WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral health economics

  1. Behavioral Economics and Health Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Frank

    2004-01-01

    The health sector is filled with institutions and decision-making circumstances that create friction in markets and cognitive errors by decision makers. This paper examines the potential contributions to health economics of the ideas of behavioral economics. The discussion presented here focuses on the economics of doctor-patient interactions and some aspects of quality of care. It also touches on issues related to insurance and the demand for health care. The paper argues that long standing ...

  2. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics ...

  3. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  4. The economics of risky health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, John; Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Risky health behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, drug use, unprotected sex, and poor diets and sedentary lifestyles (leading to obesity) are a major source of preventable deaths. This chapter overviews the theoretical frameworks for, and empirical evidence on, the economics of risky health behaviors. It describes traditional economic approaches emphasizing utility maximization that, under certain assumptions, result in Pareto-optimal outcomes and a limited role for policy interventio...

  5. Essays in Health Economics: Understanding Risky Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Abigail Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents three papers applying health economics to the study of risky behaviors. The first uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationship between adverse events and risky behaviors among adolescents. Substance use responses to experiencing either of two adverse events--violent crime victimization or death of a non-family member one felt close to--explain 6.7 percent of first cigarette use, and 14.3 percent of first use of illegal dr...

  6. Mental health and health behaviors following an economic collapse: The case of Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Christopher B., 1988-

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Few comprehensive epidemiologic studies exist on the effects of the 2008 economic recession on health outcomes. With Iceland as a prime candidate for examination, the aims of the studies were to explore the effects of the 2008 economic collapse on the mental and behavioral health of an entire population. Design: All aims were ascertained using a cohort (n=4100) of respondents to a mail health survey conducted by the Public Health Institute of Iceland, titled Health and...

  7. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  8. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  9. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy: Illustrative Examples and Promising Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Cawley, John H; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M; Yokum, David V

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  10. Encouraging Healthful Dietary Behavior in a Hospital Cafeteria: A Field Study Using Theories from Social Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Mary Carol

    2013-01-01

    Public policy efforts to curb obesity often adhere to a rational actor model of human behavior, asserting that consumer behavior will change provided proper economic incentives, nutritional information, and health education. However, rigorous academic research related to such questions remains limited in scope and appears inconclusive as to the success of such economic and cognitive interventions. In contrast, research in social psychology and behavioral economics suggests that decision mak...

  11. Are Recessions Good for Your Health Behaviors? Impacts of the Economic Crisis in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir; Hope Corman; Kelly Noonan; Þórhildur Ólafsdóttir 1990; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    This study exploits the October 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. Using longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post- reports from the same individuals, we investigate the effects of the crisis on smoking, heavy drinking, dietary behaviors, sleep, and other health behaviors and investigate changes in work hours, real income, wealth, and mental health as potential mediators. We also consider the role of pr...

  12. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  13. The Future of Health Economics: The Potential of Behavioral and Experimental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Hansen; Anders Anell; Ulf-G Gerdtham; Carl Hampus Lyttkens

    2013-01-01

    The health care systems in the Nordic countries are facing key challenges. While the possibilities and willingness to expand health care resources are limited, the demand for health care are increasing due to continuous development of new medical technologies, changing demographics, increasing income level and greater expectations from patients. Consequently, health care organizations are increasingly required to take economic restrictions into account and there is an urgent need to improve t...

  14. The Economics of Health Behavior and Vitamin Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeter, Christiane; Anders, Sven M.; Carlson, Andrea; Rickard, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    Conventionally, fruits and vegetables have been the major source of micronutrients. However, with the rising availability of nutritional supplements, U.S. consumers no longer need to rely on food alone for their nutritional needs. Time-pressured consumers with limited cooking skills and nutrition knowledge may find it easier to take vitamin supplements. The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of lifestyle, diet behavior including vitamin supplement consumption, and food culture...

  15. Approaches based on behavioral economics could help nudge patients and providers toward lower health spending growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dominic; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara

    2013-04-01

    Policies that change the environment or context in which decisions are made and "nudge" people toward particular choices have been relatively ignored in health care. This article examines the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in "nudging" providers and patients in ways that could slow health care spending growth. The basic insight of behavioral economics is that behavior is guided by the very fallible human brain and greatly influenced by the environment or context in which choices are made. In policy arenas such as pensions and personal savings, approaches based on behavioral economics have provided notable results. In health care, such approaches have been used successfully but in limited ways, as in the use of surgical checklists that have increased patient safety and reduced costs. With health care spending climbing at unsustainable rates, we review the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in offering policy makers a potential set of new tools to slow spending growth. PMID:23569045

  16. Was the economic crisis of 2008 good for Icelanders? Impact on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Ólafsdóttir, Þórhildur; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    This study uses the 2008 economic crisis in Iceland to identify the effects of a macroeconomic downturn on a range of health behaviors. We use longitudinal survey data that include pre- and post-reports from the same individuals on a range of health-compromising and health-promoting behaviors. We find that the crisis led to large and significant reductions in health-compromising behaviors (such as smoking, drinking alcohol or soft drinks, and eating sweets) and certain health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables), but to increases in other health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fish oil and recommended sleep). The magnitudes of effects for smoking are somewhat larger than what has been found in past research in other contexts, while those for alcohol, fruits, and vegetables are in line with estimates from other studies. Changes in work hours, real income, financial assets, mortgage debt, and mental health, together, explain the effects of the crisis on some behaviors (such as consumption of sweets and fast food), while the effects of the crisis on most other behaviors appear to have operated largely through price increases. PMID:23659821

  17. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and econom

  18. Is Behavioral Economics Doomed?

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Levine

    2013-01-01

    It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics — an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics — has become all the rage. In this book, David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. H...

  19. Behavioral Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral economics has in recent decades emerged as a prominent set of methodological developments that have attracted considerable attention both within and outside the economics profession. The time is therefore auspicious to assess behavioral contributions to particular subfields of economics such as labor economics. With empirical validity among its chief objectives, one might guess that behavioral economics would have made its clearest mark in data-driven subfields such as labor econom...

  20. Health Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Abay; Lamanna, Francesca; Klasen, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The 'missing women' dilemma in India has sparked great interest in investigating gender discrimination in the provision of health care in the country. No studies, however, have directly examined discrimination in health-care financing strategies in the case of severe illness of sons versus daughters. In this paper, we hypothesize that households who face tight budget constraints are more likely to spend their meager resources on hospitalization of boys rather than girls. We use the 60th round...

  1. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve...

  2. Low Self-Esteem during Adolescence Predicts Poor Health, Criminal Behavior, and Limited Economic Prospects during Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Robins, Richard W.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2006-01-01

    Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior during adulthood, compared with adolescents with high self-esteem. The long-term…

  3. Health Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Sarah; Chirwa, Ephraim; McIntosh, Craig; Ozler, Berk

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrolment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized ongoing CCT intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent d...

  4. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; List, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  5. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  6. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  7. Behavioral economics and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some relations between elasticity of demand and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change, in ways suggested by the metaphor of behavioral momentum; some relations between resistance to change and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of elasticity of demand, in ways suggested by behavioral economics. In addition, some data on labor supply in relation to variable-ratio schedules and alternative reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change and compared with steady-state resistance data for performance on multiple and concurrent interval schedules. The results of these studies can be summarized by two functions based on the behavioral momentum approach, relating relative behavioral mass to relative reinforcement per response or per unit time. The former is a relation between relative unit price and relative behavioral mass, suggesting the possibility of convergent measurement of a theoretical construct common to both approaches. However, the momentum and economic approaches differ fundamentally on whether it is preferable to construe discriminated operant behavior as selected and strengthened by its consequences or as part of a behavior-consequence bundle that maximizes utility. PMID:16812775

  8. Behavioral economics: merging psychology and economics for lifestyle interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change. PMID:23332337

  9. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  10. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  11. Health economics of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Borgström, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Health economics is concerned about how the scarce resources should most efficiently be allocated to maximise the health outcomes. Health economic evaluation is a method for assessing costs and benefits of alternative treatment strategies for allocating resources to assist decisions aiming at improving efficiency. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility...

  12. Essays in Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two chapters on behavioral economics.Chapter one analyzes mutual fund flows from 1999 to 2012 to provide evidence that financial advisers exploit their clients' extrapolative beliefs to sell funds that pay high commissions. Utilizing comparisons between twin retail mutual fund share classes that differ only in commissions, I find a strong positive correlation between commission levels and return chasing. Fund flows from high commission shares show increased purch...

  13. Unemployment, measured and perceived decline of economic resources: contrasting three measures of recessionary hardships and their implications for adopting negative health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A

    2014-04-01

    Economic downturns could have long-term impacts on population health if they promote changes in health behaviors, but the evidence for whether people are more or less likely to adopt negative health behaviors in economically challenging times has been mixed. This paper argues that researchers need to draw more careful distinctions amongst different types of recessionary hardships and the mechanisms that may underlie their associations with health behaviors. We focus on unemployment experience, measured decline in economic resources, and perceived decline in economic resources, all of which are likely to occur more often during recessions, and explore whether their associations with health behaviors are consistent or different. We use population-based longitudinal data collected by the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study in the wake of the Great Recession in the United States. We evaluate whether those who had experienced each of these three hardships were more likely to adopt new negative health behaviors, specifically cigarette smoking, harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption, or marijuana consumption. We find that, net of controls and the other two recessionary hardships, unemployment experience was associated with increased hazard of starting marijuana use. Measured decline in economic resources was associated with increased hazard of cigarette smoking and lower hazard of starting marijuana use. Perceived decline in economic resources was linked to taking up harmful and hazardous drinking. Our results suggest heterogeneity in the pathways that connect hardship experiences and different health behaviors. They also indicate that relying on only one measure of hardship, as many past studies have done, could lead to an incomplete understanding of the relationship between economic distress and health behaviors. PMID:24530614

  14. Behavioral Economics and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Jolls, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the endowment effect and other features of behavioral economics feature prominently and have been applied to many important legal questions.

  15. Health economics and orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, N; Gray, A

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming widely accepted that research which considers only the outcome and not the costs associated with new technologies in health care, is of limited value in making decisions about the use of scarce resources. Economic evaluation is becoming a standard feature of clinical research but many published economic evaluations fall short of best practice in their methodology. We have described the essential features of economic evaluation, using published studies in orthopaedics, in order to try to improve the ability of orthopaedic surgeons to read, understand and appraise such studies critically, and to encourage them to consider including economic evaluation in future investigations. PMID:10697306

  16. Behavioral Economics: Past, Present, Future

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.; Loewenstein, George

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral economics increases the explanatory power of economics by providing it with more realistic psychological foundations. This book consists of representative recent articles in behavioral economics. This chapter is intended to provide an introduction to the approach and methods of behavioral economics, and to some of its major findings, applications, and promising new directions. It also seeks to fill some unavoidable gaps in the chapters’ coverage of topics.

  17. Health Economics in Radiology Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Tofighi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Economics and management are disciplines which are theoretically interdependent and highly intercalated in practice. The manager develops main policies, values, goals and guidelines and at the same time suggests different ways achieving the objectives. The economist suggests the most efficient and effective way. As a matter of fact, there is no institution, for- or non-for-profit, in the world having no concern on economic and financial issues. While all institutions consider cost containment and revenue increase approaches, employing rational and mathematical techniques would be inevitable; systematic and approved tools and logics, undoubtedly would lead better results. The economics, having structured and logical framework, can handle these issues properly. In the economics, providers' and consumers' behaviors are analyzed, seeking the optimum points for demand and supply, and price. The health sector's leaders and policy makers are supposed to develop a situation appropriate for resource-directed and needs-driven behaviors, using legal, financial and other control knobs, the behaviors that eventually end distributive and utility equity in health services. "nAchieving equity in distribution of facilities concomitant with equity in availability and equity in utility are the main concerns of the people and the leaders of the societies. In addition, affordability of the health costs for the majority of the community, and financing for supposed services have led the policy makers to search for cost containment approaches, and some kind of rationing of the services. "nHealth economist deals with applying the two level economics in radiology departments. Micro-economics at the level of institutions, which discusses regulating processes and decisions in order to minimize the expenditures and maximize the revenues via a variety of initiatives, such as customer satisfaction and motivated staff, improving the processes, and reducing the

  18. [Cancer and health economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  19. Socio-economic Aspects of Health-Related Behaviors and Their Dynamics: A Case Study for the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rezayatmand; Milena Pavlova; Wim Groot

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have mostly focused on socio-demographic and health-related determinants of health-related behaviors. Although comprehensive health insurance coverage could discourage individual lifestyle improvement due to the ex-ante moral hazard problem, few studies have examined such effects. This study examines the association of a comprehensive set of factors including socio-demographic, health status, health insurance, and perceived change in health insurance coverage w...

  20. Behavioral Economics and Institutional Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral economics has played a fundamental role historically in innovation in economic institutions, even long before behavioral economics was recognized as a discipline. Examples from history, notably that of the invention of workers’ compensation, illustrate this point. Though scholarly discussion develops over decades, actual innovation tends to occur episodically, particularly at times of economic crisis. Fortunately, some of the major professional societies, the Verein fur Sozialpolit...

  1. Behavioral Economics: A Maverick Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    These are the notes from the first half of a course in behavioral economics offered in Uruguay in November 2014. This part of the course, entirely verbal, was aimed at outlining the essentials of behavioral economics. The principal assignments were from the second edition of Edward Cartwright’s Behavioral Economics. The second part of the course, taught by Dr. Martin Egozcue, is not included. It emphasized prospect theory, mental accounts and inter-temporal decision making, and featured subst...

  2. Health Economics : some stylized facts

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe ULMANN

    2003-01-01

    The study of the stylized facts of economic growth has allowed an advance of this field of economic analysis in its empirical and theorical works. Today, Health Economics is faced with new requirements of society, i.e. better care at a sustainable cost. Furthermore, since the problems linked with health care system and with the health status are more and more connected with the economic sphere, a global approach of Health Economics proves necessary. Prior to the development of such an approac...

  3. Socio-economic Aspects of Health-Related Behaviors and Their Dynamics: A Case Study for the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezayatmand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have mostly focused on socio-demographic and health-related determinants of health-related behaviors. Although comprehensive health insurance coverage could discourage individual lifestyle improvement due to the ex-ante moral hazard problem, few studies have examined such effects. This study examines the association of a comprehensive set of factors including socio-demographic, health status, health insurance, and perceived change in health insurance coverage with health-related behaviors and their dynamics (ie, changes in behavior. Methods Using Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE data (a European aging survey among 50+ years old for the Netherlands in 2004 and 2007 (sample size: 1745, binary and multinomial logit models are employed to study health-related behaviors (daily smoking, excessive alcohol use, and physical inactivity in 2004 and their corresponding changes (stopping or starting unhealthy behavior between 2004 and 2007. Results Our findings show that being older, being female, having higher education and living with a partner increase the likelihood not to be a daily smoker or to stop daily smoking. At the same time, being older (OR = 3.02 [1.31, 6.95] and being female (OR = 1.77 [1.05, 2.96] increases the likelihood to be or to become physically inactive. We also find that worse perceived health insurance coverage in 2007 is associated with a lower likelihood (OR = 0.19 [0.06, 0.57] of stopping excessive alcohol use in that year. However, we do not find a strong association between the type of health insurance and health behavior. Conclusion Our findings show that all above mentioned factors (ie, socio-demographic and health status factors are associated with health-related behavior but not in a consistent way across all behaviors. Moreover, the dynamics of each behavior (positive or negative change is not necessarily determined by the same factors that determine the state of that

  4. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  5. Economic rationality and ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Le Menestrel, Marc

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (...

  6. European Conference on Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own. PMID:21155696

  7. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, su...

  8. Economic Behavior of Restaurant Tipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tin-Chun Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a thoughtful discussion of social norms and alternative economic viewpoints and analysis of restaurant tipping behavior. A survey of Louisiana residents was conducted to collect public opinions about tipping. The analysis suggests that social norms are indeed the primary reason for diner tipping. As long as consumer behavior is guided by social norms, social norms will costs for diners. The conclusion suggests that if customer's tipping behavior were completely guided by soc...

  9. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  10. Economic Analysis for Health Projects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Jeffrey S.

    1997-01-01

    The author applies to the health sector an approach to analyzing projects advocated in a recent paper by Devarajan, Squire, and Suthiwart-Narueput. In the health sector, a project evaluation should: 1) Establish a firm justification for public involvement. The author identifies a number of common failures in the markets for both health services and insurance but argues that this should be the starting place for economic analysis, not a reason to ignore economics; 2) Establish the counterfactu...

  11. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design. PMID:25024182

  12. Economic Health Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Professor Xiao Zhuoji, an economist at the prestigious Peking University, has always been optimistic about the stability of the Chinese economy. In an exclusive interview with People's Daily, he shares his views on "hot spots" in China's economic growth.

  13. Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekar, B.R.; Reddy, C.V.K.; Manjunath, B. C.; S Suma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting den...

  14. Health economic analysis of screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krauth, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article health economic implications of screening are analysed. First, requirements screening programmes should fulfil are derived, and methodical standards of health economic evaluation are outlined. Using the example of newborn hearing screening, it is then examined if empirical studies meet the methodical requirements of health economic evaluation. Some deficits are realised: Health economic studies of newborn hearing screening are not randomised, most studies are even not controlled. Therefore, most studies do not present incremental, but only average cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e. cost per case identified. Furthermore, evidence on long-term outcomes of screening and early interventions is insufficient. In conclusion, there is a need for controlled trials to examine differences in identified cases, but particularly to examine long-term effects.

  15. Behavioral economics and policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral economics posits a number of cognitive biases and limitations, which raises questions as to whether revealed willingness to pay equals true willingness to pay. If so, benefit-cost analysis, with a number of methodological advantages, would need to be replaced. Prior analyses of the issue by Sunstein, Sugden, and Bernheim and Rangel fail to offer guidance that would avoid substituting centralized judgments for decentralized information on benefits and costs. Alternatives including u...

  16. Economic Evaluation of Health IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Daniela; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Tamburis, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation in health care supports decision makers in prioritizing interventions and maximizing the available limited resources for social benefits. Health Information Technology (health IT) constitutes a promising strategy to improve the quality and delivery of health care. However, to determine whether the appropriate health IT solution has been selected in a specific health context, its impact on the clinical and organizational process, on costs, on user satisfaction as well as on patient outcomes, a rigorous and multidimensional evaluation analysis is necessary. Starting from the principles of evaluation introduced since the mid-1980s within the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines, this contribution provides an overview of the main challenging issues related to the complex task of performing an economic evaluation of health IT. A set of necessary key principles to deliver a proper design and implementation of a multidimensional economic evaluation study is described, focusing in particular on the classification of costs and outcomes as well as on the type of economic analysis to be performed. A case study is eventually described to show how the key principles introduced are applied. PMID:27198101

  17. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  18. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  19. The SIGMA plants economic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the economical behavior of the Uranium Enrichment Plants, built using the Gaseous Isotopic Separation using Advanced Methods (SIGMA) (Separacion Isotopica Gaseosa por Metodos Avanzados) technology is analyzed. The calculations were made using an integrated computer code, where the cost of each main component of the plant is estimated. The program computes the production cost for several configurations of enrichment cascades, each one corresponding to a production rate. The program also includes a numerical optimizer and it seeks the SIGMA optimal configuration for a given set of design parameters. The present work does not contemplate the model and calculation of the auxiliary system costs. The total amortization cost is obtained by using the cascade capital cost and assuming that the auxiliary system represents a fixed part of the total cost.The results obtained show that the SIGMA technology for Enrichment Uranium Plants could achieve economical competition in a much lower production scale than the conventional Gaseous Diffusion Enrichment Plants. (author)

  20. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  1. Behavioral Economics: Cognitive Biases, Social Preferences and Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Luppi Barbara; Zarri Luca

    2009-01-01

    As far as recent developments in economic theory are concerned, "Behavioral Economics" constitutes one of the most promising frontiers in the last ten years, as the Nobel Prize for Economics recently won by the social psychologist Daniel Kahneman and the prestigious John Bates Clark Medal granted to the young economist Matthew Rabin testify. It is then worth asking the following questions: what is, exactly, Behavioral Economics? What are the reasons behind its recent success? This survey aims...

  2. Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Chandra Shekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting dentist on routine basis, oral hygiene practices, and deleterious oral habits. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of per capita income was used to classify individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES categories. Data were entered onto a personal computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: Awareness on dental diseases was 100% in upper SES and nil (0% in the lower SES. Visit to dentist in the last 1 year was 100% in the upper SES and 32.3% in the lower SES. The prevalence of smoking, pan-chewing, and alcohol consumption was high in lower SES than in upper SES. Oral hygiene practices were better among the subjects in upper class than the lower ones. Conclusion: A direct relation was noted between the favorable dental health awareness, attitude, oral hygiene behavior, and SES.

  3. Application of Economic Concepts on Religious Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Esa Mangeloja

    2003-01-01

    This survey gathers the current state of research activity on the emerging economic sub-area Economics of Religion. The religious beliefs and activities are analyzed from the viewpoint of economic theory and behavior. The advanced statistical tools and theoretical formulations of economic science can be applied to various problems of religious activity, dogma and social context. Analysis of interrelationship between economic and religious behavior increases our understanding of the nature and...

  4. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  5. Reconciling Psychology with Economics - Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating

    OpenAIRE

    Trenton Smith

    2006-01-01

    Reconciling Psychology with Economics: Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating Abstract: The modern phenomenon of obesity is an archetypal example of a behavior whose explanation simultaneously falls within the purview of psychology, economics, and the biological sciences. While psychologists and advocates of public health have long viewed overeating as a weakness or disease in need of treatment, economists have pointed out that "like any other consumer behavior" choices about di...

  6. Essays in applied health economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Dolores de la

    2011-01-01

    Mi trabajo de investigación realizado para la obtención del grado de Doctor en Economía consta de tres capítulos: 1) "The effect of Medicaid on Children's Health: A Regression Discontinuity Approach", 2) "Spillovers of Health Education at School on Parents' Physical Activity" (en coautor a con Lucila Berniell y Nieves Valdés), y 3) "Estimating a dynamic discrete choice model of health prevention decisions. An application to flu vaccination". En el primer capítulo estudio el ef...

  7. [Health economics and antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, P; Bigdéli, M

    1995-01-01

    In the field of antibiotic therapy, particularly the methods of economic evaluation hold one's attention within the wide range of health economics' applications. Several tools allow a comparison of the outcomes of alternative strategies and thereby guide choices to the most appropriate solutions. After a brief recall of the methods classically used to evaluate health care strategy, the authors stress the importance and difficulty of fixing and applying a correct and satisfactory procedure for evaluation. An evaluation example of antibiotic therapy allows to illustrate the application of the principles confronting a field in which competition is intense and economic stakes stay large--a fact which naturally yields to seek after objective decision making criteria. The health care policies drawn by public authorities as well as the marketing strategies of the health sector trade are partly based on such evaluations. If these techniques are not intended for the practitioner in the first place, they should not be indifferent to him since they influence health authorities and thereby indirectly affect the therapeutic freedom of the physician. PMID:7481251

  8. Does Health Matter for Economic Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Jangraiz; Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper reviewed extensive theoretical and empirical studies which emphasize the role human capital in form of health, in economic growth. Most of the studies used proxies like life expectancy, infant mortality rate and health expenditure to estimate the effects of health on economic growth. Majority of the studies agree the positive impact of health on the economic growth and suggest investment in health to achieve sustained economic growth.Keywords. Health, human capital, econo...

  9. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  10. Behavioral Economics: A Tutorial for Behavior Analysts in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research i...

  11. Comparative Effectiveness Research as Choice Architecture: The Behavioral Law and Economics Solution to the Health Care Cost Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The primary market-based approach to reining in health care costs is generally referred to in policy discussions as “consumer directed health care” (“CDHC”). The simple idea underlying CDHC is that patients will demand less care if they are burdened with a greater responsibility for paying the actual cost of that care than is common in our current system, in which costs are largely borne by public or private health insurance with little patient cost sharing. CDHC implicitly relies on the “rat...

  12. Comparative effectiveness research as choice architecture: the behavioral law and economics solution to the health care cost crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-02-01

    With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs. PMID:24446572

  13. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. PMID:23206642

  14. Behavioral economic influences on treatments designed to decrease destructive behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, A C; Fisher, W W

    2001-01-01

    In behavioral economics terms, response allocation is viewed as an exchange between the price of and the demand for reinforcers associated with various responses. In this study, behavioral economics principles were used to develop and evaluate a treatment package that reduced destructive behavior to zero while communication and compliance were increased.

  15. HIV Testing, Subjective Beliefs and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca L. Thornton

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of learning HIV status on economic behavior among rural Malawians. According to economic life-cycle models, if learning HIV results is informative about additional years of life, being diagnosed HIV-positive or negative should predict changes in consumption, investment and savings behavior with important micro and macro-economic implications. Using an experiment that randomly assigned incentives to learn HIV results, I find that while learning HIV results had s...

  16. Behavioral economics and its applications in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories in economics state that people make their decisions in order to maximize their utility function and all the relevant constraints and preferences are included and weighted appropriately. In other words, in standard models, it is usually assumed that decision makers are fully rational. However, some studies in behavioral economics and finance suggest that individuals deviate from standard models. Behavioral economic models try to make standard models more realistic by modif...

  17. Education, Cognition, Health Knowledge, and Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mocan, Naci; Duha T. Altindag

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the NLSY97 we analyze the impact of education on health behaviors, measured by smoking and heavy drinking. Controlling for health knowledge does not influence the impact of education on health behaviors, supporting the productive efficiency hypothesis. Although cognition, as measured by test scores, appears to have an effect on the relationship between education and health behaviors, this effect disappears once the models control for family fixed effects. Similarly, the impact...

  18. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  19. Economic Behavior in Political Context

    OpenAIRE

    Larry M. Bartels; Henry E. Brady

    2003-01-01

    Inviting political scientists to tell economists how they could do better work is an act of disciplinary generosity. The reality is that contemporary political science is a net importer of ideas and methods from other disciplines, and from none more than economics. Indeed, some of the most exciting research in political science in the past 40 years has involved the incorporation of ideas from economics. We have neither the space nor the mandate to summarize that research here, but refer inter...

  20. Focus On Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Long stigmatized, behavioral health conditions are finally becoming a focal point not just for policy makers but also in public discussions about the well-being of the United States. This is in part because of a rising opioid epidemic; the concentration of people with mental illnesses in prisons and jails; and a greater appreciation of the toll taken by depression and other mental disorders on individuals, families, and the economy. The United States spends more on mental health and addiction than on any other medical condition, including heart disease, trauma, and cancer. Within this spending, there's been a shift toward outpatient and other types of community treatment and away from inpatient care. Meanwhile, the Affordable Care Act has made it possible for more people with serious mental illnesses to obtain care, but treatment rates for racial and ethnic minorities still trail those of whites. PMID:27269009

  1. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neațu Alina-Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavioral economics combines insights of psychology, sociology and economics in trying to better understand and predict human decision-making. At the intersection of economic studies with social sciences, behavioral economics succeeds to demonstrate, using laboratory tests and experiments, that on a shorter term people are quite capable to perform profitable economic computations and adopt rational behaviors, but on a long term run they easily become fallible in performing rational mental accounting and are vulnerable to several factors such as emotions, certain mass-manipulation techniques, lack of self control or procrastination, etc. Extended research in the field of behavioral economics reports many other various behavioral anomalies that may have the ability to explain seemingly irrational and unpredictable responses of individuals, in general, and entrepreneurs, in particular – especially when finding themselves in conditions of risk, uncertainty or incomplete information. Furthermore, the elevated consistency of these abnormalities suggests that they are divergent only to our traditional models, but that they could otherwise be the norm. The present article seeks to explain how such insights from behavioral economics may help us better understand and enhance our perspective on entrepreneurship, what are some of the most frequent biases characteristic to entrepreneurial behavior and decision-making, accounting as most notable for the field of

  2. Behavioral Law and Economics: Empirical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Originally, behavioral law and economics was an exercise in exploring the implications of key findings from behavioral economics (and psychology) for the analysis and reform of legal institutions. Yet as the new discipline matures, it increasingly replaces foreign evidence by fresh evidence, directly targeted to the legal research question. This chapter surveys the key methods: field evidence, survey data, vignette and lab experiment, discusses their pros and cons, illustrates them with key p...

  3. Happiness, Behavioral Economics, and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Arik Levinson

    2013-01-01

    The economics of "happiness" shares a feature with behavioral economics that raises questions about its usefulness in public policy analysis. What happiness economists call "habituation" refers to the fact that people's reported well-being reverts to a base level, even after major life events such as a disabling injury or winning the lottery. What behavioral economists call "projection bias" refers to the fact that people systematically mistake current circumstances for permanence, buying too...

  4. [Economics of health care in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, S O; Keita, M

    1996-01-01

    From the results obtained regarding the financing of health care in Mali, we emphasize two important points. First, there is a lack of criteria for the distribution of finding in the health care sector, resulting in a waste of resources. Secondly, there is an absence of adequate pharmaceutical policies. The field studies led in 1987 provided the following observations. The rate of occupation of the beds is very low. Also, the numerous new investments are not yet put into service because of the lack of necessary equipment of qualified personnel. In addition, this does not consider the excessive investments occurring in certain localities where neither the rate of frequentation nor the economic conditions will ever allow the use of the capacity created. Among the possible solutions for the crisis of health care funding in Mali, the following should be priority: first, to fight against the complete lack of organization of the activities at the health care centers; secondly, to fight against the waste and misappropriation of money resulting from the behavior of the medical and paramedical personnel: and thirdly, to clarify the management of the resources coming from the charges for each service. The pharmaceutical policies adopted and implemented in recent years Largely contributed to, first, the creation of competition between essential generic medications and nongeneric medications that can be replaced, and then, the destruction of the public network of drug distribution. These conditions considerably limited the distribution of essential medications; yet, this is the only manner of reducing the pharmaceutical expenses and accordingly, allowing more funding for other medical services. As the distribution network is disorganized, the only alternative for the population to obtain the medications at the lowest price was to create centers of purchasing and distribution and to multiply the number of retailers of essential medications. Extensive work has been conducted in

  5. ENTREPRENEURSIPH IN ROMANIA. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Neațu Alina-Maria; Imbrișcă Cosmin-Ionuț

    2015-01-01

    Economics provides insight into how entrepreneurship influences growth and development and, on the other hand, how the macro structure of a region or country impacts the type and abundance of entrepreneurship. Economic analysis provides insights for scholars, guides practitioners and policymakers. From a broader perspective, economic theories guide the understanding of human behaviors and the constant quest toward realization, comprehension and improvement of human condition. Moreover, behavi...

  6. Denial of Death and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Kopczuk; Joel Slemrod

    2005-01-01

    We model denial of death and its effect on economic behavior. Attempts to reduce death anxiety and the possibility of denial of mortality-relevant information interact with intertemporal choices and may lead to time-inconsistent behavior and other "behavioral" phenomena. In the model, repression of signals of mortality leads to underconsumption for unsophisticated individuals, but forward-sophisticated individuals may over-consume in anticipation of future denial and may seek ways to commit t...

  7. Essays in Behavioral Economics and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Saccardo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation examines the behavioral factors that affect the emergence of unethical behaviors and inequalities in today’s society. Using insights from behavioral economics and experimental methods, I investigate the drivers of phenomena such as corruption, dishonesty, ethnic-discrimination, and gender-based differences in preferences.Chapter 1 explores the mechanism through which receiving bribes leads evaluators to distort choices. In both a laboratory experiment in the US and an experime...

  8. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D.; Cooke, A; Dunning, D.; Epley, N; Gneezy, U.; Koszegi, B.; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N.; Mullainathan, S.; Prelec, D.; Shafir, E; Silva, J.

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  9. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  10. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  11. Drinking Behavior. The Icelandic Economic Crisis and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgerður Theodóra Björnsdóttir 1959

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, in particular excessive alcohol consumption, imposes high costs on societies through consequences, such as lost productivity, early mortality, health-care costs, car accidents and crime. The main objective of this study is to examine how drinking behavior developed over an economic boom, subsequent crisis, and an eventual recovery. We use individual longitudinal data collected through a postal survey by The Directorate of Health in Iceland in 2007, 2009 and 2012. Pooled O...

  12. Public health interventions: evaluating the economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed much progress in the incorporation of economic considerations into the evaluation of public health interventions. In England, the Centre for Public Health Excellence within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence works to develop guidance for preventing illness and assessing which public health interventions are most effective and provide best value for money...

  13. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  14. Dynamical systems theory and complicated economic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R H

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in mathematics show that more-or-less random behavior and spontaneously evolving structures can be given analytical and deterministic representations. Empirical simulation and theoretical models have been developed in economics that have similar capacities. This suggests that we are entering a new period when structural change and inherently unpredictable events can be explained or understood in terms of endogenous economic forces. In this paper several important related d...

  15. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong, R; Mistry, H.; Frew, E

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and sup...

  16. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  17. MODELING ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN CONTEMPORARY CONDITIONS OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Zubenko, V.; Tolstova, A.

    2011-01-01

    In article features of economic behaviour in socialist system are investigated, its influence on formation of economic behavior of modern subjects of managing and the basic levers and factors which will allow regulating, model economic behavior are defined.

  18. Health Care Quality and Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jappelli, Tullio; Pistaferri, Luigi; Weber, Guglielmo

    2004-01-01

    We argue that health care quality has an important impact on economic inequality and on saving behaviour. We exploit district-wide variability in health care quality provided by the Italian universal public health system to identify the effect of quality on income inequality, health inequality and precautionary saving. We find that in lower quality districts there is greater income and health dispersion and higher precautionary saving. The analysis carries important insights for the ongoing d...

  19. Economic Evaluation Enhances Public Health Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Rabarison, Kristina M.; Connie L. Bish; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking “how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical ...

  20. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jasińska; Katarzyna Żułtak-Bączkowska; Bożena Mroczek; Artur Kotwas; Ewa Kemicer-Chmielewska; Beata Karakiewicz; Andrzej Starczewski

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a com...

  1. Economic Cycles in a Behavioral Disequilibrium Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews the characteristic features of the main economic cycles and discusses the behavioral foundation for each mode at the microlevel. The analysis continues to illustrate some of the nonlinear dynamic phenomena that can arise through interaction between the various modes and through...

  2. Behavioral Economics and Empirical Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Steven R.; Roma, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The application of economics principles to the analysis of behavior has yielded novel insights on value and choice across contexts ranging from laboratory animal research to clinical populations to national trends of global impact. Recent innovations in demand curve methods provide a credible means of quantitatively comparing qualitatively…

  3. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  4. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  5. Is behavioral economics doomed? : The ordinary versus the extraordinary

    OpenAIRE

    David K. Levine

    2012-01-01

    It is fashionable to criticize economic theory for focusing too much on rationality and ignoring the imperfect and emotional way in which real economic decisions are reached. All of us facing the global economic crisis wonder just how rational economic men and women can be. Behavioral economics - an effort to incorporate psychological ideas into economics - has become all the rage. In this book, David K. Levine questions the idea that behavioral economics is the answer to economic problems. H...

  6. Hypertension, a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana

    2008-06-01

    The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment. PMID:19124418

  7. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  8. [HEALTH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FAIR DECISION MAKING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeantet, Marine; Lopez, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Health technology assessment consists in evaluating the incremental cost-benefit ratio of a medicine, a medical device, a vaccine, a health strategy, in comparison to alternative health technologies. This form of socio-eoonomic evaluation aims at optimizing resource allocation within the health system. By setting the terms of valid alternatives, it is useful to highlight public choices, but it cannot in itself make the decision as regards the public funding of patient's access to the considered technology. The decision to include such technology in the basket of health goods and sercices covered, the levels and conditions of the coverage, also result from budget constraints, from economic situation and from a political vision about health policy, social protection and public expenditure. Accordingly, health economic analysis must be implemented on specific and targeted topics. The decision making process, with its health, economic and ethical stakes, calls for a public procedure and debate, based on shared information and argument. Otherwise, health system regulation, confronted with radical and costly innovations in the coming years, will become harder to handle. This requires the development of health economic research teams able to contribute to this assessment exercise. PMID:26619723

  9. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF INSUFFICIENT HEALTH LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Dukić, Nikolina; Arbula Blecich, Andrea; Cerović, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to elaborate the importance of health literacy in cost-effective utilization of health care services which influence the efficiency of the entire health care sector. In order to complement the theoretical framework of the economic implications and the circular influence of health literacy on the economy, an empirical analysis was carried out using S–TOFHLA. The results suggest that the patients’ personal characteristics and the accessibil...

  10. Global health funding and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207

  11. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2006-01-01

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the An...

  12. Life Cycle Economics, Health, and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Schön, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three self-contained chapters. Although the first two chapters study different questions and contribute to distinct branches of the literature, they are related with respect to the research question. Both chapters contribute to the field of health economics, reflecting my research interest in a better understanding of the interdependence between the economic situation of individuals and their health. This interest is motivated by the well-documented correlation betw...

  13. HEALTH, EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah Ismaila and Doris Padmini Selvaratnamb

    1999-01-01

    Human capital is vital for the development of a country. Investment in human capital ranges from basic needs expenditure to education and health provision. Economic growth is often used to measure the progress and development of a country. Today other indicators are used to emphasize physical quality of life, for example, education, health and basic needs provision. Using a simultaneous equation model, this paper estimates the relationship between economic growth and human capital variables i...

  14. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  15. Unpaid work in health economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner

    2015-11-01

    Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. PMID:26421997

  16. Predicting adolescents’ health risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Maglica, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors of adolescents’ health risk behaviors regarding smoking and alcohol consumption in the framework of the prototype/willingness model and approach connecting personality traits and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 341 high school students. Their task was to complete several questionnaires measuring relevant risk factors (attitudes, subjective norms, prototypes and willingness), frequency of smoking/drinking, and personality traits (BFI)...

  17. AT PRESENT- INDIAN ECONOMIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Misal S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is agro-based and village based country. The 75% of the population was staying in village when India became free in 1947. During last 62 years 12 – 20% population has shifted to urban area. However, the rural base economy continues. The future of economic and social development is largely dependent on the advanced technological improvements in Agriculture and industrial area.

  18. Essays on health and labor economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hullegie, P.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis deals with a range of topics in health and labor economics. The first part examines the validity of a method that aims at improving the interpersonal comparability of self-reports in surveys. The second part is concerned with the question how the demand for medical care is related to health insurance, and to health. The third part studies whether job search requirements help older workers to find a job more quickly.

  19. Behavioral industrial organization, firm strategy, and consumer economics

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ofer H.

    2006-01-01

    The field of behavioral economics is one of the fastest-growing fields in economics in recent years. Not long ago this was a small field, but over the last decade or so, the field gained more recognition, and today it seems clear that psychological motivations and biases affect economic behavior in many important ways. Insights from psychology were incorporated in several areas of economics. This paper offers a short review of the application of behavioral economics to industrial organization...

  20. Organizational economics and health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    2001-04-01

    As health policy emphasizes the use of private sector mechanisms to pursue public sector goals, health services research needs to develop stronger conceptual frameworks for the interpretation of empirical studies of health care markets and organizations. Organizational relationships should not be interpreted exclusively in terms of competition among providers of similar services but also in terms of relationships among providers of substitute and complementary services and in terms of upstream suppliers and downstream distributors. This article illustrates the potential applicability of transactions cost economics, agency theory, and organizational economics more broadly to horizontal and vertical markets in health care. Examples are derived from organizational integration between physicians and hospitals and organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership. PMID:11327173

  1. Natural selection, health economics and human welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Williams

    1993-01-01

    In evolutionary physiology the human body is viewed as a resource allocation mechanism working according to a predetermined set of priorities to maximise reproductive capacity. In health economics, people are viewed as having a portfolio of assets (health; wealth; and wisdom) which they manage over their lifespan according to priorities that are intended to maximise the length and quality of that lifespan. This essay explores the similarities and dissimilarities between these two approaches t...

  2. Induced Socio-economic Behavior in Long Waves : the Recurrence of Normal and Revolutionary Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Orley M. Amos Jr.; Edward O. Price III

    1991-01-01

    This research empirically examines the relationship between economic development and the progression of economic thought. It is based on three propositions: 1) economic development progresses by long waves, 2) long waves induce a cyclical pattern of general entrepreneurial and managerial socio-economic behavior, and 3) economists pursue alternating periods of revolutionary and normal economic science as part of the general socio-economic pattern of behavior. The general hypothesis of this stu...

  3. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  4. Consumer Behavior – A Consequence of Economic and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Elena; Dârzan Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behavior is part of the economic behavior, being observed from a multidimensional and interdisciplinary perspective. Being a consumer is a quality given, in the first place, by the parties involved in the economic activity; the behavior is analyzed from a micro and macroeconomic perspective – behavior oriented towards satisfying individual needs. According to the current economic trends and also as a consequence of the globalization of the markets, the following question arises: a pe...

  5. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  6. Economic analysis in health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Diaa E E

    2008-04-01

    There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles. PMID:19143119

  7. Insecurity, family dynamic and health behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the link between insecurity and obesity. The link is, however, still mainly described on national level as causal connections between social security and prevalence of obesity. It remains abstract: why and how this connection works are unanswered questions. In...... the cross disciplinary field of obesity research, where biomedical world views and large scale quantitative analyzes are dominating, the sociology of health and illness have an important role to play in attempts to understand how structural conditions affect individual and family-level health behavior....... Insecurity is becoming a widespread prerequisite in an increasing number of people’s lives under the current economic crisis, all the while European governments make cuts on welfare and health budgets. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the connection between insecurity and obesity at the social...

  8. Economic recession and mental health: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations. PMID:21968374

  9. The Behavioral Economics Guide 2014 (with a foreword by George Loewenstein and Rory Sutherland)

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Alain

    2014-01-01

    CONTENTS Foreword by George Loewenstein and Rory Sutherland Part 1 - The Basics - An Introduction to Behavioral Economics - Selected Behavioral Economics Concepts - References Part 2 - Resources - Books Read by 'Behavioral Economics Group' Members - Scholarly Journals with Behavioral Economics Content - Postgraduate Programs in Behavioral Economics and Behavioral/Decision Science Part 3 - Applied Perspectives Psychology and Behavioral Economics in Practice...

  10. Socio-economic differences in health among Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Zezula, I.; Tuinstra, J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Post, Doeke

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore socio-economic health differences among Slovak adolescents. Methods: Socio-economic differences in health (psychological health: GHQ-12, vitality and mental health scale of RAND, experienced health complaints, chronic illness, use of medicines, self-reported health, self-perce

  11. Sustainable energy, economic growth and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A

    2001-01-01

    Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources. PMID:11339344

  12. Health Behavior in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Dupas

    2011-01-01

    The disease burden in low-income countries is extremely high. Malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, AIDS, and other diseases are estimated to kill more than 15 million people each year, most of them children. Yet the great majority of these diseases can be prevented or treated. This article reviews microeconomic studies of health-seeking behavior in low-income countries. Factors examined include information, peers, liquidity constraints, and nonrational preferences, such as present bias....

  13. Inventories, oil shocks, and aggregate economic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ana Maria

    This dissertation examines the relationship between oil price shocks and aggregate economic behavior in the U.S. The first chapter addresses the effects of changes in the price of crude oil on the manufacturing sector in VAR regressions and in a structural linear quadratic inventory model. It finds that oil price increases lead to reductions in manufacturing activity while oil price falls are not followed by booms. This asymmetry in the response of the manufacturing activity, the changes in the composition of the demand, and the large variations in sales of key investment and consumption goods favor a multi-channel transmission mechanism. The analysis shows that differences in the response of the various industrial sectors are determined by the cost structure of the industry as well as by the dynamics of the demand, cost and oil shocks. Positive oil price shocks are first transmitted from the transportation equipment industry to sectors such as primary metals products, rubber and plastics and textiles, later affecting the remaining sectors and the aggregates. In the short run inventories act as a buffer however, one and a half years after the shock significant production cuts do take place. Sluggishness in the response of aggregate output can be accounted by the behavior of inventories as well as by the time lags implied in the propagation from one industry to the remaining sectors and the aggregate. The second chapter studies the role of oil prices and monetary policy in accounting for business cycles in an identified VAR framework. It finds that the slowdown in GDP growth that follows an oil shock can not be solely explained by the response of the Fed's monetary policy. An "exogenous" monetary policy that holds the fed funds rate fixed would exert a large expansionary effect. Nevertheless, conditional on this policy, the reduction in economic activity persists and the price level increases leading to a sharp reduction in the short-term interest rate. In addition

  14. Abnormal economics in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsaio, W C

    1995-01-01

    The implosion of centrally-planned economies has led to a widespread and uncritical belief that a free market is the best mechanism for structuring the economic and social sectors. Many international agencies have pushed this belief on the developing nations. This paper offers a critical analysis of the effectiveness of using free market principles to structure the health sector. We try to answer two questions: in what spheres can the market operate freely? In what spheres is government action required? According to economic theory, the market is only appropriate for producing and distributing private goods. This study analyzed health care and subdivides it into three categories (public, merit, and private goods) to clarify where the market has a legitimate role. Next, we analyze two of the five markets in the health sector--financing and delivery--and assess the respective roles of the market and government Competitive markets have certain prerequisites. We identify the major market failures by evaluating where these conditions are not satisfied. Next, we draw on international experience to ascertain the seriousness of those failures and the capacity of government action to correct them. Lessons are drawn for developing nations about the appropriateness of market strategies to finance and deliver health care. PMID:10156633

  15. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system. PMID:24073178

  16. Behavioural, Financial, and Health & Medical Economics: A Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Wing-Keung Wong

    2015-01-01

    This Opinion article briefly reviews some of the literature in behavioural and financial economics that are related to health & medical economics. We then discuss some of the research on behavioural and financial economics that could be extended to health & medical economics beyond the existing areas in theory, statistics and econometrics.

  17. Behavioural, Financial, and Health & Medical Economics: A Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wong, Wing-Keung

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis Opinion article briefly reviews some of the literature in behavioural and financial economics that are related to health & medical economics. We then discuss some of the research on behavioural and financial economics that could be extended to health & medical economics beyond the existing areas in theory, statistics and econometrics.

  18. Behavioral economics and socio-economics journals: A citation-based ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ofer H.

    2006-01-01

    Journal quality is a major consideration for authors, readers, and promotion and tenure committees, among others. Unfortunately, most behavioral economics and socio-economics journals are not included in published rankings or in Journal Citation Reports. Consequently, no objective ranking of these journals exists. To address this need, a list of journals in behavioral economics and socio-economics was compiled, and the number of articles that cited each journal was recorded for the periods 20...

  19. Essays in Behavioral and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three essays in empirical economics. These essays are united by three clear intellectual and methodological themes. First, each essay attempts to bring theories and insights from psychology to bear on open questions in economics, with a focus on topics of importance to developing countries. Second, they use experiments - both randomized field experiments and natural experiments - to test economic theory. Finally, each paper attempts to measure economically im...

  20. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  1. Health Promoting Behaviors in Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmazel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive study was planned to determine the behavior of a healthy lifestyle in nursing students who assume the role of nursing care services and education in their future lives. Material-Method: The research was conducted in Hitit University School of Health in November-December 2011. All of the 262 students who were studying in the Department of Nursing were included in the study. The survey was applied to 234 students whom can be accessed. A questionnaire included descriptive items and health perceptions of students with the 48-item scale consists of healthy lifestyle behaviors (HPLP was used as a tool for collecting the data. Results: The mean age of students who participated in this study was 20.40±1.96. The 72.6% of students were female and 27.4% were male, 67.1% of declared that their levels of economic status was moderate, 14.1% of currently smoked, and 70.1% of general health situation was good. It was seen that the average scale scores of HPLP was 121.57±19, 65. The total mean score is 2.53 ± 0:11 according to four scale of likert. The lowest mean score obtained from the subscales was exercise and the highest scores were interpersonal support and self-realization. Total scores of female students taken from the scale of healthy lifestyle behaviors were lower than the male students, but no significant difference was found between the groups. Exercise and stress management scores were higher in male students and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05. Health responsibility subscale was highest in second year students. The average scores of self-realization and nutrition sub-groups were high in students whose perception of general health as "good". Conclusion: We determined that student’ scores taken from healthy lifestyle behaviors scale was moderate level. The issues about health protection and health promotion should be more take place in nursing school curricula. [TAF Prev Med

  2. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with no current pharmacotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To accelerate discovery of treatments, we developed an animal model based on economics. Economics allows mathematical alignment of animal and human behavior, permitting more confident predictions of efficacy in addicts. Although economic models are strongly associated with addiction severity in humans, they have not yet been shown to be a marker of addiction in r...

  3. Relationship between Adolescents' Health Beliefs and Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Shabaraya; Romate J; Sudha Bhogle

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the relationship between Health Behavior and Health Locus of Control among 1270 adolescents (Boys N = 635 and Girls = 635) who were drawn from Bangalore rural and urban district government high schools (mean age 13.76 years). Methodology: The Global School based Health survey (WHO, 2004) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control by Wallston and Wallston, questionnaires were used to assess health locus of control and health behavior respectively...

  4. Subjective experienced health as a driver of health care behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bloem, S.; Stalpers, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the key role of the subjective experience of health as the driver of health related behavior. Individuals vary greatly in terms of behaviors related to health. Insights into these interindividual differences are of great importance for all parties involved in health care, including patients and consumers themselves. Such insights allow for better tuning of health care offerings to patient and consumer needs. Subjective experienced health is identified as the key driver of...

  5. An economic framework for understanding physical activity and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2004-10-01

    This paper offers an economic framework of human behavior with respect to physical activity and nutrition. Economics offers useful insights into these behaviors because it is the study of how people allocate their scarce resources of time and money to maximize their lifetime happiness. This paper outlines the criteria for policy interventions from an economic perspective and also considers arguments for policy intervention that are not based on economic considerations. The implications of the economic framework are summarized and its limitations are described. PMID:15450622

  6. HEALTH CARE ECONOMICS IN ROMANIA--DYNAMICS AND EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, B I; Azoicăi, Doina; Druguş, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Health economics refers to the analysis of medical institutions considering their economic and social efficacy, but also the regularity and the relationships that govern the phenomena and the processes from the field of health with the final purpose of achieving better results with the minimum of resources; it represents the study of health price in its complexity. The economics of the population's health needs and in particular the health needs in case of the poor groups of the population, consider health to be the main component of global human vulnerability. Health economics tries to change the simple interpretation of health price and disease cost into a wider consideration of a system administration similar to educational and social economics and the study of health in the context of the multiple specializations of the macro economy of the national group, as it is an instrument in the country's great economics symphony. PMID:27125091

  7. Investor decisions through the lens of behavioral economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Murphy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional economic theory postulates that people are rational. This implies that people make decisions to maximize their utility functions and to do this, that they have fully and correctly evaluated their preferences and limitations. Behavioral economics recognizes that this is not always true, that sometimes information is incomplete. This article is examines some of the effects of behavioral economics (which come largely from cognitive psychology in decision-making by investors in the stock exchanges.

  8. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  9. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  10. Health as a Principal Determinant of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    van Zon, A.H.; Muysken, J.

    2003-01-01

    For a long time economists have tended to ignore health as a relevant factor of production and important determinant of economic growth. The widely observed positive relationship between health expenditures and economic growth was considered the result of a strong positive income effect. However, gradually more and more economists have come to recognise that the relationship between health and economic growth is not only demand driven, but that health is also an important determinant of econo...

  11. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  12. [Economics and ethics in public health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R

    1999-01-01

    The topic suggests a conflict between ethics and economy in medical care. It is often argued that today's welfare state in affluent societies with their social insurance systems makes it easier for the doctor to translate ethical demands into reality without being hampered by economic restrictions. Both doctors and patients took advantage of this system of medical care by mingling social guarantees for health with the doctor's income. Hence, medical expenses expanded rapidly, additionally promoted by technical progress in medicine. This entailed a proportionate increase in medical expenses in relation to personal income, especially wage income. Budgets of state authorities were streamlined or deficits became larger. This state of affairs was promoted further by mechanisms of distribution of national income in accordance with the slogan "less state, more market". While national income continued to grow, although at a slower rate, the number of jobless persons grew continually and thus also the social expenses, this was not due, as is usually assumed and pretended, to an economic crisis. Society and economy are facing a crisis of distribution of national income under conditions of technical progress as a job killer, making economic production more productive and efficient. Not taking into account the new challenge of social market economy--the German innovation in market economy creating the economic miracle after World War II--reforms of the system of medical care took place and are still continuing along market principles, particularly the latest German reform law leading to individual contracts between patients and their doctors in respect of cost charging. However, marketing principles promote economy in medicine, but they do not promote medical ethics. Further German guidelines for medical care should take stock of past experiences. There will be more competition in the "growing market of medical care" (private and public) and this will need--as economic

  13. The Behavioral Economics of Crime and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjit Dhami; Ali al-Nowaihi

    2010-01-01

    The Becker proposition (BP) is one of the founding pillars of the modern literature on Law and Economics. It states that it is optimal to impose the severest possible punishment (to maintain effective deterrence) at the lowest possible probability (to economize on enforcement costs). The BP is not consistent with the evidence. This is known as the Becker paradox. Using evidence from a wide range of phenomena we show that none of the proposed explanations for the Becker paradox are satisfactor...

  14. On the behavioral economics of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Winden; E. Ash

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the behav

  15. Relationship between Adolescents' Health Beliefs and Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Shabaraya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the relationship between Health Behavior and Health Locus of Control among 1270 adolescents (Boys N = 635 and Girls = 635 who were drawn from Bangalore rural and urban district government high schools (mean age 13.76 years. Methodology: The Global School based Health survey (WHO, 2004 and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control by Wallston and Wallston, questionnaires were used to assess health locus of control and health behavior respectively. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson’s product moment correlation methods to examine the relationship between these variables. Results and Interpretation: Findings revealed that total health behavior score of adolescents is significantly correlated with ‘internal’ and ‘powerful others’ dimensions of health locus of control. Further, the ‘chance factor’ of health locus of control did not show any significant relationship with the total health behavior score. From this it can be inferred that adolescents with high inclinations towards ‘internal health locus of control’ and ‘powerful others’ have healthier dimensions of positive behaviors. Findings have also revealed that health behavior is not significantly correlated with the beliefs that ‘health is a function of chance/luck’.

  16. Economic Consequences of Health Status: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amar A. Hamoudi; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    1999-01-01

    The correlation between health and economic performance is extremely robust across communities and over time. Many factors exogenous to income play an important role in determining health status, including a number of geographical, environmental, and evolutionary factors. This suggests the existence of simultaneous impacts of health on wealth and wealth on health. Potential health impacts on national economic performance are explored, and some important unanswered questions are identified.

  17. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care. PMID:26595370

  18. Human Behavior and Cognition in Evolutionary Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard R

    2011-12-01

    My brand of evolutionary economics recognizes, highlights, that modern economies are always in the process of changing, never fully at rest, with much of the energy coming from innovation. This perspective obviously draws a lot from Schumpeter. Continuing innovation, and the creative destruction that innovation engenders, is driving the system. There are winners and losers in the process, but generally the changes can be regarded as progress. The processes through which economic activity and performance evolve has a lot in common with evolution in biology. In particular, at any time the economy is marked by considerable variety, there are selection forces winnowing on that variety, but also continuing emergence of new ways of doing things and often economic actors. But there also are important differences from biological evolution. In particular, both innovation and selection are to a considerable degree purposive activities, often undertaken on the basis of relatively strong knowledge. PMID:23396655

  19. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  20. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement

    OpenAIRE

    Husereau, Don; DRUMMOND, MICHAEL; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H.; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporti...

  1. Consolidated health economic evaluation reporting standards (CHEERS) statement

    OpenAIRE

    Husereau, D.; Drummond, M.; Petrou, S; Carswell, C; Moher, D; Greenberg, D.; Augustovski, F.; Briggs, A H; Mauskopf, J.; Loder, E

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporti...

  2. Immigration and the economic health of Canadian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Laura A Reese

    2012-01-01

    This research explores relationships between diversity of local populations and economic well-being: specifically, the connections between foreign-born populations, other measures of community diversity, and local economic health. Using data from the population of mid-sized Canadian cities, I conclude that there is a significant relationship between immigration and health. Several other aspects of diversity—language, visible minority status, and religion—are also related to economic health, b...

  3. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...... effects may account for the lack of opportunistic behavior with which networks are often credited. No protective mechanism is, however, effective under all circumstances....

  4. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  5. Neuroeconomics: Opening the "black box" behind the economic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU RongJun; ZHOU XiaoLin

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an emerging interdisciplinary research field, namely neuroeconomics, which uses the neuroscientific methods to investigate the neural systems supporting economically relevant behaviors. Traditional economic research is restricted to the level of describing decision behaviors,leaving the cognitive mechanisms behind them unknown. It also fails to predict many decision behaviors in real life. The combination of neuroscience and economics makes it possible to uncover the underlying mental and neural processes of economic decision making. This paper reviews the findings from the neuroeconomic literature on encoding of utility in the brain, showing that neuroeconomic research can test the validity of economic concepts and theories and provide new explanations to economic phenomenon. It discusses the important role the emotion plays in economic decision making and the associated neural evidence, suggesting the possibility of understanding the impact of emotion upon decision making by measuring the neural activity of emotion-related brain regions. This paper also summarizes neuroscientific studies on cooperation and trust in monetary games, pointing out that the trend of neuroeconomic research is to model the real life decision making in the laboratory with solid ecological validity. Neuroeconomics provides not only neuroscientific evidence for economic theories, such as the prospect theory, the regret theory and the game theory, but also foundations for more comprehensive and powerful economic models.

  6. Health-Seeking Behavior Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausell, R. Barker

    1986-01-01

    Compared persons 65 years of age or older (N=177) to younger adults (n=997) with respect to compliance with 20 recommended health-seeking behaviors. Overall, the elderly group reported greater compliance with these behaviors, attributed more importance to their value, but perceived themselves as having less control over their future health.…

  7. Childhood Obesity, Sustainable Development, and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2011-01-01

    To understand the rising prevalence of obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment. This infrastructure is a direct reflection of the mainstream economic growth paradigm that the literature on consumer culture characterizes as chronic overconsumption. This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a key contributory facto...

  8. Behavioral Economics, Food Assistance, and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Just, David R

    2006-01-01

    While there is mixed evidence of the impact of food assistance programs on obesity, there is general agreement that the food-insecure are at higher risk of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Food assistance programs, originally designed to overcome a lack of available food, now need to confront a very different problem: how to provide for the food-insecure while encouraging healthy lifestyles. This paper examines the potential to address these competing needs using traditional economic pol...

  9. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Andrew T. Ching; Fournier, Rachel; Dembo, Ron S

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the ro...

  10. From Bounded Rationality to Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Egidi

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides an brief overview of the “state of the art” in the theory of rational decision making since the 1950’s, and focuses specially on the evolutionary justification of rationality. It is claimed that this justification, and more generally the economic methodology inherited from the Chicago school, becomes untenable once taking into account Kauffman’s Nk model, showing that if evolution it is based on trial-and-error search process, it leads generally to sub- optimal stable solut...

  11. On companies' microeconomic behavior : profit rate versus economic profit.

    OpenAIRE

    MESNARD, Louis de

    2008-01-01

    Profit-rate maximization leads to use fewer factors —including labor— even if profits are high and it corresponds to shareholders’ financial behavior, by contrast to economic-profit maximization which corresponds to shareholders’ strategic behavior. This is shown in two steps. In part 1, two types of firms are considered: those which maximize their net profit, as assumed classically in the microeconomic theory, and those which maximize their profit rate. We compare the behavior of both types ...

  12. Behavioral Economics of Self-Control Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmat, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The main idea in this article is that addiction is a consequence of falling victim to decision failures that lead to preference for the addictive behaviors. Addiction is viewed as valuation disease, where the nervous system overvalues cues associated with drugs or drug-taking. Thus, addiction can be viewed as a diminished capacity to choose. Addicted individuals assign lower values to delayed rewards than to immediate ones. The preference for immediate gratification leads to self-control prob...

  13. Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    There are a host of potentially risky behaviors in which youth engage, which have important implications for both their well being as youth and their life prospects. The past decade has seen dramatic shifts in the intensity with which youths pursue these risky activities: for example, youth homicide fell by 40%; teen births decline by 20%; youth smoking rose by 33%; and marijuana use among youth virtually doubled. This paper, and the volume it introduces, explores the determinants and implica...

  14. Expectations, Life Expectancy, and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1982-01-01

    Unlike price expectations, which are central to macroeconomic theory and have been examined extensively using survey data, formation of individuals' horizons, which are central to the theory of life-cycle behavior, have been completely neglected. This is especially surprising since life expectancy of adults has increased especially rapidly in Western countries in the past ten years. This study presents the results of analyzing responses by two groups--economists and a random sample--to a ques...

  15. Symposium on Economic Change, Scarcity and Mental Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Saul, ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses challenges to the mental health field as a result of severe economic change. The six articles deal with reindustrialization, the effect of the labor market on mental hospital and prison use, retrenchment strategies, mental health problems in energy boomtowns, and economic issues of public policy. (JAC)

  16. Economic evaluation in the field of mental health: conceptual basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Barros da Silva Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Technological advances in medicine have given rise to a dilemma concerning the use of new health technologies in a context of limited financial resources. In the field of psychiatry, health economic evaluation is a recent method that can assist in choosing interventions with different cost and/or effectiveness for specific populations or conditions. This article introduces clinicians to the fundamental concepts required for critical assessment of health economic evaluations. Methods: The authors conducted a review with systematic methods to assess the essential theoretical framework of health economic evaluation and mental health in Brazil through textbooks and studies indexed in the PubMed, Cochrane Central, LILACS, NHS CRD, and REBRATS databases. A total of 334 studies were found using the specified terms (MeSH - Mental Health AND Economic, Medical and filters (Brazil AND Humans; however, only five Brazilian economic evaluations were found. Results and conclusions: Economic evaluation studies are growing exponentially in the medical literature. Publications focusing on health economics as applied to psychiatry are increasingly common, but Brazilian data are still very incipient. In a country where financial resources are so scarce, economic analyses are necessary to ensure better use of public resources and wider population access to effective health technologies.

  17. Public health and economics: a marriage of necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Maynard

    2012-01-01

    With resources always scarce limited resources have to be targeted at those interventions, prevention and cure, that give the greatest population health gain at least cost. Mere identification of what works in prevention is inadequate unless this evidence is supplemented with economic analysis that identifies what is cost effective. Public health without the use of economics is incomplete.

  18. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  19. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Pyle Donald N; Lovett Gretchen D; Griffith Brian N; Miller Wayne C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. M...

  20. Economic Policies, Socieconomic Factors and Overall Health: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros A.

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers have found that socioeconomic factors play a crucial role in determining physiological and psychological health levels of the population. This implies that socioeconomic inequalities tend to produce health inequalities. It is also generally accepted that the level of unemployment, income inequality and poverty levels are largely affected by economic policies and the economic cycles. They can also influence economic growth, human capital levels and thus productivity which pla...

  1. Toward Development of a New Health Economic Evaluation Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Botchkarev, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Economic evaluation is a dynamically advancing knowledge area of health economics. It has been conceived to provide evidence for allocating scarce resources to gain the best value for money. The problem of efficiency of investments becomes even more crucial with advances in modern medicine and public health which bring about both improved patient outcomes and higher costs. Despite the abundance of literature on the economic evaluation concepts, some key notions including the definition of the...

  2. Economic transactions, opportunistic behavior and protective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Whenever actors participate in transactions they expose themselves to risks of various kinds. Some of these risks are attributable to events outside the control of the participants and are unavoidable. Others originate in, or are aggrevated by, opportunistic actions undertaken by contract partners...... and other co-operators. This paper is concerned with the latter type of risk and the protection against it. Six protective mechanisms, which may serve as safeguards against opportunistic behavior, are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to reputation effects. It is noted that such...

  3. Incarceration and Post-release Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren C

    2014-05-27

    This study investigates the link between incarceration and health behavior among a sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,670). The association is analyzed using propensity score methods and a strategic comparison group: respondents who have been convicted of crimes, but not incarcerated. Findings suggest that former inmates consume more fast food and have a higher likelihood of smoking than do similarly situated peers. These associations operate partly through increased financial strife and decreased social standing. Given the role of health behavior in predicting future health outcomes, poor health behavior may be a salient force driving health and mortality risk among the formerly incarcerated population. PMID:24872468

  4. Promoting Health and Behavioral Health Equity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director. PMID:26599022

  5. Interrelationships between Health, Environment Quality and Economic Activity: What Consequences for Economic Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Alassane Drabo

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and the consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis), it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the impl...

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder and health: a preliminary study of group differences in health and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Lindamer, Laurie A.; Mostoufi, Sheeva; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful health behaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthful behaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and health behaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross...

  7. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  8. Introduction to health economics for the medical practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Kernick, D

    2003-01-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, health economics is exerting an influence on decision making at all levels of health care. Health economics seeks to facilitate decision making by offering an explicit decision making framework based on the principle of efficiency. It is not the only consideration but it is an important one and practitioners will need to have an understanding of its basic principles and how it can impact on clinical decision making. This article...

  9. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz MB

    2015-01-01

    Marcos Bosi Ferraz1,21Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo Center for Health Economics (GRIDES), Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inf...

  10. Health Expenditure, education and Economic Growth in MENA Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lacheheb, Miloud; Med Nor, Norashidah; Baloch, Imdadullah

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between health expenditure, education and economic growth in MENA countries using panel data estimation. Our results based on random effect estimation endorse a relationship between health expenditure, education and economic growth. Data were obtained from the World Bank Development Indicators for the period of 1995 to 2010 for 20 countries from Middle East and North Africa region. Importantly, our results reveal that health expenditure and education have ...

  11. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  12. Lifecycle Effects of a Recession on Health Behaviors: Boom, Bust, and Recovery in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir; Hope Corman; Kelly Noonan; Nancy Reichman

    2015-01-01

    This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the cris...

