled antibodies covalently bound to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles. (author)

  17. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  18. Chlorpyrifos degradation in a Biomix: Effect of pre-incubation and water holding capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Fernández-Alberti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biobed system is a simple method to minimize point source contamination during manipulation of pesticides and is based on the adsorption and degradation potential of a biomix composed by top soil, peat, and straw and covered with a grass layer. In our study, the biomix was prepared with Andisol, peat and straw in a volumetric proportion of 1:1:2, and adsorption and degradation studies were done. Degradation of chlorpyrifos (160 mg a.i. kg-1 and formation of TCP (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyrinidol at different pre-incubation times (0, 15 and 30 days and with different moisture contents (40, 60 and 80 % of water holding capacity were evaluated, ligninolytic enzyme activity and microbial respiration in the biomix were periodically analyzed. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using Freundlich and linear models for Andisol and the biomix. The adsorption assays demonstrated that biomix has a higher capacity to retain chlorpyrifos than top soil. The pre-incubation period, WHC and the concentration of the chlorpyrifos of the biomix influenced the degradation of the contaminant and TCP formation as well as the biological activities in the biomix. The TCP was formed during the first steps of chlorpyrifos degradation and was later degraded in the biomix under all studied conditions. In conclusion, biomix with Andisol, peat and straw (1:1:2, pre-incubated by 15 days and incubated with 60% of WHC is capable to degrade chlorpyrifos efficiently.

  19. A Dynamic Object Behavior Model and Implementation Based on Computational Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-wan; HE Fei; HE Ke-qing

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic object behavior model based on computational reflection is proposed. This model consists of function level and meta level, the meta objects in meta level manage the base objects and behaviors in function level, including dynamic binding and unbinding of base object and behavior.We implement this model with RoleJava Language, which is our self linguistic extension of the Java Language. Meta Objects are generated automatically at compile-time, this makes the reflecton mechanism transparent to programmers. Finally an example applying this model to a banking system is presented.

  20. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance.