Harden, K. Paige
There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958
Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.
This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286
Wertz, J.; Caspi, A.; Belsky, D. W.; Beckley, A. L.; Arseneault, L.; Barnes, J. C.; Corcoran, D. L.; Hogan, S.; Houts, R. M.; Morgan, N.; Odgers, C. L.; Prinz, J. A.; Sugden, K.; Williams, B. S.; Poulton, R.; Moffitt, T. E.
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and E-Risk birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometres apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record, with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling, in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and predicted a life-course persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature/nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest the hypothesis that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. PMID:29513605
Wertz, J; Caspi, A; Belsky, D W; Beckley, A L; Arseneault, L; Barnes, J C; Corcoran, D L; Hogan, S; Houts, R M; Morgan, N; Odgers, C L; Prinz, J A; Sugden, K; Williams, B S; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and it was associated with a life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature-nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding.
Mooij-van Malsen, J.G. de
Mood disorders have powerful effects on the lives of many people. Finding the mechanisms underlying these disorders is essential to develop selective treatment. In this thesis, interspecies trait genetics are used on behavioural domains to unravel the complex genetics of involved endophenotypes. We
Nates Parra, Guiomar
The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.
Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S
Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics. We then explore the extent to which behavioral genetic evidence has-and should-affect determinations of criminal responsibility and sentencing, as well as the possible ramifications of introducing such evidence in civil courts, with a focus on tort litigation and child custody disputes. We also consider two ways in which behavioral genetic evidence may come to court in the future-through genetic theft or the subpoena of a litigant's biospecimen data that was previously obtained for clinical or research purposes-and the concerns that these possibilities raise. Finally, we highlight the need for caution and for approaches to prevent the misuse of behavioral genetic evidence in courts.
de Geus, Eco J C; Bartels, Meike; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lightfoot, J Timothy; Thomis, Martine
Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three major conclusions: First, individual differences in physical activity traits are significantly influenced by genetic factors, but genetic contribution varies strongly over age, with heritability of leisure time exercise behavior ranging from 27% to 84% and heritability of sedentary behaviors ranging from 9% to 48%. Second, candidate gene approaches based on animal or human QTLs or on biological relevance (e.g., dopaminergic or cannabinoid activity in the brain, or exercise performance influencing muscle physiology) have not yet yielded the necessary evidence to specify the genetic mechanisms underlying the heritability of physical activity traits. Third, there is significant genetic modulation of the beneficial effects of daily physical activity patterns on strength and endurance improvements and on health-related parameters like body mass index. Further increases in our understanding of the genetic determinants of sedentary and exercise behaviors as well as the genetic modulation of their effects on fitness and health will be key to meaningful future intervention on these behaviors.
Cesarini, David; Dawes, Christopher T; Johannesson, Magnus; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn
We summarize the findings from a research program studying the heritability of behavior in a number of widely used economic games, including trust, dictator, and ultimatum games. Results from the standard behavior genetic variance decomposition suggest that strategies and fundamental economic preference parameters are moderately heritable, with estimates ranging from 18 to 42%. In addition, we also report new evidence on so-called "hyperfair" preferences in the ultimatum game. We discuss the implications of our findings with special reference to current efforts that seek to understand the molecular genetic architecture of complex social behaviors.
Shi, Guangsen; Wu, David; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui
Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns. To conclude, we also discuss some of the sleep-related neurological disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and the potential challenges and future directions of human genetics in sleep research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....
The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.
Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H
Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.
Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.
Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H
Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.
Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin
A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…
Odintsova, Veronika V; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Martin, Nicholas G; Slagboom, P Eline; Ordoñana, Juan R; Boomsma, Dorret I
Twin registers are wonderful research resources for research applications in medical and behavioral genetics, epidemiology, psychology, molecular genetics, and other areas of research. New registers continue to be launched all over the world as researchers from different disciplines recognize the
Salk, Rachel H.; Hyde, Janet S.
Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary…
The complexity and diversity of primate behavior have long attracted the attention of ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, and neuroscientists. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the nature of genetic influences on differences in behavior among individuals within species. A number of analyses have focused on the genetic analysis of behavioral reactions to specific experimental tests, providing estimates of the degree of genetic control over reactivity, and beginning to identify the genes involved. Substantial progress is also being made in identifying genetic factors that influence the structure and function of the primate brain. Most of the published studies on these topics have examined either cercopithecines or chimpanzees, though a few studies have addressed these questions in other primate species. One potentially important line of research is beginning to identify the epigenetic processes that influence primate behavior, thus revealing specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which environmental experiences can influence gene expression or gene function relevant to behavior. This review summarizes many of these studies of non-human primate behavioral genetics. The primary focus is on analyses that address the nature of the genes and genetic processes that affect differences in behavior among individuals within non-human primate species. Analyses of between species differences and potential avenues for future research are also discussed. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Full Text Available Challenging behavior in individuals with mental retardation (MR is relatively frequent, and represents a significant obstacle to adaptive skills. The frequency of specific forms and manifestations of challenging behavior can depend on a variety of personal and environmental factors. There are several prominent theoretical models regarding the etiology of challenging behavior and psychopathology in persons with MR: behavioral, developmental, socio-cultural and biological. The biological model emphasizes the physiological, biochemical and genetic factors as the potential source of challenging behavior. The progress in the field of genetics and neuroscience has opened the opportunity to study and discover the neurobiological basis of phenotypic characteristics. Genetic syndromes associated with MR can be followed by a specific set of problems and disorders which constitutes their behavioral phenotype. The aim of this paper was to present challenging behaviors that manifest in the most frequently studied syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The concept of behavioral phenotype implies a higher probability of manifesting specific developmental characteristics and specific behaviors in individuals with a certain genetic syndrome. Although the specific set of (possible problems and disorders is distinctive for the described genetic syndromes, the connection between genetics and behavior should be viewed through probabilistic dimension. The probabilistic concept takes into consideration the possibility of intra-syndrome variability in the occurrence, intensity and time onset of behavioral characteristics, at which the higher variability the lower is the specificity of the genetic syndrome. Identifying the specific pattern of behavior can be most important for the process of early diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, having knowledge about behavioral phenotype can be a landmark in
Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O
Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males....... A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry....
N. Amin (Najaf)
textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to
Tatarelli, Roberto; Del Casale, Antonio; Tatarelli, Caterina; Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo
Several questions arise from the recent use of behavioral genetic research data in the courtroom. Ethical issues concerning the influence of biological factors on human free will, must be considered when specific gene patterns are advocated to constrain court's judgment, especially regarding violent crimes. Aggression genetics studies are both difficult to interpret and inconsistent, hence, in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis, genetic data are currently difficult to prioritize in the courtroom. The judge's probabilistic considerations in formulating a sentence must take into account causality, and the latter cannot be currently ensured by genetic data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Biebl, Sara J W
The field of developmental behavior genetics has added significantly to the collective understanding of what factors influence human behavior and human development. Research in this area has helped to explain not only how genes and environment contribute to individual differences but also how the interplay between genes and environment influences behavior and human development. The current chapter provides a background of the theory and methodology behind behavior genetic research and the field of developmental behavior genetics. It also examines three specific developmental periods as they relate to behavior genetic research: infancy, toddlerhood, and early preschool. The behavior genetic literature is reviewed for key socioemotional developmental behaviors that fit under each of these time periods. Temperament, attachment, frustration, empathy, and aggression are behaviors that develop in early life that were examined here. Thus, the general purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of how genes and environment, as well as the interplay between them, relate to early socioemotional behaviors.
Appelbaum, Paul S.; Scurich, Nicholas
Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors’ decisions has not previously been explored. In the present study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=250) received a vigne...
Hatemi, Peter K
The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.
Appelbaum, Paul S; Scurich, Nicholas
Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors' decisions has not been explored. In the present study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (n = 250) received a vignette describing an apparently impulsive homicide, accompanied by one of four explanations of the defendant's impulsivity: childhood abuse, genetic predisposition, childhood abuse and genetic predisposition, or simple impulsive behavior. The participants were asked to identify the crime that the defendant had committed and to select an appropriate sentence range. Evidence of genetic predisposition did not affect the crime of which the defendant was convicted or the sentence. However, participants who received the abuse or genetic + abuse explanation imposed longer prison sentences. Paradoxically, the genetic and genetic + abuse conditions engendered the greatest fear of the defendant. These findings should allay concerns that genetic evidence in criminal adjudications will be overly persuasive to jurors, but should raise questions about the impact of genetic attributions on perceptions of dangerousness.
The aim of this paper is to describe how Polish print news media frame relations between genetics and human behaviors and what images of behavioral genetics dominate in press discourse. A content and frame analysis of 72 print news articles about behavioral genetics published between 2000 and 2014 in four major Polish weekly magazines: "Polityka", "Wprost", "Newsweek" and "Przekrój" was conducted. Twenty one different behaviors were mentioned in the sample and six major analytic frames were identified: essentialist, materialistic, deterministic, probabilistic, optimistic and pessimistic. The most common was the tendency to describe human behaviors in terms of genetic essentialism, reductionism and determinism, as almost one half of the articles was focused solely on genetic determinants of human behaviors and lacked any reference to polygenetic and/or environmental conditioning. Although most of the articles were balanced in tone, benefits were stressed more often than potential risks. Stories that confirmed existence of genetic determinants of human behavior were favored over those that did not. One third of the articles stressed the social or ethical consequences of the development of behavioral genetics. The complex and abstract character of genetic knowledge results in a simplistic portrayal of behavioral genetics in the press, which may lead to a misunderstood interpretation of the complicated interplay between behavior, genetics and environment by the public. Consequently, print news media contribute to geneticization of behaviors. It is important to improve the quality of science reporting on behavioral genetics and to educate researchers how to communicate with the media more effectively.
Schapiro, Steve; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Hopkins, William D
The behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates (NHPs) can be significantly enhanced through synergistic relationships with noninvasive research projects. Many behavioral and cognitive research procedures are challenging and enriching (physically, cognitively, and/or socially......) for the animals (Hopper et al. 2016; Hopkins and Latzman 2017) without involving any invasive (surgical, biopsy, etc.) procedures. Noninvasive behavioral research programs present the primates with opportunities to choose to voluntarily participate (or not), providing them with greater control over...
de Geus, E.J.C.; Bartels, M.; Kaprio, J.; Lightfoot, J.T.; Thomis, M
Studies on the determinants of physical activity have traditionally focused on social factors and environmental barriers, but recent research has shown the additional importance of biological factors, including genetic variation. Here we review the major tenets of this research to arrive at three
Luiz F.L. Pegoraro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns.
Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous families with primary microcephaly ... Translational Research Institute, Academic Health System, Hamad Medical ..... bridging the gap between homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing.
This paper, submitted to the Third Bioethics Seminar in Fukai, Japan, presents information on program activities and discusses primary topics concerning genetic factors in behavior. Proponents and critics views on genetic explanations of antisocial behavior are discussed.
Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...
Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Luna, Beatriz
Adolescence is a period of development characterized by numerous neurobiological changes that significantly influence behavior and brain function. Adolescence is of particular interest due to the alarming statistics indicating that mortality rates increase two to three-fold during this time compared to childhood, due largely to a peak in risk-taking behaviors resulting from increased impulsivity and sensation seeking. Furthermore, there exists large unexplained variability in these behaviors that are in part mediated by biological factors. Recent advances in molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging have provided a unique and exciting opportunity to non-invasively study the influence of genetic factors on brain function in humans. While genes do not code for specific behaviors, they do determine the structure and function of proteins that are essential to the neuronal processes that underlie behavior. Therefore, studying the interaction of genotype with measures of brain function over development could shed light on critical time points when biologically mediated individual differences in complex behaviors emerge. Here we review animal and human literature examining the neurobiological basis of adolescent development related to dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is of critical importance because of (1) its role in cognitive and affective behaviors, (2) its role in the pathogenesis of major psychopathology, and (3) the protracted development of dopamine signaling pathways over adolescence. We will then focus on current research examining the role of dopamine-related genes on brain function. We propose the use of imaging genetics to examine the influence of genetically mediated dopamine variability on brain function during adolescence, keeping in mind the limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N
More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.
In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...
Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Millard, James D; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel
There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Denno, D W
Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.
Molenaar, Peter C M
Generalization of the standard behavior longitudinal genetic factor model for the analysis of interindividual phenotypic variation to a genetic state space model for the analysis of intraindividual variation enables the possibility to estimate subject-specific heritabilities.
Wang, Fang-Fang; Luo, Rong; Qu, Yi; Mu, De-Zhi
Cerebral palsy is a group of syndromes caused by non-progressive brain injury in the fetus or infant and can cause disabilities in childhood. Etiology of cerebral palsy has always been a hot topic for clinical scientists. More and more studies have shown that genetic factors are closely associated with the development of cerebral palsy. With the development and application of various molecular and biological techniques such as chromosome microarray analysis, genome-wide association study, and whole exome sequencing, new achievements have been made in the genetic research of cerebral palsy. Chromosome abnormalities, copy number variations, susceptibility genes, and single gene mutation associated with the development of cerebral palsy have been identified, which provides new opportunities for the research on the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. This article reviews the advances in the genetic research on cerebral palsy in recent years.
Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N. [NIMH/NIH, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others
For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.
This thesis shows that the exploration of human genetic disorders and animal genetic models can bring understanding of the causes and mechanisms of common psychiatric disorders. The first part of the thesis contains studies on genetic behavioral phenotypes in boys with Klinefelter syndrome, a human
Branch, Marc N
Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.
DeCew, Judith Wagner
I begin with a discussion of the value of privacy and what we lose without it. I then turn to the difficulties of preserving privacy for genetic information and other medical records in the face of advanced information technology. I suggest three alternative public policy approaches to the problem of protecting individual privacy and also preserving databases for genetic research: (1) governmental guidelines and centralized databases, (2) corporate self-regulation, and (3) my hybrid approach. None of these are unproblematic; I discuss strengths and drawbacks of each, emphasizing the importance of protecting the privacy of sensitive medical and genetic information as well as letting information technology flourish to aid patient care, public health and scientific research.
Luiz F.L. Pegoraro
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10, Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11, and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13 from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. Results: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. Conclusion: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. Resumo: Objetivo: investigar o perfil cognitivo e comportamental, sintomas e transtornos psiquiátricos em crianças com três diferentes síndromes genéticas, com antecedentes socioculturais e socioeconômicos semelhantes. Métodos: trinta e quatro
Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami
Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.
This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study
Project Director Penelope Jeggo
Genetic toxicology represents a study of the genetic damage that a cell can incur, the agents that induce such damage, the damage response mechanisms available to cells and organisms, and the potential consequences of such damage. Genotoxic agents are abundant in the environment and are also induced endogenously. The consequences of such damage can include carcinogenesis and teratogenesis. An understanding of genetic toxicology is essential to carry out risk evaluations of the impact of genotoxic agents and to assess how individual genetic differences influence the response to genotoxic damage. In recent years, the importance of maintaining genomic stability has become increasingly recognized, in part by the realization that failure of the damage response mechanisms underlies many, if not all, cancer incidence. The importance of these mechanisms is also underscored by their remarkable conservation between species, allowing the study of simple organisms to provide significant input into our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It has also become clear that the damage response mechanisms interface closely with other aspects of cellular metabolism including replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Moreover, defects in many of these mechanisms, as observed for example in ataxia telangiectasia patients, confer disorders with associated developmental abnormalities demonstrating their essential roles during growth and development. In short, while a decade ago, a study of the impact of DNA damage was seen as a compartmentalized area of cellular research, it is now appreciated to lie at the centre of an array of cellular responses of crucial importance to human health. Consequently, this has become a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. The Genetic Toxicology Gordon Research Conference is biannual with an evolving change in the emphasis of the meetings. From evaluating the nature of genotoxic chemicals, which lay at the centre of the early
Criticizes the application of the statistical procedures of the population-genetic approach within evolutionary biology to the study of psychological development. Argues that the application of the statistical methods of population genetics--primarily the analysis of variance--to the causes of psychological development is bound to result in a…
By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer One morning in early January, Amar Klar sat down at his computer and found an e-mail with a curious message from a colleague. While reading a bestselling novel, The Marriage Plot by Jeffrey Eugenides, his colleague, a professor at Princeton University, found a description of research on yeast genetics that was surprisingly similar to Klar’s early
Tielbeek, J.J.; Medland, S.E.; Benyamin, B.; Byrne, E.M.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Martin, N.G.; Wray, N.R.; Verweij, K.J.H.
Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about
This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...
de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.
Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed
Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M
The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.
Pretty much everyone knows that our genes have at least something to do with how able or how high achieving we are. Some believe that we should not speak of this common knowledge, nor inquire into how genetic influence works or what it might mean. If we do not keep an open mind to the fact of genetic influence on academic achievement, however, then we cannot explore its possible implications. And if we do not consider the implications, then we cannot, as a society, harness any potential benefits or avoid possible pitfalls. So that's what this essay is about-exploring what behavioral genetics research might be able to offer to educational theory, policy, and practice. We cannot yet use biological information to make accurate predictions for all children. We do know, however, that academic achievement is heritable, which is to say that differences between individuals are influenced by differences in their DNA. If genes are part of the problem for some pupils (to take the negative spin on this), then it seems likely that studying them could be part of a solution. And that's what behavioral geneticists are trying to do-to chart and understand pathways from DNA to behavior and to identify interventions that can maximize outcomes for all. The fact is, though, that we have an awfully long way to go. © 2015 The Hastings Center.
Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.
W.E. van den Berg (Wouter)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Using genetic association studies, this thesis aims to investigate the drivers of successful customer-salesperson interactions in a context where knowledge development has become crucial to the value creation process. Central to this thesis is the developing role of
Jorim J Tielbeek
Full Text Available Crime poses a major burden for society. The heterogeneous nature of criminal behavior makes it difficult to unravel its causes. Relatively little research has been conducted on the genetic influences of criminal behavior. The few twin and adoption studies that have been undertaken suggest that about half of the variance in antisocial behavior can be explained by genetic factors. In order to identify the specific common genetic variants underlying this behavior, we conduct the first genome-wide association study (GWAS on adult antisocial behavior. Our sample comprised a community sample of 4816 individuals who had completed a self-report questionnaire. No genetic polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance for association with adult antisocial behavior. In addition, none of the traditional candidate genes can be confirmed in our study. While not genome-wide significant, the gene with the strongest association (p-value = 8.7×10(-5 was DYRK1A, a gene previously related to abnormal brain development and mental retardation. Future studies should use larger, more homogeneous samples to disentangle the etiology of antisocial behavior. Biosocial criminological research allows a more empirically grounded understanding of criminal behavior, which could ultimately inform and improve current treatment strategies.
