Montoy, Juan Carlos Cantu
This dissertation is comprised of three chapters, each of which contributes to the fields of health economics and psychology & economics. Two of the chapters investigate how choice architecture affects patients health care decisions. The third investigates the role of beliefs in the demand for health information. The underlying motivation for these studies stems from the observations that the proportion of HIV-infected persons in the United States who are undiagnosed has remained constant for...
Richman, Barak D
This Article employs a behavioral economic analysis to understand why Medicaid has failed to improve the health outcomes of its beneficiaries. It begins with a formal economic model of health care consumption and then systematically incorporates a survey of psychosocial variables to formulate explanations for persistent health disparities. This methodology suggests that consulting the literature in health psychology and intertemporal decision theory--empirical sources generally excluded from orthodox economic analysis--provides valuable material to explain certain findings in health econometrics. More significantly, the lessons from this behavioral economic approach generate useful policy considerations for Medicaid policymakers, who largely have neglected psychosocial variables in implementing a health insurance program that rests chiefly on orthodox economic assumptions. The Article's chief contributions include an expansion of the behavioral economic approach to include a host of variables in health psychology, a behavioral refinement of empirical health economics, a behavioral critique of Medicaid policy, and a menu of suggested Medicaid reforms.
Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew
Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions.
Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T
Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.
Camerer, Colin F
Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.
Geckova, AM; van Dijk, JP; Honcariv, R; Groothoff, JW; Post, D
Aim. To investigate the role of health risk behavior, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, in the explanation of socio-economic health differences among adolescents. The hypothesis of different exposure and the hypothesis of different vulnerability were explored. Method. In the study carried out
Tuinstra, J; Groothoff, JW; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Post, D
Socio-economic differences in risk behaviors in adolescence can be seen as a prelude to the re-emergence of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. We studied whether or not socio-economic differences in health risk behaviors are present in male and female adolescents in The Netherlands. The
Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S
Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.
for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects. Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...... dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...
Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Ólafsdóttir, Þórhildur; Reichman, Nancy E
This study uses the 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases.
The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and econom
Over the past twenty years, the emphasis of reform attempts to improve efficiency within the English National Health Service (NHS) has oscillated between markets and targets. Both strategies are informed by standard economic theory but thus far have achieved varying degrees of success. Behavioral economics is currently in vogue and offers an alternative (or, in some cases, a complement) to standard economic theory on what motivates human behavior. There are many aspects to behavioral economics, but space constraints allow just three to be considered here: identity, loss aversion, and hyperbolic discounting. An attempt is made in this article to speculate on the extent to which these three concepts can explain the success or otherwise of the NHS market and target policies of the last two decades, and some suggestions are offered as to how policies might be usefully designed in the future. Arguably the key points are that people are more likely to be motivated if they identify with the ethos of the policy; the threat of losses will often provoke more of a response than the promise of gains; and the "immediate moment" matters enormously to individuals, so policies that require human action should be designed to make that moment as enjoyable (or as pain free) as possible.
Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.
Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…
“Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how......During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....
Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro
The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change.
Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.
Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into
Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...
Full Text Available Economics and management are disciplines which are theoretically interdependent and highly intercalated in practice. The manager develops main policies, values, goals and guidelines and at the same time suggests different ways achieving the objectives. The economist suggests the most efficient and effective way. As a matter of fact, there is no institution, for- or non-for-profit, in the world having no concern on economic and financial issues. While all institutions consider cost containment and revenue increase approaches, employing rational and mathematical techniques would be inevitable; systematic and approved tools and logics, undoubtedly would lead better results. The economics, having structured and logical framework, can handle these issues properly. In the economics, providers' and consumers' behaviors are analyzed, seeking the optimum points for demand and supply, and price. The health sector's leaders and policy makers are supposed to develop a situation appropriate for resource-directed and needs-driven behaviors, using legal, financial and other control knobs, the behaviors that eventually end distributive and utility equity in health services. "nAchieving equity in distribution of facilities concomitant with equity in availability and equity in utility are the main concerns of the people and the leaders of the societies. In addition, affordability of the health costs for the majority of the community, and financing for supposed services have led the policy makers to search for cost containment approaches, and some kind of rationing of the services. "nHealth economist deals with applying the two level economics in radiology departments. Micro-economics at the level of institutions, which discusses regulating processes and decisions in order to minimize the expenditures and maximize the revenues via a variety of initiatives, such as customer satisfaction and motivated staff, improving the processes, and reducing the
Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral trends in both economic theory and practical applications. As a science with vast potential for explaining complex market behaviors, behavioral economics is drifting away from the classical model of homo oeconomicus deployed by mainstream economics. This paper discusses the significance and role of the homo oeconomicus model in light of behavioral economics. It analyzes the direction of changes affecting homo oeconomicus, examines the definition of anomalies within the context of behavioral economics and discusses the anomalous status of homo oeconomicus. The paper proposes a hypothesis that the attitude characterizing homo oeconomicus is unique and incidental. The presented interdisciplinary analysis relies on economics, behavioral economics, economic psychology, behavioral finance and the methodology of science to discuss the homo oeconomicus model. The paper reviews change trends in economics, which are largely propelled by advancements in behavioral economics. The key methodological tools deployed in this paper are theoretical analysis and a compilation of extensive research findings. The results were used to formulate new theories advocating the development of a modern approach to the homo oeconomicus model, recognizing its significance and the growing importance of behavioral economics.
Full Text Available The economic crisis, which struck in Europe since 2008, has raised concerns about the health of the less privileged, vulnerable and poor people of the continent - the ordinary people of Europe. There is currently sufficient evidence for the negative and, in certain countries, devastating effects of austerity policies on the financing of health and other services of general interest, essential to promote the proper functioning of our economies and the cohesion of our societies. This evidence proves that health and social services are seriously impaired.
From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to
The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.
Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Professor Xiao Zhuoji, an economist at the prestigious Peking University, has always been optimistic about the stability of the Chinese economy. In an exclusive interview with People's Daily, he shares his views on "hot spots" in China's economic growth.
Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N
Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics.
André Medici; Bernardo Barros Weaver
This paper analyzes the roles of health goods and services markets within the regional integration process. It is a known fact that the consolidation of integrated markets is slower regarding social goods and services (as health and education) than among other goods and services (e.g. durable and non-durable consumption goods). The paper discusses the nature of the health sector and its global dimension, showing the peculiar features of health goods and services marked by economic complexity ...
@@ Though China's economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianvong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow……
Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta
There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.
John D Salamone
Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.
Economic analyses are increasingly appearing in the children's environmental-health literature. In this review, an illustrative selection of articles that represent cost analyses, cost-effectiveness analyses, and cost-benefit analyses is analyzed for the relative merits of each approach. Cost analyses remain the dominant approach due to lack of available data. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in this area face challenges presented by estimation of costs of environmental interventions, whose costs are likely to decrease with further technological innovation. Benefits are also more difficult to quantify economically and can only be partially alleviated through willingness-to-pay approaches. Nevertheless, economic analyses in children's environmental health are highly informative and important informants to public-health and policy practice. Further attention and training in their appropriate use are needed.
Tapia Granados, José A
This essay reviews the relation between health inequities and economic growth. The general meaning of these and ancillary concepts (economic development, health inequalities) is briefly reviewed. Some studies illustrating different hypotheses on the long-run historical evolution of health inequalities are presented, and three case studies -the United States in 1920-1940 and in recent years, Finland during the expansion of the 1980s and the recession of the 1990s- are reviewed to demonstrate the evolution of health inequalities during the periods of expansion and recession in markets economies that conform to the so-called business cycle. Health inequities between ethnic groups and social classes are often found in modern societies, and some of these disparities seem to be widening. Periods of economic expansion do not seem favorable for the lessening of health inequalities. Contrarily, and counter-intuitively, evidence rather suggests that it is during periods of recession that gaps in health between privileged and disadvantaged groups tend to narrow.
Reconciling Psychology with Economics: Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating Abstract: The modern phenomenon of obesity is an archetypal example of a behavior whose explanation simultaneously falls within the purview of psychology, economics, and the biological sciences. While psychologists and advocates of public health have long viewed overeating as a weakness or disease in need of treatment, economists have pointed out that "like any other consumer behavior" choices about di...
Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.
Baker, Rachel; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell
The recognition that health economists need to understand the meaning of data if they are to adequately understand research findings which challenge conventional economic theory has led to the growth of qualitative modes of enquiry in health economics. The use of qualitative methods of exploration and description alongside quantitative techniques gives rise to a number of epistemological, ontological and methodological challenges: difficulties in accounting for subjectivity in choices, the need for rigour and transparency in method, and problems of disciplinary acceptability to health economists. Q methodology is introduced as a means of overcoming some of these challenges. We argue that Q offers a means of exploring subjectivity, beliefs and values while retaining the transparency, rigour and mathematical underpinnings of quantitative techniques. The various stages of Q methodological enquiry are outlined alongside potential areas of application in health economics, before discussing the strengths and limitations of the approach. We conclude that Q methodology is a useful addition to economists' methodological armoury and one that merits further consideration and evaluation in the study of health services.
B R Chandra Shekar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting dentist on routine basis, oral hygiene practices, and deleterious oral habits. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of per capita income was used to classify individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES categories. Data were entered onto a personal computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: Awareness on dental diseases was 100% in upper SES and nil (0% in the lower SES. Visit to dentist in the last 1 year was 100% in the upper SES and 32.3% in the lower SES. The prevalence of smoking, pan-chewing, and alcohol consumption was high in lower SES than in upper SES. Oral hygiene practices were better among the subjects in upper class than the lower ones. Conclusion: A direct relation was noted between the favorable dental health awareness, attitude, oral hygiene behavior, and SES.
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop (Irene); M. Dapoigny; D. Dubois; E. Ganse (Éric); I. Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea (Iñaki); J. Hutton; P. Jones; T. Mittendorf (Thomas); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Salminen (Seppo); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark)
textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for develo
Messonnier, Mark L
Economics is the study of decisions--the incentives that lead to them and the consequences that result from them--as they relate to present and future production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services when resources are limited and have alternative uses. At CDC, economics is used to systematically identify, measure, value, and compare the costs and consequences of alternative prevention strategies. Costs and consequences in public health can be measured in various ways, including incidence or prevalence of disease; numbers of adverse events; utility measures, such as quality-adjusted life years; and monetary values. Because it deals with behavior, economics is not really about money at all. Money is just a convenient way to measure incentives and consequences.
Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.
Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...
Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.
Klimecki, Olga M; Mayer, Sarah V; Jusyte, Aiste; Scheeff, Jonathan; Schönenberg, Michael
What are the determinants of altruism? While economists assume that altruism is mainly driven by fairness norms, social psychologists consider empathy to be a key motivator for altruistic behavior. To unite these two theories, we conducted an experiment in which we compared behavior in a standard economic game that assesses altruism (the so-called Dictator Game) with a Dictator Game in which participants' behavioral choices were preceded either by an empathy induction or by a control condition without empathy induction. The results of this within-subject manipulation show that the empathy induction substantially increased altruistic behavior. Moreover, the increase in experienced empathy predicted over 40% of the increase in sharing behavior. These data extend standard economic theories that altruism is based on fairness considerations, by showing that empathic feelings can be a key motivator for altruistic behavior in economic interactions.
George Loewenstein, a prominent behavioral economist, recalls thatIn 1994, when Thaler, Camerer, Rabin, Prelec and I spent the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, we had a meeting to make a kind of final decision about what to call what we were doing. Remarkably, at tha
Kjeld Møller Pedersen
Full Text Available Culyer and Newhouse in their introduction to the Handbook of Health Economics1 noted that as a research program health economics seemed to be in good shape. “Moreover, its ‘hard core’ of neoclassical economics (especially welfare economics is itself a part of the ongoing developmental agenda of the subject”. They further observed that there is something in health economics for almost all kinds of health economists: “Powerful defenders of conventional methods and aggressive challengers; pure theorists and applied economists, those who undertake academic research for its own sake and those who see it as an instrument for the improvement of societies …”. ...
Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of
Originally, behavioral law and economics was an exercise in exploring the implications of key findings from behavioral economics (and psychology) for the analysis and reform of legal institutions. Yet as the new discipline matures, it increasingly replaces foreign evidence by fresh evidence, directly targeted to the legal research question. This chapter surveys the key methods: field evidence, survey data, vignette and lab experiment, discusses their pros and cons, illustrates them with key p...
Lyudmila Alekseevna Migranova
Full Text Available Efficient social policy should be based on the understanding of strategies which Russian families use for adaptation to a difficult economic situation in the country. This understanding is promoted by regular research into people’s consumer behaviour and by sociological surveys of savings strategies. Scientists are studying the investment behaviour of population. Consumer behaviour, savings behaviour and investment behaviour are the elements of economic behaviour of population. The integrated research into these components gives the greatest effect for enhancing the efficiency of social policy. The “Taganrog” Project is one of such integrated studies. This project has been implemented within forty years; its main purpose is to study various aspects of life of households in this southern city that used to be an industrial city
García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro
Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention.
The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.
Mirvis, David M; Chang, Cyril F; Cosby, Arthur
Most discussions on the relationships between health and economic conditions have focused on the impact of differences in personal finances or national economic conditions on health. Recently, however, the role of health as an 'economic engine' has been promoted. This paradigm proposes that better health leads to economic development. Evidence from historical, national, and transnational studies have shown that improved health increases economic growth through impacts on micro- and macro-economic factors. In this review, we will summarize the evidence supporting these concepts as a basis for discussing their implications for underdeveloped regions within the United States.
Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.
Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...
Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.
Economic progress in poor lands remains a major goal as current efforts continue to yield limited advance for the nations where most of the world's people continue to live in poverty. The income gap between poor lands and the rich world continue to grow. Effective solutions require new approaches in three areas of science: the process of economic development, the dynamics of population growth, and the function of the health of man. Neither history or theory provides economic progress a basis for policy or programs in any of these areas. The motivation and attitudes of man are essential elements in the process of population and production change, an emphasis which contrasts with the more conventional concern with a nation's material and physical resources in the process of economic and demographic advance. Health programs thus offer a major contribution to the process of economic and population development. Improved health in poor areas is a joint product of inputs from other professions as much as from the medical and public health sciences proper. In fact, improved health in developing lands may itself derive for the most part from expanding production relative to population. The basic contribution of the health sciences in poor lands is the involvement of health interventions with attitude changes essential to economic progress and to the rates of growth of production and population. Analysis of the interdependence of health, demographic and economic progress is suggested for India, Appalachia and South Africa and reported for Ethiopia, guatemala and St. Lucia.
Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, J.D.
The paper reviews the characteristic features of the main economic cycles and discusses the behavioral foundation for each mode at the microlevel. The analysis continues to illustrate some of the nonlinear dynamic phenomena that can arise through interaction between the various modes and through ...
Hursh, Steven R.; Roma, Peter G.
The application of economics principles to the analysis of behavior has yielded novel insights on value and choice across contexts ranging from laboratory animal research to clinical populations to national trends of global impact. Recent innovations in demand curve methods provide a credible means of quantitatively comparing qualitatively…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with behavioral health measure data. VHA reports data on a set of core performance measures for Hospital-Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services...
Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana
The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.
Benatar, Solomon R; Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella
Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program.
Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind
informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre......Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....
Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...
Though China’s economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianyong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow:
Cato, Kenrick; Falzon, Louise; Stone, Patricia W.
Background Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and summarized. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, and relevant references were searched. Eligibility criteria included original articles, comparison of costs and consequences of interventions (one categorized as a primary mHealth intervention or mHealth intervention as a component of other interventions), health and economic outcomes and published in English. Full economic evaluations were appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist and The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results Searches identified 5902 results, of which 318 were examined at full text, and 39 were included in this review. The 39 studies spanned 19 countries, most of which were conducted in upper and upper-middle income countries (34, 87.2%). Primary mHealth interventions (35, 89.7%), behavior change communication type interventions (e.g., improve attendance rates, medication adherence) (27, 69.2%), and short messaging system (SMS) as the mHealth function (e.g., used to send reminders, information, provide support, conduct surveys or collect data) (22, 56.4%) were most frequent; the most frequent disease or condition focuses were outpatient clinic attendance, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 79.6% (range 47.62–100, STD 14.18) and the top quartile reported 91.3–100%. In 29 studies (74.3%), researchers reported that the mHealth intervention was cost-effective, economically beneficial, or cost saving at base case. Conclusions Findings highlight a growing body of economic evidence for mHealth interventions. Although all studies included a comparison of
Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…
The provision of guidelines on cost measurement for health economic evaluations enable research to be more standardized and hence more comparable, which offers clear benefits for policy formulation and health management. The guidelines herein focus on three aspects-the cost of health intervention/health care programs, the cost of illness/health risks, and use of costs in health economic evaluation. For each aspect, the main concepts and methods are outlined, and recommendations for the Thai context are presented. There is particular focus on how to calculate various costs according to different evaluation methods and perspectives, how to evaluate source of cost data, how to make value adjustments and how to present cost measurement findings.
This paper investigates the effects of inequality in health on economic growth in low and middle income countries. The empirical part of the paper uses an original cross-national panel data set covering 62 low and middle income countries over the period 1985 to 2007. I find a substantial and relatively robust negative effect of health inequality on income levels and income growth controlling for life expectancy, country and time fixed-effects and a large number of other effects that have been shown to matter for growth. The effect also holds if health inequality is instrumented to circumvent a potential problem of reverse causality. Hence, reducing inequality in the access to health care and to health-related information can make a substantial contribution to economic growth.
Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater
Żułtak-Bączkowska, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena; Kotwas, Artur; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej
Introduction Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women's health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study Aim of the study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women's health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA), and health practices (HP). Material and methods The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). Results The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents). There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often). There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions Older women attached greater importance to positive mental
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A
Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...
Hummel, Marjan; Steuten, Lotte; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karin; IJzerman, Maarten
Much research in health care is devoted to health economical modelling. Even though the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly being applied in health care, its value to health economical modelling is still unrecognized. We explored the value of using AHP-derived results in a health econom
Ikefuji, Masako [Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Magnus, J.R. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Sakamoto, Hiroaki [Department of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)
This paper studies the interplay between climate, health, and the economy in a stylized world with four heterogeneous regions, labeled 'West' (cold and rich), 'China' (cold and poor), 'India' (warm and poor), and 'Africa' (warm and very poor). We introduce health impacts into a simple integrated assessment model where both the local cooling effect of aerosols as well as the global warming effect of CO2 are endogenous, and investigate how those factors affect the equilibrium path. We show how some of the important aspects of the equilibrium, including emission abatement rates, health costs, and economic growth, depend on the economic and geographical characteristics of each region.
Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations.
Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.
Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland
Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios).
Harper, Ellen M
The amount of health care data in our world has been exploding, and the ability to store, aggregate, and combine data and then use the results to perform deep analyses have become ever more important. "Big data," large pools of data that can be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed, are now part of every sector and function of the global economy. While most research into big data thus far has focused on the question of their volume, there is evidence that the business and economic possibilities of big data and their wider implications are important for consideration. It is even offering the possibility that health care data could become the most valuable asset over the next 5 years as "secondary use" of electronic health record data takes off.
David S. Murphy
Full Text Available Traditional economic theory postulates that people are rational. This implies that people make decisions to maximize their utility functions and to do this, that they have fully and correctly evaluated their preferences and limitations. Behavioral economics recognizes that this is not always true, that sometimes information is incomplete. This article is examines some of the effects of behavioral economics (which come largely from cognitive psychology in decision-making by investors in the stock exchanges.
Theoretic Analysis of the Criminal Choice. American Economic Review , vol. 65, no. 3 (June), 314-325. Cobb, William E. (1973). Theft And The Two...Deterrence, American Economic Review , June. Ehrlich, Isaac (1986). Crime and Punishment, preprint of chapter in John Eaton, Murray Milgate and Peter...Academic Press, pp. 166-171. Sjoquist, D. L. (1973). Property Crime And Economic Behavior: Some Empirical Results. American Economic Review , vol. 63
Tamba, B I; Azoicăi, Doina; Druguş, Daniela
Health economics refers to the analysis of medical institutions considering their economic and social efficacy, but also the regularity and the relationships that govern the phenomena and the processes from the field of health with the final purpose of achieving better results with the minimum of resources; it represents the study of health price in its complexity. The economics of the population's health needs and in particular the health needs in case of the poor groups of the population, consider health to be the main component of global human vulnerability. Health economics tries to change the simple interpretation of health price and disease cost into a wider consideration of a system administration similar to educational and social economics and the study of health in the context of the multiple specializations of the macro economy of the national group, as it is an instrument in the country's great economics symphony.
Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel
Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people.
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis gave room for the theoretical debates to reemerge. The economic reality challenged the mainstream neoclassical approach leaving the opportunity for the Austrian School, Post Keynesianism or Institutionalists to bring in front theories that seem to better explain the economic crisis and thus, leaving space for more efficient economic policies to result. In this context, the main assumptions of the mainstream theoretical approach are challenged and reevaluated, behavioral economics is one of the main challengers. Without developing in an integrated school of thought yet, behavioral economics brings new elements within the framework of economic thinking. How are the main theoretical approaches integrating these new elements and whether this process is going to narrow the theory or enrich it to be more comprehensive are questions to which this paper tries to answer, or, at least, to leave room for an answer.
Kahneman and Tversky and their behavioral economics stand in a long tradition of applying mathematics to human behavior. In the seventeenth century, attempts to describe rational behavior in mathematical terms run into problems with the formulation of the St. Petersburg paradox. Bernoulli’s celebrat
Health economics took off in 1970 or thereabouts, just after the take-off date for the economics of education. Although early health economics made use of human capital theory as did the economics of education, it soon took a different route inspired by Arrow's work on medical insurance. The economics of education failed to live up to its promising start in the 1960s and gradually ran out of steam. The economics of health, however, has made steady theoretical and empirical progress since 1970, principally in coming to grips with the implications of supplier-induced demand and the difficulties of evaluating health care outcomes. Some of the best work on British health economics has been in the area of normative welfare economics, defining more precisely what is meant by equity in the delivery of health care and measuring the degree of success in achieving equity. Recent efforts to reform the NHS by the introduction of 'quasi markets' have improved the quantity and quality of health care in Britain. In short, British health economics has been characterised by the use of Pigovian piecemeal rather than Paretian global welfare economics, retaining a distinctive style that sets it apart from American health economics.
Goeree, Ron; Diaby, Vakaramoko
In a climate of escalating demands for new health care services and significant constraints on new resources, the disciplines of health economics and health technology assessment (HTA) have increasingly been turned to as explicit evidence-based frameworks to help make tough health care access and reimbursement decisions. Health economics is the discipline of economics concerned with the efficient allocation of health care resources, essentially trying to maximize health benefits to society contingent upon available resources. HTA is a broader field drawing upon several disciplines, but which relies heavily upon the tools of health economics and economic evaluation. Traditionally, health economics and economic evaluation have been widely used at the political (macro) and local (meso) decision-making levels, and have progressively had an important role even at informing individual clinical decisions (micro level). The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to health economics and discuss its relevance to frontline clinicians. Particularly, the content of the paper will facilitate clinicians' understanding of the link between economics and their medical practice, and how clinical decision-making reflects on health care resource allocation.
Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna
Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.
Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung
Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth).
Knoll, Melissa A Z
Traditional economic theory posits that people make decisions by maximizing a utility function in which all of the relevant constraints and preferences are included and weighed appropriately. Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases. Empirical findings in the areas of behavioral economics and judgment and decision making (JDM) demonstrate departures from the notion that man is economically rational, illustrating instead that people often act in ways that are economically suboptimal. This article outlines findings from the JDM and behavioral-economics literatures that highlight the many behavioral impediments to saving that individuals may encounter on their way to financial security. I discuss how behavioral and psychological issues, such as self-control, emotions, and choice architecture can help policymakers understand what factors, aside from purely economic ones, may affect individuals' savings behavior.
Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.
Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G
Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.
Francesco Vittorio Costa
Full Text Available Statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, one of the most important public health problems and among the main leading causes of death. Their use has been increasing in the last decade and today they represent the first drug class in terms of public expenditure. In view of the introduction of generic simvastatin in the Italian market, this paper outlines a pharmacological and economic profile of this compound. Despite two decades of life, simvastatin remains competitive with other HMG-CoA inhibitors, inducing a dose-dependent, up to 43% cLDL reduction. In clinical trials evaluating hard endpoints, simvastatin treatment achieved a strong reduction of cardiovascular events, revascularization procedures and mortality. Review of the main published pharmacoeconomic studies on simvastatin consistently indicated good cost/effectiveness ratios in most geographic contexts; convenience of this therapy increases along with baseline cardiovascular risk. Among available statins inducing equivalent cholesterol reductions, generic simvastatin has the lowest daily costs. Assuming stable market volume, an estimated cost saving for the Italian National Health Service of about 1 million Euro per year is expected from the introduction of the generic drug. Further cost savings may accrue for a potential switch from more expensive statins to simvastatin. Albeit individual responses to statins are unpredictable, the choice to start with lower cost molecules can limit initial drug investment and dampen the negative financial impact of treatment interruptions and switches.
Dang, Amit; Likhar, Nishkarsh; Alok, Utkarsh
Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. There has been uncertainty in the conduct of such economic evaluations in India, due to some hesitancy with respect to the adoption of their guidelines. The biggest challenge in this evolutionary method is lack of understanding of methods in current use by all those involved in the provision and purchasing of health care. In some countries, different methods of economic evaluation have been adopted for decision making, most commonly to address the question of public subsidies for the purchase of medicines. There is limited evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health and economic well-being of beneficiaries in developing countries. India is currently pursuing several strategies to improve health services for its population, including investing in government-provided services as well as purchasing services from public and private providers through various schemes. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are required in India because rapid health care inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions, aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will require greater economic efficiency into health care systems.
YU RongJun; ZHOU XiaoLin
This paper introduces an emerging interdisciplinary research field, namely neuroeconomics, which uses the neuroscientific methods to investigate the neural systems supporting economically relevant behaviors. Traditional economic research is restricted to the level of describing decision behaviors,leaving the cognitive mechanisms behind them unknown. It also fails to predict many decision behaviors in real life. The combination of neuroscience and economics makes it possible to uncover the underlying mental and neural processes of economic decision making. This paper reviews the findings from the neuroeconomic literature on encoding of utility in the brain, showing that neuroeconomic research can test the validity of economic concepts and theories and provide new explanations to economic phenomenon. It discusses the important role the emotion plays in economic decision making and the associated neural evidence, suggesting the possibility of understanding the impact of emotion upon decision making by measuring the neural activity of emotion-related brain regions. This paper also summarizes neuroscientific studies on cooperation and trust in monetary games, pointing out that the trend of neuroeconomic research is to model the real life decision making in the laboratory with solid ecological validity. Neuroeconomics provides not only neuroscientific evidence for economic theories, such as the prospect theory, the regret theory and the game theory, but also foundations for more comprehensive and powerful economic models.
... ADVISORY Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance... announces the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences... and policies pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs...
Halıcı-Tülüce, Nadide Sevil; Doğan, İbrahim; Dumrul, Cüneyt
This paper examines the relationship between health expenditure and economic growth using panel data consisting low and high-income countries. Using dynamic panel data methodology, we analyze twenty five high-income and nineteen low-income economies for the periods of 1995-2012 and 1997-2009, respectively. We find reciprocal relationship between health expenditure and economic growth in the short run and one-way causality from economic growth to public health expenditure in the long-run. In high-income countries, there is a two-way causality for both private and public health expenditures in the short-run, while in the long-run there is a one-way causality between economic growth and private health expenditures. The crucial finding of this study is that private health expenditures have negative influence on economic growth while public health expenditures have both negative and statistically significant effect.
Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive study was planned to determine the behavior of a healthy lifestyle in nursing students who assume the role of nursing care services and education in their future lives. Material-Method: The research was conducted in Hitit University School of Health in November-December 2011. All of the 262 students who were studying in the Department of Nursing were included in the study. The survey was applied to 234 students whom can be accessed. A questionnaire included descriptive items and health perceptions of students with the 48-item scale consists of healthy lifestyle behaviors (HPLP was used as a tool for collecting the data. Results: The mean age of students who participated in this study was 20.40±1.96. The 72.6% of students were female and 27.4% were male, 67.1% of declared that their levels of economic status was moderate, 14.1% of currently smoked, and 70.1% of general health situation was good. It was seen that the average scale scores of HPLP was 121.57±19, 65. The total mean score is 2.53 ± 0:11 according to four scale of likert. The lowest mean score obtained from the subscales was exercise and the highest scores were interpersonal support and self-realization. Total scores of female students taken from the scale of healthy lifestyle behaviors were lower than the male students, but no significant difference was found between the groups. Exercise and stress management scores were higher in male students and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Health responsibility subscale was highest in second year students. The average scores of self-realization and nutrition sub-groups were high in students whose perception of general health as "good". Conclusion: We determined that student’ scores taken from healthy lifestyle behaviors scale was moderate level. The issues about health protection and health promotion should be more take place in nursing school curricula. [TAF Prev Med
David R Just
While there is mixed evidence of the impact of food assistance programs on obesity, there is general agreement that the food-insecure are at higher risk of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Food assistance programs, originally designed to overcome a lack of available food, now need to confront a very different problem: how to provide for the food-insecure while encouraging healthy lifestyles. This paper examines the potential to address these competing needs using traditional economic pol...
Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.
The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…
Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M
Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.
Bloem, S.; Stalpers, J.
This paper describes the key role of the subjective experience of health as the driver of health related behavior. Individuals vary greatly in terms of behaviors related to health. Insights into these interindividual differences are of great importance for all parties involved in health care, includ
Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz
The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies.
Koch, Carsten Allan
Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partner...... account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....
Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…
"Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given.
Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A
Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.
Feldman, Saul, ed.
Discusses challenges to the mental health field as a result of severe economic change. The six articles deal with reindustrialization, the effect of the labor market on mental hospital and prison use, retrenchment strategies, mental health problems in energy boomtowns, and economic issues of public policy. (JAC)
Mannion, Russell; Small, Neil; Thompson, Carl
As nursing has been subject to successive waves of 'managerialism' there has been a drive on the part of government and elements within the profession to enhance the science base and promote cost-effective health care interventions. This has generated new interest in the 'economics of nursing' as efficiency and 'value for money' are viewed as necessary precondition for the provision of a high quality nursing service. As an academic subject health economics has brought an elegant set of theories to bear on the topic of health and health care. However, mainstream health economics is premised on a series of simplifying assumptions that, if applied uncritically, can induce a range of unintended and adverse consequences. This paper asks how ideas developed in one sphere (health economics) can be become influential in another (nursing management and practice) and it seeks explanations in the theories of Michel Foucault, specifically in his exploration of the reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge. How are our assumptions about what is possible and desirable shaped, how far do mechanisms of surveillance and self-subjugation extend? A range of alternative economic approaches have been developed which challenge many mainstream health economics assumptions. Some of these are better suited to the complex social environment present within health care. Nurses, nurse managers and researchers should question the assumptions of dominant economic models and explore a range of economic frameworks when planning services and evaluating their practice.
Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.
Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad
Behavioral economics (BE) has been used to study a number of health behaviors such as smoking and drug use, but there is little knowledge of how these insights relate to HIV prevention and care. We present novel evidence on the prevalence of the common behavioral decision-making errors of present-bias, overoptimism, and information salience among 155 Ugandan HIV patients, and analyze their association with subsequent medication adherence. 36 % of study participants are classified as present-biased, 21 % as overoptimistic, and 34 % as having salient HIV information. Patients displaying present-bias were 13 % points (p = 0.006) less likely to have adherence rates above 90 %, overoptimistic clients were 9 % points (p = 0.04) less likely, and those not having salient HIV information were 17 % points (p < 0.001) less likely. These findings indicate that BE may be used to screen for future adherence problems and to better design and target interventions addressing these behavioral biases and the associated suboptimal adherence.
Himmelstein, David U; Ariely, Dan; Woolhandler, Steffie
Pay-for-performance programs aim to upgrade health care quality by tailoring financial incentives for desirable behaviors. While Medicare and many private insurers are charging ahead with pay-for-performance, researchers have been unable to show that it benefits patients. Findings from the new field of behavioral economics challenge the traditional economic view that monetary reward either is the only motivator or is simply additive to intrinsic motivators such as purpose or altruism. Studies have shown that monetary rewards can undermine motivation and worsen performance on cognitively complex and intrinsically rewarding work, suggesting that pay-for-performance may backfire.
Iain J. Gordon
Full Text Available Policy design is largely informed by the traditional economic viewpoint that humans behave rationally in the pursuit of their own economic welfare, with little consideration of other regarding behavior or reciprocal altruism. New paradigms of economic behavior theory are emerging that build an empirical basis for understanding how humans respond to specific contexts. Our interest is in the role of human relationships in managing natural resources (forage and livestock in semiarid systems, where spatial and temporal variability and uncertainty in resource availability are fundamental system drivers. In this paper we present the results of an economic experiment designed to explore how reciprocity interacts with variability and uncertainty. This behavior underpins the Australian tradable grazing rights, or agistment, market, which facilitates livestock mobility as a human response to a situation where rainfall is so variable in time and space that it is difficult to maintain an economically viable livestock herd on a single management unit. Contrary to expectations, we found that variability and uncertainty significantly increased transfers and gains from trade within our experiment. When participants faced variability and uncertainty, trust and reciprocity took time to build. When variability and uncertainty were part of the experiment trust was evident from the onset. Given resource variability and uncertainty are key drivers in semiarid systems, new paradigms for understanding how variability shapes behavior have special importance.
Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, health economics is exerting an influence on decision making at all levels of health care. Health economics seeks to facilitate decision making by offering an explicit decision making framework based on the principle of efficiency. It is not the only consideration but it is an important one and practitioners will need to have an understanding of its basic principles and how it can impact on clinical decision making. This article...
Full Text Available This conceptual review summarizes the current research on older men and their health-related behaviors with special attention given to the influence of the hegemonic masculinity framework over the life span. The authors consider whether masculinity precepts can be modified to enable men to alter their gendered morbidity/mortality factors and achieve healthier and longer lives. Also included is an overview of the gender-based research and health education efforts to persuade men to adopt more effective health-related behaviors or health practices earlier in the life span. Given the current attention being paid to men’s health, for example, their higher risk of morbidity and mortality both generally and at younger ages, and the associated health care costs tied to those risks, the ethical and economic implications of this review may prove useful.
Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502
Natalya Vasilyevna Krivenko
Full Text Available In the article, the definitions of the concept organizational and economic changes in institution problems of changes in public health service, the purpose and issues of the management system of organizational and economic changes in the field are considered. The combined strategy of development and innovative changes in management is offered. The need of resource-saving technologies implementation is shown. Expediency of use of marketing tools in a management system of organizational and economic changes is considered the mechanism of improvement of planning and pricing in public health service is offered. The author’s model of management of organizational and economic changes in health services supporting achievement of medical, social, economic efficiency in Yekaterinburg's trauma care is presented. Strategy of traumatism prevention is determined on the basis of interdepartmental approach and territorial segmentation of health care market
Anderson, Lisa R; Mellor, Jennifer M
We conduct a large-scale economics experiment paired with a survey to examine the association between individual risk preference and health-related behaviors among adults aged 18-87 years. Risk preference is measured by the lottery choice experiment designed by Holt and Laury [Holt, C.A., Laury, S.K., 2002. Risk aversion and incentive effects. The American Economic Review 92(5), 1644-1655]. Controlling for subject demographic and economic characteristics, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, being overweight or obese, and seat belt non-use. In additional specifications, we find that risk aversion is negatively and significantly associated with the likelihood a subject engaged in any of five risky behaviors and the number of risky behaviors reported.
Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system
'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.
Soim Horatiu Florin
Full Text Available The cyclical path of economy is a common place in the economic theory. The economic crisis that started in 2007 was not only one of the most severe since the WWII but it came unexpectedly. The cause of the crises and of the surprise consists in the economic models and theories that were founded on the rationality and maximization behavior of the economic actor. People lack the rationality the mainstream economics assume. This is why both economists and simple people do not act as theory predicts and finally economy does not tend toward equilibrium but suffers recurrent crises. This crisis started as a financial one, because of the subprime loans made in USA, but have spread in production sector because of credit frozen, is now in transforming into a social crisis because of austerity measures taken by governments. The paper analyzes the theoretical foundation of economic theory and how the facts that characterize the recent economic evolution fit with the non mainstream theories. It presents the figures of the economic evolution in the last 3 years and explains them based of the agentâ€™s behavior described by Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman. Their challenge of mainstream economics is based on an analyze of human behavior. Herbert Simon introduced the concept of bounded rationality as opposed to perfect rationality postulated by neoclassic economics and Daniel Kahneman realized experiments that proved that people cannot stick with the performances assumed by mainstream economics. Their conclusion permit to understand the approach of George Soros who says that people actions are bounded by reflexivity and as a consequences sometimes economy move not toward but far from equilibrium, creating bubbles that end in financial and economic crises. As Akerlof mention the cause of the crisis is the reliance of a false theory which said that we are safe. The conclusion is that we need new theories more close to the real life and an agent description
Butler, Matthew James
In the United States, health insurance is often necessary for access to regular, affordable health care. With only eight of every hundred Americans buying private insurance plans on the individual market, the main sources for health insurance traditionally have been employers and the government. As new laws are being debated and introduced to reform an expensive health care industry in which nearly one-sixth of the population is uninsured, research is needed in order to evaluate the costs and...
Full Text Available This paper examines the long run and causal relationship between health expenditures and economic growth in the in Eurasian Economic Union over the period 1995-2014. For this examination, panel cointegration and causality methodologies are utilized. Cointegration results which obtained from Pedroni and Kao tests support an evidence of a long run relationship among the variables under investigation. Long run elasticities indicate that health expenditures affect growth positively. Causality results, on the other side, provide a strong support of a bidirectional running between health expenditures and economic growth both in the short and in the long run.
M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc)
textabstractThe steady increase in health care costs and the continuous emergence of new medical technologies have forced policy makers in health care to reconsider the current resource allocation and to become more selective with investing in new health care programs. Economic evaluations can suppo
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.
Liu, Lewis G.
Examines the economic behavior of academic research libraries, arguing that academic research libraries seek to maximize universities' utility by expanding library collections. Findings are consistent with those from a previous study using a different ranking system and sample data and reconfirm that library collections contribute significantly to…
Best, John R.; Theim, Kelly R.; Gredysa, Dana M.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Saelens, Brian E.; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Objective: Our goal was to determine whether behavioral economic constructs--including impulsivity (i.e., steep discounting of delayed food and monetary rewards), the relative reinforcing value of food (RRV[subscript food]), and environmental enrichment (i.e., the presence of alternatives to unhealthy foods in the home and neighborhood…
Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.
Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul
The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.
Kristine Husøy Onarheim
Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better
Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M
This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.
Postma, MJ; Kwik, JJ; Rutten, WJMJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Brouwers, JRBJ
Objective. To investigate whether the health-economics research published in Dutch journals is in agreement with the guidelines for pharmaco-economic research as published in 1999 by the Dutch 'College voor zorgverzekeringen' [Healthcare Insurance Board]. Design. Descriptive. Method. A literature se
Full Text Available Health is one of the most important assets for human beings, since it allows people to fully use their capacity. Poor or compromised health reduces the well-being of individuals, by affecting their future incomes, wealth and consumption. For policy implic
Ikefuji, M.; Magnus, J.R.; Sakamoto, H.
This paper studies the interplay between climate, health, and the economy in a stylized world with four heterogeneous regions, labeled ‘West’ (cold and rich), ‘China’ (cold and poor), ‘India’ (warm and poor), and ‘Africa’ (warm and very poor). We introduce health impacts into a simple integrated ass
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.
According to US government statistics, health care expenditures approached $2 trillion in 2005 or $6,697/person, with spending expected to exceed $4.1 trillion by 2016 (http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/). Total Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services spending (including Medicaid, State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and Medicare) was $660.7 million in 2005. Despite the decline in the growth rate of health care spending growth over the past 4 years, health care spending increased 6.9% from 2004 to 2005 and was 16% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 and forecasted to be 19.6% of the GDP by 2016. Although the percentage of GDP may not concern providers of health care products or services, it has an affect on the rest of the economy. Spending on health care by employers or patients increases the cost of the products produced, making goods produced here in the United States less attractive to world markets in the age of globalization in addition to leaving less money for patients to spend on other goods and services or save.
Monterosso, John; Ainslie, George
Behavioral economic studies demonstrate that rewards are discounted proportionally with their delay (hyperbolic discounting). Hyperbolic discounting implies temporary preference for smaller rewards when they are imminent, and this concept has been widely considered by researchers interested in the causes of addictive behavior. Far less consideration has been given to the fact that systematic preference reversal also predicts various self-control phenomena, which may also be analyzed from a behavioral economic perspective. Here we summarize self-control phenomena predicted by hyperbolic discounting, particularly with application to the field of addiction. Of greatest interest is the phenomenon of choice bundling, an increase in motivation to wait for delayed rewards that can be expected to result from making choices in whole categories. Specifically, when a person's expectations about her own future behavior are conditional upon her current behavior, the value of these expectations is added to the contingencies for the current behavior, resulting in reduced impulsivity. Hyperbolic discounting provides a bottom-up basis for the intuitive learning of choice bundling, the properties of which match common descriptions of willpower. We suggest that the bundling effect can also be discerned in the advice of 12-step programs.
Full Text Available Introduction: A very important role in the protection of human health is their life style, their habits and patterns of conduct. Early adulthood is the best period to achieve long-term benefits from a selection of healthy living. However, the results of studies on health-related behavior of youth in Poland and in the world are not satisfactory. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the research was to assess the health behaviors of students of higher education in Bydgoszcz. Material: The study involved 272 students (124 women and 148 men Bydgoszcz higher education students in the following fields of study: physiotherapy, nutrition, logistics and national security. The Inventory of Health-Related Behavior by Zygfryd Juczyński has been used in the research. The statistical analysis was performed using the package PQ Stat 1.6.2. Results: Throughout the treatment group an average level of health-related behavior has been shown. The results of the different categories of health-related behavior were lower than the results of the standardization groups. A higher level of health behavior has been shown in a group of medical students compared to non-medical students. The results for women were higher than men's results. Conclusions: The results of personal research and the research findings of other authors demonstrate that there is a need for implementation of programs of health promotion and health education in all fields of study.
S M Thumbi
Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household
Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina
Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group).
Kinzie, Mable B
To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.
Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…
Vanni, Tazio; Luz, Paula Mendes; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Polanczyk, Carisi A
The rise in healthcare expenditures due to the incorporation of new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies and increasing life expectancy is a major concern, particularly in developing countries. The role of economic evaluation in health is to optimize the benefits of available resources. This article aims to allow readers to identify the basic characteristics and types of economic evaluation in health and understand its methods, with an emphasis on infectious diseases. We thus review the following concepts: study perspective, analytic scope, costs, and discount rate. We also focus on characteristics of cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses, with examples. The article describes the most popular study designs for economic evaluation, discusses different models, and examines the importance of sensitivity analysis. Our final comments address the importance of adopting economic evaluations in health in Brazil.
Hagan, Brian J.; And Others
Warns that community mental health services are threatened by reductions in federal support and increased numbers of clients. Reviews literature on the effect of adverse economic events on mental health. Identifies issues and answers for managing this dilemma including planning, financial diversification, and inter-agency cooperation. (Author/JAC)
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and managin
Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas
The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…
Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall
Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the l
Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.
Frahm-Falkenberg, S; Ibsen, R; Kjellberg, J;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...
Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver
The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...
Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P
The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.
Wong, Germaine; Howard, Kirsten; Webster, Angela C; Morton, Rachael L; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C
Decision making is complex and difficult in clinical practice. Clinicians are often faced with a large range of possible alternative decision options, each with their own consequences and trade-offs. Health economics methods enable informed decision making on how best to allocate limited resources that could lead to most health gains. Economic evaluation in particular is highly relevant in transplantation medicine. Transplantation is an expensive intervention, but it improves the quality of life and survival of people with chronic diseases. The balance between health care resource use and the optimal health gains is useful not only to decision-makers, but also to consumers, clinicians, and researchers. This article is an overview of the concepts of economic evaluation in the setting of transplantation and highlights the applicability of these concepts in clinical transplantation.
Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A
The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources.
Burks, Stephen V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo
Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success.
Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D
This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed.
Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA
Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.
Mizumoto, Kaori; Murakami, Genki; Oshidari, Kenro; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Yoshiike, Nobuo
Asia has recorded the fastest economic growth in the world. However, some countries are still struggling with economic stagnation and poverty. Even in the emerging countries, there are economic disparities between urban and rural areas within a country. Reflecting the situations, nutritional issues in Asia came to be the antithetical situation of excess and insufficiency. The rate of overweight and obesity keeps increasing, especially in emerging countries. Meanwhile, underweight is still a critical problem in the region. Although the importance of nutrition is well recognized for social and economic development, it is difficult to identify the immediate outcome of nutrition interventions. Evidence-based decision-making is an important element of quality health care and efficiency and effectiveness are always key words. Along with enhanced attention to accountability and transparency of budget use in health services, attention to the economic evaluation of nutrition interventions has increased in recent years. In this symposium, we will review the current situation of nutritional issues and economic evaluation of nutrition interventions in Asia through experience of an international organization, the basis and trends for health care economics, and also efforts have been made in an Asian country. Discussion will be made about efficient and effective ways to evaluate projects/programmes for nutrition improvement.
Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima
Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.
Eating, physical acting and resting behavior is considered as important health behavior to promote our health level. Several health behavior theories have been developed applying to change our health behaviors for good in counseling, health education and action programs. There are three types of health behavior theory, mainly utilizing to person, mainly applying to group and to population. The stages of behavior change theory is useful for groups as well as for people in health counseling, in...
de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael
This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.
Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry
This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…
Natalya Vasilyevna Krivenko
In the article, the definitions of the concept organizational and economic changes in institution problems of changes in public health service, the purpose and issues of the management system of organizational and economic changes in the field are considered. The combined strategy of development and innovative changes in management is offered. The need of resource-saving technologies implementation is shown. Expediency of use of marketing tools in a management system of organizationa...
Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan
The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…
The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.
Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Beregovaya, Irina B.; Khanzhina, Olga A.
The article deals with the issues on economic techniques of occupational health and safety management. Authors’ definition of safety management is given. It is represented as a task-oriented process to identify, establish and maintain such a state of work environment in which there are no possible effects of hazardous and harmful factors, or their influence does not go beyond certain limits. It was noted that management techniques that are the part of the control mechanism, are divided into administrative, organizational and administrative, social and psychological and economic. The economic management techniques are proposed to be classified depending on the management subject, management object, in relation to an enterprise environment, depending on a control action. Technoeconomic study, feasibility study, planning, financial incentives, preferential crediting of enterprises, pricing, profit sharing and equity, preferential tax treatment for enterprises, economic regulations and standards setting have been distinguished as economic techniques.
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct and indirect factual costs of polyneuropathy in a national sample of patients and their spouses based on a national register-based cohort study with matched controls. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009) all patients...... on labor supply. Social-transfer payments were included to illustrate the effect on national accounts. All cost data were extracted from national databases. RESULTS: 13,758 unspecified polyneuropathy patients were registered. They were compared with 54,900 matched controls identified from the National......) was €12,647 for patients and €2,984 for their partners over and above that of controls. Social-transfer payments were all significantly larger in patients than in control subjects. Furthermore, the patients already exhibited a negative social- and health-related status up to eleven years before the first...
BACKGROUND: Demands for economic inputs to mental health policy-making, practice decisions and research evaluations have grown considerably in recent years, but the overall supply response has been modest and uneven. AIMS: This paper examines the key historical phases in the development of mental health economics research, and what they imply for the way economics is received and employed. Focusing on the quest for cost-effectiveness, the paper considers challenges for mental health economics. METHODS: An informal review of the growing demand for mental health economics (and how that demand has been expressed), and how economists have responded. RESULTS: Five historical development phases characterize this growth. Initially, the dominant feature is innocence or neglect of scarcity. Cost measures are rarely calculated, cost-effectiveness is not part of the decision-making lexicon and the potential for inefficiency is huge. In the second phase, innocence turns to criticism of attempts to introduce resource rationality, and many clinicians actively reject economics. Health is seen as priceless, and not to be compromised by the pursuit of efficiency. After a period of reluctance there follows impetuosity as the need for economic insights is recognized, but the search for data is desperate and undiscriminating. Poor quality research is conducted, with the risk that decisions are misinformed and perhaps damaging. Once again, resources are inappropriately used. Next follows the constructive development phase: previous mistakes are appreciated and the standards of evaluation improve markedly. Studies are better designed, more likely to be integrated into clinical or policy evaluations, carefully conducted and sensibly interpreted. Inefficiency should be reduced, along with inequity. Finally, there is perhaps a nirvana-like fifth phase in which sophisticated economic studies are widely undertaken, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses help to reveal the wider picture
Mihaela Andreea STROE
Full Text Available The new economic approach starts from the idea that the individual does not need food, but feels the need to feed, or do not require newspapers, but feels the need of information. In this way, those who changes are not human preferences, but the way we satisfy them. At this stage of the paper, we explain the inconsistency in consumer preferences and the exceptions to the standard theory by making light upon what is called in behavioral economics: the effects of property, loss aversion and framing effects. In which concerns the standard economic model, it seems that there are discrepancies between objective measures of sources of comfort / discomfort and measures reported subjective sensations. Many defenders of classical model would argue that the measures are not reported subjective feelings of economic phenomena and therefore are not of interest to economists. However, when such feelings and sensations affect or may affect future decisions, things become relevant for the economy. Limited Rationality implies both that the agent is imperfectly informed decision-making in a complex and dynamic environment, and a limited ability processing.
Full Text Available This note presents the special issue on Experimental and Behavioral Economics. The volume includes some recent contributions from these correlated disciplines –empirical the former and theoretical the latter– and their potential contribution to the intersection of Economics with Psychology and Sociology. The project “El papel de la comparación social en las decisiones económicas bajo incertidumbre” (Junta de Andalucía, P07- SEJ-03155” provided us with inspiration and financial support to publish this volume.
Este trabajo presenta el número especial de Revista Internacional de Sociología dedicado a la Economía Experimental y del Comportamiento. El volumen se compone de una serie de trabajos tanto teóricos como empíricos ubicados en la intersección de la Economía con la Psicología y la Sociología. El proyecto “El papel de la comparación social en las decisiones económicas bajo incertidumbre” (Junta de Andalucía, P07- SEJ-03155” nos proporcionó inspiración y financiación para publicar este volumen.
. In the cross disciplinary field of obesity research, where biomedical world views and large scale quantitative analyzes are dominating, the sociology of health and illness have an important role to play in attempts to understand how structural conditions affect individual and family-level health behavior...... as a recurrent pattern in their life conditions and how it affects family health behavior in relation to weight management. Further, it will theoretically conceptualize the empirical examples of insecurity, using Bauman’s exploration of security, and discuss ways to sociologically grasp why insecurity...... facilitates obesity at family level....
Full Text Available Once the global economic crisis occurred, shortly after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, trillions of dollars were lost on the stock exchange, hundreds of banks and investment funds in the US went bankrupt and thousands of companies were forced to declare bankruptcy. Its effects were felt then, in very short time also in Romania, following that in 2009, Romania went officially in recession. Beyond the financial implications the crisis has on the whole activity, regardless of the field, the economic and financial effects of the crisis on health and health policies can have very long term consequences.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…
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Full Text Available The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises.We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i exposure to an economic crisis; (ii changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed.From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours.Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience
Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver
The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors.
Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E
In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.
Beginning with a brief historical overview of health policy in the Netherlands from 1945-1960 (a period of restoration of the capitalist economy after World War II) until 1960-1970 (a period of capitalist expansion), this paper discusses the health policy of the Dutch state under the present conditions of economic crisis. The main characteristics of this policy are growing state intervention, reorganization of the decision-making process, deinstitutionalization of health care, a laissez-faire policy with regard to services in the so-called first echelon of the health sector, reprivatization of health costs, and an ideological emphasis on individual responsibility for health and self-care. The paper concludes with a discussion of the various strategies proposed for the health sector by the Left and the connection between prevention and social struggle.
Ariane Alves Barros; Maria Vilaní Cavalcante Guedes; Denizielle de Jesus Moreira Moura; Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes; Letícia Lima Aguiar; Gleudson Alves Xavier
This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a struct...
Luxton, David D
The economic evaluation of telemental health (TMH) is necessary to inform ways to decrease the cost of delivering care, to improve access to care, and to make decisions about the allocation of resources. Previous reviews of telehealth economic analysis studies have concluded that there are significant methodological deficiencies and inconsistencies that limit the ability to make generalized conclusions about the costs and benefits of telehealth programs. Published economic evaluations specific to TMH are also limited. There are unique factors that influence costs in TMH that are necessary for those who are planning and evaluating economic analyses to consider. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main problems and limitations of published economic analyses, to discuss considerations specific to TMH, and to inform and encourage the economic evaluation of TMH in both the public and private sectors. The topics presented here include perspective of costs, direct and indirect costs, and technology, as well as research methodology considerations. The integration of economic analyses into effectiveness trials, the standardization of outcome measurement, and the development of TMH economic evaluation guidelines are recommended.
Full Text Available Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost- effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH, vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution. Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds.
Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory
del Rey Calero, Juan
The Global and economic crisis and Health Management The Health care process discussed are 4 steps: assessment, planing, intervention and evaluation. The identify association between social factors linked to social vulnerability (socio economic status, unemployed, poverty) and objective health relate quality of life. The poverty rate is 24.2%, unemployed 26.26%, youth unemployed 56.13%.ratio worker/retired 2.29. Debts 100% GDP The health inequality influence on health related quality of life. The Health System efficiency index. according Bloomber rate (2,013) Spain is 5 degrees in the world, points 68.3 on 100, for the life expectancy 82.3 years, the personal cost of health care 2,271€. Health care 10% GDP (public 7%,private 3%), SS protected population 92.4%, retired person cost 9.2% GDP, p. capita GDP 23,737€. Cost of Care: Hospital/specialist 54%, P. Care 15%, Pharmaceutical 19.8%, P. Health 3.1%.
Full Text Available Marcos Bosi Ferraz1,21Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo Center for Health Economics (GRIDES, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. Keywords: health care, health care system, population health
Full Text Available Tourist’s behavior research is focused on understanding and explaining the factors that affect tourist’s preferences and holiday destination choice. In this paper is analyzed the impact of the global economic crisis on the preferences toward leisure travels of the residents from Serbia. The paper is based on researches conducted in 2006-2009, through travel agencies and in 2011 on the general population major of age with support of TNS Medium Gallupa. Better understanding of the perception process and how tourists react to certain factor can give more accurate information on the dynamics of tourism demand and its dependence on tourist’s perception.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individual health has been proved to be under the influence of various factors such as the use of health care services, diet, smoking and alcohol, physical environment, and health-related behaviors. Therefore, the main determinants of health are factors such as income, education, and access to health services, and systematic changes in these factors lead to socio-economic injustice in health. The present study was carried out through library and internet search. Medline and Google Scholar databases were also utilized. Combining Contents and Results: According to the present study, an increase in health input expenses would inevitably lead to aggravation of the health situation and decrease in income would result in the worst health status of the poor. Moreover, people with higher education use less health inputs; however, they enjoy higher status than those with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Health demand approach provides only a part of the information needed for policy-makers and decision-makers in health system. Theoretical and empirical analyses of the health claim could indicate that policy actions are likely to be more effective in overcoming barriers to health but are not capable of determining which one is likely to be more cost-effective . The demand for information about the health only provides the necessary tools about the benefits of special policy making decisions. So the tool should be combined with other techniques including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.
Edward Ivor Broughton
Full Text Available There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce adverse events and improve the quality of health care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resources allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health care resources.
Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha
Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.
Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani
There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.
When an economic crisis hits, a primary policy concern in developing countries is how social services can be protected and, in particular, how access to health and education for the poor can be maintained. Using the Indonesian Social Safety Net (SSN) as case study, this dissertation investigates th
Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Reif, Sharon; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic
We explored the techniques used by private health plans or by their contracted managed behavioral healthcare organizations (MBHOs) to maintain networks of behavioral health providers. In particular, we focused on differences by health plans' product types (health maintenance organization, point-of-service plan, or preferred provider organization) and contracting arrangements (MBHO contracts, comprehensive contracts, or no contracts). More than 94% of products selected providers using credentialing standards, particular specialists, or geographic coverage. To retain providers viewed as high quality, 54% offer reduced administrative burden and 44% higher fees. Only 16% reported steerage to a core group of highest-quality providers and few reported an annual bonus or guaranteed volume of referrals. Some standard activities are common, but some health plans are adopting other approaches to retain higher-quality providers.
Ariane Alves Barros
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a structured interview that was designed based on the Health Belief Model, from March to December 2013. Participants perceived the disease’s severity and felt susceptible to develop complications from hypertension. They reported receiving treatment correctly; however, the values of blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were high. Thus, it is necessary that health professionals implement strategies that favor hypertensive patients who are undergoing treatment to have healthy behavior.
Gutknecht, Mandy; Krensel, Magdalene; Augustin, Matthias
In the course of the chronic skin disease psoriasis, where a variety of treatment interventions is available, a strong growth of health economic studies comparing treatment costs and benefits can be noticed. The objective was to identify health economic evaluations of psoriasis treatments that have been published to date. Of particular interest were the mostly used analysis and outcome parameters, the compared treatments, and the question, if available health economic studies may be used to perform a meta-analysis of qualitative findings. A systematic literature search using PubMed Medline, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Library was performed for articles, published and available until mid of January 2016. Among the key words were the terms "psoriasis" and "cost-effectiveness". The search resulted in 318 articles without duplicates. Thereof 60 health economic analyses in psoriasis management were identified. Most of these are cost-effectiveness evaluations (45). The clinical parameter PASI (Psoriasis Area Severity Index) is the most often used cost-effectiveness outcome (33) followed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) (6). In case of cost-utility analyses, QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) were mostly generated with the help of EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) (12), which was partly based on PASI and DLQI values. The majority of health economic studies is focusing on the direct medical and non-medical costs without consideration of productivity losses. Almost 70 % of 60 publications were conducted in Europe. Overall, most considered systemic treatments were the biological agents etanercept (36), adalimumab (27), and infliximab (26) followed by ustekinumab (17) and phototherapy (incl. UV-B, PUVA/psoralen combined with UV-A) (14). Comparisons including only topical treatments mostly focused on vitamin D treatment (14), corticosteroids (13), and coal tar products (6) followed by dithranol (5) and tazarotene (4). Given the setting, compared
Full Text Available Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20-59 and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants' belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants' satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner's dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors-satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner's dilemma games and belief in manipulation-mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants' age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.
Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Kiyonari, Toko
Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20–59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants’ belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants’ satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner’s dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors—satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner’s dilemma games and belief in manipulation—mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants’ age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation. PMID:27414803
SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED
Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Jones, P J; Uauy, R; Segal, L; Milner, J
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a major and increasing contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Much of the chronic disease burden is preventable through modification of lifestyle behaviours, and increased attention is being focused on identifying and implementing effective preventative health strategies. Nutrition has been identified as a major modifiable determinant of NCD. The recent merging of health economics and nutritional sciences to form the nascent discipline of nutrition economics aims to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention, and to evaluate options for changing dietary choices, while incorporating an understanding of the immediate impacts and downstream consequences. In short, nutrition economics allows for generation of policy-relevant evidence, and as such the discipline is a crucial partner in achieving better population nutritional status and improvements in public health and wellness. The objective of the present paper is to summarise presentations made at a satellite symposium held during the 11th European Nutrition Conference, 28 October 2011, where the role of nutrition and its potential to reduce the public health burden through alleviating undernutrition and nutrition deficiencies, promoting better-quality diets and incorporating a role for functional foods were discussed.
Selin, N. E.; Wu, S.; Nam, K. M.; Reilly, J. M.; Paltsev, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Webster, M. D.
We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be 580 billion (year 2000) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.
Krauth, C; Hessel, F; Hansmeier, T; Wasem, J; Seitz, R; Schweikert, B
Measurement of health care costs is a crucial task in health economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods in economic evaluation which, however, do not precisely stipulate how to value resource consumption. In this article we present a proposal for the standardisation of the monetary valuation of health care utilisation occurring in the follow up period after the actual intervention to be evaluated. From a societal perspective the primary direct and indirect cost components are considered, such as outpatient medical care, pharmaceuticals, non-physician health services, inpatient care, days of sick leave and early retirement due to sickness. The standard costs are based on administrative charges and rates or on official statistics. They are based on the most current data sources which are mainly from 2002 and 2003. This system of standard costs aims at an average valuation of resource consumption. This makes for the comparability of different health economic studies. Most standard costs are not based on market prices but on administratively specified charges and rates. This implies that institutional changes which are quite common in the health care system, may also affect the valuation rates, for example the introduction of DRGs. This should be taken into account when updating the system of standard costs.
Bayoumi, Ahmed M
In health economics, contingent valuation is a method that elicits an individual's monetary valuations of health programmes or health states. This article reviews the theory and conduct of contingent valuation studies, with suggestions for improving the future measurement of contingent valuation for health economics applications. Contingent valuation questions can be targeted to any of the following groups: the general population, to value health insurance premiums for programmes; users of a health programme, to value the associated programme costs; or individuals with a disease, to evaluate health states. The questions can be framed to ask individuals how much they would pay to obtain positive changes in health status or avoid negative changes in health status ('willingness to pay'; WTP) or how much they would need to be paid to compensate for a decrease in health status or for foregoing an improvement in heath status ('willingness to accept'; WTA). In general WTP questions yield more accurate and precise valuations than WTA questions. Payment card techniques, with follow-up bidding using direct interviews with visual aids, are well suited for small contingent valuation studies. Several biases may be operative when assessing contingent valuation, including biases in the way participants are selected, the way in which the questions are posed, the way in which individuals interpret probabilities and value gains relative to losses, and the way in which missing or extreme responses are interpreted. An important aspect of all contingent valuation studies is an assessment of respondents' understanding of the evaluation method and the valuation task. Contingent valuation studies should measure the potential influence of biases, the validity of contingent valuation tests as measures of QOL, and the reliability and responsiveness of responses. Future research should address equity concerns associated with using contingent valuation and explore contingent valuation as a
There is a burgeoning literature in health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the health policy making level in a number of countries. However, a search of the literature reveals that in Japan, the world's second largest health care market, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest in economic evaluation is that the fee-for-service and strict price regulation that characterises the system of health care financing in Japan is not conducive to this form of analysis. Moreover, the government and many researchers are satisfied that the current organisation of health care has given long life and low infant mortality at low cost. Even if it is accepted that low health care costs and good health prevail in Japan, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population and the development of new medical technologies will place increasing pressure on health care resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Good economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, has an important role to play.
Sparrow, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep
We assess the economic risk of ill health for households in Indonesia and the role of informal coping strategies. Using household panel data from the Indonesian socio-economic household survey (Susenas) for 2003 and 2004, and applying fixed effects Poisson models, we find evidence of economic risk from illness through medical expenses. For the poor and the informal sector, ill health events impact negatively on income from wage labour, whereas for the non-poor and formal sector, it is income from self-employed business activities which is negatively affected. However, only for the rural population and the poor does this lead to a decrease in consumption, whereas the non-poor seem to be able to protect current household spending. Borrowing and drawing on family network and buffers, such as savings and assets, seem to be key informal coping strategies for the poor, which may have negative long-term effects. While these results suggest scope for public intervention, the economic risk from income loss for the rural poor is beyond public health care financing reforms. Rather, formal sector employment seems to be a key instrument for financial protection from illness, by also reducing income risk.
Ferraz, Marcos Bosi
Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. PMID:25709481
Vicente Caballero de la Torre
Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior
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Full Text Available The effects of financial crisis are strongly felt in Romania, which already face with asignificant slowdown in economic growth or even economic recession. The current and internationalsituation remains still difficult, and requires high budget constraints. Under these conditions, thehealth system in Romania has become one of the most inefficient in Europe, mainly characterized bylack of transparency in the allocation of funds and inefficiency in resource use. The lack of clear andcoherent criteria to evaluate the performance of health institutions results in a difficultimplementation of efficient managerial systems to reward the efficient manager.
Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.
Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.
Tuti N Mohd-Dom
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of oral health literacy and behavior among health sciences. Methods: The method used descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 609 students from Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Oral health literacy level and behaviour was assessed with a validated and pretested self-administered questionnaire using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS tool and modified Oral Health Adult Literacy Questionnaire (OHL-AQ. Results: A total of 509 participants involved in the study (83.6%. The overall mean oral health literacy score was 10.27 (95% CI 7.92, 12.62, which found dental students showing statistically significant higher scores (mean=11.36, 95% CI 9.70, 13.02 compared to medical (mean=10.72, 95% CI 8.67, 12.77, allied health sciences (mean=9.89, 95% CI 7.34, 12.44 and pharmacy (mean=9.55, 95% CI 7.23, 11.87. Almost all respondents are non-smokers (99.8% and non-drinkers (97.2%. Only 19.1% pay regular dental visits every 6-12 months while 51.1% visit dentist only when they have dental pain. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behavior. Health science university students should be provided substantial dental health education in their curriculum as they show good potential as strategic partners in oral health.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.404
J. Müller (Julia); C. Schwieren (Christiane)
textabstractGrowing interest in using personality variables in economic research leads to the question whether personality as measured by psychology is useful to predict economic behavior. Is it reasonable to expect values on personality scales to be predictive of behavior in economic games? It is u
Caillol, Michel; Le Coz, Pierre; Aubry, Régis; Bréchat, Pierre-Henri
Health system and hospital reforms have led to important and on-going legislative, structural and organizational changes. Is there any logic at work within the health system and hospitals that could call into question the principle of solidarity, the secular values of ethics that govern the texts of law and ethics? In order to respond, we compared our experiences to a review of the professional and scientific literature from 1992 to 2010. Over the course of the past eighteen years, health system organization was subjected to variations and significant tensions. These variations are witnesses to a paradigm shift: although a step towards the regionalization of the health system integrating the choice of public health priorities, consultation and participatory democracy has been implemented, nevertheless the system was then re-oriented towards the trend of returning to centralization on the basis of uniting economics, technical modernization and contracting. This change of doctrine may undermine the social mission of hospitals and the principle of solidarity. Progress, the aging population and financial constraints would force policy-makers to steer the health system towards more centralized control. Hospitals, health professionals and users may feel torn within a system that tends to simplify and minimize what is becoming increasingly complex and global. Benchmarks on values, ethics and law for the hospitals, healthcare professionals and users are questioned. These are important elements to consider when the law on the reform of hospitals, patients, health care and territories and regional health agencies is implemented.
Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G
Many programs being implemented by US employers, insurers, and health care providers use incentives to encourage patients to take better care of themselves. We critically review a range of these efforts and show that many programs, although well-meaning, are unlikely to have much impact because they require information, expertise, and self-control that few patients possess. As a result, benefits are likely to accrue disproportionately to patients who already are taking adequate care of their health. We show how these programs could be made more effective through the use of insights from behavioral economics. For example, incentive programs that offer patients small and frequent payments for behavior that would benefit the patients, such as medication adherence, can be more effective than programs with incentives that are far less visible because they are folded into a paycheck or used to reduce a monthly premium. Deploying more-nuanced insights from behavioral economics can lead to policies with the potential to increase patient engagement and deliver dividends for patients and favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for insurers, employers, and other relevant commercial entities.
Full Text Available Maureen Reni Courtney,1 Christy Spivey,2 Kathy M Daniel1 1College of Nursing, 2College of Business, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Abstract: Clinicians are committed to effectively educating patients and helping them to make sound decisions concerning their own health care. However, how do clinicians determine what is effective education? How do they present information clearly and in a manner that patients understand and can use to make informed decisions? Behavioral economics (BE is a subfield of economics that can assist clinicians to better understand how individuals actually make decisions. BE research can help guide interactions with patients so that information is presented and discussed in a more deliberate and impactful way. We can be more effective providers of care when we understand the factors that influence how our patients make decisions, factors of which we may have been largely unaware. BE research that focuses on health care and medical decision making is becoming more widely known, and what has been reported suggests that BE interventions can be effective in the medical realm. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an overview of BE decision science and derived practice strategies to promote more effective behavior change in patients.Keywords: nursing, message framing, defaults, incentives, social norms, commitment devices, health care
El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M
The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.
The place of (Personal Social Health and Economic) PSHE in schools has been debated widely and central government policy has shifted from the subject almost becoming statutory in 2010, towards being almost entirely devolved in the school led system under the coalition government. PSHE is currently non-compulsory, however schools are expected to teach the subject despite the lack of available training for teachers or teaching materials. This research conducted by Ben Willis and Claire...
Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian
Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.
Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Bocsi, Gregary T; Camidge, D Ross
There is growing interest for economic evaluation in oncology to illustrate the value of multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. As these analyses have started to move from specialist publications into mainstream medical literature, the wider medical audience consuming this information may need additional education to evaluate it appropriately. Here we review standard practices in economic evaluation, illustrating the different methods with thoracic oncology examples where possible. When interpreting and conducting health economic studies, it is important to appraise the method, perspective, time horizon, modeling technique, discount rate, and sensitivity analysis. Guidance on how to do this is provided. To provide a method to evaluate this literature, a literature search was conducted in spring 2015 to identify economic evaluations published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Articles were reviewed for their study design, and areas for improvement were noted. Suggested improvements include using more rigorous sensitivity analyses, adopting a standard approach to reporting results, and conducting complete economic evaluations. Researchers should design high-quality studies to ensure the validity of the results, and consumers of this research should interpret these studies critically on the basis of a full understanding of the methodologies used before considering any of the conclusions. As advancements occur on both the research and consumer sides, this literature can be further developed to promote the best use of resources for this field.
Shmueli, Amir; Tamir, Dov
Research findings have shown the protective effect of religiosity --among both Christians and Israeli Jews--in terms of morbidity and mortality. To explore the relationship between religiosity and health behavior as a possible explanation for these findings we conducted 3056 telephone interviews, representing the Israeli adult urban Jewish population. Health status, health behavior, frequency of medical checkups, and eating habits were measured. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the religiosity gradient on health behavior, controlling for other personal characteristics. We found a lower prevalence of stress and smoking among religious persons; we also found that religious women exercise less than secular women and that religious people--both men and women--are more obese than their secular counterparts. While no religiosity gradient was found with relation to the frequency of blood pressure, cholesterol and dental checkups, religious women are less likely to undergo breast examinations and mammography. Finally, religious people generally follow a healthier dietary regime, consuming less meat, dairy products and coffee, and much more fish. The lower smoking rates, lower levels of stress, and the healthier dietary regime are consistent with the previously shown longer life expectancy of religious people; however, obesity might become a risk factor in this community.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as
Over the past several decades, researchers have used economics to understand a number of issues in education policy. This article argues that some education researchers have defined economics too narrowly, neglecting several areas of economics research that cut across disciplinary boundaries. One subdiscipline of economics that might be of use in…
Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe
The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment.
Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M
In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health.
Koehlmoos Tracey P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER. Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis
Escobar, M A
Health economic evaluations provide valuable information for healthcare providers, facilitating the treatment decision-making process in a climate where demand for healthcare exceeds the supply. Although an uncommon disease, haemophilia is a life-long condition that places a considerable burden on patients, healthcare systems and society. This burden is particularly large for patients with haemophilia with inhibitors, who can develop serious bleeding complications unresponsive to standard factor replacement therapies. Hence, bleeding episodes in these patients are treated with bypassing agents such as recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrates (pd-APCC). With the efficacy of these agents now well established, a number of health economic studies have been conducted to compare their cost-effectiveness for the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in haemophiliacs with inhibitors. In a cost-utility analysis, which assesses the effects of treatment on quality of life (QoL) and quantity of life, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (US $44,834) indicated that rFVIIa was cost-effective. Similarly, eight of 11 other economic modelling evaluations found that rFVIIa was more cost-effective than pd-APCC in the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes. These findings indicate that treating patients with haemophilia promptly and with the most effective therapy available may result in cost savings.
McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy
This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences.
Koch, Carsten Allan
The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...
Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.
In recent years, a large number of economic theories have evolved to explain people’s pro-social behavior and the variation in their respective behavior. This paper surveys economic theories on pro-social behavior and presents evidence — mainly from the field — testing these theories. In addition, the survey emphasizes that institutional environment might significantly interact with pro-social preferences and explain some of the variation in observed pro-social behavior.
Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J
The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles
In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.
Hurrelmann, K; Richter, M; Rathmann, K
In all highly developed countries, the overall health status of the population has significantly improved within the past 30 years. The most important reason for this is the increase in economic prosperity. Economic wealth, however, today is much more unequally distributed than it was 3 decades ago. Countries with relatively small disparities in the availability of material resources between socioeconomic groups, such as the Scandinavian countries, have better health outcomes on the population level. Health inequalities, however, have also reached a higher level than 30 years ago. As of today, we do not have convincing explanations for the interrelation of economic and health inequality. This paper gives an overview of existing research on a comparative basis. The research results are ambivalent. They show the puzzling result that the Scandinavian countries with their highly distributive welfare policy manage to achieve the comparatively highest level of economic, but not health, equity. Based on these results, we develop proposals for future research approaches. A central assumption is that in rich societies no longer only material, but more and more immaterial determinants are crucial for the formation of health inequality. The promotion of "salutogenic" self-management capabilities in socially disadvantaged groups is considered to be the central element in effective intervention strategies.
Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.
The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.
Heydari, Abbas; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Bakhshi, Mahmoud
Background: Health care beliefs can have an effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing practices. Nevertheless, how belief systems impact on the economic performance of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses is not known. This study aimed to explore the ICU nurses’ beliefs and their effect on nurse’s: practices and behavior patterns regarding the health economics. Methods: In this study, a focused ethnography method was used. Twenty-four informants from ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Findings: Eight beliefs were found that gave meaning to ICU nurse’s practices regarding the health economics. 1. The registration of medications and supplies disrupt the nursing care; 2. Monitoring and auditing improve consumption; 3. There is a fear of possible shortage in the future; 4. Supply and replacement of equipment is difficult; 5. Higher prices lead to more accurate consumption; 6. The quality of care precedes the costs; 7. Clinical Guidelines are abundant but useful; and 8. Patient economy has priority over hospital economy. Maintaining the quality of patient care with least attention to hospital costs was the main focus of the beliefs formed up in the ICU regarding the health economics. Conclusions: ICU nurses’ belief systems have significantly shaped in relation to providing a high-quality care. Although high quality of care can lead to a rise in the effectiveness of nursing care, cost control perspective should also be considered in planning for improve the quality of care. Therefore, it is necessary to involve the ICU nurses in decision-making about unit cost management. They must become familiar with the principles of heath care economics and productivity by applying an effective cost management program. It may be optimal to implement the
Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas
The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results.
Faghri, Pouran; Buden, Jennifer
Obesity is a public health concern with significant economic costs affecting employers. Worksite wellness programs benefit from developing tailored interventions that consider employees’ health-related knowledge and self-efficacy to change behavior. Correction is a high stress occupation with elevated rates of overweight and obesity. Poor stress management and barriers to achieve optimal health in the work environment increases the need for adequate knowledge and self-efficacy, or the level o...
Monson, Samantha Pelican; Sheldon, J Christopher; Ivey, Laurie C; Kinman, Carissa R; Beacham, Abbie O
The need, benefit, and desirability of behavioral health integration in primary care is generally accepted and has acquired widespread positive regard. However, in many health care settings the economics, business aspects, and financial sustainability of practice in integrated care settings remains an unsolved puzzle. Organizational administrators may be reluctant to expand behavioral health services without evidence that such programs offer clear financial benefits and financial sustainability. The tendency among mental health professionals is to consider positive clinical outcomes (e.g., reduced depression) as being globally valued indicators of program success. Although such outcomes may be highly valued by primary care providers and patients, administrative decision makers may require demonstration of more tangible financial outcomes. These differing views require program developers and evaluators to consider multiple outcome domains including clinical/psychological symptom reduction, potential cost benefit, and cost offset. The authors describe a process by which a pilot demonstration project is being implemented to demonstrate programmatic outcomes with a focus on the following: 1) clinician efficiency, 2) improved health outcomes, and 3) direct revenue generation associated with the inclusion of integrated primary care in a public health care system. The authors subsequently offer specific future directions and commentary regarding financial evaluation in each of these domains.
Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan
This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.
May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H
Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.
Full Text Available The economic aspect of ethnicity represents a wide topic of research which still hasn’t been extensively studied in Serbian ethnology and anthropology. It encompasses numerous kinds of relationships between people who belong to the same ethnic group, as well as all kinds of economic discrimination or economic favorizing based on ethnic identity. In this paper I shall attempt to highlight some of the basic characteristics of this issue, and to point out the interconnectedness of economic behavior and ethnic identity, based on one case study. I shall also demonstrate some of the specifics of the socio-economic system within which the studied topic was considered (USA, as well as the complex and ambiguous influence that this system has had on ethnic identity through certain economic actions. The paper focuses on the economic aspect of ethnicity of the Serbian Diaspora in the US, and certain specific issues are considered through the example of the economic behavior of one Serbian immigrant from Romania.
Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes S.
extracted and the models were assessed for quality against guidelines for best practice by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS: Seven models were identified and found to provide divergent guidance. Only three reports met 10 of the 15 quality criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers in the field seem to have...... benefited from general advances in health economic modelling and some improvements in reporting were noted. However, the low level of agreement between studies in model structures and assumptions, and difficulty in justifying these (convergent validity), remain a threat to the credibility of health economic...
Much of the current health approach to designing HIV/AIDS interventions in resource-poor settings involves behavior-change initiatives, particularly those adopting education-based and "culturally competent" frameworks for the reduction of HIV-associated "risk behaviors." This article reviews the evidence and social assumptions behind this approach to preventing HIV transmission, and argues that these approaches are often inadequate or misguided, particularly in their conflation of the concept of "culture" with social circumstances. By analyzing the socioeconomic circumstances that constrain individual agency, and by combining data from prevention literature with analyses of international trade agreements and the controversies over antiretroviral drug distribution, the author argues that the movement of capital and the maintenance of inequality are central to the problems associated with behavior-change initiatives and must be addressed through new paradigms in order to respond appropriately to the global AIDS pandemic. Hardt and Negri's paradigm of "Empire"--that is, examining the system through which social inequalities are maintained not only between countries but also within them--offers prospects for the design of new interventions and targets for public health workers and social movements.
Salinas-Martínez, A M; Martinez-Sanchez, C; Perez-Segura, J
Educational interventions represent an alternative for the reproductive well-being. The objective of this investigation was to identify in a mexican community, attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing a specific health education program. The study population consisted of women between 12 and 44 years old, living in non-residential areas of the Delegation Miguel Hidalgo, D.F. Variables of interest were analyzed only in women with parity (n = 300). Data were collected through interview. The mean age was 31 +/- 8 years. 93.3% were married or in consensual union. 63% had elementary, junior high or prevocational studies. 89% answered that would visit the doctor before considering a pregnancy (junior high+, p < .05), 99% would seek prenatal care if they were pregnant, and 92.7% would have a hospital delivery (parity < or = 3, p < .003). 69.5% had a preconceptional visit before their last pregnancy and 89.9% received prenatal care (junior high+, p < .008). 92.5% had only hospital deliveries (< or = 30 years, p < .05, junior high+, p < .0001, primigravida p < .002, with institutionalized medical services, p < .001), 1.7% had only out-of-hospital deliveries, and 5.8% both. Agreement between attitudes and behaviors are presented. An educational program consisting of confirmation and support to positive attitudes, values and beliefs, and reinforcement to decision making, will result in a final behavior: early assistance to medical care.