  13. Management system of organizational and economic changes in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Vasilyevna Krivenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the definitions of the concept organizational and economic changes in institution problems of changes in public health service, the purpose and issues of the management system of organizational and economic changes in the field are considered. The combined strategy of development and innovative changes in management is offered. The need of resource-saving technologies implementation is shown. Expediency of use of marketing tools in a management system of organizational and economic changes is considered the mechanism of improvement of planning and pricing in public health service is offered. The author’s model of management of organizational and economic changes in health services supporting achievement of medical, social, economic efficiency in Yekaterinburg's trauma care is presented. Strategy of traumatism prevention is determined on the basis of interdepartmental approach and territorial segmentation of health care market

  14. Health Care Quality, Economic Inequality, and Precautionary Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Tullio Jappelli; Luigi Pistaferri; Guglielmo Weber

    2006-01-01

    We argue that health care quality has an important impact on economic inequality and on saving behaviour. We exploit district-wide variability in health care quality provided by the Italian universal public health system to identify the effect of quality on income inequality, health inequality and precautionary saving. We find that in lower quality districts there is greater income and health dispersion and higher precautionary saving. The analysis carries important insights for the ongoing d...

  15. The Consequences of Population Health for Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Alsan; Bloom, David E.; David Canning; Dean Jamison

    2006-01-01

    This chapter goes beyond the traditional economic thinking about the relationship between health and income – simply stated: wealth is needed to achieve health – by presenting evidence that population health is an important factor in strengthening economies and reducing poverty. The world's overarching framework for reducing poverty is expressed in the UN's eight Millennium Development Goals. Three of these eight goals pertain to health: reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, an...

  16. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-11-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policy makers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  17. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA; Ramona Anca NICHITA; Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA; Bogdan Andrei MOLDOVAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate) they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociolo...

  18. Three Essays in Health and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yuhan

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is on social issues affecting people's health and welfare, within both the developed world and developing world. Particularly, policy changes are employed as natural experiments, to identify the health and social impacts of policies and welfare. This dissertation consists of three chapters.Chapter 1 analyzes the health effects of China's centralized home heating infrastructure. The primary health mechanism is that recipients of centralized heating do not ne...

  19. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy. PMID:26093888

  20. Expanding the frame of understanding health disparities: from a focus on health systems to social and economic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Brian D

    2006-08-01

    Policy makers are increasingly attending to the problem of racial and ethnic health disparities, but much of this focus has been on evidence of inequality in health care systems. This attention is important and laudable, but eliminating inequality in the health care system would be insufficient to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities and improve the health of all Americans. Social and economic factors, such as disadvantaged socioeconomic status, racism, discrimination, and geographic inequality shape virtually all risks for poor health. Interventions that focus solely on improving access to health care, or on reducing individual behavioral and psychosocial risks, therefore have limited potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. The elimination of health disparities requires comprehensive, intensive strategies that address inequality in many sectors, including housing, education, employment, and health systems. These interventions must be targeted at many levels, including individuals and families, workplaces, schools, and communities. PMID:16878351

  1. The Diffusion of Health Economics Knowledge in Europe: The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard de Pouvourville; Philippe Ulmann; John Nixon; Stephanie Boulenger; Julie Glanville; Michael Drummond

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissa...

  2. Behavior of land developers: planning and the economics of information

    OpenAIRE

    P V Schaeffer; L D Hopkins

    1987-01-01

    Previous attempts to describe or model planning behavior have failed to focus on a decision variable for the activity of planning itself. Attempts to use economic theory to explain planning by modeling only the phenomena being planned for have not been useful in explaining or understanding planning behavior. The model developed in this paper for land development planning makes explicit the decision to plan at each stage of the development process. It also makes explicit the plan at each stage...

  3. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  4. Health promoting behaviors in industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmazel

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162

  5. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  6. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  7. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website ( www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23526140

  8. THE CAUSES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS. A BEHAVIORAL FOUNDATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soim Horatiu Florin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical path of economy is a common place in the economic theory. The economic crisis that started in 2007 was not only one of the most severe since the WWII but it came unexpectedly. The cause of the crises and of the surprise consists in the economic models and theories that were founded on the rationality and maximization behavior of the economic actor. People lack the rationality the mainstream economics assume. This is why both economists and simple people do not act as theory predicts and finally economy does not tend toward equilibrium but suffers recurrent crises. This crisis started as a financial one, because of the subprime loans made in USA, but have spread in production sector because of credit frozen, is now in transforming into a social crisis because of austerity measures taken by governments. The paper analyzes the theoretical foundation of economic theory and how the facts that characterize the recent economic evolution fit with the non mainstream theories. It presents the figures of the economic evolution in the last 3 years and explains them based of the agent’s behavior described by Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman. Their challenge of mainstream economics is based on an analyze of human behavior. Herbert Simon introduced the concept of bounded rationality as opposed to perfect rationality postulated by neoclassic economics and Daniel Kahneman realized experiments that proved that people cannot stick with the performances assumed by mainstream economics. Their conclusion permit to understand the approach of George Soros who says that people actions are bounded by reflexivity and as a consequences sometimes economy move not toward but far from equilibrium, creating bubbles that end in financial and economic crises. As Akerlof mention the cause of the crisis is the reliance of a false theory which said that we are safe. The conclusion is that we need new theories more close to the real life and an agent description

  9. Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R; Burns, Shaun M; Syzdek, Matthew

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18-78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for men and women, and 8 health behaviors (i.e., alcohol abuse, seatbelt use, tobacco use, physical fighting, use of social support, exercise, dietary habits, and receipt of annual medical check-ups). Findings suggest that masculinity and the perceived normativeness of other men's health behaviors significantly predicted participants' own health behaviors beyond that accounted for by socio-demographic variables (e.g., education, income). Perceptions of the normativeness of women's health behaviors were unrelated to participants' health behaviors. The findings support previous research which has found that traditional masculine gender socialization and social norms models encourage men to put their health at risk, and suggest directions for health promotion efforts when working with men. PMID:17383784

  10. Emissions trading for households? : A behavioral law and economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Bolderdijk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first research article on expanding emissions trading in the EU to households in which law and economics is explicitly and systematically combined with behavioral science. The goal of the article is neither to plead in favor nor against emissions trading for households, but rather to pro

  11. Behavioral Economic Predictors of Overweight Children's Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R.; Theim, Kelly R.; Gredysa, Dana M.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Saelens, Brian E.; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to determine whether behavioral economic constructs--including impulsivity (i.e., steep discounting of delayed food and monetary rewards), the relative reinforcing value of food (RRV[subscript food]), and environmental enrichment (i.e., the presence of alternatives to unhealthy foods in the home and neighborhood…

  12. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cue-elicited Craving for Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; O’Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A.; Murphy, James G.; Ray, Lara A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug’s value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. Method Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Findings Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (Omax), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized Pmax). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from .21 – .43. Conclusions These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving. PMID:20626376

  13. Mothers' Economic Hardship and Behavior Problems in Their Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…

  14. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  15. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  16. Parental Health and Child Behavior: Evidence from Parental Health Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Westermaier, Franz; Mühlenweg, Andrea M.; Morefield, Brant

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the importance of parental health in the development of child behavior during early childhood. Our analysis is based on child psychometric measures from a longitudinal German dataset, which tracks mothers and their newborns up to age six. We identify major changes in parental health (shocks) and control for a variety of initial characteristics of the child including prenatal conditions. The results are robust to placebo regressions of health shocks that occur after the out...

  17. Climate Change, Economic Growth, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Magnus, J.R.; Sakamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between climate, health, and the economy in a stylized world with four heterogeneous regions, labeled ‘West’ (cold and rich), ‘China’ (cold and poor), ‘India’ (warm and poor), and ‘Africa’ (warm and very poor). We introduce health impacts into a simple integrated ass

  18. Economics of Investing in the Health of Livestock: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1996-01-01

    Global populations of livestock have shown substantial increases as result of world development. Therefore, it is appropriate that more attention be given to the economics of animal husbandry. Interventions to improve or maintain the health of livestock are important aspects of such husbandry and are the focus of this paper. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond traditional economic analyses of this subject. In particular, there is a need to analyse the social economic impact of cont...

  19. Genetic Health Technology and Economic Evaluation: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    James Jarrett; Miranda Mugford

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the review is to establish whether, on the basis of previous published evidence, current accepted guidance for health economic evaluation needs to be adapted to evaluate healthcare based on use of genetic information. Online literature search strategies were designed (using PubMed and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database [NHS EED], among others) to gather papers carrying out or discussing economic evaluation and genetics. Papers meeting the inclusion criteria were obtained and revi...

  20. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Walzer,1,2 Daniel Droeschel,1,3 Mark Nuijten,4 Hélène Chevrou-Séverac5 1MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany; 3Riedlingen University, SRH FernHochschule, Riedlingen, Germany; 4Ars Accessus Medica BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland Background: Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods: A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results: Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly

  1. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  2. Anger and health risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Staicu, ML; Cuţov, M

    2010-01-01

    The present paper makes a research about negative effects of anger and hostile conduct on peoples' health status. We have studied scientific articles published between 2000 and 2010, that did not contradict our initial assumption. The literature demonstrates that anger, wheatear suppressed or expressed, can determine various diseases, it can influence the conduct of people suffering from bulimia nervosa or it can be the cause of the growing number of car accidents. In order to avoid these ris...

  3. Economics, Work, and Mental Health: Implications for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Janet

    Recent research on the impact of economics on mental and physical health has raised fundamental questions about structural elements in the macro-economy and their role in creating stress. This paper reviews and integrates these sometimes conflicting findings into a cohesive model. Structural elements of our current economic system are identified…

  4. Economic and Managerial Approach of Health Insurances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela BOBOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.

  5. ECONOMIC AND MANAGERIAL APPROACH OF HEALTH INSURANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.

  6. Climate change, economic growth, and health

    OpenAIRE

    Ikefuji, Masako; Magnus, Jan R.; Sakamoto, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between climate, health, and the economy in a stylized world with four heterogeneous regions, labeled 'West' (cold and rich), 'China' (cold and poor), 'India' (warm and poor), and 'Africa' (warm and very poor). We introduce health impacts into a simple integrated assessment model where both the local cooling effect of aerosols as well as the global warming effect of CO2 are endogenous, and investigate how those factors affect the equilibrium path. We show how ...

  7. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Alves Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a structured interview that was designed based on the Health Belief Model, from March to December 2013. Participants perceived the disease’s severity and felt susceptible to develop complications from hypertension. They reported receiving treatment correctly; however, the values ​​of blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were high. Thus, it is necessary that health professionals implement strategies that favor hypertensive patients who are undergoing treatment to have healthy behavior.

  8. Guidelines for pharmaco-economic research in relation to published health-economics evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, MJ; Kwik, JJ; Rutten, WJMJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the health-economics research published in Dutch journals is in agreement with the guidelines for pharmaco-economic research as published in 1999 by the Dutch 'College voor zorgverzekeringen' [Healthcare Insurance Board]. Design. Descriptive. Method. A literature se

  9. Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation Between Health and Economic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper sketches theoretical reasons why health may alter household savings and provides evidence on the empirical impact of health shocks on household wealth. The impacts on saving are quantitatively large and only partly explained by increased out-of-pocket medical expenses. Other contributing factors include reduced earnings and a revision in life expectancy. The author also delves into reasons why economic status, access to medical care, and deleterious personal behaviors have been rej...

  10. Integrating Behavioral Economics and Behavioral Genetics: Delayed Reward Discounting as an Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James

    2013-01-01

    Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…

  11. Climate Change, Economic Growth, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ikefuji, M.; Magnus, J.R.; Sakamoto, H

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between climate, health, and the economy in a stylized world with four heterogeneous regions, labeled ‘West’ (cold and rich), ‘China’ (cold and poor), ‘India’ (warm and poor), and ‘Africa’ (warm and very poor). We introduce health impacts into a simple integrated assessment model where both the local cooling effect of aerosols as well as the global warming effect of CO2 are endogenous, and investigate how those factors affect the equilibrium path. We show how ...

  12. Health and economic consequences of counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, A

    2009-06-01

    "Counterfeit Drugs Kill" is the slogan the World Health Organization (WHO) uses in its anti-counterfeiting campaign. International organizations, governments of developed and developing countries, and the pharmaceutical industry created the IMPACT initiative (International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce) to take on the thriving illegal industry that makes profits by selling fake drugs. However, before committing resources, policy makers want to assess the burden caused by counterfeit drugs in comparison with other health problems that compete for the limited resources available. PMID:19451909

  13. Research Ideas for the Journal of Health & Medical Economics: Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and managin

  14. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the l

  15. ARE YOU PANICKED? ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN ROMANIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years the entire world experienced one of the most turmoil period in its history. Economic crisis is the most traumatic event leading to a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the household. Unemployment, inflation rate increasing, freezing or decreasing of the wages, the purchasing power decreasing, the decreasing of the investments value represent only of some economic shocks that hit most of the individuals, in the last few years. The individual well-being is determinate by many things like the level and secure income, labor market status, job stability and characteristics, health status, social relationships, family etc. In some ways and to a different extent all these were affected by the economic crisis, for many people, around the world. Empirical evidence presented in different international studies emphasized a causal relation between all these aspects. The purpose of the present study was to identify the economic and health consequences of the economic crisis adopting a psychological perspective. The results of the study emphasize that there is a causal relationship between psychological factors and almost all the dimensions of economic behavior and health status measured. Also, the empirical findings uphold that those who are more risk averse and have the highest perception over the risk exposure are taping the highest values regarding the main stressors measured and present more intense symptoms of stress exposure. The limits of the study come from the fact that health consequences were measured in certain period of time (the last six months, thus, this study do not offer a long term evaluation.

  16. [Theoretical implications of health economic evaluations in an Austrian context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Evelyn; Zehetmayr, Susanne

    2006-12-01

    It is a well acknowledged fact that steep increases in health expenditures are mainly due to improvements in health technologies as well as the ageing of population combined with mounting societal preferences towards health. This "natural" tendency increasingly faces constraints of public budgets. Therefore, both efficiency and effectiveness considerations have to be put in place in order to allocate financial resources in such a way as to foster optimal results. This can best be done by implementing the analytical tool of health economic evaluations. However, in the Austrian context health economic evaluations only play a minor role as yet. The major hindrance for this unsatisfactory situation is the complex system of health finance which impedes overall considerations beyond the array of particular budgets. PMID:17211767

  17. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources. PMID:22574485

  18. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  19. Adolescents’ expectations for the future predict health behaviors in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    McDade, Thomas W.; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Doane, Leah D.; Adam, Emma K.

    2011-01-01

    Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two ...

  20. A welfare economics foundation for health inequality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Bleichrodt, Han; VAN DOORSLAER, Eddy

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical literature on the measurement of health inequalities is vast and rapidly expanding. To date, however, no foundation in welfare economics exists for the proposed measures of health inequality. This paper provides such a foundation for commonly used measures like the health concentration index, the Gini index, and the extended concentration index. Our results indicate that these measures require assumptions that appear restrictive. One way forward may be the developmen...

  1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  2. EPA guidance on mental health and economic crises in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D

    2016-03-01

    This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed. PMID:26874960

  3. Economics of health and nutrition in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, W M; Mwabu, G M

    1986-01-01

    This paper starts by outlining the present state of health and nutrition in Kenya. Health status for Kenyans has shown spectacular improvement since Kenya's attainment of independence in 1963. Both the infant mortality and crude death rates fell by about 30% between 1963 and 1982. Life expectancy at birth has risen dramatically from 40 years to 54 years over the same period. However, this picture could be misleading because it is possible for the morbidity rate to have risen, or declined only slightly, over the twenty-year period during which mortality rates in Kenya fell substantially. It is further indicated that despite Kenya having per capita availability of nutrients exceeding that recommended by FAO/WHO; about one-third of Kenya's population is unable to meet its food or nutritional requirements. PMID:3086981

  4. Oral Health Literacy and Behavior of Health Sciences University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti N Mohd-Dom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of oral health literacy and behavior among health sciences. Methods: The method used descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 609 students from Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Oral health literacy level and behaviour was assessed with a validated and pretested self-administered questionnaire using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS tool and modified Oral Health Adult Literacy Questionnaire (OHL-AQ. Results: A total of 509 participants involved in the study (83.6%. The overall mean oral health literacy score was 10.27 (95% CI 7.92, 12.62, which found dental students showing statistically significant higher scores (mean=11.36, 95% CI 9.70, 13.02 compared to medical (mean=10.72, 95% CI 8.67, 12.77, allied health sciences (mean=9.89, 95% CI 7.34, 12.44 and pharmacy (mean=9.55, 95% CI 7.23, 11.87. Almost all respondents are non-smokers (99.8% and non-drinkers (97.2%. Only 19.1% pay regular dental visits every 6-12 months while 51.1% visit dentist only when they have dental pain. Conclusion: There appears to be a positive relationship between oral health literacy and oral health behavior. Health science university students should be provided substantial dental health education in their curriculum as they show good potential as strategic partners in oral health.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i2.404

  5. Attitudes and behavior of students related to reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šorak Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the features of modern societies is the increase of sexual activity among young people. Sexual activity creates new health problems, or to be more exact, it can result in an unplanned pregnancy and disease induced by sexual contact. Material and methods. The data for the study were obtained from the questionnaires filled in by students of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Economics in Kragujevac in 2008. Out of 615 students of both sexes included in this questionnaire, 222 students were from the Faculty of Medicine and 393 students from the Faculty of Economics. The questionnaire was designed at the Institute for Public Health ”Dr Milan Jovanovic Batut” in 2000 for the project ”Health condition, health needs and using of health protection by population in Serbia”. Results. The research showed that 41.6% of the students included in the questionnaire had sexual relations; 69.1% of female and 30.9% of male students had sexual experience, i.e. one third and two thirds of the interviewed students attending the Faculty of Economics and of Medicine, respectively. The reason for having the first sexual intercourse was love in 50.4%. Almost 80% of the interviewees used a condom during the first sexual contact. According to the answers, 71.9% of the study sample had one sexual partner. More than half (51.6% of the students having sexual relations did not use contraceptives. Contraceptives were used more frequently by the students of Medical Faculty (54.3% than those from the Faculty of Economics (45.7%. Conclusion. In order to prevent multiple consequences of ignorance and risky behavior, it is necessary to inform and educate young people about the reproductive health.

  6. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  7. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIC MODEL OF ALCOHOL ADVERTISING AND PRICE

    OpenAIRE

    Saffer, Henry; DAVE, DHAVAL; Grossman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low con...

  8. Applying Behavioral Economics to the Challenge of Reducing Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential contributions of behavioral economics to reducing cocaine abuse. More specifically, this paper underscores the fundamental role of reinforcement in the genesis and maintenance of cocaine use and explores how reinforcement and consumer-demand theory might be translated into effective strategies for reducing cocaine use. A broad range of relevant research findings are discussed, including preclinical studies conducted with laboratory animals, laboratory and treat...

  9. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Braeutigam S

    2012-01-01

    Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in indus...

  10. Essays in behavioral economics : evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Jaimie Wei-hung

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes economic behavior in three different field settings. Chapter 1 examines how students in a university dining program allocated spending of their meal points over time, given a known expiration date, fixed prices, and uniform initial endowment of meal points. I find aggregate retail sales nearly tripled their volume during the two weeks prior to the expiration date. This suggests that a more efficient spending plan may have been available for many students ex-ante. An...

  11. Engaging Health Professionals in Health Economics: A Human Capital Informed Approach for Adults Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…

  12. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten;

    2014-01-01

    Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and ....... The health effects were present in all age groups and in both genders. On the basis of this retrospective controlled study in the Danish population, symptoms and findings of hypersomnia are associated with major socioeconomic consequences for patients, their partners and society....

  13. Health, Social and Economic Consequences of Polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    diagnosis of polyneuropathy and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and civil status. Direct costs included frequencies of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, and medication. Indirect costs included the effect...... on labor supply. Social-transfer payments were included to illustrate the effect on national accounts. All cost data were extracted from national databases. RESULTS: 13,758 unspecified polyneuropathy patients were registered. They were compared with 54,900 matched controls identified from the...... National Danish Patient Registry. In addition, partners of patients in the case group were matched with partners in the corresponding control group. Almost half of the patients in the patient group had a partner. Patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and greater...

  14. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  15. Economic evaluation and the postponement of health care costs

    OpenAIRE

    van Baal, Pieter H. M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Polder, Johan J; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Brouwer, Werner B.F.

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of medical costs in life years gained in economic evaluations of health care technologies has long been controversial. Arguments in favour of the inclusion of such costs are gaining support, which shifts the question from whether to how to include these costs. This paper elaborates on the issue how to include cost in life years gained in cost effectiveness analysis given the current practice of economic evaluations in which costs of related diseases are included. We combine insi...

  16. Trial-Based Economic Evaluations in Occupational Health

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, Johanna M; van Wier, Marieke F; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do...

  17. Mental health reform, economic globalization and the practice of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec it is argued that tension exists between mental health reforms born out of concern for the well-being and care of people and those that are being driven by cost-containment and efficiency. Contributing to this tension are competing discourses about mental health and mental illness. It is argued that progressive change requires the meaningful engagement of mental health care recipients in policy decision-making processes and ongoing analysis about the interconnections between economic globalization, social welfare state restructuring and mental health reform. PMID:16138645

  18. Evaluation of socio-economic factors affecting the demand for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdosaleh Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individual health has been proved to be under the influence of various factors such as the use of health care services, diet, smoking and alcohol, physical environment, and health-related behaviors. Therefore, the main determinants of health are factors such as income, education, and access to health services, and systematic changes in these factors lead to socio-economic injustice in health. The present study was carried out through library and internet search. Medline and Google Scholar databases were also utilized. Combining Contents and Results: According to the present study, an increase in health input expenses would inevitably lead to aggravation of the health situation and decrease in income would result in the worst health status of the poor. Moreover, people with higher education use less health inputs; however, they enjoy higher status than those with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Health demand approach provides only a part of the information needed for policy-makers and decision-makers in health system. Theoretical and empirical analyses of the health claim could indicate that policy actions are likely to be more effective in overcoming barriers to health but are not capable of determining which one is likely to be more cost-effective . The demand for information about the health only provides the necessary tools about the benefits of special policy making decisions. So the tool should be combined with other techniques including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  19. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  20. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPLICATIONS ON PAEDIATRIC POPULATION’S HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once the global economic crisis occurred, shortly after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, trillions of dollars were lost on the stock exchange, hundreds of banks and investment funds in the US went bankrupt and thousands of companies were forced to declare bankruptcy. Its effects were felt then, in very short time also in Romania, following that in 2009, Romania went officially in recession. Beyond the financial implications the crisis has on the whole activity, regardless of the field, the economic and financial effects of the crisis on health and health policies can have very long term consequences.