Vassy, Jason L; O'Brien, Kelsey E; Waxler, Jessica L; Park, Elyse R; Delahanty, Linda M; Florez, Jose C; Meigs, James B; Grant, Richard W
Type 2 diabetes genetic risk testing might motivate at-risk patients to adopt diabetes prevention behaviors. However, the influence of literacy and numeracy on patient response to diabetes genetic risk is unknown. The authors investigated the association of health literacy, genetic literacy, and health numeracy with patient responses to diabetes genetic risk. and Measurements Overweight patients at high phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited for a clinical trial of diabetes genetic risk testing. At baseline, participants predicted how their motivation for lifestyle modification to prevent diabetes might change in response to hypothetical scenarios of receiving "high" and "low" genetic risk results. Responses were analyzed according to participants' health literacy, genetic literacy, and health numeracy. Two-thirds (67%) of participants (n = 175) reported very high motivation to prevent diabetes. Despite high health literacy (92% at high school level), many participants had limited health numeracy (30%) and genetic literacy (38%). Almost all (98%) reported that high-risk genetic results would increase their motivation for lifestyle modification. In contrast, response to low-risk genetic results varied. Higher levels of health literacy (P = 0.04), genetic literacy (P = 0.02), and health numeracy (P = 0.02) were associated with an anticipated decrease in motivation for lifestyle modification in response to low-risk results. While patients reported that high-risk genetic results would motivate them to adopt healthy lifestyle changes, response to low-risk results varied by patient numeracy and literacy. However, anticipated responses may not correlate with true behavior change. If future research justifies the clinical use of genetic testing to motivate behavior change, it may be important to assess how patient characteristics modify that motivational effect.
Contributes systematic data on the attitudes of scientific experts who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. Finds that they are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. Calls for greater genetic literacy. (Contains 87 references.) (Author/NB)
Gerlai, Robert; Poshusta, Tanya L; Rampersad, Mindy; Fernandes, Yohaan; Greenwood, Tammy M; Cousin, Margot A; Klee, Eric W; Clark, Karl J
The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens. We generated mutant lines using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, allowing us to bias mutant selection with target genes expressed within the brain. Furthermore, we employed an efficient and fast behavioral pre-selection in which we investigated the locomotory response of 5-day post-fertilization old larval fish to hyperosmotic shock. Based on this assay, we selected five lines for our lower throughput secondary adult behavioral screen. The latter screen utilized tests in which computer animated image presentation and video-tracking-based automated quantification of behavior allowed us to compare heterozygous zebrafish with their wild-type siblings on their responses to a variety of stimuli. We found significant mutation induced adult behavioral alterations in 4 out of the 5 lines analyzed, including changes in response to social or fear inducing stimuli, to handling and novelty, or in habituation to novelty. We discuss the pros and cons of behavioral phenotyping and of the use of different forward genetic methods in biomedical research with zebrafish.
This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su
Phuc Huu Nguyen
Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.
Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M-R; Ollila, H M; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Palotie, A; Pietiläinen, O; Kristiansson, K; Joukamaa, M; Lauerma, H; Saarela, J; Tyni, S; Vartiainen, H; Paananen, J; Goldman, D; Paunio, T
In developed countries, the majority of all violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial recidivistic offenders, but no genes have been shown to contribute to recidivistic violent offending or severe violent behavior, such as homicide. Our results, from two independent cohorts of Finnish prisoners, revealed that a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity genotype (contributing to low dopamine turnover rate) as well as the CDH13 gene (coding for neuronal membrane adhesion protein) are associated with extremely violent behavior (at least 10 committed homicides, attempted homicides or batteries). No substantial signal was observed for either MAOA or CDH13 among non-violent offenders, indicating that findings were specific for violent offending, and not largely attributable to substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. These results indicate both low monoamine metabolism and neuronal membrane dysfunction as plausible factors in the etiology of extreme criminal violent behavior, and imply that at least about 5-10% of all severe violent crime in Finland is attributable to the aforementioned MAOA and CDH13 genotypes.
Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian
Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these.
Behavioral big data (BBD) refers to very large and rich multidimensional data sets on human and social behaviors, actions, and interactions, which have become available to companies, governments, and researchers. A growing number of researchers in social science and management fields acquire and analyze BBD for the purpose of extracting knowledge and scientific discoveries. However, the relationships between the researcher, data, subjects, and research questions differ in the BBD context compared to traditional behavioral data. Behavioral researchers using BBD face not only methodological and technical challenges but also ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we discuss several dilemmas, challenges, and trade-offs related to acquiring and analyzing BBD for causal behavioral research.
Romanyshyn, Robert D.
Utilizing research conducted on nostalgia, this paper shows how a phenomenological approach assists in understanding behavior, experience and expression. Moreover, a clearer understanding of them aids one's research with and comprehension of nostalgia. Human action can be studied from the experiential, behavioral and expressive perspectives. These…
Laughlin, Rick E; Grant, Tara L; Williams, Robert W; Jentsch, J David
Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. We quantified discrimination acquisition and subsequent reversal learning in a cohort of 51 BXD strains of mice (2-5 mice/strain, n = 176) for which we have matched data on sequence, gene expression in key central nervous system regions, and neuroreceptor levels. Strain variation in trials to criterion on acquisition and reversal was high, with moderate heritability (∼.3). Acquisition and reversal learning phenotypes did not covary at the strain level, suggesting that these traits are effectively under independent genetic control. Reversal performance did covary with dopamine D2 receptor levels in the ventral midbrain, consistent with a similar observed relationship between impulsivity and D2 receptors in humans. Reversal, but not acquisition, is linked to a locus on mouse chromosome 10 with a peak likelihood ratio statistic at 86.2 megabase (p work demonstrates the clear trait independence between, and genetic control of, discrimination acquisition and reversal and illustrates how globally coherent data sets for a single panel of highly related strains can be interrogated and integrated to uncover genetic sources and molecular and neuropharmacological candidates of complex behavioral traits relevant to human psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This thesis describes the genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens. Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens.In the European
Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.
Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Young, Deborah Rohm; Prohaska, Thomas R; Owen, Neville; Buchner, David M
This article reports on the "Novel Strategies for Sedentary Behavior Research" session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop. The purpose of this session of the workshop were to propose strategies for accomplishing a research agenda in dealing with sedentary behavior and to consider research priorities for people at high risk for excess sedentary behavior. The four major recommendations from this workshop were as follows: 1) To add repeated objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior to existing cohort studies and standardize approaches to measurement and analysis. Epidemiologic studies will be the most efficient design for addressing some research questions. 2) To increase research efficiency, consider the advantages of a network of connected research studies and health systems. Advantages include access to existing data in electronic health records. 3) To carefully select a variety of high-risk study populations and preplan collaboration among studies in intervention research. This strategy can efficiently address the breadth of issues in sedentary behavior research. 4) To include comparative effectiveness designs and pure environmental interventions in intervention research. This strategy facilitates and enhances translation of interventions into practice.
Molecular research on the genetic diversity of Tunisian date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) using the random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methods.
Edwards, Karen L.; Lemke, Amy A.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Lewis, Susan M.; Starks, Helene; Snapinn, Katherine W.; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Wiesner, Georgia L.; Burke, Wylie
Purpose Genetic research involving human participants can pose challenging questions related to ethical and regulatory standards for research oversight. However, few empirical studies describe how genetic researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals conceptualize ethical issues in genetic research or where common ground might exist. Methods Parallel online surveys collected information from human genetic researchers (n = 351) and IRB professionals (n = 208) regarding their views about human participant oversight for genetic protocols. Results A range of opinions were observed within groups on most issues. In both groups, a minority thought it likely that people would be harmed by participation in genetic research or identified from coded genetic data. A majority of both groups agreed that reconsent should be required for four of the six scenarios presented. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups on some issues, with more genetic researcher respondents trusting the confidentiality of coded data, fewer expecting harms from reidentification, and fewer considering reconsent necessary in certain scenarios. Conclusions The range of views observed within and between IRB and genetic researcher groups highlights the complexity and unsettled nature of many ethical issues in genome research. Our findings also identify areas where researcher and IRB views diverge and areas of common ground. PMID:22241102
Johannessen, Jarle; Nærland, Terje; Bloss, Cinnamon; Rietschel, Marcella; Strohmaier, Jana; Gjevik, Elen; Heiberg, Arvid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A
Genetic research in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly performed in minors who are legally unable to provide consent. Thus, knowledge of the attitudes, fears, and expectations toward genetic research of the parents is important. Knowledge of the attitudes toward genetic research will improve cooperation between researchers and participants, and help establish confidence in ASD genetic research. The present study aimed to assess these attitudes. Questionnaire-based assessments of attitudes toward genetic research and toward procedures in genetic research of n=1455 parents of individuals with ASD were performed. The main motivation for participation in genetic research is to gain more knowledge of the causes and disease mechanisms of ASD (83.6%), and to contribute toward development of improved treatment in the future (63.7%). The parents also had a positive attitude towards storing genetic information (54.3%) and they requested confidentiality of data (82.9%) and expressed a need to be informed about the purpose (89%) and progress of the research (83.7%). We found a slightly more positive attitude to participation in genetic research among older parents (P=0.015), among fathers compared with mothers (P=0.01), among parents of girls compared with boys (P=0.03), and infantile autism compared with Asperger syndrome (P=0.002). However, linear regression analysis showed that parent and child characteristics seem to have too small an influence on attitudes toward genetic research to be of any relevance (R(2)=0.002-0.02). Parents of children with ASD have, in general, a very positive attitude toward genetic research. Data confidentiality is important, and they express a need for information on the purpose and progress of the research.