Noar, Seth M; Zimmerman, Rick S
Although research on Health Behavior Theory (HBT) is being conducted at a rapid pace, the extent to which the field is truly moving forward in understanding health behavior has been questioned. This issue is examined in the current article. First, we discuss the problems within the HBT literature. Second, we discuss the proliferation of HBT and why theory comparison is essential to this area of research. Finally, we reflect on ways that the field might move forward by suggesting a new agenda for HBT research. It is argued that increased recognition of the similarity of health behavior constructs as well as increased empirical comparisons of theories are essential for true scientific progress in this line of inquiry.
Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro
Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City.
Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J
Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.
Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.
Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H
Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In responding to the health challenges of climate change, those responsible for health policies and resource allocations need to know the resource consequences of their decisions. This article examines the availability and strength of economic evidence for policy makers to draw on in making health policy decisions. Methods Relevant literature was obtained using a Medline and INTERNET search of key terms and institutions working in health and climate change. Eighteen available economic studies are presented under three categories of economic evidence: health damage cost, health adaptation cost and health economic evaluation. Results In economic studies valuing the predicted increased mortality from climate change, the health damages represent an important fraction of overall economic losses. Similarly, when considering broader health protection measures beyond the health sector (e.g. agriculture, water supply health considerations are central. Global adaptation cost studies carried out so far indicate health sector costs of roughly US$2-5 billion annually (mid-estimates. However, these costs are expected to be an underestimate of the true costs, due to omitted health impacts, omitted economic impacts, and the costs of health actions in other sectors. No published studies compare the costs and benefits of specific health interventions to protect health from climate change. Conclusions More economic studies are needed examining the costs and benefits of adaptation measures to inform policy making. There is an urgent need for climate change-specific health economic guidelines to ensure robust methods are used, giving comparable results. Broader advocacy and focused training of decision makers is needed to increase the uptake of economic evidence in decision making. Until further climate change-specific economic studies have been conducted, decision makers should selectively draw on published studies of the costs and benefits of
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents ...
Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L
The World Health Organization estimates that around one billion people throughout the world are overweight and that over 300 million of these are obese and if current trends continue, the number of overweight persons will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. The number of obese adults in Australia is estimated to have risen from 2.0 million in 1992/93 to 3.1 million in 2005. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing due to a convergence of factors--the rise of TV viewing, our preference for takeaway and pre-prepared foods, the trend towards more computer-bound sedentary jobs, and fewer opportunities for sport and physical exercise. Obesity is not only linked to lack of self esteem, social and work discrimination, but also to illnesses such as the metabolic syndrome and hyperinsulinaemia (which increases the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver), cancer, asthma, dementia, arthritis and kidney disease. It has been estimated that the cost of obesity in Australia in 2005 was $1,721 million. Of this amount, $1,084 million were direct health costs, and $637 million indirect health costs (due to lost work productivity, absenteeism and unemployment). The prevalence cost per year for each obese adult has been estimated at $554 and the value of an obesity cure is about $6,903 per obese person. Government efforts at reducing the burden remain inadequate and a more radical approach is needed. The Australian government, for example, has made changes to Medicare so that GPs can refer people with chronic illness due to obesity to an exercise physiologist and dietitian and receive a Medicare rebate, but so far these measures are having no perceptible effect on obesity levels. There is a growing recognition that both Public Health and Clinical approaches, and Private and Public resources, need to be brought to this growing problem. Australian health economist, Paul Gross, from the Institute of Health Economics and Technology Assessment claims there
Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...
Chew, Fiona; Palmer, Sushma; Slonska, Zofia; Subbiah, Kalyani
This study examined the impact of a health promoting television program series on health knowledge and the key factors of the health belief model (HBM) that have led people to engage in healthy behavior (exercising, losing weight, changing eating habits, and not smoking/quitting smoking). Using data from a posttest comparison field study with 15) viewers and 146 nonviewers in Poland, we found that hierarchical regression analysis showed stronger support for the HBM factors of efficacy, susceptibility, seriousness, and salience in their contribution toward health behavior among television viewers compared with nonviewers. Cues to action variables (including television viewing) and health knowledge boosted efficacy among viewers. Without the advantage of receiving health information from the television series, nonviewers relied on their basic disease fears on one hand, and interest in good health on the other to take steps toward becoming healthier. A health promoting television series can increase health knowledge and enhance health beliefs, which in turn contribute to healthy behaviors.
After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited General Medicine: 500A, Public Health Data 2011 Behavioral Health Risk Assessment Data...REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 JAN 2011 - 31 DEC 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2011 Behavioral Health Risk...ABSTRACT This publication describes characteristics of Soldiers who completed a behavioral health (BH) screening at the two post-deployment Touch Points
Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz
This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher
Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald
The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive
Akbar Azizi Zeinalhajlu
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Health, being as an important social and individual value, has many influences and consequences all through the social and individual levels. Individual’s health is one of those fundamental issues and a great target regarding countries development. Nowadays, we are witnessing changes in disease patterns from infectious to chronic in one hand and on the other hand, we can see a widening gap between health condition, life expectancy and death rate in the worldwide. Based on global statistics, chronic diseases are rapidly increasing regardless the fact that there have been remarkable achievements in health promotions. There are many kinds of differences between various countries or social levels in terms of health conditions, life expectancy and death rate. In order to determine above mentioned changes, comprehensive perspectives with biomedical orientations should be applied alongside the concentration on health social factors at the same time. The present study is aimed at investigating socio-economical issues on individuals’ health. Material and Methods: The present study is a review. UN and WHO databases, English/Persian databases containing ISI, PUBMED, MEDLINE, SID, reports by health organizations, books, thesis, magazines and journals concerning health policies in Iran have been scrutinized. Conclusion: Health is a multi-dimensional structure and can be influenced by several factors. In fact, provision, protecting and promotion of public health can go beyond the abilities of Health Ministry. In order to achieve a healthy society, it is needed to focus on social health factors and intersectional cooperation. Without any comprehensive approach to determine health and disease and replacing health based orientation with treatment based orientations, it is impossible to achieve appropriate level of health and development and will lead in wasting society resources.
Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa
The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa
Philipson, Tomas; Linthicum, Mark T; Snider, Julia Thornton
As healthcare costs climb around the world, public and private payers alike are demanding evidence of a treatment's value to support approval and reimbursement decisions. Health economics and outcomes research, or HEOR, offers tools to answer questions about a treatment's value, as well as its real-world effects and cost-effectiveness. Given that nutrition interventions have to compete for space in budgets along with biopharmaceutical products and devices, nutrition is now increasingly coming to be evaluated through HEOR. This tutorial introduces the discipline of HEOR and motivates its relevance for nutrition. We first define HEOR and explain its role and relevance in relation to randomized controlled trials. Common HEOR study types--including burden of illness, effectiveness studies, cost-effectiveness analysis, and valuation studies--are presented, with applications to nutrition. Tips for critically reading HEOR studies are provided, along with suggestions on how to use HEOR to improve patient care. Directions for future research are discussed.
Ranallo, Piper A; Kilbourne, Amy M; Whatley, Angela S; Pincus, Harold Alan
The use of health information technology (IT) in general health care has been shown to have significant potential to facilitate the delivery of safe, high-quality, and cost-effective care. However, its application to behavioral health care has been slow, limiting the extent to which consumers seeking care for mental health or substance use disorders can derive its benefits. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the use of health IT in behavioral health and to describe some unique challenges experienced in that domain. We also highlight current obstacles to, and recommendations for, the use of health IT in improving the quality of behavioral health care. We conclude with recommendations for prioritizing the work that we believe will move the US health care system toward more effective, efficient, and patient-centric care in behavioral health.
Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors
Dongen, J.M. van; Wier, M.F. van; Tompa, E.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Bosmans, J.E.
To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless,
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng
Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.
Chen, G J; Feldman, S R
European health care delivery systems illustrate the effect of economic incentives on health care delivery. Each country faces the issue of trying to balance the desire for economic efficiency with comprehensive, quality medical care. Without careful use of economic incentives achievable with central control, one gets to pick only two of the three desired goods--high quality, low cost, and comprehensive coverage. In the United States, payment approaches for health care have been undergoing tremendous changes since the early 1980s. These changes have escalated during the 1990s. The basic approach for reimbursing hospital care has been completely restructured by many payers for care, and payment approaches for physicians and long-term care providers also are being restructured. Financing approaches vary from provider to provider and payer to payer, and financing approaches will continue to evolve over time. In the traditional fee-for-service reimbursement system, the incentive to physicians is to do more because more services lead to more revenue. The use of incentives to influence health care practitioners' behavior is common. Incentives are generally financial in nature and expose health care providers to some risk or reward for certain patterns of behavior. Some common incentives used in managed care include capitation payment, in which a physician is paid a fixed fee, regardless of the number of services administered; bonus distribution; and withhold accounts, through which a practitioner stands to gain or lose some amount of money for overuse or underuse of medical resources against budget. In many countries, a strengthening of the position of primary care providers can be observed: Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and now the United States. General practitioners are assumed to function as a gatekeeper to second-line care, such as specialist care, prescription drugs, and hospital care. A further step is to
Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno
The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.
Neimann, Stefanie; Schmitz, Hendrik
Married individuals are usually found to be in better health than singles but it is not fully known why. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel we test one possible explanation, namely that two spouses encourage each other to a health-promoting behavior and monitor it. Therefore, we analyze the direct spousal impact on seeking medical advice, physical activity, and eating habits controlling for selection, positive assortative mating, and shared unobserved influences of the environmen...
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour
This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's hea...
Full Text Available Background: Any activity undertaken for the purpose of health enhancing behavior is an important element of taking care of one's health. The aim of this paper was to analyze the frequency of health enhancing behaviors and avoiding health-risk behaviors among teachers and other school staff by gender and age. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 750 teachers and 259 individuals of non-teaching staff of 22 health promoting schools. A questionnaire that included Positive Health Behaviors Scale for Adults and questions on avoiding risk behaviors were used as a research tool. Results: Of the 32 analyzed health enhancing (positive behaviors, only 11 were undertaken by teachers and 10 by non-teaching staff at a desirable frequency (always or almost always in a group of more than 50% of respondents. Almost one third of health enhancing behaviors were undertaken with this frequency by less than 20% of respondents. The highest deficits concerned physical activity, nutrition and mental health-related behaviors, and the lowest concerned safety. Deficits in all positive health behaviors were smaller in teachers than in non-teaching staff, in women than in men and in older than in younger teachers. The majority of respondents, mostly teachers, irrespective of gender and age did not undertake risk behaviors. Conclusions: There was a lot of deficits in the healthy lifestyle of teachers and other school workers what is alarming from the point of view of school workers' health, their tasks and their role in shaping positive health behavior in children and adolescents. There is a great need for taking actions to improve the situation, such as the development of health promotion programs addressed to teachers and other school staff, including issues concerning healthy lifestyles in teacher's pre- and in-service training, counselling in the area of healthy lifestyle in preventive health care of school staff. Med Pr 2013;64(5:659–670
Alhayyan, Khalid N.
There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…
Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.
Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…
Choi, Hanna; Kim, Jeongeun; Byun, Ahjung
This study was conducted on verifying whether variables such as prior health related behaviors, health literacy, interpersonal influence, perceived ease of use and usefulness of health information, and behavioral intention could predict actual health promoting behaviors of consumers using health information with mobile in the future. The research model was based on Technology Acceptance Model. Data were collected from 199 mobile health information seekers. Participants' actual health promoting behaviors were checked after 3 months from pre-data collection. The final modified model had good fit indices.
Full Text Available The current status of the economy, for which the term financial crisis of 2008 was used, began from the US and evolved due to the globalization crisis internationally to a composite of the economy with the result today to talk more about economic downturn or crisis for many low-and middle-income countries. Employment is one of the main areas affected during an economic crisis and consequently the unemployment rate and employment insecurity rise sharply. The last 20 years in all relevant studies have shown that unemployment and insecurity are leading to loss of prosperity and poverty and have dramatic though not absolutely clarified effects on health. The majority of them indicate the proportional relationship between long-term unemployment with an increased risk of premature mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases and especially mental disorders that prevent a new round of problems such as suicides and violent deaths (fatalities, crimes, deaths from overdose of alcohol and drugs. WHO warns that the negative effects of the crisis will be much, for developing countries with reduced financial support, for developed countries which have requested emergency aid from the IMF but also for sensitive population groups within the powerful economic countries while their restriction appears to be based on political and economic support. The economic crisis also creates problems in the finance of health systems, while at the same time bear the function of public health services due to increased demand. The need for proper allocation of scarce financial resources oriented towards the principles of social justice and solidarity becomes even more urgent today.
Gros, Blanca; Soto Álvarez, Javier; Ángel Casado, Miguel
Future costs are not usually included in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of published economic analyses that incorporate future costs. A systematic review was conducted of economic analyses published from 2008 to 2013 in three general health economics journals: PharmacoEconomics, Value in Health and the European Journal of Health Economics. A total of 192 articles met the inclusion criteria, 94 of them (49.0%) incorporated future related medical costs, 9 (4.2%) also included future unrelated medical costs and none of them included future nonmedical costs. The percentage of articles including future costs increased from 2008 (30.8%) to 2013 (70.8%), and no differences were detected between the three journals. All relevant costs for the perspective considered should be included in economic evaluations, including related or unrelated, direct or indirect future costs. It is also advisable that pharmacoEconomic guidelines are adapted in this sense.
Engelen, Peter Jan; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc
Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of economic
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. It is generally recognized that those poorer and less educated are more likely to have unhealthy behaviors. These disparities by socio-economic status (SES are observed with regards to different behaviors known to influence health outcomes in terms of diseases and deaths. However, this consistent pattern was found in population-wide studies in developed countries, while in certain demographic groups it was not seen. So the objective was to check if the SES-behavior association pattern was present in available data collected in Ukraine.METHODS. For current study, all available datasets were considered if they included data on SES, education, and gender. Outcomes were measurements of health behaviors including use of psychoactive substances, food consumption, and physical activity.RESULTS. Prevalence of many health behaviors differs in men and women in Ukraine. More men than women use legal and illegal drugs. With regard to education and SES, Ukrainian data reveals either absence of association found in developed countries or its inverted pattern: till recently, women with university education were more likely to smoke than those less educated; teenagers from more affluent families use alcohol more likely than those from poorer ones.CONCLUSION. Inconsistency of SES-behavior association patterns in Ukraine with those seen in the West may be due to a different perception of health behaviors in people who grew up in the former Soviet Union. Behaviors pertinent to men were considered rather masculine and risky than those health-related. We theorize that the revealed absence of SES-behavior association may be because the behaviors are not perceived as those related to health which is an important resource for life. If a behavior is not known as a ‘health behavior’, the society is less likely to stratify with regard to its practicing. So, if the hypothesis is correct, there may be more disparities in younger cohorts than in older ones
Kramer, Kathryn D.; Geller, E. Scott
The article examines community dental health promotion for children in terms of factors impacting children's dental health (water fluoridation, dental health education, behavior change strategies, use of dental services, and dental phobias). Proposed is a large scale behavior change approach to public dental health which integrates applied…
Horton, Shalonda E B
Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).
Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi
On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations.
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.
Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…
Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M
Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.
Three decades of rapid economic development in China have not only benefited millions of Chinese by improving their living standards but have also dramatically increased the number of people who are part of the country’s aging population. However, economic growth has not been accompanied by sufficient attention given to important public health issues, including an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and a decline in physical activity (PA) that comes with an aging population. The rapid growth in China’s older population will soon exert an impact on the nation’s economy, population health status, and health behaviors, and will increase stress on its healthcare system. This review article provides a broad perspective on the impact of rapid economic development, industrialization, and urbanization on health-related behaviors, with a specific focus on PA among older adults. Specifically, the article offers an overview of the demographic context, significant public health challenges, evidence on PA and exercise interventions, and knowledge gaps and future directions for research.
Beehler Gregory P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-located, collaborative care (CCC is one component of VA’s model of Integrated Primary Care that embeds behavioral health providers (BHPs into primary care clinics to treat commonly occurring mental health concerns among Veterans. Key features of the CCC model include time-limited, brief treatments (up to 6 encounters of 30 minutes each and emphasis on multi-dimensional functional assessment. Although CCC is a mandated model of care, the barriers and facilitators to implementing this approach as identified from the perspective of BHPs have not been previously identified. Methods This secondary data analysis used interview data captured as part of a quality improvement project in 2008. Fourteen BHPs (48% of providers in a regional VA network agreed to participate in a 30-minute, semi-structured phone interview. The interview included questions about their perceived role as a CCC provider, depiction of usual practice styles and behaviors, and perceptions of typical barriers and facilitators to providing behavioral healthcare to Veterans in CCC. Interviews were transcribed verbatim into a text database and analyzed using grounded theory. Results Six main categories emerged from the analysis: (a Working in the VA Context, (b Managing Access to Care on the Front Line, (c Assessing a Care Trajectory, (d Developing a Local Integrated Model, (e Working in Collaborative Teams, and (f Being a Behavioral Health Generalist. These categories pointed to system, clinic, and provider level factors that impacted BHP’s role and ability to implement CCC. Across categories, participants identified ways in which they provided Veteran-centered care within variable environments. Conclusions This study provided a contextualized account of the experiences of BHP’s in CCC. Results suggest that these providers play a multifaceted role in delivering clinical services to Veterans while also acting as an interdependent component of the larger VA
Sato, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Kamide, Kei
The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of Indonesian nurses and care workers who immigrated to Japan after the Economic Partnership Agreement was signed by the governments of Japan and Indonesia in 2008. From November 2012 to March 2013, questionnaires were mailed to 206 workers in 87 medical and caregiving facilities that openly accept Indonesian EPA immigrant workers. Responses were received from 71 workers in 35 facilities. Responses from 22.5% of workers suggested that they were at risk of developing mental health problems, and "gender" and "acquisition state of national qualifications" were the main factors influencing their mental health status. The results suggest that support after obtaining national qualifications is inadequate and that mid and long-term support systems that focus on the needs of immigrant healthcare workers after passing national examinations are necessary.
Melissa S. Anderson
Full Text Available This paper proposes that theory and findings from behavioral economics may shed light on research integrity and misconduct. It suggests ways in which strategies based on behavioral theory and research might be used by principal investigators to support research integrity among their research teams.
Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M
In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.
Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R
The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions.
Qureshi, Nudrat; Shaikh, Babar T
Myths and fallacies have existed ever since societies began, influencing the perceptions about health, and the cause and cure of health related problems. The role of such myths in governing the health and health seeking behavior of people is quite explicit. Misconceptions about breast-feeding, pre-lacteal feed, weaning, dietary habits and other health related matters are commonly heard in the cultures of developing countries. False perceptions have undoubtedly an impact on the health seeking behavior. People coming from the low socio-economic strata in rural areas suffer the most. They lack access to formal health care services and are unable to afford specialized medical care. This gives rise to alternative health seeking behaviors. A considerable majority of people prefer to go to spiritual healers, quacks and other non-formal health providers for the treatment of their ailments. This paper has reviewed a variety of myths, fallacies and misconceptions collectively in the cultural context and has attempted to relate them to the health seeking behaviors of Pakistani people. The paper is based on the contemporary literature review and library work, focusing on finding the feasible strategies to address a variety of myths and misconceptions. Since myths have many adverse implications on the health of the people, an effective way of motivating low income and high risk people to adopt healthy behavior is 'social marketing'. Creating 'health promotion committees' at village level sounds like another doable strategy to ameliorate the situation in order to educate people to take care of not only their own health but of the future generations as well.
Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))
Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.
In the 1950s and 1960s, mathematical psychology and behavioral decision research arose in the unique context of the University of Michigan. These two psychological programs gave rise to Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky's famous research of the 1970s. In the early 1980s, Kahneman and Tversky's resear
This dissertation consists of four empirical essays that study decisions on insurance, consumption and the accumulation and decumulation of wealth. The studies pay due attention to behavioral factors that may limit rationality, such as complexity and intertemporal choice. The first essay looks at th
Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie
This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…
Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will
' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random...
Donaldson, S I; Sussman, S; Dent, C W; Severson, H H; Stoddard, J L
A major incentive for work-site health promotion activities has been the promise of increased company profitability. Some critics have challenged the economic argument based on distal outcomes such as increased employee longevity and less morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between employee health behavior, quality of work life, and proximal organizationally valued outcomes. Data were collected from a stratified random sample of employees working at Pacific Lumber Company (N = 146), the largest single-site lumber mill in California. Although employee sleep patterns predicted health care utilization and psychological well-being, for the most part employee health behaviors were not strong predictors of proximal organizational effectiveness factors. However, quality-of-work-life factors significantly predicted organizational commitment, absenteeism, and tardiness frequency. The findings suggest the value of improving the system of work in which employees are embedded as part of comprehensive work-site health promotion efforts.
Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W
This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.
Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kühl, J.; Olesen, J.E.
The PRUDENCE project has generated a set of spatially and temporally high-resolution climate data, which provides new opportunities for assessing the impacts of climate variability and. change on economic and human systems in Europe. In this context, we initiated the development of new approaches...... of an analytical approach for assessing economic impacts of climate change and discuss how economic concepts and valuation paradigms can be applied to climate change impact evaluation. A number of methodological difficulties encountered in economic assessments of climate change impacts are described and a number...... for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data...
Richardson, L.A.; Champ, P.A.; Loomis, J.B.
There is a growing concern that human health impacts from exposure to wildfire smoke are ignored in estimates of monetized damages from wildfires. Current research highlights the need for better data collection and analysis of these impacts. Using unique primary data, this paper quantifies the economic cost of health effects from the largest wildfire in Los Angeles County's modern history. A cost of illness estimate is $9.50 per exposed person per day. However, theory and empirical research consistently find that this measure largely underestimates the true economic cost of health effects from exposure to a pollutant in that it ignores the cost of defensive actions taken as well as disutility. For the first time, the defensive behavior method is applied to calculate the willingness to pay for a reduction in one wildfire smoke induced symptom day, which is estimated to be $84.42 per exposed person per day. ?? 2011.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the long-run relationship between health (life expectancy and economic growth in the 25 OECD countries over the period from 1975 to 2008 by utilizing the Pedroni panel cointegration, Pedroni FMOLS and Canning-Pedroni causality methods. The cointegration test results show that there is a cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in the long run. According to Panel Panel FMOLS results the elasticity coefficient of health is % 0.18, the elasticity coefficient of economic growth is % 0.17. The results of Lamda-Pearson statistics indicate the long-run bilateral causality between health and economic growth. It is concluded that there is a strong cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in OECD Countries in the long run.
with a patient on nutrient recall. These data are used in field studies that evaluate the impact of dietary intake as it relates to nutrition and...treatment for schizo- phrenia, depression, autism and other forms of mental illness as well as better teaching methods for autistic children, based...individual behavior? • What are the bases of schizophrenia, autism , addiction and other forms of mental illness? • How are personalities shaped by the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Too few young people engage in behaviors that reduce the risk of morbidity and premature mortality, such as eating healthily, being physically active, drinking sensibly and not smoking. The present research developed an online intervention to target these health behaviors during the significant life transition from school to university when health beliefs and behaviors may be more open to change. This paper describes the intervention and the proposed approach to its evaluation. Methods/design Potential participants (all undergraduates about to enter the University of Sheffield will be emailed an online questionnaire two weeks before starting university. On completion of the questionnaire, respondents will be randomly assigned to receive either an online health behavior intervention (U@Uni or a control condition. The intervention employs three behavior change techniques (self-affirmation, theory-based messages, and implementation intentions to target four heath behaviors (alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking. Subsequently, all participants will be emailed follow-up questionnaires approximately one and six months after starting university. The questionnaires will assess the four targeted behaviors and associated cognitions (e.g., intentions, self-efficacy as well as socio-demographic variables, health status, Body Mass Index (BMI, health service use and recreational drug use. A sub-sample of participants will provide a sample of hair to assess changes in biochemical markers of health behavior. A health economic evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be conducted. Discussion The findings will provide evidence on the effectiveness of online interventions as well as the potential for intervening during significant life transitions, such as the move from school to university. If successful, the intervention could be employed at other universities to promote
Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in adol
In South Korea, there have been debates on the welfare policies of the Kim Dae-jung government after the economic crisis beginning in late 1997, but it is unquestionable that health and health care policies have followed the trend of neoliberal economic and social polices. Public health measures and overall performance of the public sector have weakened, and the private health sector has further strengthened its dominance. These changes have adversely affected the population's health status and access to health care. However, the anti-neoliberal coalition is preventing the government's drive from achieving a full success.
Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K
The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.
Benning, Tim M; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne F G; Aarts, Marie-Jeanne; Stolk, Elly; de Wit, G Ardine; Prenger, Rilana; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Evers, Silvia M A A
BACKGROUND: Attention is increasing on the consideration of broader non-health outcomes in economic evaluations. It is unknown which non-health outcomes are valued as most relevant in the context of health promotion. The present study fills this gap by investigating the relative importance of non-he
Benning, Tim M.; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne F.G.; Aarts, Marie-Jeanne; Stolk, Elly; Wit, de G. Ardine; Prenger, Rilana; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M.A.; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.
Background Attention is increasing on the consideration of broader non-health outcomes in economic evaluations. It is unknown which non-health outcomes are valued as most relevant in the context of health promotion. The present study fills this gap by investigating the relative importance of non-hea
A.E. Attema (Arthur)
textabstractEconomic benefits are often received at different points in time. There are numerous examples of economic applications where the outcomes occur at multiple points in time. Among these are the savings decisions of households, the environmental policies of countries, investment decisions o
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi
The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets.
Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng
Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.
Bernardus Bala de Rosari
Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.
Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.
Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp
Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.
Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)
Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.
Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…
Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the crisis, and all but sweets continued to decline during the recovery. Health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruit, fish oil, and vitamins/minerals and getting recommended sleep) followed more idiosyncratic paths. Overall, most behaviors reverted back to their pre-crisis levels or trends during the recovery, and these short-term deviations in trajectories were probably too short-lived in this recession to have major impacts on health or mortality. A notable exception is for binge drinking, which declined by 10% during the 2 crisis years, continued to fall (at a slower rate of 8%) during the 3 recovery years, and did not revert back to the upward pre-crisis trend during our observation period. These lingering effects, which directionally run counter to the pre-crisis upward trend in consumption and do not reflect price increases during the recovery period, suggest that alcohol is a potential pathway by which recessions improve health and/or reduce mortality.
Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David
The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle.
Mogler, Braden K; Shu, Suzanne B; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Victor, Ronald G; Escarce, José J; Shapiro, Martin F
Despite a revolution in therapeutics, the ability to control chronic diseases remains elusive. We present here a conceptual model of the potential role of behavioral tools in chronic disease control. Clinicians implicitly accept the assumption that patients will act rationally to maximize their self-interest. However, patients may not always be the rational actors that we imagine. Major behavioral barriers to optimal health behavior include patients' fear of threats to health, unwillingness to think about problems when risks are known or data are ambiguous, the discounting of risks that are far in the future, failure to act due to lack of motivation, insufficient confidence in the ability to overcome a health problem, and inattention due to pressures of everyday life. Financial incentives can stimulate initiation of health-promoting behaviors by reducing or eliminating financial barriers, but may not produce long-term behavior change without additional interventions. Strategies have been developed by behavioral economists and social psychologists to address each of these barriers to better decision-making. These include: labeling positive behaviors in ways consistent with patient life goals and priorities; greater focus on more immediate risks of chronic diseases; intermediate subgoals as steps to a large health goal; and implementation of specific plans as to when, where, and how an action will be taken. Such strategies hold promise for improving health behaviors and disease control, but most have not been studied in medical settings. The effectiveness of these approaches should be evaluated for their potential as tools for the clinician.
Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G
The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics.
Behavioral economics, a discipline combining economics and psychology to explain consumer decision making, offers insights on how best to institute transportation pricing in a manner that is acceptable to drivers and also meets public policy objectives. As an example of how to use this relatively new discipline to enhance the acceptance and benefits of transportation pricing, its application to designing usage-based or pay-as-you-drive-and-you-save (PAYDAYS) insurance products is explored. Sp...
Various security measures are ineffective having been designed without adequate usability and economic considerations. The primary objective of this thesis is to add an economic and socio-behavioral perspective to the traditional computer science research in information security. The resulting research is interdisciplinary, and the papers combine different approaches, ranging from analytic modeling to empirical measurements and user studies. Contributing to the fields of usable security and s...
The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.
Steinberg, Marc L.; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina
Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed. PMID:23865661
Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim
Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit
Full Text Available As a basis for information recovery in open dynamic microeconomic systems, we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized equilibrium seeking behavior. This entropy-based causal adaptive behavior framework permits the use of information-theoretic methods as a solution basis for the resulting pure and stochastic inverse economic-econometric problems. We cast the information recovery problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information-theoretic methods to recover estimates of the unknown binary behavioral parameters without explicitly sampling the configuration-arrangement of the sample space.
Stanton, Steven J
This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology.
Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.
Due to rising health care expenditures international comparisons of health care systems are recently gaining more importance. These benchmarks can provide interesting information for improving health care systems. Many of these comparisons implicitly assume that countries have a universal understanding of justice. But this assumption is rather questionable. With regard to the existing cultural differences in the understanding of justice the transferability of elements of health care systems is not always assured. A transfer usually requires a thorough examination of the judicial systems in each country. This article analyses the influence of different judicial systems applying to health care. In this context theories of justice by Rawls, Nozick and Confucius representing the possible understanding of justice in different cultures are described and analysed with regards to their influence on health care systems. The example of financing health care shows that the three theories of justice have very different consequences for designing health care systems especially concerning the role of governments.
Jeong, Yoolwon; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Jae Seon; Lee, Ko Eun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in medical students and to evaluate whether interpersonal social support, health-related behaviors, and socio-economic factors were associated with depression in medical students. METHODS The subjects in this study were 120 medical students in Seoul, Korea who were surveyed in September, 2008. The subjects were all women and over the age of 20. Their age, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep, diet, househol...
KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE
The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070
Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse
The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one's diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health.
Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme
The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain.
Fuhmei Wang PhD
Full Text Available Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation’s human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals.
Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Ng, Edwin; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo
Building on previous multilevel studies in social epidemiology, this cross-sectional study examines, simultaneously, the contextual effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on social inequalities in health among low-income nursing assistants. A total of 868 nursing assistants recruited from 55 nursing homes in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia were surveyed between 1999 and 2001. Using a cross-classified multilevel design, the authors tested the effects of area-of-residence (income inequality and racial segregation), workplace (type of nursing home ownership and managerial pressure), and individual-level (age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance, length of employment, social support, type of nursing unit, preexisting psychopathology, physical health, education, and income) variables on health (self-reported health and activity limitations) and behavioral outcomes (alcohol use and caffeine consumption). Findings reveal that overall health was associated with both workplace exploitation and area-of-residence income inequality; area of residence was associated with activity limitations and binge drinking; and workplace exploitation was associated with caffeine consumption. This study explicitly accounts for the multiple contextual structure and effects of economic inequality on health. More work is necessary to replicate the current findings and establish robust conclusions on workplace and area of residence that might help inform interventions.
Patricia Hernández Peña
Full Text Available La economía de la salud como especialidad, incorpora la perspectiva económica en el campo de la salud, los servicios, y el complejo médico industrial. Se presenta su evolución desde la perspectiva de sus áreas de interés y su consolidación reflejada en la generación, difusión, réplica y aplicación del conocimiento especializado.A economia da saúde incorpora a p8erspectiva econômica no campo da saúde, os serviços e o complexo médico-industrial. Foi apresentada a evolução desse campo, desde a perspectiva das áreas de interesse e os avanços para sua consolidação, partindo dos seguintes aspectos: generação, difusão, réplica e aplicação do conhecimento especializado.Health economics is a specialized field of economic science that applies the economic perspective to the fields of health, the medical-industrial complex and health services. A brief review of the evolution of this speciality by subject, as well as the level achieved assessed in terms of generation, diffusion, reproduction and application of its specialized knowledge, is presented.
Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C
Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.
Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623-1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding.
Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.
Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…
Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.
Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Ovcharov
Full Text Available The paper aims to compare the preferences of the unlimited rational economic agent for consumption and earnings, on the one hand, and real behavior of economic agents, on the other. The analysis concludes that old-age poverty appears to be a result of irrational behavior in youth and adulthood. The state pension system, which aims to solve this problem, requires a transition of the state from its redistribution function to prevention of irrational behavior of economic agents, as well as a transition from the tax distribution system to the mandatory old-age pension saving scheme, which involves sovereignty of the individual and free choice between insurance and non-insurance alternatives. The main principles of the individually funded pension system are discussed in the paper. Minimum pension fund is expected to address the critical social issue of retirement age. The problem of long-livers, who live beyond the survival age, can be solved both by additional pension contributions to the individually funded pension system (by applying survival age multiplying coefficient and by inclusion of insurance part in the pension system. Moreover, it has been proved that insurance scheme doesn’t reproduce redistribution system for the whole society as it is limited only to those who have the right to use pension capital. The paper focuses on the political problems of the state authorities that prevent the implementation of old-age pension saving scheme. Rational behavior of economic agents is impossible without overcoming limited rational behavior of the state.
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour
This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities.
Corlew, D Scott
The measurement of the burden of disease and the interventions that address that burden can be done in various units. Reducing these measures to the common denominator of economic units (i.e., currency) enables comparison with other health entities, interventions, and even other fields. Economic assessment is complex, however, because of the multifactorial components of what constitutes health and what constitutes health interventions, as well as the coupling of those data to economic means. To perform economic modeling in a meaningful manner, it is necessary to: (1) define the health problem to be addressed; (2) define the intervention to be assessed; (3) define a measure of the effect of the health entity with and without the intervention (which includes defining the counterfactual); and (4) determine the appropriate method of converting the health effect to economics. This paper discusses technical aspects of how economic modeling can be done both of disease entities and of interventions. Two examples of economic modeling applied to surgical problems are then given.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavioral conditions and mental...
Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D
Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high.
CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.
The article examines changes which have taken place in the health system in Vietnam as a result of the economic reform process dating back to the late 1980s. With the liberalization of the economy have come not only growth for many, and increased choice, but also increased income and regional disparities and the problem of access to social services for those households which are less successful in the market economy. While state official policy emphasizes equity and free access to services for the poor, health costs for patients have risen substantially in the form of official and unofficial payments to staff and payments for drugs. The public sector faces an unprecedented challenge in the form of dramatic decreases in the utilization of public facilities; a shift towards self-prescription and, to a lesser extent, private practice by public employees; and, increasing reliance on foreign donors for support to preventive programmes. The article makes some recommendations on priorities for health policy in Vietnam to face these challenges.
Lopert, Ruth; Viney, Rosalie
All governments face immense challenges in providing affordable healthcare for their citizens, and the diffusion of novel health technologies is a key driver of growth in expenditure for many. Although important methodological and process variations exist around the world, health economic evaluation is increasingly seen as an important tool to support decision-making around the introduction of new health technologies, interventions and programmes in countries of varying stages of economic development. In Australia, the assessment of the comparative cost-effectiveness of new medicines proposed for subsidy under the country's national drug subsidy programme, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, was introduced in the late 1980s and became mandatory in 1993, making Australia the first country to introduce such a requirement nationally. Since then the use of health economic evaluation has expanded and been applied to support decision-making across a broader range of health technologies, as well as to programmes in public health.
Dragoi Mihaela Cristina
Full Text Available The issue of health has always been, both in social reality and in academia and research, a sensitive topic considering the relationship each individual has with his own health and the health care system as a public policy. At public opinion levels and not only, health care is the most important sector demanding the outmost attention, considering that individual health is the fundamental prerequisite for well-being, happiness and a satisfying life. The ever present research and practical question is on the optimal financing of the health care system. Any answer to this question is also a political decision, reflecting the social-economic value of health for a particular country. The size of the resource pool and the criteria and methods for resource allocation are the central economic problems for any health system. This paper takes into consideration the limited resources of the national health care system (the rationalization of health services, the common methods of health financing, the specificity of health services market (the health market being highly asymmetric, with health professionals knowing most if not all of the relevant information, such as diagnosis, treatment options and costs and consumers fully dependent on the information provided in each case and the performance of all hospitals in Romania, in order to assess the latest strategic decisions (introduction of co-payment and merging and reconversion of hospitals taken within the Romanian health care system and their social and economic implications. The main finding show that, even though the intention of reforming and transforming the Romanian health care system into a more efficient one is obvious, the lack of economic and demographic analysis may results into greater discrepancies nationwide. This paper is aimed to renew the necessity of joint collaboration between the economic and medical field, since the relationship between health and economic development runs both ways
Tiam, A.; Oyebanji, O; Nkonyana, J.; Ahimbisibwe, A; Putsoane, M.; Mokone, M.; Nyabela, M.; Isavwa, A.; Tsoeu, M.; Foso, M.; Buhendwa, L; Hounkanrin, G.; Melkamu, Y.; Ibrahim, I.M.; Ogo, I.
Background Due to Lesotho's high adult HIV prevalence (23%), considerable resources have been allocated to the HIV/AIDS response, while resources for non-communicable diseases have lagged. Since November 2011, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) has supported Lesotho Ministry of Health to roll out Family Health Days (FHDs), an innovative strategy to increase community access to integrated health services, with a focus on hard-to-reach areas where immunization coverage, HIV ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2014. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...
Chng, Chwee Lye
Approaches for teaching about homosexuality as part of the school health curriculum are offered. Suggestions include discussion of popular values and stereotypes, teaching by example, and teaching through role playing. (JMF)
Gunter, Tracy D
The area of behavioral genetics has sufficiently entered the area of forensic mental health work that providers should have some working knowledge of the strengths and limitations of these exciting technical advances. Using MAOA as an example, this essay reviews some of the recurring themes in forensic behavioral genetics and suggests additional ways in which the technology might be used in legal matters.
When people are young and healthy, they often think theyâre invincible, but certain behaviors put adolescents at risk for serious health problems. In this podcast, Dr. Stephanie Zaza discusses the most common risk behaviors that affect adolescents. Created: 6/19/2014 by MMWR. Date Released: 6/19/2014.
Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a huge health threat to the population due to its potential adverse health and economic consequences. Yet, studies that review these consequences in Indonesia are rare. This paper attempts to address the health and economic implications of smoking in Indonesia.We performed a narrative literature review from various feasible sources of information. We carefully selected literature based on its suitability and relevance. We collected 75 relevant peer-reviewed journal articles, and 37 reports and legal products pertaining to tobacco control. From those literatures, we then infer that smoking lowers the health status, causes premature mortality, and possibly, impedes future economic growth.The links between smoking, human capital and economic growth warrant further research. The formulation of appropriate policies must consider gender and cultural issues prevalent in Indonesia
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children and women comprise vulnerable populations in terms of health and are gravely affected by the impact of economic inequalities through multi-dimensional channels. Urban areas are believed to have better socioeconomic and maternal and child health indicators than rural areas. This perception leads to the implementation of health policies ignorant of intra-urban health inequalities. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explain the pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators among the urban population of India. METHODS: Using data from the third wave of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 2005-06, this study calculated relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to inequalities in key maternal and child health indicators such as antenatal check-ups (ANCs, institutional deliveries, proportion of children with complete immunization, proportion of underweight children, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR. Along with regular CI estimates, this study applied widely used regression-based Inequality Decomposition model proposed by Wagstaff and colleagues. RESULTS: The CI estimates show considerable economic inequalities in women with less than 3 ANCs (CI = -0.3501, institutional delivery (CI = -0.3214, children without fully immunization (CI = -0.18340, underweight children (CI = -0.19420, and infant deaths (CI = -0.15596. Results of the decomposition model reveal that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical factors contributing to economic inequalities in maternal and child health indicators. The residuals in all the decomposition models are very less; this implies that the above mentioned factors explained maximum inequalities in maternal and child health of urban population in India. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that illiteracy among women and her partner, poor economic status, and mass media exposure are the critical
Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan
The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.