  1. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  2. ASPECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS INFLUENCE ON THE ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    TOMA ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to study several aspects of the economic crisis influence on the Romanian consumer behavior. In the first part of the paper, I have presented the relevant economic factors, which are certainly among the factors that determine behavior, among other factors. I then briefly presented the economic crisis impact on Romania. The last part includes aspects of the influences of the economic crisis on Romanian consumer behavior. I used as data sources: consumer behavior literature, st...

  3. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz MB

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Bosi Ferraz1,21Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo Center for Health Economics (GRIDES, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. Keywords: health care, health care system, population health

  4. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  5. Health, health behaviors, and health dissimilarities predict divorce: results from the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor health and health behaviors are associated with divorce. This study investigates the degree to which six health indicators and health behaviors among husbands and wives are prospectively related to divorce, and whether spousal similarities in these factors are related to a reduced risk of marital dissolution. Theoretically, a reduced risk is possible, because spousal similarity can help the couple’s adaptive processes. Methods The data come from a general population sample (19...

  6. Health behavior as a key construct for social epidemiology, sociology of health, and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Currently Global health is characterized with the leading burden of chronic degenerative diseases which are largely mediated by behaviors denoted as ‘health behaviors’ including use of alcohol and tobacco, unhealthy diet, and low physical activity. In the case of many modern infections, behavior plays a major role as well. The objective of this study was to consider the place of ‘health behavior’ in related social and health sciences.METHODS. Theories in social epidemiology, socio...

  7. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  8. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost- effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH, vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution. Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds.

  9. Evaluation of health policies : an economic analysis applied to Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkwenkeu, Sylvain F.

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, the sequence of reforms in the health sector has reinforced an ideological wavering between two opposing currents: a socio-universal that promotes equity, and a neoliberal, which militates for greater economic efficiency of existing systems. Articulating two concerns which are, the worsening of health inequalities as consequence of policy choices made on the efficacy of services without taking into account factors that support the demand, and the form of organization of the healt...

  10. The economic costs of mental health-related discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Osumili, B.; Henderson, C.; Corker, E.; Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Thornicroft, G; McCrone, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the economic costs of mental health-related discrimination in the domains of health care, relationships and participation in leisure activities in England between 2011 and 2014. Method: A subsample of the Viewpoint survey was interviewed using the Costs of Discrimination Assessment Questionnaire in 2011 and 2014. Information on the impact of discrimination on healthcare use, help seeking from family and friends and participation in leisure activities was rec...

  11. Understanding the Economic Consequences of Shifting Trends in Population Health

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Zheng, Yuhui; Adam H. Gailey

    2009-01-01

    The public economic burden of shifting trends in population health remains uncertain. Sustained increases in obesity, diabetes, and other diseases could reduce life expectancy – with a concomitant decrease in the public-sector’s annuity burden – but these savings may be offset by worsening functional status, which increases health care spending, reduces labor supply, and increases public assistance. Using a microsimulation approach, we quantify the competing public-finance consequences of shi...

  12. Health, Education and Economic Crisis : Protecting the Poor in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrow, R A

    2006-01-01

    When an economic crisis hits, a primary policy concern in developing countries is how social services can be protected and, in particular, how access to health and education for the poor can be maintained. Using the Indonesian Social Safety Net (SSN) as case study, this dissertation investigates the effectiveness of targeted demand side interventions in health and education as a tool to protect access to these services for the poor in times of crisis, when policy makers are faced with severe ...

  13. Nutrition economics – food as an ally of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Jones, P. J.; Uauy, R; L. Segal; Milner, J

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a major and increasing contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Much of the chronic disease burden is preventable through modification of lifestyle behaviours, and increased attention is being focused on identifying and implementing effective preventative health strategies. Nutrition has been identified as a major modifiable determinant of NCD. The recent merging of health economics and nutritional sciences to form the n...

  14. Situating care in mainstream health economics: an ethical dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John B.; McMaster, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Standard health economics concentrates on the provision of care by medical professionals. Yet ‘care’ receives scant analysis; it is portrayed as a spillover effect or externality in the form of interdependent utility functions. In this context care can only be conceived as either acts of altruism or as social capital. Both conceptions are subject to considerable problems stemming from mainstream health economics’ reliance on a reductionist social model built around instrumental rationality an...

  15. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  16. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  17. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  18. Utilization review. Health economics and cost-effective resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, A H

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to reduce their health care burden, health care payors have turned to utilization controls and restructured health care payment systems to control health care costs. While health care payors are interested in economic restraints, health care providers are being placed at increasing levels of financial risk, and they struggle to maintain high quality services. Quality of care must remain our number one priority, but it is essential to achieve this goal in a cost-efficient manner. Cost-efficiencies are gained through the development of a comprehensive physician education program that encourages information exchange, physician input, and the implementation of positive alternatives that lead to efficiencies in resource management. PMID:1824449

  19. Behavior of Serbian Tourists During Economic Crisis: Two Empirical Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Najdić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourist’s behavior research is focused on understanding and explaining the factors that affect tourist’s preferences and holiday destination choice. In this paper is analyzed the impact of the global economic crisis on the preferences toward leisure travels of the residents from Serbia. The paper is based on researches conducted in 2006-2009, through travel agencies and in 2011 on the general population major of age with support of TNS Medium Gallupa. Better understanding of the perception process and how tourists react to certain factor can give more accurate information on the dynamics of tourism demand and its dependence on tourist’s perception.

  20. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) complet...

  1. Health, Education and Economic Crisis : Protecting the Poor in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrow, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    When an economic crisis hits, a primary policy concern in developing countries is how social services can be protected and, in particular, how access to health and education for the poor can be maintained. Using the Indonesian Social Safety Net (SSN) as case study, this dissertation investigates th

  2. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  3. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  4. Health habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. People with psychiatric disorders are at high risk of oral diseases due to the impact of their primary psychiatric condition and the side-effects of antipsychotic medications. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of hospitalized psychiatric patients with psychotic disorders, including mood disorders with psychotic characteristics, as well as to identify factors that could influence those habits, attitudes and behavior. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 186 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders (87 males and 99 females, aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age 46.0±8.0 years. The control group consisted of 186 healthy persons matched for age and gender. Data were obtained by using specially designed questionnaires with questions about the subjects' social, economic and demographic characteristics, as well as their habits, attitudes and behaviour concerning their oral health, in a form of a standardized interview. Other medical data were collected from medical documentation of disease history. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, ANOVA, Logistic Regression and simultaneous multiple regression. Results. Psychiatric patients have worse habits, attitudes and behavior concerning their oral health in comparison with healthy persons (p<0.001: they wash their teeth more rarely and in a shorter time, have less knowledge of oral diseases and their effect on general health, and visit their dentist more rarely. The obtained results depend on social, economic and demographic characteristics and on the underlying illness of patients. Conclusion. Health educational work concerning oral health of patients should be included in psychiatric treatment, as a part of an existing therapy with the aim of improving the general quality of their life.

  5. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Brown Judith; Demou Evangelia; Tristram Madeleine; Gilmour Harper; Sanati Kaveh A; Macdonald Ewan B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI) population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdi...

  6. Impact of Sense of Coherence on Oral Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Maryam; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Badri, Parvaneh; Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to critically analyze the empirical evidence on the association between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health behaviors through a systematic approach. Methods A systematic search up to April 2015 was carried out using the following electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE; ISI Web of Science; and Ovid PsychInfo. Studies were included if they evaluated the relationship between SOC and oral health behaviors including tooth cleaning, fluoride usage, dietary habits, dental attendance, and smoking. We excluded studies that only assessed the relationship between oral health status and SOC without evaluating oral health behaviors. The New Castle Ottawa (NOS) quality assessment checklist was employed to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Results Thirty-nine potential papers met the preliminary selection criteria and following a full-text review, 9 papers were finally selected for this systematic review. Results provided by the included studies indicated different levels of association between SOC and oral health behaviors. The most frequent behaviors investigated were tooth brushing and dental attendance pattern. The impact of SOC on performing positive oral health behaviors, to some extent, was related to demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition, mothers’ SOC influenced children’s oral health practices. Conclusions A more favorable oral health behavior was observed among those with a stronger SOC suggesting that the SOC can be a determinant of oral health-related behaviors including tooth brushing frequency, daily smoking, and dental attendance. PMID:26275064

  7. Romanian Health Care Reform in the Context of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gheonea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of financial crisis are strongly felt in Romania, which already face with asignificant slowdown in economic growth or even economic recession. The current and internationalsituation remains still difficult, and requires high budget constraints. Under these conditions, thehealth system in Romania has become one of the most inefficient in Europe, mainly characterized bylack of transparency in the allocation of funds and inefficiency in resource use. The lack of clear andcoherent criteria to evaluate the performance of health institutions results in a difficultimplementation of efficient managerial systems to reward the efficient manager.

  8. Estimating Economic Health Costs of Not Controlling Toxic Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Konishi, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what types of information may be important in determining the welfare benefits of preventing toxic water contamination when a given type of toxification occurs (or is likely to occur) in a given setting. It attempts to identify information and behavior issues that need to be considered when policy makers and others wish to obtain reasonable estimates of welfare benefits and weigh them against the economic costs of removing toxins. This paper also prov...

  9. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  10. Emotions, perceptions and economic behavior. A critical-philosophical approach to the place of Psychology in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Caballero de la Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the origin of the issue of empathy in the History of Ideas and its importance in economics, as well as its revitalization. It concludes that it is not the study of empathy, so fashionable today, but the study of decision making the place where Economics can find the nature of emotions in relation to human behavior. This nature is its power to inhibit behavior. The study of repentance is itself more interesting and helpful for the economy than the study of empathy. Finally, the institutional approach is presented as the best in order to understand the issues related to economic human behavior

  11. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  12. Helping patients make better decisions: how to apply behavioral economics in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney MR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maureen Reni Courtney,1 Christy Spivey,2 Kathy M Daniel1 1College of Nursing, 2College of Business, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA  Abstract: Clinicians are committed to effectively educating patients and helping them to make sound decisions concerning their own health care. However, how do clinicians determine what is effective education? How do they present information clearly and in a manner that patients understand and can use to make informed decisions? Behavioral economics (BE is a subfield of economics that can assist clinicians to better understand how individuals actually make decisions. BE research can help guide interactions with patients so that information is presented and discussed in a more deliberate and impactful way. We can be more effective providers of care when we understand the factors that influence how our patients make decisions, factors of which we may have been largely unaware. BE research that focuses on health care and medical decision making is becoming more widely known, and what has been reported suggests that BE interventions can be effective in the medical realm. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an overview of BE decision science and derived practice strategies to promote more effective behavior change in patients.Keywords: nursing, message framing, defaults, incentives, social norms, commitment devices, health care

  13. What can the Big Five Personality Factors contribute to explain Small-Scale Economic Behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); C. Schwieren (Christiane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGrowing interest in using personality variables in economic research leads to the question whether personality as measured by psychology is useful to predict economic behavior. Is it reasonable to expect values on personality scales to be predictive of behavior in economic games? It is u

  14. Health-economic consequences of diabetic foot lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Apelqvist, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Diabetic foot complications result in huge costs for both society and the individual patients. Few reports on the health-economic consequences of diabetic foot infections have been published. In studies considering a wide societal perspective, costs of antibiotics were relatively low, whereas total costs for topical treatment were high relative to the total costs of foot infections. Total direct costs for healing of infected ulcers not requiring amputation are similar to$17,500 (in 1998 US do...

  15. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  16. GDP dependence on health, environment, education and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Victor; Frid, Claes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence that certain factors have on the gross national product (GDP) and to categorize in what way they contribute, by either having a positive or a negative influence, and how significant each of them are. Educational, environmental, economic and health factors are all investigated in this study. Using data provided by the World Bank, covariates are chosen from previous named areas and multiple linear regression analysis is used to produce a...

  17. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  18. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaid David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as

  19. Evidence for the credibility of health economic models for health policy decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2012-01-01

    the findings of studies that was hard to explain. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out following PRISMA reporting principles. Health economic models of the cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms published between 2005-2010 were included. Key characteristics......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the credibility of health economic models of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms for health policy decision-making has improved since 2005 when a systematic review by Campbell et al. concluded that reporting standards were poor and there was divergence between...... have benefited from general advances in health economic modelling and some improvements in reporting were noted. However, the low level of agreement between studies in model structures and assumptions, and difficulty in justifying these (convergent validity), remain a threat to the credibility of...

  20. Economics of disaster risk, social vulnerability, and mental health resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Peek, Lori; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the relationship between exposure to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita and mental health resilience by vulnerability status, with particular focus on the mental health outcomes of single mothers versus the general public. We advance a measurable notion of mental health resilience to disaster events. We also calculate the economic costs of poor mental health days added by natural disaster exposure. Negative binomial analyses show that hurricane exposure increases the expected count of poor mental health days for all persons by 18.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.44-31.14%), and by 71.88% (95% CI, 39.48-211.82%) for single females with children. Monthly time-series show that single mothers have lower event resilience, experiencing higher added mental stress. Results also show that the count of poor mental health days is sensitive to hurricane intensity, increasing by a factor of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.10) for every billion (U.S.$) dollars of damage added for all exposed persons, and by a factor of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14) for single mothers. We estimate that single mothers, as a group, suffered over $130 million in productivity loss from added postdisaster stress and disability. Results illustrate the measurability of mental health resilience as a two-dimensional concept of resistance capacity and recovery time. Overall, we show that natural disasters regressively tax disadvantaged population strata. PMID:21303401

  1. Economics and the Transformation of the Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Mental illnesses provide a difficult set of challenges to American health and social institutions. Those challenges have been a continuous concern of David Mechanic's over the course of his career. In this article we trace the development of modern economic and organizational structures that drive the delivery of mental health care in the early part of the twenty-first century. We show how the nature of mental disorders themselves and the treatment for addressing those illnesses pose fundamental difficulties to health care organizational and financing structures. We analyze the factors that have caused the dramatic changes in how American society has addressed mental illnesses over the past fifty years. Specifically, we note the central influence that mainstream health, income support, and disability programs have had in shaping mental health care. We argue that the interaction of the unique features of mental illnesses and changes in mainstream health and social policy led mental health care to evolve so differently from general medical care. PMID:27127263

  2. A systematic review of economic evaluations of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehlmoos Tracey P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER. Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis

  3. Microeconomic Surplus in Health Care: Applied Economic Theory in Health Care in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, S.; Nuijten, M.; Wiesner, C.; Kaier, K.; Johansson, P-O.; Oertel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care “convenience” could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. Conclusion: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: “Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings.” Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept. PMID:23423475

  4. Microeconomic surplus in health care: Applied economic theory in health care in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care convenience could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analysed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands and the UK: Caesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends, drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value was calculated.Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands.Conclusions: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings. Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.

  5. The Dow is Killing Me: Risky Health Behaviors and the Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Chad; Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate how risky health behaviors and self-reported health vary with the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and during stock market crashes. Because stock market indices are leading indicators of economic performance, this research contributes to our understanding of the macroeconomic determinants of health. Existing studies typically rely on the unemployment rate to proxy for economic performance, but this measure captures only one of many channels through which the economic environment may influence individual health decisions. We find that large, negative monthly DJIA returns, decreases in the level of the DJIA, and stock market crashes are widely associated with worsening self-reported mental health and more cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and fatal car accidents involving alcohol. These results are consistent with predictions from rational addiction models and have implications for research on the association between consumption and stock prices. PMID:24803424

  6. Health-Seeking Behaviors among Latinas: Practices and Reported Difficulties in Obtaining Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.; Montieth, Brigid A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Latinos experience disproportionate negative health status and health care access. Expanding understanding of factors impacting Latino immigrant health is imperative. Purpose: This study identified health-seeking behaviors among Latinas in a large Midwestern city with rapid immigrant population growth. Health-seeking behaviors like…

  7. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  8. Methanol as an alternative fuel: Economic and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switching from gasoline to methanol fuels has important economic and health effects. Replacing gasoline with methanol will affect oil markets by lowering the demand for oil and thus lowering oil prices. Increased demand for the natural gas feedstock will increase natural gas prices. Because methanol is more costly than gasoline, fuel prices will also increase. On the other hand, methanol use will reduce ozone pollution and some of the health risks associated with gasoline. Considering all three markets affected by the phasing-out of gasoline, the switch to methanol results in net gains. The health benefits from lower pollution and the lives saved from the switch from gasoline to methanol are in addition to these gains. Overall, the benefits of the policy far outweigh the costs. However, the gains in the oil market, arising from the US monopsony power in the world oil market, can be captured by other, more efficient policies. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Method to Their Madness: Dispelling the Myth of Economic Rationality as a Behavioral Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, John

    2002-01-01

    Although not immediately apparent, the discipline of behavioral finance is rapidly adopting an implicit prescriptive agenda. Behavioral finance does not merely describe financial market reality, it shapes it. Economic rationality is taken as the ideal toward to which individuals 'should' strive. In this paper I show that, as a behavioral ideal, economic rationality is unjustified both from a strictly economic perspective, and from a moral perspective. In short, there is nothing inherently...

  10. The Behavioral Economics of Education: New Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several decades, researchers have used economics to understand a number of issues in education policy. This article argues that some education researchers have defined economics too narrowly, neglecting several areas of economics research that cut across disciplinary boundaries. One subdiscipline of economics that might be of use in…

  11. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  12. Demonstrating the economic value of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P; Rossiter, P; Nuttall, D

    2002-12-01

    Many large companies operate some form of occupational health service (OHS). More companies now require specific evaluative information to justify the continued provision of an in-house OHS. This is in the face of increased pressure to control costs, combined with an awareness that the service itself can induce activity (supplier-induced demand) and could be substituted with health care provided or even funded outside the company. The lack of routinely collected data and the conceptual difficulty in defining and measuring the outcomes of an OHS provide challenges for economic evaluation. A purely human capital approach, where people are valued by their wage rates, is likely to be insufficient, since OHSs have multiple objectives. These objectives include fulfilling statutory obligations, contributing to the creation of a culture of partnership, reduction of potential costs to the company (sickness benefit, production loss, poor performance, litigation, insurance) and providing a suitable environment for the cost-effective reduction of the social and health service costs of illness at work. Evidence is needed to quantify some of these arguments and demonstrate to decision makers the value generated by OHSs. The aim of this paper is to consider the practicality of different economic evaluation methodologies, specifically cost models, contingent valuation (willingness-to-pay) and development of OHS-specific outcome measures. In considering different approaches, we present the results of our research in two UK companies. PMID:12488519

  13. Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: Introducing the ESTRO HERO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New evidence based regimens and novel high precision technology have reinforced the important role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer. Current data estimate that more than 50% of all cancer patients would benefit from radiotherapy during the course of their disease. Within recent years, the radiotherapy community has become more than conscious of the ever-increasing necessity to come up with objective data to endorse the crucial role and position of radiation therapy within the rapidly changing global oncology landscape. In an era of ever expanding health care costs, proven safety and effectiveness is not sufficient anymore to obtain funding, objective data about cost and cost-effectiveness are nowadays additionally requested. It is in this context that ESTRO is launching the HERO-project (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology), with the overall aim to develop a knowledge base and a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. To accomplish these objectives, the HERO project will address needs, accessibility, cost and cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy. The results will raise the profile of radiotherapy in the European cancer management context and help countries prioritizing radiotherapy as a highly cost-effective treatment strategy. This article describes the different steps and aims within the HERO-project, starting from evidence on the role of radiotherapy within the global oncology landscape and highlighting weaknesses that may undermine this position.

  14. China's "market economics in command": footwear workers' health in jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M S; Chan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study of occupational safety and health (OSH) problems in the footwear industry in China, the world's largest shoemaker, is based on four years of research in China supplemented by research in Taiwan, Australia, and the United States. With the advent of the economic reforms of the early 1980s, the Chinese state is being driven by an economic imperative under which the profit motive overrides other concerns, causing a deterioration in OSH conditions. Footwear workers are being exposed to high levels of benzene, toluene, and other toxic solvents contained in the adhesives used in the shoe-making process. Many workers have been afflicted with aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other health problems. Most of China's current permissible exposure limits to toxins are either outdated or underenforced. As a result, the Chinese state's protection of footwear workers' health is inadequate. The article aims to draw the attention of the international OSH community to the importance of setting specific exposure standards for the footwear industry worldwide. PMID:10615574

  15. The relationship between functional health literacy and health promoting behaviors among older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Seyed Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Mostafavi, Firouzeh; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is a measure of individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Older adults are one of the most important at risk groups affected by the impact of inadequate health literacy. Health promoting behaviors in older adults have potential impact on their health and quality of life and reduce the costs incurred to health care. Given the paucity of information health literacy and health promoting behavior, the purpose of this study was to examin...

  16. Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior: The Role of Financing and Organization of Health Services in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Aboagye; Otuo Serebour Agyemang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana’s hea...