Persky, Susan; Bouhlal, Sofia; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M
The development of precision approaches for customized health interventions is a promising application of genomic discovery. To optimize such weight management interventions, target audiences will need to be engaged in research and implementation efforts. Investigation into approaches that engage these audiences will be required to ensure that genomic information, particularly with respect to genomic influences on endophenotypes like eating behavior, is understood and accepted, and not associated with unintended adverse outcomes. We took steps to characterize healthy individuals' beliefs about genetic influences on eating behavior. Data were collected via online survey from 261 participants selected at random from a database. Respondents infrequently spontaneously identified eating behavior-related factors as running in families. However, those who perceived themselves as overweight and perceived a family history of overweight were more likely to attribute eating behavior to genetics on closed-ended assessments, β=0.252, p=0.039. Genetic attributions for eating behaviors were associated with lower confidence in ability to control eating and weight, β=-0.119, p=0.035. These exploratory findings shed light on beliefs about genetic influences on eating, a behavioral trait (rather than a disease). This investigation can inform future health intervention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Geller, Karly; Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R
Non-communicable diseases (i.e., chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and obesity) result in 36 million deaths each year. Individuals' habitual participation in a single health-risk behaviors substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality (e.g., tobacco use, daily fast food intake, etc.); however, more concerning is the impact of typically co-occurring or clustering of multiple health-risk behaviors. This burden can be minimized through successful cessation of health-risk behaviors and adoption of healthy behaviors; namely healthy lifestyle adoption or multiple health behavior change (MHBC). MHBC is a developing field and future research recommendations are provided to advance MHBC research. A valid measure of MHBC (i.e., lifestyle) is warranted to provide the needed basis for MHBC investigations and evaluations. MHBC is thought to occur through shared co-variation of underlying motivating mechanisms, but how these relationships influence behavior remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between behaviors and the related motivating mechanisms (and potential cross-relationship of influences) is needed. Future research should also aim to improve lifestyles through understanding how to change multiple health behaviors. Finally, MHBC research should target the development of sustainable interventions which result in lasting effects (e.g., capacity, systems, policy and environmental changes), with dissemination considered during development. Focusing MHBC research in these areas will increase our understanding and maximize the impact on the health of populations.
that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...
Jan 5, 2009 ... Ankara University Faculty of Science Department of Biology Tandogan Ankara Turkey. Accepted 21 ... intraspecific level; and the genetics evolution of the groups of .... Animal cytology and evolution Cambridge University. Press.
The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.
McWhirter, Rebekah E; Mununggirritj, Djapirri; Marika, Dipililnga; Dickinson, Joanne L; Condon, John R
Indigenous populations, in common with all populations, stand to benefit from the potential of genetic research to lead to improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a wide range of complex diseases. However, many Indigenous communities, especially ones that are isolated, are not included in genetic research efforts. This situation is largely a consequence of the challenges of ethically conducting genetic research in Indigenous communities and compounded by Indigenous peoples' negative past experiences with genetic issues. To examine ways of addressing these challenges, we review one investigation of a cancer cluster in remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Our experiences demonstrate that genetic research can be both ethically and successfully conducted with Indigenous communities by respecting the authority of the community, involving community members, and including regular community review throughout the research process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jannini, Emmanuele A; Burri, Andrea; Jern, Patrick; Novelli, Giuseppe
One of the never-ending debates in the developing field of sexual medicine is the extent to which genetics and experiences (i.e., "nature and nurture") contribute to sexuality. The debate continues despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Contemporary genetics has produced plenty of recent evidence, however, not always confirmed or sufficiently robust. On the other hand, the more traditional social theorists, frequently without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, sometimes with good arguments, the methods and results of the other side. The aim of this article is to critically evaluate existent evidence that used genetic approaches to understand human sexuality. An expert in sexual medicine (E.A.J.), an expert in medical genetics (G.N.), and two experts in genetic epidemiology and quantitative genetics, with particular scientific experience in female sexual dysfunction (A.B.) and in premature ejaculation (P.J.), contributed to this review. Expert opinion supported by critical review of the currently available literature. The existing literature on human sexuality provides evidence that many sexuality-related behaviors previously considered to be the result of cultural influences (such as mating strategies, attractiveness and sex appeal, propensity to fidelity or infidelity, and sexual orientation) or dysfunctions (such as premature ejaculation or female sexual dysfunction) seem to have a genetic component. Current evidence from genetic epidemiologic studies underlines the existence of biological and congenital factors regulating male and female sexuality. However, these relatively recent findings ask for replication in methodologically more elaborated studies. Clearly, increased research efforts are needed to further improve understanding the genetics of human sexuality. Jannini EA, Burri A, Jern P, and Novelli G. Genetics of human sexual behavior: Where we are, where
Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen
This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.
Full Text Available The past few decades saw the birth of the new science of genetics that can be used not only for medical purposes but also for the study of the past. Geneticists were quick to begin applying this science to the examination of Hungarian history, especially the subject of Hungarian origins. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with some of these studies. One study this paper will examine is itself a review of the scientific literature of early genetic studies on Hungarian origins. Other studies evaluated in this paper will be the English-language scientific publications of a team of Hungarian geneticists who over the last several years have studied the genetic inter-relatedness of 10th century and present-day Hungarian populations in the Middle Danube Valley of Central Europe. The paper comes to the conclusion that while very early genetic inquiries into Hungarian origins were often fault-ridden and are of little use now, more recent studies suggest that the currently held explanations of Hungarian ethnogenesis — especially the story of the so-called Hungarian conquest of the late 9th century — might very well be subjected to a fundamental re-assessment.
Genetic Structure of Pseudococcusmicrocirculus (Hemiptera: .... these orchids are listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index (Coile and Garland 2003). .... other samples, which we did not have sufficient statistical power to detect. ... males and minute first instar nymphs can use wind currents for dispersal.
Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D
Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Christensen, Kurt D; Roberts, J Scott; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Kardia, Sharon Lr; McBride, Colleen M; Linnenbringer, Erin; Green, Robert C
Studies examining whether genetic risk information about common, complex diseases can motivate individuals to improve health behaviors and advance planning have shown mixed results. Examining the influence of different study recruitment strategies may help reconcile inconsistencies. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the REVEAL study, a series of randomized clinical trials examining the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We tested whether self-referred participants (SRPs) were more likely than actively recruited participants (ARPs) to report health behavior and advance planning changes after AD risk and APOE genotype disclosure. Of 795 participants with known recruitment status, 546 (69%) were self-referred and 249 (31%) had been actively recruited. SRPs were younger, less likely to identify as African American, had higher household incomes, and were more attentive to AD than ARPs (all P change to at least one health behavior 6 weeks and 12 months after genetic risk disclosure, nor in intentions to change at least one behavior in the future. However, interaction effects were observed where ε4-positive SRPs were more likely than ε4-negative SRPs to report changes specifically to mental activities (38% vs 19%, p change long-term care insurance among SRPs (20% vs 5%, p behavior changes than those who respond to genetic testing offers. These results demonstrate how the behavioral impact of genetic risk information may vary according to the models by which services are provided, and suggest that how participants are recruited into translational genomics research can influence findings. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00089882 and NCT00462917.
Bansback, Nick; Sizto, Sonia; Guh, Daphne; Anis, Aslam H
Numerous websites offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, yet it is unknown how individuals will react to genetic risk profiles online. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a web-based survey and conjoint methods to elicit individuals' interpretations of genetic risk profiles by their anticipated worry/anxiousness and health-seeking behaviors. A web-based survey was developed using conjoint methods. Each survey presented 12 hypothetical genetic risk profiles describing genetic test results for four diseases. Test results were characterized by the type of disease (eight diseases), individual risk (five levels), and research confidence (three levels). After each profile, four questions were asked regarding anticipated worry and health-seeking behaviors. Probabilities of response outcomes based on attribute levels were estimated from logistic regression models, adjusting for covariates. Overall, 319 participants (69%) completed 3828 unique genetic risk profiles. Across all profiles, most participants anticipated making doctor's appointments (63%), lifestyle changes (57%), and accessing screening (57%); 40% anticipated feeling more worried and anxious. Higher levels of disease risk were significantly associated with affirmative responses. Conjoint methods may be used to elicit reactions to genetic information online. Preliminary results suggest that genetic information may increase worry/anxiousness and health-seeking behaviors among consumers of DTC tests. Further research is planned to determine the appropriateness of these affects and behaviors.
Hori, T.; Takahashi, E.; Tsuji, H.; Yamauchi, M. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Murata, M.
In the present review paper, the potential relevance of chromosomal fragile sites to carcinogenesis and mutagenesis is discussed based on our own and other's studies. Recent evidence indicate that fragile sites may act as predisposition factors involved in chromosomal instability of the human genome and that the sites may be preferential targets for various DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation. It is also demonstrated that some critical genomic rearrangements at the fragile sites may contribute towards oncogenesis and that individuals carrying heritable form of fragile site may be at the risk. Although clinical significance of autosomal fragile sites has been a matter of discussion, a fragile site of the X chromosome is known to be associated with an X-linked genetic diseases, called fragile X syndrome. Molecular events leading to the fragile X syndrome have recently been elucidated. The fragile X genotype can be characterized by an increased amount of p(CCG)n repeat DNA sequence in the FMR-1 gene and the repeated sequences are shown to be unstable in both meiosis and mitosis. These repeats might exhibit higher mutation rate than is generally seen in the human genome. Further studies on the fragile sites in molecular biology and radiation biology will yield relevant data to the molecular mechanisms of genetic instability of the human genome as well as to better assessment of genetic effect of ionizing radiation. (author).
Hori, T.; Takahashi, E.; Tsuji, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Murata, M.
In the present review paper, the potential relevance of chromosomal fragile sites to carcinogenesis and mutagenesis is discussed based on our own and other's studies. Recent evidence indicate that fragile sites may act as predisposition factors involved in chromosomal instability of the human genome and that the sites may be preferential targets for various DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation. It is also demonstrated that some critical genomic rearrangements at the fragile sites may contribute towards oncogenesis and that individuals carrying heritable form of fragile site may be at the risk. Although clinical significance of autosomal fragile sites has been a matter of discussion, a fragile site of the X chromosome is known to be associated with an X-linked genetic diseases, called fragile X syndrome. Molecular events leading to the fragile X syndrome have recently been elucidated. The fragile X genotype can be characterized by an increased amount of p(CCG)n repeat DNA sequence in the FMR-1 gene and the repeated sequences are shown to be unstable in both meiosis and mitosis. These repeats might exhibit higher mutation rate than is generally seen in the human genome. Further studies on the fragile sites in molecular biology and radiation biology will yield relevant data to the molecular mechanisms of genetic instability of the human genome as well as to better assessment of genetic effect of ionizing radiation. (author)
Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the recent literature relevant to genetic research in eating disorders and to discuss unique issues which are crucial for the development of a genetic research project in eating disorders in Brazil. METHOD: A computer literature review was conducted in the Medline database between 1984 and may 2005 with the search terms "eating disorders", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", "family", "twin" and "molecular genetic" studies. RESULTS: Current research findings suggest a substantial influence of genetic factors on the liability to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Genetic research with admixed populations should take into consideration sample size, density of genotyping and population stratification. Through admixture mapping it is possible to study the genetic structure of admixed human populations to localize genes that underlie ethnic variation in diseases or traits of interest. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a major collaborative genetics initiative of eating disorders in Brazil and South America would represent a realistic possibility of studying the genetics of eating disorders in the context of inter ethnic groups, and also integrate a new perspective on the biological etiology of eating disorders.