Chang, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ling; Yang, Yu-O
In September 2008, financial turmoil on Wall Street led to severe losses in that country's financial derivatives market and plunged the United States into the most severe financial crisis in over a decade. The backlash of this "financial tsunami" has affected countries around the world. The world economy, facing the most critical financial crisis since the 1930s, must deal with recession, severe unemployment and general fears of worse to come, which have, in turn, spawned a range of physical, psychological and spiritual problems. In this article we study the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare from several angles, including: decreasing incomes causing changing attitudes toward seeking healthcare; decreasing numbers of people covered by medical insurance; increasing impact on the job market of untreated illnesses; changing national healthcare policies in response to economic pressures; increasing physical, psychological and social problems resulting from economic problems; and the need for the nursing profession to respond to these and other rapid changes in the healthcare landscape. Nursing staff are sometimes unaware of social problems outside their profession. This article may, therefore, provide a general reference to medical and nursing staff on the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an important cause of cancer, inclusive cervical cancer disease. Despite preventive efforts, the clinical and economic burden of cervical cancer remains high. With non-optimal performance of available cervical screening programs, HPV vaccination becomes an alternative c
Thomas, Duncan; Friedman, Jed
The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been previously established in numerous studies. We also find the crisis adversely impacted population psychological well-being. We document substantial increases in several different dimensions...
J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated
Summary: In China, the implementation of community health service shows that the prevention is an essential and important part of our national health system and is helpful to decrease the medical expenditure gradually. According to the data from Health Statistic Information Center of Ministry of Health in China, we calculated that the total health expenditure of China would be decreased 8000. 0 million yuan only in 2001, among which, 1188.3 million, 1953.9 million and 4833.0 million yuan were respectively saved for the government budget, the society and resident if implementing the policy of community health service powerfully. And every outpatient can save 15.46 yuan per time. By the quantitative analysis on the economic contribution of community health service, it can be proved that a great economic benefit could be gotten from the implementation of community health service.
Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Day, Randal D.
The present study was designed to examine the links between economic strain, parental depression, parent-child connectedness, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. The sample consisted of 478 participants (M age at Time 1=11.29 years, 51% male) recruited from the community who were mostly of European American descent (69%) and from mostly middle…
Hilbig, B.E.; Zettler, Ingo
The current work explores the predictive power of the recently proposed sixth personality dimension, Honesty-Humility, with respect to economic and cooperative behavior. It was expected that this factor should explain how decision makers allocate a valued good to themselves vs. another...... fearing consequences. Finally, social value orientations were shown to partially mediate the effects found. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
E. D. Lazarus
Full Text Available Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise. Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.
Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu
Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All".
Buchner FL; Hoekstra J; Rossum CTM van; CVG
A policy aiming at increasing the percentage of breasted infants can be seen as a preventive measure, which can save health care costs.A literature review shows that breastfeeding has beneficial health effects in both the short en the longer term. Convincing evidence is found for a protective effec
Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich
, gender and geographic area/civil status. Direct costs, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, and medication from primary and secondary sectors, were obtained from the Danish Ministry of Health, the Danish Medicines Agency, and the National Health Security. Indirect costs...
Kayla de la Haye
Full Text Available PURPOSE: In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. RESULTS: The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.
Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country
Full Text Available The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This turbulent economic environment makes it particularly troublesome for econometricians to test theoretical propositions dealing with credit market behavior, as well as for policymakers to interpret and forecast credit and interest rate behavior. This paper illustrates this issue using Chile as a case study. A simple theoretical model of business credit is developed, which is then used to interpret the developments in Chile's credit market during 1980-1986. Using a partial equilibrium analysis, it is shown how the contemporaneous correlation between output and credit demand can change sign, whenever the economy is subject to unanticipated recessions and devaluations. The analysis is a timely one for policymakers in many LDCs, who are currently on the path of transforming their economies to free-market open-economies. The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This
Heiby, Elaine M.
It has become recognized that major health problems are caused, precipitated, exacerbated, or maintained by lifestyle factors such as exercise, diet, and consumption of psychoactive substances. The introduction of complex behavior change into the medical prescription for health promotion and disease prevention has resulted in a large body of…
Bakke, Sandra I.
A description is provided of a course, "Behavior of Man in Health and Illness," designed to introduce first-year undergraduate nursing students to the theories and concepts related to the health-illness continuum, the stress of illness, and coping theory. The description begins with an overview of course content, followed by information on the…
McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.
This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…
Hursh, S R
The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abuse interventions, and the formulation of drug abuse public policy. These separate domains of investigation are described as part of an overall strategy for designing model projects to control drug use and testing public policy initiatives.
Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina
This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed.
Adanela Musaraj; Arta Musaraj; Aida Dervishi
Due to the significant boost in community expenditure with health topics, mainly regarding drugs, numerous countries, have already put into operation, or are in the process of arguing the adoption of actions to guarantee the excellence of health care provided to the population. One of the less risky strategies-is the adoption of economic procedures applied to health, more specifically, pharmaco-economics analysis. This paper aims to contribute to the dissemination of notions and techniques...
Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho
This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.
Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara
Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.
Noar, Seth M
eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy
Pérez, Glòria; Gotsens, Mercè; Palència, Laia; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Puig, Vanessa; Bartoll, Xavier; Gandarillas, Ana; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Díez, Elia; Ruiz, Miguel; Esnaola, Santiago; Calvo, Montserrat; Sánchez, Pablo; Luque Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Borrell, Carme
The aim is to present the protocol of the two sub-studies on the effect of the economic crisis on mortality and reproductive health and health inequalities in Spain. Substudy 1: describe the evolution of mortality and reproductive health between 1990 and 2013 through a longitudinal ecological study in the Autonomous Communities. This study will identify changes caused by the economic crisis in trends or reproductive health and mortality indicators using panel data (17 Autonomous Communities per study year) and adjusting Poisson models with random effects variance. Substudy 2: analyse inequalities by socioeconomic deprivation in mortality and reproductive health in several areas of Spain. An ecological study analysing trends in the pre-crisis (1999-2003 and 2004-2008) and crisis (2009-2013) periods will be performed. Random effects models Besag York and Mollié will be adjusted to estimate mortality indicators softened in reproductive health and census tracts.
Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E
A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.
Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy
Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.
Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.
With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...
Hussein M. A. Ageely
The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals.
Filatova, Tatiana; Bin, Okmyung; Kaminski, Bogumil; Koloch, Grzegorz
Spatial econometrics and analytical spatial economic modeling advanced significantly in the recent years. Yet, methodologically they are designed to tackle marginal changes in the underlying dynamics of spatial urban systems. In the world with climate change, however, abrupt sudden non-marginal chan
Collins, Timothy W; Kim, Young-an; Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie
Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents' health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bureau and a population-based survey of El Paso schoolchildren. The dependent variable is children's current wheezing, an established respiratory morbidity measure, which is appropriate for use with economically-deprived children with an increased likelihood of not receiving a doctor's asthma diagnosis. Results reveal that economic deprivation (measured based on poverty status) at both neighborhood- and individual-levels is associated with reduced odds of wheezing for Hispanic children. A sensitivity analysis revealed similar significant effects of individual- and neighborhood-level poverty on the odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma. Neighborhood-level poverty did not significantly modify the observed association between individual-level poverty and Hispanic children's wheezing; however, greater neighborhood poverty tends to be more protective for poor (as opposed to non-poor) Hispanic children. These findings support a novel, multilevel understanding of seemingly paradoxical effects of economic deprivation on Hispanic health.
Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P
Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge.
Yi Huang, MD
Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.
The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Suhrcke, Marc
Does the current economic crisis require the deep cuts in public spending announced in the June 2010 emergency budget, with potential implications for public health? The arguments for and against such cuts in response to economic recession are complex, but if public health professionals are to engage in debates about future public spending, they should be informed by relevant evidence. In this perspective, we note that opinions among politicians and economists about how to respond to economic downturns are divided, while other EU countries, many with greater levels of debt than the UK, are protecting public expenditure unless required to do so by the International Monetary Fund. Current UK debt may in fact be viewed as sustainable given current information about interest rates, inflation and economic growth. Before accepting large cuts in public spending, it is important to contrast the lack of evidence for such short-term fixes with potentially dire repercussions for population health and welfare.
Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L
The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutritionally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in "home economics", but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises.
Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul
Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed.
Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M
Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.
Sassi, Franco; Belloni, Annalisa
Taxes, subsidies and welfare benefits may provide financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviors or discourage less healthy ones. Historically, taxes have been used in many countries to deter behaviors like tobacco smoking or harmful alcohol use. More recently, an increasing number of governments have sought to expand the scope for the use of fiscal measures in health promotion to foods and beverages high in fat, salt or sugar. A strong public health rationale, supported by a growing body of evidence of the health impacts of taxes and other fiscal measures, adds to the more traditional rationale for the use of commodity taxes, which hinges on their revenue-generating potential and their ability to address the costs imposed by consumers of health-related commodities on other individuals. Despite limitations in the existing evidence base, reviewed in this paper, taxes have been shown to generate significant health gains when applied to tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. In the case of foods and non-alcoholic beverages, the effects tend to build up over time and are stronger in people with lower socio-economic status. However, a number of potentially undesirable effects suggest that governments should exercise caution in planning and implementing taxes on health-related commodities. In particular, commodity taxes are generally regressive, and this is especially the case for taxes on tobacco, foods and non-alcoholic beverages, although the actual size of the tax burden involved is relatively modest. In addition, taxes may negatively impact on economic efficiency and social welfare, and may incentivize illicit activities.
Satyanarayana, Veena A; Lukose, Ammu; Srinivasan, K
Maternal mental health research is a public health priority due to its impact on both maternal and child health. Despite the growing number of empirical studies in this area, particularly from developing countries, there is a paucity of synthetic review articles. Therefore, attempting to synthesize the existing literature in this area seems relevant to appraise the readers of the field's progress and to infer directions for future research. The present review aims to provide an overview of the literature on maternal mental health and its association with birth outcomes and child behavior. Specifically, the literature on mental health during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its influence on birth outcomes and child behavior have been reviewed. Further, a conceptual and methodological evaluation of the existing literature has been provided to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest directions for future research.
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Pizka, M; Panas, T
More than two thirds of the annual software budget of large-scale organizations dealing with complex software systems is spent on the perfection, correction, and operation of existing software systems. A significant part of these running costs could be saved if the software systems that need to be constantly extende, maintained and operated were in a better technical condition. This paper proposes Software Health-Checks as a method to assess the technical condition of existing software systems and to deduce measures for improving the health of software in a structured manner. Since 2006 numerous commercial software systems with a total of 30 MLOC, implemented in various technologies, were already checked with this method. The actions suggested as a result of these Software 'Health-Checks', repeatedly yielded dramatic performance improvements, risk reductions and cost savings between 30% and 80%.
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L. Rajmil (Luis); M.-J.F. de Sanmamed (María-José Fernandez); I. Choonara (Imti); T. Faresjö (Tomas); A. Hjern (Anders); A. Kozyrskyj (Anita); P.J. Lucas (Patricia); H. Raat (Hein); L. Séguin (Louise); N. Spencer (Nick); D. Taylor-Robinson (David)
textabstractThe aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, p
Knurowski, T.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, A.M.; Brzyski, P.; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
Objectives: To assess whether socio-economic health differences persist into old age in Poland and if there are SES-related differences in health by age group and gender. Methods: 528 randomly chosen, not institutionalized elderly people aged 65-85 living in Krakow were interviewed about their socio
Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.
This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.
Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.
The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.
Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair
Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
Carla Estefania Albert
Full Text Available This article presents a literature review of the literature on evaluation of mental health services from BVS ECO, without limited timeline. Design and Methods: A systematic review of texts in Spanish, Portuguese and English. It used certain preliminary criteria for inclusion and exclusion to identify relevant studies, using descriptors: evaluation, mental health evaluation/ assessment. Results: There were 48 articles of which 21 were excluded. The main theme of the publications was the verification of costs versus service complexity, and among the most recent publications, based on the type of treatment of psychological disorders. Conclusions: As a facilitator of research in Health Economics, BVS ECO should allow access to the full text and it is urgently to review the classification and inclusion of publications in the Base about evaluations inquiries. In terms of production, there is a tendency of articles over time, with detailing methodologies and objectives of border between health assessment and health economic evaluation.
Empirical research has shown that households in developing countries are unable to sustain current levels of consumption during and after severe health crises due to substantial increase in medical expenditure and/or loss of income. Health events are also found to have an adverse impact on nutritional status and educational attainment of household members. Thus, in this study, we investigate: who are vulnerable to welfare loss from health shocks, what are the household responses to cope with the economic burden of health shocks and if policy responses like state health insurance schemes are effective in reducing the economic vulnerability. We use self-reported measures of health shocks and coping strategies from the longitudinal survey of the ongoing Young Lives project in India [Andhra Pradesh (AP)] to identify the characteristics of vulnerable groups and perform three-level random intercept logistic regression that takes into account contextual or environmental factors. What emerges is socioeconomic status of household (determined by education, wealth, occupation and caste/religious group) and its demographic characteristics like gender of the household head and proportion of elderly and disabled members matter for outcomes related to health events. Households adopt different strategies to cope with the economic costs of ill-health; borrowing is the most widely used strategy. For credit, majority of households rely on informal sources (moneylenders, friends, relatives, etc.) and have little or no access to formal sources. However, health shock to main breadwinner leads to households adopting costly strategies like reducing consumption or sending children to work. We found no evidence that the state health insurance scheme reduced the household welfare loss from health shocks and their coping strategies. The results suggest that health insurance schemes have to be complemented with access to micro-credit and social security schemes for self-employed persons
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS. During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. Methods We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. Results Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. Conclusion Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces.
Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294
Speirs, Katherine E; Messina, Lauren A; Munger, Ashley L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health literacy and nutrition behaviors using a low-income sample. Face-to-face surveys at 11 social services offices generated a convenience sample of 154 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-eligible adults. We assessed health literacy, fruit and vegetable intake, food label use, consumption of healthy foods, and demographic characteristics. Thirty seven percent of the sample had adequate health literacy as measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Race and parenthood were significantly related to health literacy scores. Adequate health literacy, as measured by the NVS, was associated with frying chicken less often and eating the peels of fresh fruit more often. The findings suggest that health practitioners should ensure nutrition-related messages are accessible to all of their clients, especially those with the lowest health literacy levels.
Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel
This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.
Davis, John B; McMaster, Robert
This paper is motivated by Davis'  theory of the individual in economics. Davis' analysis is applied to health economics, where the individual is conceived as a utility maximiser, although capable of regarding others' welfare through interdependent utility functions. Nonetheless, this provides a restrictive and flawed account, engendering a narrow and abstract conception of care grounded in Paretian value and Cartesian analytical frames. Instead, a richer account of the socially embedded individual is advocated, which employs collective intentionality analysis. This provides a sound foundation for research into an approach to health policy that promotes health as a basic human right.
Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global
Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna
An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Swensen, Isaac D.
I present empirical research considering the response of health and educational outcomes to alcohol consumption, drug abuse, and collegiate athletics. Chapter II considers the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. The empirical approach identifies the effect through changes in students' performance after gaining legal access to…
However, AEC, by looking at this challenges, is expected to improve health care system and service in Indonesia, and close the gap by collaborating among ten ASEAN member countries through 4 modes of AEC consisting of cross border supply, consumption abroad, commercial presence, and movement of natural persons. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1571-1577
Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 409-420
Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 409-420
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana
This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariël
BACKGROUND: Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent resp
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Kerkhof, Marjan; Droomers, Mariel
Background Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respi
Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia
EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms.
Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin
In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Evans, Rebecca
There is growing concern for the health status of clergy in light of recent studies showing high rates of chronic health conditions and obesity. This manuscript examined the health and health behaviors of South Carolinian African Methodist Episcopal (AME) pastors (n = 40). A majority of pastors were overweight or obese (93%) with hypertension (68%); half had two or more chronic health conditions, 35% had high cholesterol, 30% arthritis, and 20% diabetes. On average, pastors had a waist circumference that put them at an increased risk for disease. Yet, with the exception of fruit and vegetable consumption (mean = 3.4 ± 4.0 cups/day), pastors generally engaged in positive health behaviors. Understanding where the greatest needs lie is the first step in developing programs that can improve pastor health, which may ultimately improve the health of their congregations.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486
Bacigalupe, Amaia; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio
Since 2008, Western countries are going through a deep economic crisis whose health impacts seem to be fundamentally counter-cyclical: when economic conditions worsen, so does health, and mortality tends to rise. While a growing number of studies have presented evidence on the effect of crises on the average population health, a largely neglected aspect of research is the impact of crises and the related political responses on social inequalities in health, even if the negative consequences of the crises are primarily borne by the most disadvantaged populations. This commentary will reflect on the results of the studies that have analyzed the effect of economic crises on social inequalities in health up to 2013. With some exceptions, the studies show an increase in health inequalities during crises, especially during the Southeast Asian and Japanese crises and the Soviet Union crisis, although it is not always evident for both sexes or all health or socioeconomic variables. In the Nordic countries during the nineties, a clear worsening of health equity did not occur. Results about the impacts of the current economic recession on health equity are still inconsistent. Some of the factors that could explain this variability in results are the role of welfare state policies, the diversity of time periods used in the analyses, the heterogeneity of socioeconomic and health variables considered, the changes in the socioeconomic profile of the groups under comparison in times of crises, and the type of measures used to analyze the magnitude of social inequalities in health. Social epidemiology should further collaborate with other disciplines to help produce more accurate and useful evidence about the relationship between crises and health equity.
Anenberg, Susan C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Jetter, James; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Moss, Jacob; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran
Nearly half the world's population must rely on solid fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal for household energy, burning them in inefficient open fires and stoves with inadequate ventilation. Household solid fuel combustion is associated with four million premature deaths annually; contributes to forest degradation, loss of habitat and biodiversity, and climate change; and hinders social and economic progress as women and children spend hours every day collecting fuel. Several recent studies, as well as key emerging national and international efforts, are making progress toward enabling wide-scale household adoption of cleaner and more efficient stoves and fuels. While significant challenges remain, these efforts offer considerable promise to save lives, improve forest sustainability, slow climate change, and empower women around the world.
Jeng Yi-Jong; Wang Edward K; Chen Mei-Yen
Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency o...
influences a person‟s day-to-day health and their ability to work. Converting lost years of life and disabilities into DALYs - these health effects represent an annual economic cost of approximately €253 million or 3.2% of GDP (midpoint estimate. Premature death accounts for over 90% of the total health burden since this represents a loss of total life-long income. A reduction of even 1μg/m3 in ambient PM10 or PM 2.5 would imply 195 fewer deaths and represent an economic savings of €34 million per year in reduced health costs. Conclusion: Interventions that reduce ambient PM10 or PM2.5 have significant economic savings in both the short and long run. Currently, these benefits (costs are „hidden‟ due to the lack of information linking air quality and health outcomes and translating this into economic terms. Policymakers seeking ways to improve the public‟s health and lessen the burden on the health system could focus on a narrow set of air pollution sources to achieve these goals.
Full Text Available Socio-economic efficiency analysis in health services has the general objective of the Romanian health care system evaluation in the context of current European standards. Comparative studies show a low level of efficiency as a result of complying with the policies of Western countries, and a modest health management. Polls reflect the population's dissatisfaction with the current health care system, medical staff and disagreement regarding the government policies in this area. Research results lead to the need and opportunity to reform the medical system and social health insurance system.
The analysis of the relationship between food and health in a context of innovation, safety and welfare is carried out considering the view of agri-food economists. Relationships and meanings are addressed defining by the scope of observation and choices. We adopt a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the scientific contributions of Italian economists (publications, conferences, etc.) in this field. In particular we have examined the contributions published in some of the main Italian jo...
Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Wijga, Alet H.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Droomers, Mariel
Background: People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic heal
Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T
Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.
Johnson, Owen A; Hall, Peter S; Hulme, Claire
Many healthcare organizations are now making good use of electronic health record (EHR) systems to record clinical information about their patients and the details of their healthcare. Electronic data in EHRs is generated by people engaged in complex processes within complex environments, and their human input, albeit shaped by computer systems, is compromised by many human factors. These data are potentially valuable to health economists and outcomes researchers but are sufficiently large and complex enough to be considered part of the new frontier of 'big data'. This paper describes emerging methods that draw together data mining, process modelling, activity-based costing and dynamic simulation models. Our research infrastructure includes safe links to Leeds hospital's EHRs with 3 million secondary and tertiary care patients. We created a multidisciplinary team of health economists, clinical specialists, and data and computer scientists, and developed a dynamic simulation tool called NETIMIS (Network Tools for Intervention Modelling with Intelligent Simulation; http://www.netimis.com ) suitable for visualization of both human-designed and data-mined processes which can then be used for 'what-if' analysis by stakeholders interested in costing, designing and evaluating healthcare interventions. We present two examples of model development to illustrate how dynamic simulation can be informed by big data from an EHR. We found the tool provided a focal point for multidisciplinary team work to help them iteratively and collaboratively 'deep dive' into big data.