  17. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  18. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science... recommendations to the National Science Foundation on major goals and policies pertaining to Social, Behavioral... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  19. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  20. Health enhancing behaviors of teachers and other school staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Woynarowska-Sołdan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any activity undertaken for the purpose of health enhancing behavior is an important element of taking care of one's health. The aim of this paper was to analyze the frequency of health enhancing behaviors and avoiding health-risk behaviors among teachers and other school staff by gender and age. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 750 teachers and 259 individuals of non-teaching staff of 22 health promoting schools. A questionnaire that included Positive Health Behaviors Scale for Adults and questions on avoiding risk behaviors were used as a research tool. Results: Of the 32 analyzed health enhancing (positive behaviors, only 11 were undertaken by teachers and 10 by non-teaching staff at a desirable frequency (always or almost always in a group of more than 50% of respondents. Almost one third of health enhancing behaviors were undertaken with this frequency by less than 20% of respondents. The highest deficits concerned physical activity, nutrition and mental health-related behaviors, and the lowest concerned safety. Deficits in all positive health behaviors were smaller in teachers than in non-teaching staff, in women than in men and in older than in younger teachers. The majority of respondents, mostly teachers, irrespective of gender and age did not undertake risk behaviors. Conclusions: There was a lot of deficits in the healthy lifestyle of teachers and other school workers what is alarming from the point of view of school workers' health, their tasks and their role in shaping positive health behavior in children and adolescents. There is a great need for taking actions to improve the situation, such as the development of health promotion programs addressed to teachers and other school staff, including issues concerning healthy lifestyles in teacher's pre- and in-service training, counselling in the area of healthy lifestyle in preventive health care of school staff. Med Pr 2013;64(5:659–670

  1. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (pbehavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure feedback may have promise as part of a multi-method approach

  2. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  3. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  4. Health consciousness and health behavior: the application of a new health consciousness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, S J

    1990-01-01

    Self-consciousness has been an important trait in personality research. It seems logical to investigate whether health consciousness, involving a similar self-focusing, might operate in a parallel manner. To this end, I developed the Health Consciousness Scale (HCS), primarily by modifying items of the Self-Consciousness Scale, and also tested it for reliability and validity. My study found the HCS to contain four first-order factors: (1) Health Self-Consciousness, (2) Health Alertness, (3) Health Self-Monitoring, and (4) Health Involvement. I found these four first-order factors, along with the overall HCS second-order factor, to relate to a number of self-reported, health-associated behavioral variables. The study also included comparisons with the Health Locus-of-Control Scale and other measures. PMID:2223170

  5. Health economics made easy: guiding the initiated and uninitiated.

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Charles

    2008-01-01

    For many years it was a challenge in teaching health economics to find a textbook that exactly fits the needs of a class, not least because the needs of student are so diverse. To an extent, this remains the case despite the appearance of several new and useful contributions in the last few years. At times it seemed like cable television ? lots of choices, but nothing that is quite what you want. Cullis and West (1979) worked well for many groups, but was allowed to get out of date, and went ...

  6. Investment behavior and investment aggregates during China's economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2006-01-01

    In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.

  7. A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval; Grossman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25919364

  8. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability ...

  9. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  10. Mobile economics and pricing of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttin, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents tools and concepts to analyze the business environment of the biopharmaceutical industry. It was presented at MEDETEL 2010. Emerging paradigms appear in that industry and new ways to value life science technologies are developed especially using mobile economics analysis. At a time, mobile computing technologies revolutionize the field of health care, this paper contributes to show how the value chain concept can be useful to analyze the value system in a mobile computing environment. It is also a milestone for the designs of future technology platforms and of health care infrastructure, in order to retain enough value between innovators, new and traditionnal players from life science, IT and other new comers, in a fragmented global competitive environment. PMID:23079949

  11. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Doshmangir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households.In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive and assisted by Atlas-ti software.Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households.Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior.

  12. Introduction: Behavioral economics, business decision making and applied policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of behavioural economics has provided new insights into economic and business phenomena by integrating elements of economic theory and experimental psychology. So far, the behavioural economics research agenda has concentrated on the empirical validity of foundational assumptions, producing new descriptive accounts of behavioural patterns that are difficult to explain using traditional neoclassical assumptions. This agenda has now developed sufficiently to begin exploring how to...

  13. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Judith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.

  14. Honey, why don't you see a doctor? Spousal impact on health behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Neimann, Stefanie; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Married individuals are usually found to be in better health than singles but it is not fully known why. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel we test one possible explanation, namely that two spouses encourage each other to a health-promoting behavior and monitor it. Therefore, we analyze the direct spousal impact on seeking medical advice, physical activity, and eating habits controlling for selection, positive assortative mating, and shared unobserved influences of the environmen...

  15. Standard cost lists for health economic evaluation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn

    2014-05-01

    This analysis was undertaken to generate a set of standard costs for medical services and those incurred by patient receiving treatment, for use in health economic evaluations. Medical service unit cost data were derived from a survey of 3,091 hospital medical services in five hospitals, disaggregated by type of hospital (district or provincial/regional) and analyzed using the relative value unit method. Patient-borne ambulatory cost values were derived from data gathered through 905 patient interviews that took place in six health centers, three district hospitals, and three provincial/regional hospitals. The survey gathered data on costs a rising from the distance travelled to access the medical service, the time spent in the healthcare facility, as well as travel and meal costs. The analysis generated a set of standard cost data for Thailand that will make conducting economic evaluations more accurate, faster and more convenient, as well as allowing better comparability between studies. This is the first standard cost menu that has been developed specifically for Thailand, and as such should be revised and refined in the future. Some areas that would benefit from revision are suggested. PMID:24964710

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

  17. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Claudette D. Ncho; Susan C.D. Wright

    2013-01-01

    The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study wa...

  18. Can Economic Deprivation Protect Health? Paradoxical Multilevel Effects of Poverty on Hispanic Children’s Wheezing

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy W. Collins; Young-an Kim; Grineski, Sara E.; Stephanie Clark-Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that economic deprivation has a generally negative influence on residents’ health. We employ hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test if economic deprivation presents respiratory health risks or benefits to Hispanic children living in the City of El Paso (Texas, USA) at neighborhood- and individual-levels, and whether individual-level health effects of economic deprivation vary based on neighborhood-level economic deprivation. Data come from the US Census Bure...

  19. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development. PMID:22467707

  20. A behavioral economic analysis of the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Alison M; Messina, Bryan G; Correia, Christopher J; Garza, Kimberly B; Murphy, James G

    2016-02-01

    The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is a widely recognized public health issue, and young adults are particularly vulnerable to their use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks capture an individual's strength of desire and motivation for a particular drug. We examined young adult prescription drug purchase and consumption patterns using hypothetical behavioral economic purchase tasks for prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, stimulants, and opiate pain relievers. We also examined relations between demand, use frequency, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and sex differences in these relations. Undergraduate students who endorsed past-year prescription drug use (N = 393) completed an online questionnaire for course credit. Measures assessed substance use frequency and DSM-5 SUD symptoms. Hypothetical purchase tasks for sedatives, stimulants, and pain relievers assessed participants' consumption and expenditure patterns for these substances across 25 prices. Past-year prescription sedative, stimulant, and pain reliever use was endorsed by 138, 258, and 189 participants, respectively. Among these users, consumption for their respective substance decreased as a function of ascending price, as expected. Demand indices for a prescription drug were associated with each other and with use frequency and SUD symptoms, with variability across substances but largely not by sex. In addition, demand for prescription pain relievers differentially predicted symptoms independent of use, with differences for females and males. In conclusion, hypothetical consumption and expenditure patterns for prescription drugs were generally well described by behavioral economic demand curves, and the observed associations with use and SUD symptoms provide support for the utility of prescription drug purchase tasks. PMID:26502300

  1. The Economic Viability of Ethnicity: Economic Behavior as an Expression of Ethnic Identity among Serbian Immigrants in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Nedeljković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic aspect of ethnicity represents a wide topic of research which still hasn’t been extensively studied in Serbian ethnology and anthropology. It encompasses numerous kinds of relationships between people who belong to the same ethnic group, as well as all kinds of economic discrimination or economic favorizing based on ethnic identity. In this paper I shall attempt to highlight some of the basic characteristics of this issue, and to point out the interconnectedness of economic behavior and ethnic identity, based on one case study. I shall also demonstrate some of the specifics of the socio-economic system within which the studied topic was considered (USA, as well as the complex and ambiguous influence that this system has had on ethnic identity through certain economic actions. The paper focuses on the economic aspect of ethnicity of the Serbian Diaspora in the US, and certain specific issues are considered through the example of the economic behavior of one Serbian immigrant from Romania.

  2. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the United States of America can arrive at a coherent national energy policy, several ongoing debates must be resolved - on environmental hazards, health impacts, and the direct economic consequences of alternative future energy options. No one strategy is obviously correct - or uniquely ethical. Each strategy has its drawbacks, each can be blocked by one or another coalition of interest groups. The public is poorly informed by the media. A single large coal-mine accident is far more extensively reported than a long series of isolated accidents at grade crossings for coal trains, and yet the latter causes more deaths each year. Similarly, the public debate on nuclear issues is focused on low-probability, high-consequence events. It is as though national policy were being framed by a gambler whose motto is 'it's only the stakes and not the odds that matter'. The two authors of this paper come from different disciplines, yet they both believe that the odds do matter. It is essential that the public be well informed about the health risks and the economic consequences of a moratorium on the civilian uses of nuclear energy in the USA. We think that such a moratorium would adversely affect health and the economy. These impacts although small in relation, say, to the overall death rate or to the overall gross national product are not small in an absolute sense The adverse consequences of a moratorium are much more certain, and surely outweigh the impacts of any plausible accident associated with the operation of power reactors

  3. Privatisation of Public Health Services at European Health Markets From a Law and Economics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Janoska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available European health markets are undergoing transformation in the aftermath of the deregulation, liberalisation and privatisation of institutions of general public interest. A health care system is characterised by complex structures and a functioning interaction between the actors and institutions, which are reflected in the health care structures. Privatisation of public hospitals is altering the role of governmentin healthcare. This article underlines the importance, analysing such decision with the principles of law and economics. In this case, the application of economic theory of law on the European integration means to seek for justifications for a common European "health market" and to analyse the role of the European Union on national health systems. This proposal is not about whether, according to the GermanFederal Constitutional Court’s ruling on the Treaty of Lisbon, German principles of government are affected inadmissible, particularly in the social state principle. It is about whether the use of social state principle of German coinage is suitable to identify limitations and liberties in the European integration process. This paper attempts to analyse the explanation of social and legal norms based on economic patterns of interpretation in order to investigate changes to the healthcare mandate in the European healthcare sector and their consequences for national government activity.

  4. Psychosocial correlates of health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Melissa V; Lobel, Marci; Cannella, Dolores T

    2014-09-01

    Behaviors during pregnancy including eating, exercise, cigarette smoking, and other substance use affect the health of a pregnant woman and her fetus. However, little is known about what influences pregnant women to engage in these health behaviors. Based upon relevant theory, we hypothesized that because health-promoting behaviors require continuous efforts that may depend upon a reliable, stable set of resources, intrapersonal traits, namely self-esteem and optimism, would be associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors during pregnancy. In addition, we hypothesized that variables reactive to the more immediate context, pregnancy-specific stress and perceived control over pregnancy, would be associated with the practice of health-impairing behaviors. We distinguished health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors in a diverse sample of 165 pregnant women and investigated whether such behaviors are associated with distinct psychosocial factors. Results supported study hypotheses and provide evidence that even after controlling for maternal age, income, body mass index, and gestation, a stable, self-relevant disposition, self-esteem, is associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors in pregnancy whereas pregnancy-specific stress, a situationally-evoked factor, is associated with the practice of health-impairing prenatal behaviors. Perceived control over pregnancy, which may reflect stable disposition and situational perceptions, was associated with health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors. PMID:25078858

  5. Improving the Quality of Behavioral Health Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Siegwarth

    2015-01-01

    This brief highlights Mathematica’s work to find opportunities for quality improvement in Medicaid’s behavioral health services, develop measures that can help monitor the quality of care, and to identify innovative strategies to better coordinate behavioral and physical health care.

  6. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  7. Behavioral Public Economics: Welfare and Policy Analysis with Non-Standard Decision-Makers

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Antonio Rangel

    2005-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, we discuss several emerging approaches to applied welfare analysis under non-standard (“behavioral”) assumptions concerning consumer choice. This provides a foundation for Behavioral Public Economics. Second, we illustrate applications of these approaches by surveying behavioral studies of policy problems involving saving, addiction, and public goods. We argue that the literature on behavioral public economics, though in its infancy, has already fundamentally ...

  8. Employer Provided Health Insurance and Retirement Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects on retirement of employer provided health benefits to workers and retirees. Retiree health benefits delay retirement until age of eligibility, and then accelerate it. With a base case of no retiree health coverage, granting retiree health coverage to all those with employer coverage while working accelerates retirement age by less than one month. Valuing benefits at costs of private health insurance to unaffiliated individuals, rather than at group rates, incre...

  9. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  10. Studies on determinants for health behavior and the relationships between behavior, beliefs,and knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Näslund, Kristina Görel

    1996-01-01

    Näslund, Görel K. Health behavior - studies on determinants for healthbehavior and the relationships between health behavior, beliefs, andknowledge. Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, KarolinskaHospital, Stockholm, Sweden.The general aim was to study determinants for health behavior. The groups surveyedwere 1) male and female university students, 2) male and female blue-collar workers, and3) middle-aged men with slightly to moderately elevated coronary heart disease ri...

  11. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks : A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Ruediger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jurgen; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist,

  12. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  13. The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul

    2012-07-14

    We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535

  14. Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, Cora

    1986-01-01

    Sought to determine how adolescents' (N=156) health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differ according to age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and religion. Findings confirmed gender as a differentiating variable for performance of information-seeking behavior and found positive health…

  15. Sources of Health Information Related to Preventive Health Behaviors in a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Nicole; Baer, Heather J.; Clark, Cheryl R.; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Current literature suggests that certain sources of information are used in varying degrees among different socioeconomic and demographic groups; therefore, it is important to determine if specific classes of health information sources are more effective than others in promoting health behaviors. Purpose To determine if interpersonal versus mass media sources of health information are associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors (nonsmoking, fruit/vegetable intake, and exercise) and cancer screening. Methods Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship of health information sources (mass media sources including print, TV, Internet; and interpersonal sources including friends and family, community organizations, and healthcare providers); with meeting recommendations for healthy behaviors and cancer screening in the 2005 and 2007 Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). Analyses were conducted in 2009. Results In the 2005 HINTS, participants reporting use of print media and community organizations as sources of health information over the past year were mostly likely to meet recommendations for health behaviors. In the 2007 HINTS, utilization of healthcare providers for health information was associated with meeting recommendations for health behaviors, particularly cancer screening. Conclusions Use of print media and interpersonal sources of health information are most consistently associated with self-reported health behaviors. Additional research should explore the relationship of health information sources to clinical outcomes. Social network interventions to promote adoption of health behaviors should be further developed. PMID:20494238

  16. Economic change and health benefits: structural trends in employer-based health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbins, L A; Parmer, P

    2001-03-01

    Drawing on structural theories of economic outcomes, we investigated how economic change affects the distribution of health benefits, the main source of health insurance for American workers. Through an aggregate level analysis, we show how the effects of industry level characteristics on the level of health benefits change between 1988 and 1997. Due to the increased reliance on women, nonwhite workers, and part-time labor, we expect declines in the effect sizes of gender and race composition and proportion full-time. In contrast, we predict increases in the effects of proportion small firm employment, proportion union, and industry sector due to rising health care costs, the competitive economic environment, and greater union effectiveness. We analyze data from the March Current Population Surveys for 1987 to 1997 using generalized least-squares regression. The positive effect of proportion white increases over time, while the positive effect of level of full-time work declines. The negative effects of small firm employment and being a retail or nonprofessional service industry increase in magnitude. Both union activity and gender composition have stable effects over the period. The results challenge views of a declining significance of race and gender in the labor market. PMID:11357718

  17. The Utrecht Healthy School Project: Connecting adolescent health behavior, academic achievement and Health Promoting Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in adol

  18. Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior and Community Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah E Wiehe; Mei-Po Kwan; Jeff Wilson; J Dennis Fortenberry

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52), aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 we...

  19. Self-assessed dental health, oral health practices, and general health behaviors in Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin;

    2005-01-01

    effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage...

  20. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community

    OpenAIRE

    Tosh, J.; Kearns, B; Brennan, A.(School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia); Parry, G; Ricketts, T.; Saxon, D; Kilgarriff-Foster, A.; Thake, A; Chambers, E.; Hutten, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Method Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Ad...

  1. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  2. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  3. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  4. A theory-based online health behavior intervention for new university students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Tracy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Too few young people engage in behaviors that reduce the risk of morbidity and premature mortality, such as eating healthily, being physically active, drinking sensibly and not smoking. The present research developed an online intervention to target these health behaviors during the significant life transition from school to university when health beliefs and behaviors may be more open to change. This paper describes the intervention and the proposed approach to its evaluation. Methods/design Potential participants (all undergraduates about to enter the University of Sheffield will be emailed an online questionnaire two weeks before starting university. On completion of the questionnaire, respondents will be randomly assigned to receive either an online health behavior intervention (U@Uni or a control condition. The intervention employs three behavior change techniques (self-affirmation, theory-based messages, and implementation intentions to target four heath behaviors (alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking. Subsequently, all participants will be emailed follow-up questionnaires approximately one and six months after starting university. The questionnaires will assess the four targeted behaviors and associated cognitions (e.g., intentions, self-efficacy as well as socio-demographic variables, health status, Body Mass Index (BMI, health service use and recreational drug use. A sub-sample of participants will provide a sample of hair to assess changes in biochemical markers of health behavior. A health economic evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be conducted. Discussion The findings will provide evidence on the effectiveness of online interventions as well as the potential for intervening during significant life transitions, such as the move from school to university. If successful, the intervention could be employed at other universities to promote

  5. The relationship between radon knowledge, concern and behavior, and health values, health locus of control and preventive health behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts

  6. Economic crisis: impact on the health of citizens and consequences on health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaiskou A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the economy, for which the term financial crisis of 2008 was used, began from the US and evolved due to the globalization crisis internationally to a composite of the economy with the result today to talk more about economic downturn or crisis for many low-and middle-income countries. Employment is one of the main areas affected during an economic crisis and consequently the unemployment rate and employment insecurity rise sharply. The last 20 years in all relevant studies have shown that unemployment and insecurity are leading to loss of prosperity and poverty and have dramatic though not absolutely clarified effects on health. The majority of them indicate the proportional relationship between long-term unemployment with an increased risk of premature mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases and especially mental disorders that prevent a new round of problems such as suicides and violent deaths (fatalities, crimes, deaths from overdose of alcohol and drugs. WHO warns that the negative effects of the crisis will be much, for developing countries with reduced financial support, for developed countries which have requested emergency aid from the IMF but also for sensitive population groups within the powerful economic countries while their restriction appears to be based on political and economic support. The economic crisis also creates problems in the finance of health systems, while at the same time bear the function of public health services due to increased demand. The need for proper allocation of scarce financial resources oriented towards the principles of social justice and solidarity becomes even more urgent today.

  7. Evolutionary Game Theory and the Modelling of Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Tieman, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in 'De Economist' , 1998, 146, 59-89. Since the 1950's economists applied game theoretical concepts to a wide variety of economic problems. The Nash equilibrium concept has proven to be a powerful instrument in analyzing the outcome of economic processes. Since the late 1980's economists also show a growing interest in the application of evolutionary game theory. This paper discusses the main concepts of evolutionarygame theory and their applica...

  8. Introducing Anthropological Foundations of Economic Behavior, Organization, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    One of the rude awakenings for economists from the current recession is an emerging understanding that economics has gone wild with its highbrow mathematical models that bear little resemblance to reality. The failure of economics to predict and solve the current global recession, has restored the “dismal science” title to the profession. It stems from the cultish fascination with Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand, centered around the belief in the efficient market hypothesis. This fascination expo...

  9. International Economic Influence on Iranian Behavior An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David A.; Renfro, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (Spring 2010), v.4 no.1 "This paper serves as a proof-of-concept testing analytic tools for better understanding the efficacy and consequences of economic influence in terms of sanctions and other similar macroeconomic regimes. The underlying concept developed is a calculation of economic threat rings describing the propensity and utility of countries to participate in such regimes. […] The existence of national economies inside s...

  10. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National energy policy requires realistic totalling of costs in assessing energy alternatives. The Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division (BEAD) at Brookhaven is estimating health and environmental costs of energy production and use. It was estimated that the production of electric power from all sources in the USA in 1975 was associated with 2000-19,000 deaths and 29,000-48,000 disabilities; this is roughly 0.2-2% of total deaths in the USA for ages 1-74. The estimated health effects associated with a total fuel cycle standardized to produce 1010kWh electric power were: from coal, estimated deaths 10-200, estimated disabilities 300-500; from oil, estimated deaths 3-150, estimated disabilities 150-300; from gas, estimated deaths 0.2, estimated disabilities 20; from nuclear power, estimated deaths 1-3, estimated disabilities 8-30. The differences in the year 2000 between health impacts of the US energy system under normal growth expectations and under conditions of a nuclear moratorium were estimated. On the assumption that the nuclear moratorium would require 200 additional 1000-MW(e) coal-fired power plants and that, with improved control technology, sulphur emissions were equivalent to 0.5% sulphur coal (12,500Btu/lb), additional estimated deaths were 1500-18,000 annually. By the same assumptions, it turns out that a nationwide nuclear moratorium could lead to low economic losses initially that would rise rapidly after the year 2000, so that the cost to the USA in 2010 would be US $109x109. Summing the costs for 1975 through 2050, the present value of these losses would be US $77x109 or US $595x109, depending on whether public decisions are to be based on a 10% or 5% discount rate. (author)

  11. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations. PMID:23223322

  12. Health Services for Behavioral Problems in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Arwa; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; DiRenzo-Coffey, Gina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore primary care pediatricians' experiences in delivering behavioral health services in their own practices within the Nebraska context. An online survey was sent to the 154 primary care pediatricians who are members of the Nebraska chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Questions explored their management of behavioral problems, attitudes, and perceived barriers to providing behavioral health services in their practices. Seventy pediatricians completed the survey (47%). The majority of pediatricians reported seeing substantial numbers of children with behavioral problems. Eighty-five percent believed that most emotional and behavioral complaints could be managed by the pediatrician. Eighty-eight percent believed that the parents would prefer to receive services for their children's behavioral problems in the primary care office. Most felt that their training in mental health issues was inadequate. Pediatricians in this survey feel that pediatric behavioral problems are best managed in the primary care office and perceive that parents also prefer this setting. Improving training in behavioral health in pediatrics is necessary to meet the delivery of much needed behavioral health care to children and families. PMID:25398258

  13. The Utrecht Healthy School Project: Connecting adolescent health behavior, academic achievement and Health Promoting Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in adolescents, (2) how do they affect their school performances and (3) are they improved by a Health Promoting School intervention that applies a Whole School Approach? Firstly, it was studied how healt...