This paper reviews the recent research progress on genetic methods of resistance, the status and existing problems, traditional breeding, the main resistance mechanism, molecular markers and genetic engineering of resistance genes. It is hoped that new breeding methods and new varieties resistant to Verticillium wilt will ...
Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh
Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.
Afanas'eva, K.P.; Aleksandrova, M.V.; Aleksandrov, I.D.
Molecular genetic studies of radiation-induced heritable DNA lesions are carried out by the genetic group of Laboratory of nuclear problem in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The first results of molecular analysis of γ –ray- and neutron-induced vestigial mutations using PCR and sequencing will be presented. (authors)
... 2017 NIH researchers find potential genetic cause of Cushing syndrome Finding may lead to therapies that prevent pituitary ... mutations in the gene CABLES1 may lead to Cushing syndrome, a rare disorder in which the body overproduces ...
Raine, Adrian; Dunkin, Jennifer J.
Argues that an understanding of the genetic and psychophysiological basis of crime and antisocial behavior has important implications for counselors dealing with antisocial behavior. Contends that psychophysiological factors interact with social factors in producing antisocial behaviors. (Author/ABL)
The author makes suggestions on the direction of research for genetic sexing over the next several years and prepared the paper as a guide for discussion. The literature of genetic and cytogenetic studies on insects as a whole is the basis for most of the approaches that the genetic control community has used, but only a tiny fraction of the literature is directed at genetic sexing and most of that is limited to, small scale laboratory studies. The effort to use genetic sexing strains on the scale of mass rearing of medflies is unprecedented, and it is not surprising that a few problems have been encountered during implementation. Consideration of this fact leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to 'think big' and target the research. (author)
Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena
The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....
Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo
Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.
Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick
Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403
To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy.
Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…
Jose Manuel Latorre-Estivalis
Full Text Available Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.
de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma Ad; Day, Felix R; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas J; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken K
Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI. Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P- Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P -Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association ( P -Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women ( P -Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P -interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P -interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women ( P -interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile. Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint
On March 29, 2001, the Ethical Guidelines for Human Genome and Genetic Sequencing Research were established. They have intended to serve as ethical guidelines for all human genome and genetic sequencing research practice, for the purpose of upholding respect for human dignity and rights and enforcing use of proper methods in the pursuit of human genome and genetic sequencing research, with the understanding and cooperation of the public. The RadGenomics Project has prepared a research protocol and informed consent document that follow these ethical guidelines. We have endeavored to protect the privacy of individual information, and have established a procedure for examination of research practices by an ethics committee. Here we report our procedure in order to offer this concept to the patients. (authors)
Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino
The study of distinctive and consistent behaviors in the most common genetic syndromes with intellectual disability is useful to explain abnormalities or associated psychiatric disorders. The behavioral phenotypes revealed outcomes totally or partially specific for each syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles of the five most frequent genetic syndromes, i.e. Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile-X syndrome (fully mutated), taking into account the relation with chronological age and the overall IQ level. The research was carried out using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (beside the Wechsler Intelligence scales to obtain IQ) with a sample of 181 persons (107 males and 74 females) showing genetic syndromes and mental retardation. Syndrome-based groups were matched for chronological age and mental age (excluding the Angelman group, presenting with severe mental retardation). Similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles are described, relating them to IQs and maladaptive behaviors. The results might be useful in obtaining a global index of adjustment for the assessment of intellectual disability level as well as for educational guidance and rehabilitative plans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comings, D E; Blum, K
The dopaminergic and opioidergic reward pathways of the brain are critical for survival since they provide the pleasure drives for eating, love and reproduction; these are called 'natural rewards' and involve the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and frontal lobes. However, the same release of dopamine and production of sensations of pleasure can be produced by 'unnatural rewards' such as alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, nicotine, marijuana, and other drugs, and by compulsive activities such as gambling, eating, and sex, and by risk taking behaviors. Since only a minority of individuals become addicted to these compounds or behaviors, it is reasonable to ask what factors distinguish those who do become addicted from those who do not. It has usually been assumed that these behaviors are entirely voluntary and that environmental factors play the major role; however, since all of these behaviors have a significant genetic component, the presence of one or more variant genes presumably act as risk factors for these behaviors. Since the primary neurotransmitter of the reward pathway is dopamine, genes for dopamine synthesis, degradation, receptors, and transporters are reasonable candidates. However, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA, opioid, and cannabinoid neurons all modify dopamine metabolism and dopamine neurons. We have proposed that defects in various combinations of the genes for these neurotransmitters result in a Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and that such individuals are at risk for abuse of the unnatural rewards. Because of its importance, the gene for the [figure: see text] dopamine D2 receptor was a major candidate gene. Studies in the past decade have shown that in various subject groups the Taq I A1 allele of the DRD2 gene is associated with alcoholism, drug abuse, smoking, obesity, compulsive gambling, and several personality traits. A range of other dopamine, opioid, cannabinoid, norepinephrine, and related genes have since been
Miller, Geoffrey; Zhu, Gu; Wright, Margaret J; Hansell, Narelle K; Martin, Nicholas G
There has been almost no overlap between behavior genetics and consumer behavior research, despite each field's importance in understanding society. In particular, both have neglected to study genetic influences on consumer adoption and usage of new technologies -- even technologies as important as the mobile phone, now used by 5.8 out of 7.0 billion people on earth. To start filling this gap, we analyzed self-reported mobile phone use, intelligence, and personality traits in two samples of Australian teenaged twins (mean ages 14.2 and 15.6 years), totaling 1,036 individuals. ACE modeling using Mx software showed substantial heritabilities for how often teens make voice calls (.60 and .34 in samples 1 and 2, respectively) and for how often they send text messages (.53 and. 50). Shared family environment - including neighborhood, social class, parental education, and parental income (i.e., the generosity of calling plans that parents can afford for their teens) -- had much weaker effects. Multivariate modeling based on cross-twin, cross-trait correlations showed negative genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and intelligence (around -.17), and positive genetic correlations between talking/texting frequency and extraversion (about .20 to .40). Our results have implications for assessing the risks of mobile phone use such as radiofrequency field (RF) exposure and driving accidents, for studying adoption and use of other emerging technologies, for understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive and personality traits that predict consumer behavior, and for challenging the common assumption that consumer behavior is shaped entirely by culture, media, and family environment.
McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.
Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.
Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…
Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A
Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.
Fujimura, Joan H.; Rajagopalan, Ramya
This article presents findings from our ethnographic research on biomedical scientists’ studies of human genetic variation and common complex disease. We examine the socio-material work involved in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and discuss whether, how, and when notions of race and ethnicity are or are not used. We analyze how researchers produce simultaneously different kinds of populations and population differences. Although many geneticists use race in their analyses, we find some who have invented a statistical genetics method and associated software that they use specifically to avoid using categories of race in their genetics analysis. Their method allows them to operationalize their concept of ‘genetic ancestry’ without resorting to notions of race and ethnicity. We focus on the construction and implementation of the software’s algorithms, and discuss the consequences and implications of the software technology for debates and policies around the use of race in genetics research. We also demonstrate that the production and use of their method involves a dynamic and fluid assemblage of actors in various disciplines responding to disciplinary and sociopolitical contexts and concerns. This assemblage also includes particular discourses on human history and geography as they become entangled with research on genetic markers and disease. We introduce the concept of ‘genome geography’, to analyze how some researchers studying human genetic variation ‘locate’ stretches of DNA in different places and times. The concept of genetic ancestry and the practice of genome geography rely on old discourses, but they also incorporate new technologies, infrastructures, and political and scientific commitments. Some of these new technologies provide opportunities to change some of our institutional and cultural forms and frames around notions of difference and similarity. Neverthless, we also highlight the slipperiness of genome geography and the
Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)
Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.
In their monograph, DiPietro, Costigan, and Voegtline present an important and thoughtful portrait of low-risk fetal development during the last trimester of gestation, and they also pay tribute to the Fels Longitudinal Study investigators' early work in this area. In this commentary, the history and legacy of the Fels Institute is further explored within the broader context of fetal research, and DiPietro et al.'s findings are placed in alignment with contemporary dynamic systems' theoretical approaches that emphasize longitudinal analysis of emergent behavior and process during early development. The commentary puts forth the assertion that the work reported by DiPietro and her colleagues tells a story that sets the stage for a new generation of technology-enhanced and culturally expanded investigations of fetal behavior. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kim, Hyungsuk; Clark, David; Dionne, Raymond A.