McDaid, David; Quaglio, Gianluca; Correia de Campos, António; Dario, Claudio; Van Woensel, Lieve; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Reeves, Aaron
STOA, the European Parliament's technology assessment body, and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies recently organised a workshop on the impacts of the economic crisis on European health systems. Evidence of the impact of the recent financial crisis on health outcomes is only just beginning to emerge. Data suggests that this latest recession has led to more frequent poor health status, rising incidence of some communicable diseases, and higher suicide rates. Further, available data are likely to underestimate the broader mental health crisis linked to increased rates of stress, anxiety, and depression among the economically vulnerable. Not only does recession affect factors that determine health, but it also affects the financial capacity to respond. Many European governments have reduced public expenditure on health services during the financial crisis, while introducing or increasing user charges. The recession has driven structural reforms, and has affected the priority given to public policies that could be used to help protect population health. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions and taking a long-term perspective.
Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand
Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.
Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.
López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina
In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis.
Harris, Shanette M
Associations among hardiness, health value, and health protective behaviors were examined as a function of ethnicity among 80 African American and 100 European American college students. The role of health value as moderator versus mediator in the hardiness-health behavior link was explored. Racial differences in correlations among hardiness, control, and commitment were found, with stronger relations for African American than European Americans. Moderate positive relations between hardiness, control, commitment, and health value for African American, as contrasted with weak relations between commitment and health value for European Americans, were also shown. A partial mediational effect for health value with personal distress and moderator effects for health value with personal distress and health habits were found for African American only. Race predicted hardiness variables, tobacco and alcohol use, personal distress, and health habits beyond what was accounted for by occupation and income. The ramifications of these data with regard to future studies on hardiness, health value, and health behaviors for African American are discussed.
Prochaska, James O
Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.
Rasmussen, Erin B; Robertson, Stephen H; Rodriguez, Luis R
Animal models of obesity are numerous and diverse in terms of identifying specific neural and peripheral mechanisms related to obesity; however, they are limited when it comes to behavior. The standard behavioral measure of food intake in most animal models occurs in a free-feeding environment. While easy and cost-effective for the researcher, the free-feeding environment omits some of the most important features of obesity-related food consumption-namely, properties of food availability, such as effort and delay to obtaining food. Behavior economics expands behavioral measures of obesity animal models by identifying such behavioral mechanisms. First, economic demand analysis allows researchers to understand the role of effort in food procurement, and how physiological and neural mechanisms are related. Second, studies on delay discounting contribute to a growing literature that shows that sensitivity to delayed food- and food-related outcomes is likely a fundamental process of obesity. Together, these data expand the animal model in a manner that better characterizes how environmental factors influence food consumption.
The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male
Full Text Available Health status can affect economic growth through at least three mechanisms: 1 directly, through the relationship between health status and individual earnings, 2 indirectly, through the effect of health on levels of education, and 3 through physical capital investments. Poor health status causes considerable losses in individual income by decreasing labor productivity, numbers of hours worked, and participation in the labor force. These losses can affect a population's level of wealth and contribute to decreased social well-being. The main goal of this study is to assess the relationship between health and economic growth among the Brazilian states between 1991 and 2000. In order to take into account the different epidemiological and morbidity profiles observed among the states, several health measures were selected such as infant mortality rate, hospital mortality rate in the public healthcare system due to perinatal complications, and proportion of deaths from selected causes (vascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, AIDS and other communicable diseases, homicides and ill-defined causes. Our main findings show that in Brazil health correlates positively with economic growth. We also found that decreases in infant mortality rates are closely associated with higher rates of economic growth. We found a significant negative relationship for health indicators that are related to poverty, less access to health care services and deaths from avoidable causes, such as communicable diseases and hospital mortality rates due to perinatal complications. In contrast, we found a positive and significant correlation between the proportion of deaths from diabetes and cancer, on the one hand, and economic growth, on the other.
Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R
Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research report focuses on the associations between substance use, sexual behaviors, deviant behaviors, self-reported health, and cyber dating abuse perpetration. Participants included 705 ethnically diverse adolescents ( n = 408; 57.9% female) in Southeast Texas. Having had sexual intercourse or using alcohol or drugs before having sex was significantly linked with cyber dating abuse perpetration, as was poor physical health, and substance use. Consistent with limited research, we found a link between cyber dating abuse and engagement in bullying behaviors. The discussion section includes suggestions for school nurse practice and further research.
Full Text Available The rapid growth of diabetes in middle-income countries is generating disparities in global health. In this context we conducted a study to quantify the health disparities from the economic burden of diabetes in México. Evaluative research based on a longitudinal design, using cost methodology by instrumentation. For the estimation of epidemiological changes during the 2010-2012 period, several probabilistic models were developed using the Box-Jenkins technique. The financial requirements were obtained from expected case management costs by disease and the application of an econometric adjustment factor to control the effects of inflation. Comparing the economic impact in 2010 versus 2012 (p<0.05, there was a 33% increase in financial requirements. The total amount for diabetes in 2011 (US dollars was $7.7 billion. It includes $3.4 billion in direct costs and $4.3 in indirect costs. The total direct costs were $.4 billion to the Ministry of Health (SSA, serving the uninsured population; $1.2 to the institutions serving the insured population (Mexican Institute for Social Security-IMSS-, and Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers-ISSSTE-; $1.8 to users; and $.1 to Private Health Insurance (PHI. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are in the analyzed institutions, health disparities in terms of financial implications will have the greatest impact on users' pockets. In middle-income countries, health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes is one of the main reasons for catastrophic health expenditure. Health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes suggests the need to design and review the current organization of health systems and the relevance of moving from biomedical models and curative health care to preventive and socio-medical models to meet expected challenges from diseases like diabetes in middle-income countries.
Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena
Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.
Full Text Available Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old. Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. Results. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p < 0.001 and mouth rinses (p<0.05 more often than their children and they had better knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child’s oral health status. Conclusion. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children’s oral health.
Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan
Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.
Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs F. G.; Bridgman,Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter
Background: Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better ...
Weintraub, Jane A
The family influences the oral health of other family members through biologic and behavioral factors and their interactions over the lifespan. Community and environmental factors also influence oral health. These factors are described and examples are provided. Ways are suggested to translate some of the research findings and incorporate family and contextual factors beyond what the individual in the dental chair presents into dental practice.
Since the health behavior in adolescence is connected to a subsequent healthy custom, it becomes important approaching of a health promotion it. I thought that the life skill education which raises the power of living to the healthy education which is one was required. However, it is not clear how the present high school student's life skill is concerned with healthy action. I thought it required to get to know the present high school student's present condition for future healthy education. ...
Lenz, E R
The information-seeking patterns of clients have received little attention in nursing theory and research, but they are important antecedents of health-related decisions and behavior. The concept of information seeking is analyzed within the framework of a six-step process model. Inter-related dimensions of the information search process are identified and the impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes is postulated. Sociodemographic, experiential, personality, and contextual variables suggested by prior research to predict variation in search behavior are identified, and implications for nursing theory and research are discussed.
Woldemicael, Gebremariam; Tenkorang, Eric Y
This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their health seeking behavior in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that women with higher autonomy are more likely to seek health care during pregnancy and delivery than those with lower autonomy. The paper also examines whether the autonomy-health utilization relationship is influenced by individual (education, work status, religion) and, household (wealth and rural-urban residence) level factors, all of which are important for both autonomy and health-care utilization. Results indicate that women's autonomy remains significant even after adjusting for other individual and household variables. Besides autonomy, our results highlight other individual and household level influences on the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. Results also demonstrate the need to look beyond individual level factors when examining the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. The statistical significance of some individual-level measures, such as education means it cannot be used as proxy for women's autonomy. This calls for policy makers not only to empower women, but also provide them with better formal education.
The influence of socio-economic determinants among the elderly is a complex subject. Although they rely on pension income, the wealth that they have accumulated over their lifetime (primarily housing assets), jointly with housing-related determinants, could have a more significant effect on health production. Hence, owning a house has more potential than income for reducing health inequalities. This study makes use of a representative cross-sectional database on the Spanish population aged 55 or over. Using a continuous variable to measure health and a measure of disabilities in old age, the study explores some socio-economic determinants of health and disability and provides a breakdown of inequalities in socio-economic status and in aggregate individual health. The study's findings indicate that housing equity overrides the effect of income as a determinant of health and (absence of) disability in old age. Furthermore, housing assets account for more than 90% of socio-economic inequalities and 54% of inequalities in disability.
Full Text Available Background: Dental Health Economics is a branch of transdiciplinary science that refers to the Economic and Public Health science. On the other hand, in other developed countries, Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG’s /Casemix has been used as a basic in creating the same perception between providers, patients and insurance companies in many aspects such as health planning, healthcare financing and quality assurance. Purpose: The objective of this review is to propose a new paradigm of economics to be applied in Indonesian Dentistry. Reviews: The Dental Health Economics should be considered as an important aspect in Indonesian Dentistry, which is used to determine the dental treatment fee based on unit cost, cost containment, and cost recovery rate analysis. Referring to Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Group, health care industry in Indonesia has starting to try a more structured way in grouping disease pattern in order to come up with more precise health care services to their patients. The on going development of Indonesian DRG’s is meant to confirm the disease pattern and partition. Conclusion: The development of Indonesian DRG’s concept, especially the Dental & Oral Disorders, needs a new paradigm, so the practitioners and academics could group and calculate the unit cost from each dental treatment according to the Indonesian DRG version (INA-DRG’s.
Incentives are regarded as a promising policy tool for promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). This article discusses the potential of different kinds of incentives in light of economic theory and evidence from research. When incentives are used as a policy tool, it implies the existance of an institution that has both the interest and the power to apply incentives to stakeholders, usually to employers. Governments can subsidize employers' investments in OSH with subsidies and tax structures. These incentives are successful only if the demand for OSH responds to the change in the price of OSH investments and if the suppliers of OSH are able to increase their production smoothly. Otherwise, the subsidy will only lead to higher prices for OSH goods. Both public and private insurance companies can differentiate insurance premiums according to claim behavior in the past (experience rating). There is evidence that this can effectively lower the frequency of claims, but not the severity of cases. This papers concludes that incentives do not directly lead to improvement. When incentives are introduced, their objective(s) should be clear and the end result (ie what the incentive aims to promote) should be known to be effective in achieving healthy and safe workplaces.
Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John
This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation.
Ye, Yong-ling; Wang, Pei-gang; Qu, Geng-cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-qiang
Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety.
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo (Michael); Ogura, Seiritsu
Health economics, as an interdisciplinary science, has experienced exceptionally bold evolution through the past eight decades. Generations of committed scholars have built up huge body of knowledge and developed a set of methodological tools to assist health-care authorities with resource allocation process. Following its conception at the US National Bureau of Economic Research and Ivy League US Universities, this science has spread across the Globe. It has adapted to a myriad of local conditions and needs of the national health systems with diverse historical legacies, medical services provision, and financing patterns. Challenge of financial sustainability facing modern day health systems remains primarily attributable to population aging, prosperity diseases, large scale migrations, rapid urbanization, and technological innovation in medicine. Despite promising developments in developing countries with emerging BRICS markets on the lead, rising out-of-pocket health spending continues to threaten affordability of medical care. Universal health coverage extension will likely remain serious challenge even for some of the most advanced OECD nations. These complex circumstances create strong drivers for inevitable further development of health economics. We believe that this interdisciplinary health science shall leave long-lasting blue print to be visible for decades to come. PMID:27376055
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Ogura, Seiritsu
Health economics, as an interdisciplinary science, has experienced exceptionally bold evolution through the past eight decades. Generations of committed scholars have built up huge body of knowledge and developed a set of methodological tools to assist health-care authorities with resource allocation process. Following its conception at the US National Bureau of Economic Research and Ivy League US Universities, this science has spread across the Globe. It has adapted to a myriad of local conditions and needs of the national health systems with diverse historical legacies, medical services provision, and financing patterns. Challenge of financial sustainability facing modern day health systems remains primarily attributable to population aging, prosperity diseases, large scale migrations, rapid urbanization, and technological innovation in medicine. Despite promising developments in developing countries with emerging BRICS markets on the lead, rising out-of-pocket health spending continues to threaten affordability of medical care. Universal health coverage extension will likely remain serious challenge even for some of the most advanced OECD nations. These complex circumstances create strong drivers for inevitable further development of health economics. We believe that this interdisciplinary health science shall leave long-lasting blue print to be visible for decades to come.
Nourijelyani, Keramat; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Pakpour, Amir
Background: Parents and teachers involvement reinforce health promotion programs for children's health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers’ lifestyle behavior and its association with children's oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on 383 children and their mothers who were selected from 6 primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Mothers and children who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic questions, knowledge of oral health, attitude towards the oral health behavior, and oral health behaviors. Furthermore, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were assessed by two calibrated dentists. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed model analyses. Results: The average age of the children and their mothers were 11.6 and 38.4 years, respectively. Mothers’ higher knowledge, higher educational status, positive attitude, higher frequent oral health behaviors, lower DMFT and lower CPI were all associated significantly with children’s higher oral health status. Conclusions: The results suggest that to improve children’s oral health, educational interventions should focus on both children and mothers to obtain a more promising outcome. PMID:24719751
Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)
Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.
Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.
Susan P. Phillips
Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and
Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F
Full Text Available Background: India faces multiple threats of diseases. The increasing trend of lifestyle related health problems is becoming a serious issue in India. The best strategy to tackle this changing health concern is adoption of healthy lifestyle and health promotion activities. Objectives: To determine the level of involvement in health promoting behaviors of college students in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: This college based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during September 2007 to June 2008. Results: Two hundred students (F=100, M=100 were studied by using self administered health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP questionnaires. Mean HPLP score was 138.69 (M=137.98, F=139.39. Female students were more likely to have better health promoting practices than their counterpart male students, but difference was not significant. Female students showed more sense of health responsibility than male students (p=0.00, whereas male students were significantly more involved in physical activities than female students (p=0.02. Overall, only few students (18.5% searched health related article from the internet; 26% went for normal health check up in the last year; 13.5% students practiced yoga regularly; 24.5% of them tried to choose diet with low fat content; 30% of them skipped meals regularly, and 25.5% of them ate processed food regularly. Conclusion: The study results showed that college students in Chandigarh had reasonably good orientation towards health promoting practices.
Claudette D. Ncho
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.
Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N
Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.
Fragale, Jennifer E C; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H
Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders.
Fragale, Jennifer E. C.; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.
Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock. In outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, relief increased as shock intensity increased. Likewise, motivation to escape footshock increased as shock intensity increased. To demonstrate the applicability to anxiety disorders, hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement were investigated in anxiety vulnerable Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. WKY rats demonstrated increased motivation for shock cessation with no difference in relief as compared to control SD rats, consistent with a negative bias for motivation in anxiety vulnerability. Moreover, motivation was positively correlated with relief in SD, but not in WKY. This study is the first to assess the hedonic and motivational components of negative reinforcement using behavioral economic analysis. This procedure can be used to investigate positive and negative reinforcement in humans and animals to gain a better understanding of the importance of motivated behavior in stress-related disorders. PMID:28270744
Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that individual socio-economic circumstances throughout life affect health in older ages. However, little attention has been paid to the broad economic context affecting individual's life-chances. This paper examines whether economic downturns experienced during young and mid-adulthood have long-run effects on physical health.METHODS: We exploit data on economic fluctuations in the period 1945-2010 in 11 European countries, linked to longitudinal data from three...
Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve
Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis.
Full Text Available Health has been declared as a fundamental human right in India and several other countries. Theoretical works as well as empirical evidences clearly show the positive linkage between good health and economic development. The policy concern in developing countries including India is not only to reach the entire population with adequate healthcare services, but also to secure an acceptable level of health for all the people through the application of primary healthcare programs. Health insurance is one of the most important aspects of health care management system. This paper identifies the socio economic determinants of demand for health insurance in India taking Hyderabad as the case. For this purpose, a sample survey has been conducted taking 200 sample units in Hyderabad city. The logistic model has been used to identify the determinants of health insurance. We conclude that the main determinants of demand for health insurance in Hyderabad are the occupation, income, health expenditure and awareness. The other variables such as the age and education are positively associated with demand for health insurance but are not statistically significant. In view of these findings, some policy suggestions are made.
Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon
Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…
information about non-prescription methods of contraceptives , including condoms, spermicides, and the Morning After Pill • Analyze and discuss...examine the association of sociodemographic, sexual health behaviors, contraceptive and condom use and a history of unintended pregnancy in soldiers... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with
Gonzalez-Ramirez, Leivy Patricia; De la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, Maria de Lourdes; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Pedroza-Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Arriaga, Reyna Jazmin
Background The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer. Purpose The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ), which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative). Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the sample of men was 0.712 and that for the sample of women was 0.378. Conclusion/implications for practice The HBSCQ represents a proposal for a fast, simple, and innovative screening test, which aims to identify persons who may benefit from interventions to promote health behaviors delimited to the stage of change. PMID:28356769
Groot, Esther de; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; Beukelen, Peter van
INTRODUCTION: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. METHODS: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predi
Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita
Introduction: Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved…
Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.
This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...
Osama M. Mustafa
Full Text Available The high prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals warrants a thorough examination aimed at improving the current understanding of its predictors and preventive measures. Cecil et al. have underscored the alarming prevalence of burnout among medical students and assessed its association with demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral factors. Of interest, health behaviors were found to be predictive of burnout. The study suggests certain behaviors (such as high physical activity to be protective, and thus, calls for their establishment early in college life to prevent the development of this professionally-disabling mental state. Although the adoption of advisable health behaviors may independently reduce the risk of burnout, recognition of the existence and influence of closely related factors allows for an enhanced understanding and a greater precision for any conclusions to be made. Personality, through deductive and inductive reasoning, is likely to exert significant influence on both the student's behavior and his/her susceptibility to burnout. Thus, with personality representing – in and of itself – a principal model for prediction of burnout risk, controlling for personality traits when addressing health behaviors’ influence per se on burnout is essential.
BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come.
Moran, Tracy E; O'Hara, Michael W
Determinants of pediatric health care use extend beyond the health status of the child and economic and access considerations. Parental factors, particularly those associated with the mother, are critical. The common sense model of health and illness behaviors, which was developed to account for adult health care use, may constitute a framework to study the role of mothers in determining pediatric health care use. In the common sense model, the person's cognitive representations of and affective reactions to bodily states influence health care decision-making. There is a growing literature that points to the importance of maternal psychopathology (reflecting the affective component of the common sense model) and maternal parenting self-efficacy (reflecting the cognitive component of the model) as important contributors to pediatric health care use. The implications of this conceptualization for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Rosenstein, Alan H
Disruptive behaviors have been shown to have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, team collaboration, communication flow, and patient outcomes of care. They can be a major factor in contributing to the occurrence of adverse events that compromise quality care and patient safety and can put the patient and organization at increased risk. Whereas organizations generally are not reticent to make system enhancements designed to improve patient safety, they are more reluctant to address human factor issues such as disruptive behaviors for a variety of reasons. This article presents a 10-step process for addressing both the economic and quality impact of disruptive behaviors in an attempt to stimulate a call to action.
Stiles, R A; Mick, S S; Wise, C G
Health care is, at its core, comprised of complex sequences of transactions among patients, providers, and other stakeholders; these transactions occur in markets as well as within systems and organizations. Health care transactions serve one of two functions: the production of care (i.e., the laying on of hands) or the coordination of that care (i.e., scheduling, logistics). Because coordinating transactions is integral to care delivery, it is imperative that they are executed smoothly and efficiently. Transaction cost economics (TCE) is a conceptual framework for analyzing health care transactions and quantifying their impact on health care structures (organizational forms), processes, and outcomes.
Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.
Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…
Objective To explore the impact of ideal health behaviors and health factors on the detection rate of the carotid plaques. Methods Subjects with previous stroke,TIA,myocardial infarction were excluded from the study.A total of 5 852 employees(active and retired employers