  14. A data-driven agent based simulation platform for early health economics device evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, D; Kashefi, A; Saleh, N.; Turchi, T

    2016-01-01

    Health economics is a relatively new but growing field within the discipline of economics and is concerned with making the best use of scarce resources. Early health economic estimates of new medical devices, in particular, can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product design and investment decisions. It allows companies to understand their likely market and possible reimbursement more thoroughly. Despite the many advantages of point-of-care testing the key problem f...

  15. Health and Oral Health Care Needs and Health Care-Seeking Behavior Among Homeless Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Jonathan Leserman; Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Shiboski, Caroline; Kral, Alex H.

    2010-01-01

    Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Phys...

  16. Lifecycle effects of a recession on health behaviors: Boom, bust, and recovery in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-03-01

    This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the crisis, and all but sweets continued to decline during the recovery. Health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruit, fish oil, and vitamins/minerals and getting recommended sleep) followed more idiosyncratic paths. Overall, most behaviors reverted back to their pre-crisis levels or trends during the recovery, and these short-term deviations in trajectories were probably too short-lived in this recession to have major impacts on health or mortality. A notable exception is for binge drinking, which declined by 10% during the 2 crisis years, continued to fall (at a slower rate of 8%) during the 3 recovery years, and did not revert back to the upward pre-crisis trend during our observation period. These lingering effects, which directionally run counter to the pre-crisis upward trend in consumption and do not reflect price increases during the recovery period, suggest that alcohol is a potential pathway by which recessions improve health and/or reduce mortality. PMID:26687768

  17. Economic Culture and Trading Behaviors in Information Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayyan, Khalid N.

    2012-01-01

    There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…

  18. The Impact of Behavioral Economics on Consumer and Competition Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Garces

    2010-01-01

    In a model of rational behavior, firms in a competitive environment compete mostly on the merits and the market outcome is efficient and welfare- maximizing. Does this result continue to hold when the rationality assumption about consumer behavior is relaxed? Eliana Garcés, Cabinet, European Commission

  19. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  20. Health Attitudes, Health Cognitions, and Health Behaviors among Internet Health Information Seekers: Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Using a functional theory of media use, this paper examines the process of health-information seeking in different domains of Internet use. Objective Based on an analysis of the 1999 HealthStyles data, this study was designed to demonstrate that people who gather information on the Internet are more health-oriented than non-users of Internet health information. Methods The Porter Novelli HealthStyles database, collected annually since 1995, is based on the results of nationally rep...

  1. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  3. Perspectives on communicating health food behavior in health blogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain a better understanding of the meanings consumers attach to health food consumption. The phenomena was observed from the perspective of health food bloggers and in addition to how the bloggers communicated their health food behaviour, the role of word-of-mouth in electronic environment and companies’ word-of-mouth marketing was also investigated. The research was carried out using qualitative research methods and the empirical part of the stud...

  4. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavioral conditions and mental...

  5. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...... cost economics to occur. A broader category of motivation, inappropriate motivation, which is such a necessary condition, is presented and discussed, and a number of implications are presented....

  6. Behavioral Economics: “Nudging” Underserved Populations to Be Screened for Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Purnell, Jason Q.; THOMPSON, TESS; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to...

  7. Employment as a Drug Abuse Treatment Intervention: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Silverman; Elias Robles

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological data and experimental research in the fields of operant conditioning and behavioral economics suggest that employment may be useful in the treatment of drug abuse. The conditions under which employment should decrease drug use depends on a range of environmental contextual factors, some of which have been classified or suggested by adapting the economic concepts of income, substitutability and complementarity, and opportunity cost to the analysis of behavior. A job can occupy ...

  8. Essays on economic behavior, gender and strategic learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gränsmark, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of four papers. Strategic behavior across gender: A comparison of female and male expert chess players analyzes gender differences in risk behavior in chess. We use a panel data set with 1.4 million games. Most notably, the data contains an objective measure of individual playing skill. We find that women are more risk averse and that men choose riskier strategies when playing against female opponents even though this reduces their winning probability. Gender dif...

  9. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)

    2002-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  10. NASA Human Research Program: Behavioral Health and Performance Program Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveton, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance errors associated with sleep loss, fatigue and psychomotor factors during manned space flight. Short and long term behavioral health factors are also addressed

  11. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

    2015-02-01

    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high. PMID:25642607

  12. Application of Economic Analysis to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Bruce A.; Harbaugh, William T.; Singell, Larry D.; Horner, Robert H.; Irvin, Larry K.; Smolkowski, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating…

  13. Influence of family social economic status on health knowledge and behavior among elementary school children in 4-6 grades%家庭社会经济地位对4~6年级儿童健康知识行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文惠; 翟屹; 李伟荣; 沈冲; 施小明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the difference of health knowledge and behavior among elementary school chil-dren lived in different socioeconomic status (SES)family in child rearing process.Methods A stratified random cluster sampling was used based on sampling flame in eight provinces by the geographical and economic development distributions in mainland China.A total of 8904 grade 4 -6 students were extracted as research subjects to analyze the difference of the health knowledge,behavior and daily status such as daily physical activities,homework,watching TV and catching up sleep on weekends in different SES families.Results In 8904 families,the proportion of high,middle and low families (the score of SES)were 33.3% (62.20 ±7.29),33.9% (46.76 ±2.74)and 32.8% (39.26 ±2.37).The average score of children’s health knowledge was (6.83 ±4.48).While the students numbers and proportion of excellent,good, bad were 48 (0.54%),1480 (16.62%),7376 (82.84%).The average score of children’s behavior was (3.43 ± 1.02),and the students numbers and proportions of excellent,good,bad were 4311 (48.42%),3496 (39.26%), 1097 (12.32%).The excellence rates about health knowledge of children in low,middle and high SES family by green scores were 0.36% (11 /3034),0.59% (17 /2905)and 0.67% (20 /2284)respectively,and outstanding rates about health behaviors were 14.83% (450 /3034),12.70% (369 /2905)and 9.38% (278 /2965).There were significantly statistical difference in the SES-family-level about the proportions of pupils excellence in health knowledge and behaviors (χ2=121.75,58.78,and also both P <0.01).Compared to the pupils in low or middle level SES families,the times that pupils in high SES level families spent in doing homework,watching TV,sports were the lest while the proportions of no-catching-up-sleep in weekend was the highest.Conclusion There were difference in the rates of health knowledge and be-havior among the 4 -6 grade students with different SES families and potential

  14. Economic Evidence on the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Hutton; Bettina Menne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In responding to the health impacts of climate change, economic evidence and tools inform decision makers of the efficiency of alternative health policies and interventions. In a time when sweeping budget cuts are affecting all tiers of government, economic evidence on health protection from climate change spending enables comparison with other public spending. METHODS The review included 53 countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Literature was obtained u...

  15. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE qualit...

  16. Health inequalities by socioeconomic characteristics in Spain: the economic crisis effect

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Clara; Abásolo, Ignacio; Cáceres, José J.

    2016-01-01

    Background An economic crisis can widen health inequalities between individuals. The aim of this paper is to explore differences in the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on Spaniards’ self-assessed health status, depending on the Spanish economic situation. Methods Data from the 2006–2007 and 2011–2012 National Health Surveys were used and binary logit and probit models were estimated to approximate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on the likelihood to report good health. Re...

  17. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  18. Psychometric assessment of human life history predicts health related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Jessica S. Kruger

    2016-01-01

    Life History Theory is a powerful framework that can help promote understanding of variation in health-related behavioral patterns and why they vary consistent with environmental conditions. An organism's life history reflects tradeoffs made in the allocation of effort towards specific aspects of survival and reproduction across the lifespan. This study examines the relationship between psychological indicators of life history strategy and health related behaviors in a demographically represe...

  19. Association between exercise and other preventive health behaviors among diabetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Summerson, J H; Konen, J C; Dignan, M B

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy patients were studied to investigate the cross sectional association between exercise and other preventive health behaviors in a diabetic population. Patients included both insulin and noninsulin dependent diabetics and were recruited from the Family Practice and Pediatrics Clinics at Bowman Gray School of Medicine. During screening, patients underwent a physical examination as well as completing a survey to assess exercise and health behavior habits. Three exercise gr...

  20. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health ris...

  1. Hypertension in the Elderly: Prevalence and Health Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Mohan, Bharathy; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Srivastava, Rahul; Yadav, Kapil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major contributors of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Estimating the prevalence of hypertension and studying the health seeking behavior is important. Aim: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and understand the health seeking behavior among the elderly in rural Puducherry, south India. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 elderly from a rural community were selected by systematic random sampling. Blood pr...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2014. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  3. Economic and social dimensions of environmental behavior: balancing conservation and development in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeremy S

    2010-12-01

    One of the primary approaches to environmental conservation emphasizes economic development. This conservation-and-development approach often ignores how development affects sociocultural characteristics that may motivate environmental behaviors (actions that actively benefit or limit one's negative impacts on the environment). Evolutionary anthropologists espouse a theoretical perspective that supports the conservation-and-development approach. Others believe sociocultural factors are the foundation of environmental behavior and worry that development will erode the values and norms that may shape such behavior. My research assistants and I surveyed 170 individuals from eight villages in two communities in Bhutan to explore whether economic (wealth, market integration) or social (religious behaviors, environmental values, social capital) factors are better indicators of environmental behavior. I used multilevel modeling to analyze use of fuelwood, use of agricultural chemicals, and tree planting, and to determine whether social norms were associated with these behaviors. Although economic factors were more often associated with these behaviors than social factors, local conditions and control variables were the best indicators of behaviors. Furthermore, economic factors were not always associated with positive environmental outcomes. Instead, farmers attempted to make the best economic decisions given their circumstances rather than seeking to conserve resources. Although religion was not a strong predictor of any of the behaviors I examined, I found evidence that the understanding of Buddhist philosophy is growing, which suggests that social factors may play a more prominent role as Bhutan's development progresses. My results highlight the need for conservation planners to be aware of local conditions when planning and implementing policies aimed at motivating environmental behaviors and that economic and social motivations for conservation may not be mutually

  4. A New Frontier: Integrating Behavioral and Digital Technology to Promote Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison; Erb, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable behavioral risk factors such as cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity contribute to over 40 % of premature deaths in the USA. Advances in digital and information technology are creating unprecedented opportunities for behavior analysts to assess and modify these risk factors. Technological advances include mobile devices, wearable sensors, biomarker detectors, and real-time access to therapeutic support via information technology. Integrating these advances with behavioral technology in the form of conceptually systematic principles and procedures could usher in a new generation of effective and scalable behavioral interventions targeting health behavior. In this selective review of the literature, we discuss how technological tools can assess and modify a range of antecedents and consequences of healthy and unhealthy behavior. We also describe practical, methodological, and conceptual advantages for behavior analysts that stem from the use of technology to assess and treat health behavior.

  5. The Associations between Social Support, Health-Related Behaviors, Socioeconomic Status and Depression in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Yoolwon; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Jae Seon; Lee, Ko Eun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in medical students and to evaluate whether interpersonal social support, health-related behaviors, and socio-economic factors were associated with depression in medical students. METHODS The subjects in this study were 120 medical students in Seoul, Korea who were surveyed in September, 2008. The subjects were all women and over the age of 20. Their age, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep, diet, househol...

  6. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  7. Teaching Good Behavior (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-19

    When people are young and healthy, they often think they’re invincible, but certain behaviors put adolescents at risk for serious health problems. In this podcast, Dr. Stephanie Zaza discusses the most common risk behaviors that affect adolescents.  Created: 6/19/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/19/2014.

  8. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  9. Economic behavior of indigenous peoples: The Mexican case

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Pavón, Juan Carlos Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have three features in common: their historical heritage, their current culture and their extreme poverty. This paper presents a hypothesis about the development of a cultural factor: indigenous people prefer to work on a small scale. This cultural factor developed during the colonial period and remains a part of current indigenous culture. To test the hypothesis, I elaborated a trade model and an economic growth model that take into account the cultural factor. As predicte...

  10. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  11. Applying the Behavioral Economics Principle of Unit Price to DRO Schedule Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S.; Falcomata, Terry S.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of behavioral economics, the ratio of response requirements to reinforcer magnitude is called "unit price." In this investigation, we yoked increases in reinforcer magnitude with increases in intervals of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to thin DRO intervals to a terminal value. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. The Health of University Athletes: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Rosemary; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study surveyed 267 university athletes to identify sources of stress for student athletes and sex differences among athletes with respect to health-related behaviors and attitudes. Specific recommendations based on the findings are made for health professionals who work with college athletes. (IAH)

  13. Behavior of Man in Health and Illness, Nursing 103A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Sandra I.

    A description is provided of a course, "Behavior of Man in Health and Illness," designed to introduce first-year undergraduate nursing students to the theories and concepts related to the health-illness continuum, the stress of illness, and coping theory. The description begins with an overview of course content, followed by information on the…

  14. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  15. Health economics of dengue: a systematic literature review and expert panel's assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I; Shepard, Donald S; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S; Kuritsky, Joel N

    2011-03-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  16. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  17. Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...

  18. Animal Health and the Control of Diseases: Economic Issues with Particular Referene to a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1994-01-01

    The economic importance of livestock production has been undervalued compared to crop production and agricultural economists have not given it the attention which it deserves. Animal health is a significant influence on the productivity of livestock and the economics of animal husbandry. The range of animal health issues which can be usefully considered by economists is outlined. Some of the economic issues and problems involved in extrapolating farm-level and village-level estimates of the e...

  19. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  20. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-12-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions. PMID:25512840

  1. Economic Decisions by Approved Principles: Rules of Thumb as Behavioral Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buhr, Walter; Christiaans, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the relevance of the concept of rational behavior in economic theory and suggest, on the basis of modern brain research results, to abstain from this notion and instead to apply behavioral rules of thumb in decision-making, especially if these rules can be derived from rational problem solutions determined by individual economic agents. We give an example for our point of view which refers to a contribution by Baumol and Quandt on the pricing behavior of a monopolistic firm and whi...

  2. Inequalities in Health, to Be Continued? A life-course perspective on socio-economic inequalities in health

    OpenAIRE

    van de Mheen, Dike

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPeople in lower socia-economic positions are generally worse off with respect to their health than people in higher positions. These so-called socia-economic inequalities in health exist from birth to death, in youth, adulthood and in old age. Socia-economic inequalities in health in adult life have been found in many European countries over a long period of time\\\\,2. The question on the processes that underlie the generation of these inequalities is still largely unanswered. The ...

  3. Three essays on public economics and strategic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, António

    2012-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 24 gener 2013 A portada: International Doctorate in Economic Analysis (IDEA) El objetivo de esta tesis es el estudio de distintos problemas económicos en los que el diseño de las instituciones afectan de forma significativa los resultados obtenidos. Es un enfoque teórico motivado por problemas económicos relacionados con el diseño de políticas educativas o industriales. El objetivo es comprender los incentivos de los individuos o las empresas al tomar decisiones y...

  4. An Economic Analysis of Consumers' Purchasing Behavior for Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuanjing; Chen, Eugene Jones Joyce; Sam, Abdoul

    2010-01-01

    Consumer price sensitivity is an issue of concern for most food marketers. This study uses 2006-2007 supermarket scanner data to estimate the price sensitivity of four groups of shoppers: higher-income, moderate-income , lower-in­ come, and rural dwellers. Economic theory is used to hypothesize price sensitivity for three of these groups of shoppers. Higher-income shoppers are expected to show the highest level of price sensitivity for national brands and lower-in­ come shoppers are expecte...

  5. Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hursh, S R

    1991-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abus...

  6. Behavioral medicine and health psychology in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, J J

    1987-01-01

    Despite long-established roots in experimental psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine, behavioral medicine and health psychology have only recently emerged as recognized, highly visible disciplines within medicine and the behavioral sciences. The rapid development of these fields has resulted partly from important scientific advances in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and partly from changing societal concerns and values. The latter include a greater preoccupation with individual self-expression and self-fulfillment, a decline in respect for authority per se, and an increased skepticism about social institutions. Coupled with these changes has been an increasing desire to take responsibility for one's own life and, in matters of health, of one's own body. The ways in which scientific advances and social changes have influenced the shape of contemporary behavioral medicine and health psychology are explored with the aid of two illustrations: the growth of a developmental perspective in behavioral medicine and health psychology; and work and health, including the effects of job stress and unemployment. Finally, the author stresses the need for a greater sense of community and concern for others, if we are to succeed in creating a growth-enhancing, health-producing climate for society as a whole and for each of us as individuals. PMID:3315133

  7. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  8. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  9. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, N D

    1993-07-01

    Four competing theories of health-protective behavior are reviewed: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, protection motivation theory, and subjective expected utility theory. In spite of their commonalities, these models are seldom tested against one another. The review points out the similarities and differences among these theories and the data and analyses needed to compare them. In addition to describing the content of the models, their conceptualization of key variables, and the combinatorial rules used to make predictions, some general problems in theory development and testing for health behaviors are examined. The article's goal is to help investigators design studies that will clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these models, leading toward a better understanding of health behavior. PMID:8404807

  10. A systematic, integrated behavioral health response to disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojt, Diane F; Cohen, Martin D; Wagner, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The behavioral health aspects of disaster have not historically been addressed as a priority in emergency preparedness planning. The overwhelming evidence of significant to severe psychological consequences of disaster has remained in the shadows compared to the more widely televised dramatic physical destruction and trauma. However, the aftermath of September 11, as well as 2005's Hurricane Katrina and 2008's Hurricane Ike disasters reminded the country that the psychological footprint of disaster easily dwarfs the more visual physical footprint. Disaster behavioral health is now recognized as a major public health concern and a national issue that deserves a logical, systematic, proactive approach within the structure of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command Structure (ICS; Fojt, Cohen, Wagner 2008). With increased commitment, collaboration, and organization we can better utilize our qualified yet limited behavioral health resources, meeting the predictable needs of future disasters' survivors, communities, and responders. PMID:19112934

  11. The economics of college sports: cartel behavior vs. amateurism

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies intercollegiate athletics in the context of the theory of cartels. Some point to explicit attempts by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to restrict output and payments for factors of production as evidence of cartel behavior. Others argue that such limits enhance product quality by preserving amateurism. I find that the NCAA's compensation limits on athletes lead to high levels of rents from the entertainment revenues produced by the athletes. The athletes...

  12. Time to take health economics seriously-medical education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vageesh

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. With the National Health Service facing the threat of large gaps in funding, there is pressure on doctors to identify where and how savings can be made. Whilst many may be keen to learn about health economics, the teaching environment and level of student knowledge differs considerably across medical schools in the UK. There is a compelling argument to suggest that key concepts such as economic evaluation, equity and priority-setting should form part of the curriculum in UK medical schools. To address the complex nature of modern health care problems, doctors must have a perspective that combines medical expertise with economic proficiency. PMID:26744143

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  14. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed. PMID:17175731

  15. Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Amy M.; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81–87) PMID:26348355

  16. Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Peter M; Bauer, Amy M; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C

    2016-04-01

    Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81-87). PMID:26348355

  17. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  18. The Effect of Individual Factors on Health Behaviors Among College Students: The Mediating Effects of eHealth Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing

    2014-01-01

    Background College students’ health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual’s health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors...

  19. Using insights from behavioral economics and social psychology to help patients manage chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogler, Braden K; Shu, Suzanne B; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Victor, Ronald G; Escarce, José J; Shapiro, Martin F

    2013-05-01

    Despite a revolution in therapeutics, the ability to control chronic diseases remains elusive. We present here a conceptual model of the potential role of behavioral tools in chronic disease control. Clinicians implicitly accept the assumption that patients will act rationally to maximize their self-interest. However, patients may not always be the rational actors that we imagine. Major behavioral barriers to optimal health behavior include patients' fear of threats to health, unwillingness to think about problems when risks are known or data are ambiguous, the discounting of risks that are far in the future, failure to act due to lack of motivation, insufficient confidence in the ability to overcome a health problem, and inattention due to pressures of everyday life. Financial incentives can stimulate initiation of health-promoting behaviors by reducing or eliminating financial barriers, but may not produce long-term behavior change without additional interventions. Strategies have been developed by behavioral economists and social psychologists to address each of these barriers to better decision-making. These include: labeling positive behaviors in ways consistent with patient life goals and priorities; greater focus on more immediate risks of chronic diseases; intermediate subgoals as steps to a large health goal; and implementation of specific plans as to when, where, and how an action will be taken. Such strategies hold promise for improving health behaviors and disease control, but most have not been studied in medical settings. The effectiveness of these approaches should be evaluated for their potential as tools for the clinician. PMID:23229906

  20. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods: We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five m...

  1. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sheila R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wagner, Anita K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five mea...

  2. The Influence of Socio-Economic Factors upon Public Health on the Example of Podkarpackie Voivodship

    OpenAIRE

    Kretowicz Paweł

    2010-01-01

    This study concentrates on intraregional disparities in health and spatial distribution of socio-economic factors that may affect health outcomes. The example of Podkarpackie voivodship rural and urban areas provides viable evidence for at least the partial importance of socio-economic variables in explaining intraregional health disparities. A total of eight factors that influence hospitalization rate were distinguished for urban and rural areas. Global regression models were created using t...

  3. Health Disparities by Income in Spain before and after the Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Coveney, Max; Gomez, Pilar Garcia; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Ourti, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about what the economic crisis has done to health disparities by income. We apply a decomposition method to unravel the contributions of income growth, income inequality and differential income mobility across socio-demographic groups to changes in health disparities by income in Spain using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions (SILC) for the period 2004-2012. We find a modest rise in health inequality by income in Spain in the five years of econom...