Understanding the genetic basis of human variations in pain is critical to elucidating the molecular basis of pain sensitivity, variable responses to analgesic drugs, and, ultimately, to individualized treatment of pain and improved public health. With the help of recently accumulated knowledge and advanced technologies, pain researchers hope to gain insight into genetic mechanisms of pain and eventually apply this knowledge to pain treatment. Perspective We critically reviewed the published literature to examine the strength of evidence supporting genetic influences on clinical and human experimental pain. Based on this evidence and the experience of false associations that have occurred in other related disciplines, we provide recommendations for avoiding pitfalls in pain genetic research. PMID:19559388
Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W
Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C
Over the last 30 years it has become increasingly apparent that there are many behavioral differences among wild communities of Pan troglodytes. Some researchers argue these differences are a consequence of the behaviors being socially learned, and thus may be considered cultural. Others contend that the available evidence is too weak to discount the alternative possibility that the behaviors are genetically determined. Previous phylogenetic analyses of chimpanzee behavior have not supported the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. However, the results of these studies are potentially problematic because the behavioral sample employed did not include communities from central Africa. Here, we present the results of a study designed to address this shortcoming. We carried out cladistic analyses of presence/absence data pertaining to 19 tool-use behaviors in 10 different P. troglodytes communities plus an outgroup (P. paniscus). Genetic data indicate that chimpanzee communities in West Africa are well differentiated from those in eastern and central Africa, while the latter are not reciprocally monophyletic. Thus, we predicted that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the tool-use data should mirror the genetic data in terms of structure. The three measures of phylogenetic structure we employed (the Retention Index, the bootstrap, and the Permutation Tail Probability Test) did not support the genetic hypothesis. They were all lower when all 10 communities were included than when the three western African communities are excluded. Hence, our study refutes the genetic hypothesis and provides further evidence that patterns of behavior in chimpanzees are the product of social learning and therefore meet the main condition for culture. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Meldrum, Ryan C; Barnes, J C
A large body of research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is positively associated with delinquency during adolescence. Yet, existing research has not ruled out the potential for confounding due to genetic factors and factors that can be traced to environments shared between siblings. To fill this void, the current study examines whether the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when accounting for genetic factors, shared environmental influences, and a variety of non-shared environmental covariates. We do so by using data from the twin subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 1200 at wave 1 and 1103 at wave 2; 51% male; mean age at wave 1 = 15.63). Results from both cross-sectional and lagged models indicate the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when controlling for both genetic and environmental influences. Supplementary analyses examining the association under different specifications offer additional, albeit qualified, evidence supportive of this finding. The study concludes with a discussion highlighting the importance of limiting free time with friends in the absence of authority figures as a strategy for reducing delinquency during adolescence.
The history of research on the genetics of intelligence is fraught with social bias. During the eugenics era, the hereditary theory of intelligence justified policies that encouraged the proliferation of favored races and coercively stemmed procreation by disfavored ones. In the 1970s, Berkeley psychologist Arthur Jensen argued that black students' innate cognitive inferiority limited the efficacy of federal education programs. The 1994 controversial bestseller The Bell Curve, by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, rehashed the claim that race and class disparities stem from immutable differences in inherited intelligence, which could not be eliminated through social interventions. Today most scientists studying the genetics of intelligence distance themselves from this history of social bias by arguing that their research need not investigate intellectual differences between social groups. Rather, they argue, examining the heritability of intelligence can be socially neutral and may even help to reduce social inequities. I argue, however, that research on the genetics of intelligence cannot be socially neutral. Even if we divorce the heritability of intelligence from a eugenicist mission, measuring intelligence remains useful only as a gage of individuals' appropriate positions in society. Research into the genetics of intelligence ultimately helps to determine individuals' inherited capacity for particular social positions, even when researchers aim to modify the effects of inheritance. © 2015 The Hastings Center.
Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan
An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behav...
We describe a number of areas of recent research that are particularly relevant to child and adolescent mental health in South Africa (antisocial behaviour, disorganised attachment and depression) that are beginning to illuminate the interactions between the behavioural and genetic domains. Discussion: We argue that we ...
Adamowicz, Sarah J; Steinke, Dirk
DNA barcoding--the sequencing of short, standardized DNA regions for specimen identification and species discovery--has promised to facilitate rapid access to biodiversity knowledge by diverse users. Here, we advance our opinion that increased global participation in genetics research is beneficial, both to scientists and for science, and explore the premise that DNA barcoding can help to democratize participation in genetics research. We examine publication patterns (2003-2014) in the DNA barcoding literature and compare trends with those in the broader, related domain of genomics. While genomics is the older and much larger field, the number of nations contributing to the published literature is similar between disciplines. Meanwhile, DNA barcoding exhibits a higher pace of growth in the number of publications as well as greater evenness among nations in their proportional contribution to total authorships. This exploration revealed DNA barcoding to be a highly international discipline, with growing participation by researchers in especially biodiverse nations. We briefly consider several of the challenges that may hinder further participation in genetics research, including access to training and molecular facilities as well as policy relating to the movement of genetic resources.
Robert Z. Callaham
Provenance in forestry refers to the population of trees growing at n particular place of origin. Provenance research defines the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation associated with geographic source. Information on provenance is important in assuring sources of seed to give well-adapted, productive trees and in directing breeding of...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shop Scheduling is an important factor affecting the efficiency of production, efficient scheduling method and a research and application for optimization technology play an important role for manufacturing enterprises to improve production efficiency, reduce production costs and many other aspects. Existing studies have shown that improved genetic algorithm has solved the limitations that existed in the genetic algorithm, the objective function is able to meet customers' needs for shop scheduling, and the future research should focus on the combination of genetic algorithm with other optimized algorithms. In this paper, in order to overcome the shortcomings of early convergence of genetic algorithm and resolve local minimization problem in search process,aiming at mixed flow shop scheduling problem, an improved cyclic search genetic algorithm is put forward, and chromosome coding method and corresponding operation are given.The operation has the nature of inheriting the optimal individual ofthe previous generation and is able to avoid the emergence of local minimum, and cyclic and crossover operation and mutation operation can enhance the diversity of the population and then quickly get the optimal individual, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can well avoid the emergency of local minimum and is rapid in convergence.
Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.
Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)
Full Text Available Callous-unemotional behavior (CU is currently under consideration as a subtyping index for conduct disorder diagnosis. Twin studies routinely estimate the heritability of CU as greater than 50%. It is now possible to estimate genetic influence using DNA alone from samples of unrelated individuals, not relying on the assumptions of the twin method. Here we use this new DNA method (implemented in a software package called Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis, GCTA for the first time to estimate genetic influence on CU. We also report the first genome-wide association (GWA study of CU as a quantitative trait. We compare these DNA results to those from twin analyses using the same measure and the same community sample of 2,930 children rated by their teachers at ages 7, 9 and 12. GCTA estimates of heritability were near zero, even though twin analysis of CU in this sample confirmed the high heritability of CU reported in the literature, and even though GCTA estimates of heritability were substantial for cognitive and anthropological traits in this sample. No significant associations were found in GWA analysis, which, like GCTA, only detects additive effects of common DNA variants. The phrase 'missing heritability' was coined to refer to the gap between variance associated with DNA variants identified in GWA studies versus twin study heritability. However, GCTA heritability, not twin study heritability, is the ceiling for GWA studies because both GCTA and GWA are limited to the overall additive effects of common DNA variants, whereas twin studies are not. This GCTA ceiling is very low for CU in our study, despite its high twin study heritability estimate. The gap between GCTA and twin study heritabilities will make it challenging to identify genes responsible for the heritability of CU.
Molenaar, Peter C. M.
The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…
Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G
Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.
Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.
Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.
Johnson, A M; Vernon, P A; McCarthy, J M; Molson, M; Harris, J A; Jang, K L
With the recent resurgence in popularity of trait theories of leadership, it is timely to consider the genetic determination of the multiple factors comprising the leadership construct. Individual differences in personality traits have been found to be moderately to highly heritable, and so it follows that if there are reliable personality trait differences between leaders and non-leaders, then there may be a heritable component to these individual differences. Despite this connection between leadership and personality traits, however, there are no studies of the genetic basis of leadership using modern behavior genetic methodology. The present study proposes to address the lack of research in this area by examining the heritability of leadership style, as measured by self-report psychometric inventories. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), the Leadership Ability Evaluation, and the Adjective Checklist were completed by 247 adult twin pairs (183 monozygotic and 64 same-sex dizygotic). Results indicated that most of the leadership dimensions examined in this study are heritable, as are two higher level factors (resembling transactional and transformational leadership) derived from an obliquely rotated principal components factors analysis of the MLQ. Univariate analyses suggested that 48% of the variance in transactional leadership may be explained by additive heritability, and 59% of the variance in transformational leadership may be explained by non-additive (dominance) heritability. Multivariate analyses indicated that most of the variables studied shared substantial genetic covariance, suggesting a large overlap in the underlying genes responsible for the leadership dimensions.
Kausch, Albert [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Rhodes, Richard [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)
This research adds to the understanding of switchgrass genetics and the increasing of biomass relevant to production of bioenergy. Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., and its related species are well known as potential bioenergy crops since the early 1990s. There are global economic, political, US national security and environmental pressures to increase renewable biofuel production and utilization to offset gasoline and diesel fuel use and climate change, especially in the liquid fuel transportation sector. To realize the potential of bioenergy crops, rapid genetic improvement of the most promising perennial grass feedstocks, such as switchgrass, are anticipated by current genomics, association genetics, marker assisted breeding, hybrid plant development, advanced tissue culture, conventional genetics and other approaches to increase yield, processability, and regional adaptation. The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated are demonstrated by several publications, presentations and patents produced as an outcome and deliverable of this research. This project is of a broad benefit to the public not only through the dissemination of this information but also to the development of new methods which will be applied to future bioenergy crop improvement as well as other crops.