  4. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, ChunHoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  5. Experimental Economics on Firm’s Behavior: Entry Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sukadana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes subject’s behavior in evolutionary process of entry game. The experiment is designed to analyze the behavior of the subject. The experiment is set in sequential entry games. Process of the game was conducted under asymmetric information, uncertainty, payoff perturbation and random matching. The subjects of the experiment were students of the Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Subjects who play as new-entrance firms tend to choose “stay-out” strategy when the uncertainty and the amount of loss increase. Meanwhile, the subjects who play as an incumbent firm, which set to have more information about the game (market rather than the new-entrances, most of the time abuse their position by choose “threat” strategy, which not a credible strategy for some of them. Experimental studies shows that New-entrance tend to weight more on lost when the risk increase (from risk averse setting to risk seeking setting, and tend to choose sure value over a lotteries although the expected value from lotteries is higher or the same. These findings support the reason that Indonesian youngsters tend to choose a job as a PNS or employee of existing firms. The results also support the reason that Indonesian businessman is more willing to open a new business if they have a guarantee for their losses.

  6. [Indicators to monitor the evolution of the economic crisis and its effects on health and health inequalities. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2014-06-01

    The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. PMID:24864001

  7. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981179

  8. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  9. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. PMID:26538523

  10. Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Lawson, Kenny D.; Fenwick, Elisabeth A.L.; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public h...

  11. Complexity and reflexivity: two important issues for economic evaluation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Chantale

    2007-04-01

    Economic evaluations are analytic techniques to assess the relative costs and consequences of health care programmes and technologies. Their role is to provide rigorous data to inform the health care decision-making process. Economic evaluation may oversimplify complex health care decisions. These analyses often ignore important health consequences, contextual elements, relationships or other relevant modifying factors, which might not be appropriate in a multi-objective, multi-stakeholder issue. One solution would be to develop a new paradigm based on the issues of perspective and context. Complexity theory may provide a useful conceptual framework for economic evaluation in health care. Complexity thinking develops an awareness of issues including uncertainty, contextual issues, multiple perspectives, broader societal involvement, and transdisciplinarity. This points the economic evaluation field towards an accountability and epistemology based on pluralism and uncertainty, requiring new forms of lay-expert engagement and roles of lay knowledge into decision-making processes. This highlights the issue of reflexivity in economic evaluation in health care. A reflexive approach would allow economic evaluators to analyze how objective structures and subjective elements influence their practices. In return, this would point increase the integrity and reliability of economic evaluations. Reflexivity provides opportunities for critically thinking about the organization and activities of the intellectual field, and perhaps the potential of moving in new, creative directions. This paper argues for economic evaluators to have a less positivist attitude towards what is useful knowledge, and to use more imagination about the data and methodologies they use. PMID:17258367

  12. Assessment of determinants of compliance to twelve health behaviors: psychometric evaluation of the Health Behavior schedule II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Maxwell R; Heiby, Elaine M; Lee, Judy H

    2007-06-01

    The test-retest reliability and content and construct validity of the Health Behavior Schedule II were examined. The Health Behavior Schedule II is a self-report intended to assess 45 potential predictors of compliance for 12 mainstream health practices: (1) eating a healthy diet, (2) exercising regularly, (3) flossing teeth daily, (4) protecting skin from sun, (5) wearing a seat belt, (6) practicing safe sex, (7) wearing a bike safety helmet, (8) not smoking cigarettes, (9) limiting alcohol consumption, (10) taking medication as prescribed, (11) obtaining cervical cancer screen, and (12) breast self-examination. The predictor items of the Health Behavior Schedule II were rationally derived from the Health Compliance Model-II and independently evaluated by three expert judges for content validity. The psychometric status of the Schedule was assessed using a multiethnic sample of 461 college students. 12 stepwise multiple regression analyses yielded 24 items as significant predictors of compliance. The configuration of predictor items varied across the 12 health behaviors with self-efficacy as the only common predictor. Effect size estimates were greatest for cervical cancer screening (R2 = .65) and least for breast self-exams (R2 = .38). Each predictor has implications for compliance enhancement strategies. These findings provide preliminary support for the utility of the questionnaire in assessing potential improvements in health compliance outcomes among young adults. PMID:17886518

  13. [Justice in health care systems from an economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyögg, J

    2004-01-01

    Due to rising health care expenditures international comparisons of health care systems are recently gaining more importance. These benchmarks can provide interesting information for improving health care systems. Many of these comparisons implicitly assume that countries have a universal understanding of justice. But this assumption is rather questionable. With regard to the existing cultural differences in the understanding of justice the transferability of elements of health care systems is not always assured. A transfer usually requires a thorough examination of the judicial systems in each country. This article analyses the influence of different judicial systems applying to health care. In this context theories of justice by Rawls, Nozick and Confucius representing the possible understanding of justice in different cultures are described and analysed with regards to their influence on health care systems. The example of financing health care shows that the three theories of justice have very different consequences for designing health care systems especially concerning the role of governments. PMID:14767785

  14. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 409-420

  15. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 409-420

  16. Environmental Health and Child Survival : Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report complements Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development by looking at environmental health issues that affect child health broadly, while also exploring the links through malnutrition. This report argues that environmental health interventions are preventive measures that are imperative to improve child survival with sustainable results in the long term. Preventive measur...

  17. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  18. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation's human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. PMID:26310501

  19. Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rafat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

  20. Equity must accompany economic growth for good health.

    OpenAIRE

    K Srinath Reddy

    2011-01-01

    K. Srinath Reddy discusses a new research study by S. V. Subramanian and colleagues that found no strong evidence of recent economic growth in India being associated with a reduction in child undernutrition.

  1. Socio-Economic Determinants of Health in Croatia: Insights from Four Cross-Sectional Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šime Smolić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO sees health as a resource for everyday life, a fundamental human right and, especially important for economists and social scientists, an essential component of the economic and social development of every modern society. Health determinants which could lead to better health outcomes can arise from both the social and economic side. The main goal of this paper is to exploit several cross-sectional socio-economic data sets available in Croatia to examine the extent to which individual health is related to certain demographic and economic determinants. In explaining health determinants, self-assessed health (SAH was used as a measure of health on the individual level, and the proportional odds model was applied for the ordinal outcome variable. Controlling for age and other socio-demographic characteristics, education was seen as the single most important determinant of better health. Poor health on the individual level is probably highly correlated with low education and lowest income levels. Public policy-makers should be aware that measures targeted at vulnerable population subgroups might be effective at improving health in the population. However, the identification of a causal relationship between health outcome and its determinants is of crucial importance in the design of future policies.

  2. Entropy Maximization as a Basis for Information Recovery in Dynamic Economic Behavioral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Judge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for information recovery in open dynamic microeconomic systems, we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized equilibrium seeking behavior. This entropy-based causal adaptive behavior framework permits the use of information-theoretic methods as a solution basis for the resulting pure and stochastic inverse economic-econometric problems. We cast the information recovery problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information-theoretic methods to recover estimates of the unknown binary behavioral parameters without explicitly sampling the configuration-arrangement of the sample space.

  3. Debts should come with a serious economic health warning!

    OpenAIRE

    De Koning, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of savings from one household to another creates a financial relationship between these households. Nearly always conditions of reward and repayment are attached to such a transfer. In a world where savings have grown to a multiple of annual economic output, the chances that debts can cause economic stagnation and major unemployment situations have risen strongly. This can both be on a national as well as on an international level. Debts can help households and governments to...

  4. Debts should come with a serious economic health warning!

    OpenAIRE

    De Koning, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of savings from one household to another creates a financial relationship between these households. Nearly always conditions of reward and repayment are attached to such a transfer. In a world where savings have grown to a multiple of annual economic output, the chances that debts can cause economic stagnation and major unemployment situations have risen strongly. This can both be on a national as well as on an international level. Debts can help households and governments to inc...

  5. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Bös

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006. The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01. Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness.

  6. Introduction to the special issue Special issue on Behavioral Public Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Plott, Charles R.; Rullière, Jean-Louis; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2011-01-01

    The workshop of the Association for Public Economic Theory on behavioral and experimental public economics was held at Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, from June 24 to June 26, 2008. Thirty papers were presented in addition to keynotes by Charlie Plott and John List. The focus of the workshop was to test theoretical models using experimental methods to increase our understanding of the efficiency of mechanisms supporting the provision of public goods, social cooperation, ...

  7. Behavioral Economics and the Conduct of Benefit-Cost Analysis: Towards Principles and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Hammitt, James K.; Robinson, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    As traditionally conducted, benefit-cost analysis is rooted in neoclassical welfare economics, which assumes that individuals act rationally and are primarily motivated by self-interest, making decisions that maximize their own well-being. Its conduct is now evolving to reflect recent work in behavioral economics, which integrates psychological aspects of decisionmaking. We consider several implications for analyses of social programs. First, benefit-cost analysis often involves valuing nonma...

  8. Information Security on the Web and App Platforms: An Economic and Socio-Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Pern Hui

    2012-01-01

    Various security measures are ineffective having been designed without adequate usability and economic considerations. The primary objective of this thesis is to add an economic and socio-behavioral perspective to the traditional computer science research in information security. The resulting research is interdisciplinary, and the papers combine different approaches, ranging from analytic modeling to empirical measurements and user studies. Contributing to the fields of usable security and s...

  9. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old. Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. Results. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p < 0.001 and mouth rinses (p<0.05 more often than their children and they had better knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child’s oral health status. Conclusion. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children’s oral health.

  10. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media. PMID:21558472

  11. Health behaviors and personality in burnout: a third dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Osama M

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals warrants a thorough examination aimed at improving the current understanding of its predictors and preventive measures. Cecil et al. have underscored the alarming prevalence of burnout among medical students and assessed its association with demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral factors. Of interest, health behaviors were found to be predictive of burnout. The study suggests certain behaviors (such as high physical activity) to be protective, and thus, calls for their establishment early in college life to prevent the development of this professionally-disabling mental state. Although the adoption of advisable health behaviors may independently reduce the risk of burnout, recognition of the existence and influence of closely related factors allows for an enhanced understanding and a greater precision for any conclusions to be made. Personality, through deductive and inductive reasoning, is likely to exert significant influence on both the student's behavior and his/her susceptibility to burnout. Thus, with personality representing--in and of itself--a principal model for prediction of burnout risk, controlling for personality traits when addressing health behaviors' influence per se on burnout is essential. PMID:26365101

  12. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L.; Walsh, Matthew C.; Nieto, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers’ dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Methods Linking data from the pop...

  13. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice. PMID:14610999

  14. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar; Khami Mohammad R; Mohebbi Simin Z; Virtanen Jorma I

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about pati...

  15. Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions, and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Satre, Derek; Nancy P. Gordon; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between drinking patterns, medical conditions and behavioral health risks among older adults. Methods: Analyses compared survey participants (health plan members ages 65 to 90, N = 6,662) who drank moderately to those who drank over recommended limits or did not drink. Results: Over-limit drinking was associated with smoking; not trying to eat low fat foods (in men), and lower BMI (in women). Predictors of not drinking during the prior 12 months included...

  16. Gambling: An Addictive Behavior with Health and Primary Care Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, David A.; Heninger, George R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...

  17. Avances y retos de la economía de la salud Advances and perspectives in health economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Peña

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La economía de la salud como especialidad, incorpora la perspectiva económica en el campo de la salud, los servicios, y el complejo médico industrial. Se presenta su evolución desde la perspectiva de sus áreas de interés y su consolidación reflejada en la generación, difusión, réplica y aplicación del conocimiento especializado.A economia da saúde incorpora a p8erspectiva econômica no campo da saúde, os serviços e o complexo médico-industrial. Foi apresentada a evolução desse campo, desde a perspectiva das áreas de interesse e os avanços para sua consolidação, partindo dos seguintes aspectos: generação, difusão, réplica e aplicação do conhecimento especializado.Health economics is a specialized field of economic science that applies the economic perspective to the fields of health, the medical-industrial complex and health services. A brief review of the evolution of this speciality by subject, as well as the level achieved assessed in terms of generation, diffusion, reproduction and application of its specialized knowledge, is presented.

  18. Track E Implementation Science, Health Systems and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tiam, A.; Oyebanji, O.; Nkonyana, J.; Ahimbisibwe, A.; Putsoane, M.; Mokone, M.; Nyabela, M.; Isavwa, A.; Tsoeu, M.; Foso, M.; Buhendwa, L; Hounkanrin, G.; Melkamu, Y.; I.M. Ibrahim; Ogo, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to Lesotho's high adult HIV prevalence (23%), considerable resources have been allocated to the HIV/AIDS response, while resources for non-communicable diseases have lagged. Since November 2011, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) has supported Lesotho Ministry of Health to roll out Family Health Days (FHDs), an innovative strategy to increase community access to integrated health services, with a focus on hard-to-reach areas where immunization coverage, HIV ...

  19. Health system re-engineering: a CPRS economic decision model.

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, M.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamental problem with the health care delivery system remains too little health delivered for too great a cost. Information essential to sound clinical and administrative decision making is too frequently missing at the time and place of decision. Automated systems offer opportunities both to improve health and to reduce cost through effective and efficient information management. Information systems are the enabling technology for those business practice changes which improve the bene...

  20. Contribution of health to economic development: A survey and overview

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Muhammad Jami

    2010-01-01

    The policies for better health, poverty reduction, and less inequality, throughout the world, require thorough understanding of both the processes and causal paths that underlie the intricate relationship between health and wealth (income). This is deemed difficult, contingent, and only partially understood. The adage 'health is wealth' is still, primarily, an intuitive proposition. A vast majority of researchers instead present theoretical and empirical arguments of the reverse proposition, ...

  1. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Smit Henriette A; Koppelman Gerard H; Kerkhof Marjan; Wijga Alet H; Ruijsbroek Annemarie; Droomers Mariël

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma ...

  2. Associations between multiple health risk behaviors and mental health among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-ling; Wang, Pei-gang; Qu, Geng-cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety. PMID:26222809

  3. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  4. CURRENT ECONOMIC AND MEDICAL REFORMS IN THE ROMANIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Mihaela Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of health has always been, both in social reality and in academia and research, a sensitive topic considering the relationship each individual has with his own health and the health care system as a public policy. At public opinion levels and not only, health care is the most important sector demanding the outmost attention, considering that individual health is the fundamental prerequisite for well-being, happiness and a satisfying life. The ever present research and practical question is on the optimal financing of the health care system. Any answer to this question is also a political decision, reflecting the social-economic value of health for a particular country. The size of the resource pool and the criteria and methods for resource allocation are the central economic problems for any health system. This paper takes into consideration the limited resources of the national health care system (the rationalization of health services, the common methods of health financing, the specificity of health services market (the health market being highly asymmetric, with health professionals knowing most if not all of the relevant information, such as diagnosis, treatment options and costs and consumers fully dependent on the information provided in each case and the performance of all hospitals in Romania, in order to assess the latest strategic decisions (introduction of co-payment and merging and reconversion of hospitals taken within the Romanian health care system and their social and economic implications. The main finding show that, even though the intention of reforming and transforming the Romanian health care system into a more efficient one is obvious, the lack of economic and demographic analysis may results into greater discrepancies nationwide. This paper is aimed to renew the necessity of joint collaboration between the economic and medical field, since the relationship between health and economic development runs both ways

  5. Pharmaco-economics analysis, as a strategy on facilitating choices between health and non-health programs in the establishment of the national health care system

    OpenAIRE

    Adanela Musaraj; Arta Musaraj; Aida Dervishi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the significant boost in community expenditure with health topics, mainly regarding drugs, numerous countries, have already put into operation, or are in the process of arguing the adoption of actions to guarantee the excellence of health care provided to the population. One of the less risky strategies-is the adoption of economic procedures applied to health, more specifically, pharmaco-economics analysis. This paper aims to contribute to the dissemination of notions and techniques...

  6. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  7. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  8. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  9. Quantitative Analysis on Economic Contribution of Community Health Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新平; 王铁军

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In China, the implementation of community health service shows that the prevention is an essential and important part of our national health system and is helpful to decrease the medical expenditure gradually. According to the data from Health Statistic Information Center of Ministry of Health in China, we calculated that the total health expenditure of China would be decreased 8000. 0 million yuan only in 2001, among which, 1188.3 million, 1953.9 million and 4833.0 million yuan were respectively saved for the government budget, the society and resident if implementing the policy of community health service powerfully. And every outpatient can save 15.46 yuan per time. By the quantitative analysis on the economic contribution of community health service, it can be proved that a great economic benefit could be gotten from the implementation of community health service.

  10. Economic Booms and Risky Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Zambian Copper Mining Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...

  11. Consumer Behavior: An economical and marketing overview between the actual American and Czech consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Ramos, Jorge Andres

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this Diploma Thesis is to provide an overview of the Czech Consumer behavior and the American Consumer behavior based on the marketing parameters, economic elements and sociocultural dimensions that affect their purchase decisions. This thesis portraits the different purchase directions and preferences of the modern societies in USA and Czech Republic and the reasoning behind them therefore it will allow future investors and entrepreneurs to understand their business surro...

  12. Would Women Leaders Have Prevented the Global Financial Crisis? Implications for Teaching about Gender, Behavior, and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Would having more women in leadership have prevented the financial crisis? This question may arise in courses on Gender and Economics, Money and Financial Institutions, Pluralist Economics, or Behavioral Economics, and offers an important teaching moment. The first part of this essay argues that while some behavioral research seems to support an exaggerated "difference" view, non-simplistic behavioral research debunks this and instead reveals the immense unconscious power of stereotyping. The...

  13. HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOR AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Senjam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India faces multiple threats of diseases. The increasing trend of lifestyle related health problems is becoming a serious issue in India. The best strategy to tackle this changing health concern is adoption of healthy lifestyle and health promotion activities. Objectives: To determine the level of involvement in health promoting behaviors of college students in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: This college based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during September 2007 to June 2008. Results: Two hundred students (F=100, M=100 were studied by using self administered health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP questionnaires. Mean HPLP score was 138.69 (M=137.98, F=139.39. Female students were more likely to have better health promoting practices than their counterpart male students, but difference was not significant. Female students showed more sense of health responsibility than male students (p=0.00, whereas male students were significantly more involved in physical activities than female students (p=0.02. Overall, only few students (18.5% searched health related article from the internet; 26% went for normal health check up in the last year; 13.5% students practiced yoga regularly; 24.5% of them tried to choose diet with low fat content; 30% of them skipped meals regularly, and 25.5% of them ate processed food regularly. Conclusion: The study results showed that college students in Chandigarh had reasonably good orientation towards health promoting practices.

  14. Economic evaluations of occupational health interventions from a corporate perspective - A systematic review of methodological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uegaki, K.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Lambeek, L.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Using a standardized quality criteria list, we appraised the methodological quality of economic evaluations of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions conducted from a corporate perspective. Methods: The primary literature search was conducted in Medline and Embase. Supplementa

  15. Methods for health economic evaluations of vaccines-results from an international expert-workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, B.; Damm, O.; Beutels, P.; Bilcke, J.; Brüggenjürgen, B.; Gerber-Grote, A.U.; Greiner, W.; Hanquet, G.; Harder, T.; Hutubessy, R.; Jit, M.; Knol, M.; Kuhlmann, A.; Von Kries, R.; Levy-Bruhl, D.; Perleth, M.; Postma, M.J.; Salo, H.; Siebert, U.; Wasem, J.; Weidemann, F.; Wichmann, O.; Postma, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Health economic evaluations (HEEs) of vaccines are commonly considered during immunization introduction decision-making processes in most industrialized countries. Despite the availability of guidelines advocating more standardization for such HEEs, there are still several infection/immu

  16. Linkages between Health and Economic Growth in India: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malick, Bikash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines whether there is a long run relationship between public expenditure on health and productivity or not. Here is an attempt to investigate the causality in between the health indicators and per capita GDP (which is a proxy for economic growth) by using co-integration and Granger Causality for the time period 1960-2008 and also between public health expenditure to see whether expenditure on health is an impetus input to economic growth or not. It has been seen that th...

  17. Health and economic growth among the states of Brazil from 1991 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Kenya Noronha; Lízia de Figueiredo; Mônica Viegas Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Health status can affect economic growth through at least three mechanisms: 1) directly, through the relationship between health status and individual earnings, 2) indirectly, through the effect of health on levels of education, and 3) through physical capital investments. Poor health status causes considerable losses in individual income by decreasing labor productivity, numbers of hours worked, and participation in the labor force. These losses can affect a population's level of wealth and ...

  18. [The effects of economic crises on health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ling; Yang, Yu-O

    2010-08-01

    In September 2008, financial turmoil on Wall Street led to severe losses in that country's financial derivatives market and plunged the United States into the most severe financial crisis in over a decade. The backlash of this "financial tsunami" has affected countries around the world. The world economy, facing the most critical financial crisis since the 1930s, must deal with recession, severe unemployment and general fears of worse to come, which have, in turn, spawned a range of physical, psychological and spiritual problems. In this article we study the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare from several angles, including: decreasing incomes causing changing attitudes toward seeking healthcare; decreasing numbers of people covered by medical insurance; increasing impact on the job market of untreated illnesses; changing national healthcare policies in response to economic pressures; increasing physical, psychological and social problems resulting from economic problems; and the need for the nursing profession to respond to these and other rapid changes in the healthcare landscape. Nursing staff are sometimes unaware of social problems outside their profession. This article may, therefore, provide a general reference to medical and nursing staff on the effects of the economic crisis on healthcare. PMID:20661861

  19. Economic evaluation of mental health interventions: an introduction to cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Naci, Huseyin; Knapp, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Finite resources need to be allocated over an ever-increasing range of competing health policies and interventions. Economic evaluation has been developed as a methodology to inform decision makers on the efficiency of particular resource allocations. In this paper we summarize cost-utility analysis, one of the most widely-used forms of economic evaluation in healthcare. We discuss its main elements, interpretation, limitations and relevance to the domain of mental health. PMID:27075444

  20. From headscarves to donation : Three essays on the economics of gender, health and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur, Z.B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Zeynep’s research interests are mainly in the field of health and labor economics. In this thesis, she explores a broad range of topics within the domain of the economics of gender, health and happiness. The first chapter provides the motivations for the studies and summarizes the main findings. The second chapter documents differences in educational attainment, labor market outcomes and childbearing among women by their use of headscarves and investigates the impact of the headscar...