Freeman, Bradley D; Butler, Kevin; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Clarridge, Brian R; Kennedy, Carie R; LeBlanc, Jessica; Chandros Hull, Sara
Collection of genetic biospecimens as part of critical illness investigations is increasingly commonplace. Oversight bodies vary in restrictions imposed on genetic research, introducing inconsistencies in study design, potential for sampling bias, and the possibility of being overly prohibitive of this type of research altogether. We undertook this study to better understand whether restrictions on genetic data collection beyond those governing research on cognitively intact subjects reflect the concerns of surrogates for critically ill patients. We analyzed survey data collected from 1,176 patients in nonurgent settings and 437 surrogates representing critically ill adults. Attitudes pertaining to genetic data (familiarity, perceptions, interest in participation, concerns) and demographic information were examined using univariate and multivariate techniques. We explored differences among respondents who were receptive (1,333) and nonreceptive (280) to genetic sample collection. Whereas factors positively associated with receptivity to research participation were "complete trust" in health-care providers (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.544-2.833), upper income strata (OR, 2.319; 95% CI, 1.308-4.114), viewing genetic research "very positively" (OR, 3.524; 95% CI, 2.122-5.852), and expressing "no worry at all" regarding disclosure of results (OR, 2.505; 95% CI, 1.436-4.369), black race was negatively associated with research participation (OR, 0.410; 95% CI, 0.288-0.585). We could detect no difference in receptivity to genetic sample collection comparing ambulatory patients and surrogates (OR, 0.738; 95% CI, 0.511-1.066). Expressing trust in health-care providers and viewing genetic research favorably were associated with increased willingness for study enrollment, while concern regarding breach of confidentiality and black race had the opposite effect. Study setting had no bearing on willingness to participate.
Tops, Sanne; Habel, Ute; Radke, Sina
Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a large variety of social behaviors. The oxytocinergic system interacts with environmental cues and is highly dependent on interindividual factors. Deficits in this system have been linked to mental disorders associated with social impairments, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review focuses on the modulation of social behavior by alterations in two domains of the oxytocinergic system. We discuss genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and alterations in these mechanisms that were found to have clinical implications for ASD. We propose possible explanations how these alterations affect the biological pathways underlying the aberrant social behavior and point out avenues for future research. We advocate the need for integration studies that combine multiple measures covering a broad range of social behaviors and link these to genetic and epigenetic profiles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Loos, Maarten; Verhage, Matthijs; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August B
This chapter describes a use case for the genetic dissection and automated analysis of complex behavioral traits using the genetically diverse panel of BXD mouse recombinant inbred strains. Strains of the BXD resource differ widely in terms of gene and protein expression in the brain, as well as in their behavioral repertoire. A large mouse resource opens the possibility for gene finding studies underlying distinct behavioral phenotypes, however, such a resource poses a challenge in behavioral phenotyping. To address the specifics of large-scale screening we describe how to investigate: (1) how to assess mouse behavior systematically in addressing a large genetic cohort, (2) how to dissect automation-derived longitudinal mouse behavior into quantitative parameters, and (3) how to map these quantitative traits to the genome, deriving loci underlying aspects of behavior.
Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D
The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.
McGue, Matt; Elkins, Irene; Walden, Brent; Iacono, William G.
The authors address the methodological, theoretical, and ideological criticisms of their article on adolescent perceptions of parenting behavior made by G. Greenberg and T. Partridge. Behavioral genetic methods have provided unique insights on the origins of individual differences in behavior and, when applied to parenting and other putative…
Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.
Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…
Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M
17-year-old females with twin brothers. We found divergent developmental trajectories for alcohol-specific and externalizing behavior-related genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors; in early adolescence, genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors are largely nonspecific, and later in adolescence and young adulthood, alcohol-specific genetic influences on alcohol use are more influential. Importantly, within these overall trajectories, several interesting sex differences emerged. We found that the relationship between genetic risk and problematic drinking across development is moderated by the individual's sex and his/her cotwin's sex. AUD-GR influenced adolescent alcohol outcomes in females more than in males and by age 22, EXT-GR influenced AD criteria more for males than females. In addition, the association between genetic risk and intoxication frequency was greater among 14- and 17-year-old females with male cotwins. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A
Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.
Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro
Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Baum, Amber E; Solberg, Leah C; Churchill, Gary A; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S; Redei, Eva E
Inbred Wistar-Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measured in both tests, and our study was the first to look for genetic loci affecting grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior. Quantitative trait locus analysis was performed on a population of 486 F2 animals bred from reciprocal inter-crosses. The genetic architectures of DB and OFT rearing, and of DB and OFT grooming, were compared. There were no common loci affecting grooming behavior in both tests. These different contexts produced the stereotyped behavior via different pathways, and genetic factors seem to influence the decision-making pathways and not the expression of the behavior. Three loci were found that affected rearing behavior in both tests. However, in both contexts, other loci had greater effects on the behavior. Our results imply that environmental context's effects on decision-making vary depending on the category of behavior.
Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.
The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental…
Full Text Available This is a review on fish genetics research in Croatia and former Yugoslavia, based on the analyses of all the articles published in four main journals (Ribarstvo Jugoslavije, Morsko ribarstvo, Ichthyologia and Acta Adriatica since 1945 till disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991. Most of the papers cover the fields on cytogenetics and hybridization (24 and 13 respectively. Eight papers were on fish selection and five on population genetics. Apart from those, five papers were written by foreign authors. Two groups of researchers from the University of Sarajevo were specially active. One of them lead by B e r b e r o v i ć and S o f r a d ž i j a did extensive work in cytogenetics, analyzing the karyotypes of many fish species, some of them endemic. Another one lead by V u k o v i ć , investigated some natural hybrids and created many of them artificially, particulary among cyprinids. These results are presented in a special table. Contrary to the mountainous Bosnia where this type of research was of systematic and ecologic importance, in Croatia whwrw aquaculture was highly developed, the approach was quite different. The scientists from the University of Zagreb, H a b e k o v i ć and T u r k , studied the hybridization and selection of important cultured cyprinids. Apart from these scientific groups, many papers were published by A l - S a b t i , who later became world famous in fish cytogenetics. The works of many other authors who contributed with papers in different fields of fish genetics are also described.
Zheng, Min; Ma, Jun-wu
Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritis caused by hyperuricaemia, which is affected by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Early researches show that a few of rare monogenic mutations, such as PRPS1 and HPRT1 mutations, lead to abnormal purine anabolism and then cause hyperuricaemia and gout. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of susceptibility loci and/or candidate genes associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A9, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 cause hereditary hypouricaemia, while their overexpression may increase the reabsorption of uric acid. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in ABCG2, SLC17A1, and SLC17A3 cause urate underexcretion of renal and intestinal. These variations leading to blood uric acid excretion disorder (excess reabsorption and underexcretion) are the main genetic factors affecting hyperuicemia and gout. Moreover, to some degree, inhibins-activins growth factor system, transcription factors, cytoskeleton and gene-environment interaction can also affect the level of blood uric acid. In addition, two risk genes, RFX3 and KCNQ1, which might impair immune response and lead to functional deficiency of beta cell were recently discovered to influence hyperuiceamia and gout in Han Chinese. This paper systematically reviews genetic studies on hyperuricaemia and gout to improve our understanding of pathogenesis of hyperuricaemia and gout.
Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S
The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.
Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.
Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.
Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…
Gold, Azgad; S Appelbaum, Paul
The evolving field of behavioral genetics is gradually elucidating the complex interplay between genes and environment. Scientific data pertaining to the behavioral genetics of violent behavior provides a new context for an old dilemma regarding criminal responsibility and punishment: if the inclination to violent behavior is inherent in someone's nature, how should it affect punishment for crime? Should it be considered as a mitigating or an aggravating factor? Given psychiatrists' increasing involvement in providing testimony on behavioral genetics in the criminal justice system, this paper first provides the necessary background required for understanding how this question arises and reviews the relevant literature. Then, we address this question from the perspective of the Bible and its commentators, in the belief that their insights may enrich the contemporary discussion of this question.
Rine, Jasper; Fagen, Adam P
Scientific progress runs on the intellect, curiosity, and passion of its practitioners fueled by the research dollars of its sponsors. The concern over research funding in biology in general and genetics in particular led us to survey the membership of the Genetics Society of America for information about the federal support of genetics at the level of individual principal investigators. The results paint a mosaic of circumstances-some good, others not so good-that describes some of our present challenges with sufficient detail to suggest useful steps that could address the challenges. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bacterial behavior has been observed to change during spaceflight. Higher final cell counts enhanced biofilm formation increased virulence and reduced susceptibility...
Niko Balkenhol; Felix Gugerli; Sam A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits; Aurelie Coulon; J. W. Arntzen; Rolf Holderegger; Helene H. Wagner
Landscape genetics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that combines methods and concepts from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. The interest in landscape genetics is steadily increasing, and the field is evolving rapidly. We here outline four major challenges for future landscape genetic research that were identified during an...
Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.
Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…
Poling, Alan; Edwards, Timothy L.
The authors find Critchfield's article ("Translational Contributions of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior," "The Behavior Analyst," v34, p3-17, 2011) scholarly, clear, and insightful. In it, Critchfield provides an excellent overview of translational research in behavior analysis and suggests several general strategies for increasing the…
Kimberly AK Carhuatanta
Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.
Satinder, K P
Avoidance learning, open-field, and reproductive behaviors of a genetically heterogeneous stock (derived from a four-way cross of selected lines) were compared with the corresponding behaviors of the parental lines. The heterogeneous stock showed heterosis on the body development, fertility rate, litter size at birth and at weaning, and directional dominance on the avoidance learning and open-field measures.
Vaske, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle; Wright, John Paul
Studies have shown that there is a significant association between violent victimization and criminal behavior. One potential explanation for this association is that genetically mediated processes contribute to both violent victimization and criminal behavior. The current study uses data from the twin sample of the National Longitudinal Study of…
Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J
ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability. The genetic causes of DS are associated with characteristic outcomes, such as relative strengths in visual-spatial skills and relative challenges in motor planning. This profile of outcomes, called the DS behavioral phenotype, may be a critical tool for intervention planning and research in this population. In this article, aspects of the DS behavioral phenotype potentially relevant to occupational therapy practice are reviewed. Implications and challenges for etiology-informed research and practice are discussed.
Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.
Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829
Mariath, Luiza Monteavaro; Silva, Alexandre Mauat da; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Gattino, Gustavo Schulz; Araujo, Gustavo Andrade de; Figueiredo, Felipe Grahl; Tagliani-Ribeiro, Alice; Roman, Tatiana; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer
Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4) related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP) which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.
Luiza Monteavaro Mariath
Full Text Available Abstract Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4 related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.
Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.
van Haaren, Frans; Weeden, Marc
The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) has published a number of articles on the behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Some additional JABA publications have included investigations of the behavioral effects of other drugs. However, a review of these articles revealed many methodological differences among studies, which makes it difficult to evaluate the relative contribution of each research effort to the overall database. In this context, we offer some guidelines to solidify the methodological rigor of behavior pharmacological research published in JABA. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.
Full Text Available Transgenerational sources of biological variation have been at the center of evolutionary studies ever since Darwin and Wallace identified natural selection. This is because evolution can only operate on traits whose variation is transmitted, i.e. traits that are heritable. The discovery of genetic inheritance has led to a semantic shift, resulting in the tendency to consider that only genes are inherited across generations. Today, however, concepts of heredity are being broadened again to integrate the accruing evidence of non-genetic inheritance, and many evolutionary biologists are calling for the inclusion of non-genetic inheritance into an inclusive evolutionary synthesis. Here, we focus on social heredity and its role in the inheritance of behavioral traits. We discuss quantitative genetics methods that might allow us to disentangle genetic and non-genetic transmission in natural populations with known pedigrees. We then propose an experimental design based on cross-fostering among animal cultures, environments and families that has the potential to partition inherited phenotypic variation into socially (i.e. culturally and genetically inherited components. This approach builds towards a new conceptual framework based on the use of an extended version of the animal model of quantitative genetics to integrate genetic and cultural components of behavioral inheritance.
Samuel A Cushman; Jesse S. Lewis
Individual-based landscape genetic analyses provide empirically based models of gene flow. It would be valuable to verify the predictions of these models using independent data of a different type. Analyses using different data sources that produce consistent results provide strong support for the generality of the findings. Mating and dispersal movements are the...
Miriam A Mosing
Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of
Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik
Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural
The article is to introduce author's research results in recent years in the field of leadership behavior. The main researches conducted in this field include competency model of senior executives in communication industry and family firms; transformational leadership and its relationship with leadership effectiveness, the impact of supervisor's feedback on employees' behavior and the cross-culture study of supervisor's feedback. Theoretical and practical contributions of these researches are explained. Directions for future research are discussed.
The paper aims for studying the relationship between consumers? attachment styles and consumers? behaviors, especially ethical consumption and conformity consumption. Based on combing the previous researches, studies conclude that: “secure attachment” people and their ethical behaviors are most positively related, and “ambivalent attachment” people and their moral behaviors take second. Meanwhile, “avoidant attachment” people and their moral behaviors are most negatively related, and “fearful...
Gasmelseed, Nagla; Elsir, Afrah Awad; Deblasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida
Quality-assessed biomedical samples are essential for academia- and industry driven research on human diseases. The etiologies and the molecular genetic factors relevant in African diseases, including both infections and complex degenerative diseases as well as cancer, need to be studied using well annotated and well-preserved biosamples acquired from native African ethnic groups and compare the results with non-African populations and/or with Afro-Americans. However, a number of difficulties negatively impact on the possibility to obtain clinically annotated biological samples in most Sub-Saharan African countries. This is mainly due to major organizational problems, lack of clinical centres that can dedicate resources to research, as well as lack of facilities in which biomaterials can be properly processed and safely stored. Harmonization of biosample acquisition, storage phenotyping schemes and biocomputer infrastructures are the principal objectives of biological resource centers (BRCs). BRCs comprise biobanks of different formats (collection of blood, DNA, tissues, etc., annotated with medical, environmental, life-style and follow up data) a fundamental tool for molecular epidemiological studies aiming to increase excellence and efficacy of biomedical results, drug development and public health. BRCs provide large and highly controlled biomolecular resources necessary to meet the "omics" scientific platforms. Sudan may be a candidate nation to host such infrastructure, in view of its strategic geographical position and the already existing simple biobanking experiences connected with research groups in Central Sudan. Here, we describe the potential role of biobanks in African genetic studies aiming to dissect the eziopathogenesis of complex diseases in relation to environmental and life-style factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill
The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own
Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan
This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…
MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen
This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…
Goltz, Sonia M.
Decision fiascoes such as escalation of commitment, the tendency of decision makers to “throw good money after bad,” can have serious consequences for organizations and are therefore of great interest in applied research. This paper discusses the use of behavior analysis in organizational behavior research on escalation. Among the most significant aspects of behavior-analytic research on escalation is that it has indicated that both the patterns of outcomes that decision makers have experienced for past decisions and the patterns of responses that they make are critical for understanding escalation. This research has also stimulated the refinement of methods by researchers to better assess decision making and the role reinforcement plays in it. Finally, behavior-analytic escalation research has not only indicated the utility of reinforcement principles for predicting more complex human behavior but has also suggested some additional areas for future exploration of decision making using behavior analysis. PMID:22478347
Understanding the role of genes in human behavior will impact both medicine and society, but not always in the manner expected. Knowledge about behavioral genes can be used for the good, for example by improving psychiatric diagnoses, developing new drugs to treat mental illnesses, and dispelling harmful myths about certain types of human variation. However, the same sort of information could be used to discriminate against people, to provide quick fixes for social problems, or to support eug...
Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R
Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of
Appelbaum, Paul S.; Scurich, Nicholas; Raad, Raymond
Demonstrations of a link between genetic variants and criminal behavior have stimulated increasing use of genetic evidence to reduce perceptions of defendants’ responsibility for criminal behavior and to mitigate punishment. However, because only limited data exist regarding the impact of such evidence on decision makers and the public at large, we recruited a representative sample of the U.S. adult population (n=960) for a web-based survey. Participants were presented with descriptions of three legal cases and were asked to: determine the length of incarceration for a convicted murderer; adjudicate an insanity defense; and decide whether a defendant should receive the death penalty. A fully crossed, between-participants, factorial design was used, varying the type of evidence (none, genetic, neuroimaging, both), heinousness of the crime, and past criminal record, with sentence or verdict as the primary outcome. Also assessed were participants’ apprehension of the defendant, belief in free will, political ideology, and genetic knowledge. Across all three cases, genetic evidence had no significant effects on outcomes. Neuroimaging data showed an inconsistent effect in one of the two cases in which it was introduced. In contrast, heinousness of the offense and past criminal record were strongly related to participants’ decisions. Moreover, participants’ beliefs about the controllability of criminal behavior and political orientations were significantly associated with their choices. Our findings suggest that neither hopes that genetic evidence will modify judgments of culpability and punishment nor fears about the impact of genetic evidence on decision makers are likely to come to fruition. PMID:26240516
Appelbaum, Paul S; Scurich, Nicholas; Raad, Raymond
Demonstrations of a link between genetic variants and criminal behavior have stimulated increasing use of genetic evidence to reduce perceptions of defendants' responsibility for criminal behavior and to mitigate punishment. However, because only limited data exist regarding the impact of such evidence on decision makers and the public at large, we recruited a representative sample of the U.S. adult population (n=960) for a web-based survey. Participants were presented with descriptions of three legal cases and were asked to: determine the length of incarceration for a convicted murderer; adjudicate an insanity defense; and decide whether a defendant should receive the death penalty. A fully crossed, between-participants, factorial design was used, varying the type of evidence (none, genetic, neuroimaging, both), heinousness of the crime, and past criminal record, with sentence or verdict as the primary outcome. Also assessed were participants' apprehension of the defendant, belief in free will, political ideology, and genetic knowledge. Across all three cases, genetic evidence had no significant effects on outcomes. Neuroimaging data showed an inconsistent effect in one of the two cases in which it was introduced. In contrast, heinousness of the offense and past criminal record were strongly related to participants' decisions. Moreover, participants' beliefs about the controllability of criminal behavior and political orientations were significantly associated with their choices. Our findings suggest that neither hopes that genetic evidence will modify judgments of culpability and punishment nor fears about the impact of genetic evidence on decision makers are likely to come to fruition.
Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D
To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells
Antes, Alison L; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they use to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described using in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science.
Antes, Alison L.; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M.
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they employ to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described employing in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science. PMID:27646401
Qualitative genetic analysis done on the basis of segregation pattern of ..... First author acknowledges the financial help rendered by Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund, New. Delhi ... Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 22, 137-38.
Hybridization, triploidization and genetic mapping were also briefly reviewed as aquaculture-oriented genetic techniques to improve growth and other commercially important traits. Cryopreservation and other biotechnologies potentially applicable on genetic improvement were also briefly mentioned as supporting tools for ...
Berryessa, Colleen M.
In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children’s vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668
Zhu, Wenfen; Fu, Yixiao; Hu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yingcheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xingshun
To explore the influence of genetic and environmental factors on adolescents violence behaviors. The violence behaviors of 111 twin pairs from Chongqing (aged from 11 to 18 years) were investigated with risk behavior questionnaire-adolescent (RBQ-A). The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) and Stressful Life Event (SLE) and the General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device (FAD-GFS) were applied to assess their environment factors. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the effects of the additive genetic factors (A), shared environment factors (C) and individual specific environmental factors (E) on the adolescents violence behaviors. The effects of A and E on adolescents violence behaviors were 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.58) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.42-0.81) respectively. There were significantly negative correlation between violence behaviors and authoritative-parenting-style (r = -0.140, P parenting-style score (r = 0.133, P parenting education level and occupation. Adolescents violence behaviors were influenced by additive genetic factors and individual specific environmental factors. Environmental plays an important role. It should not been ignored that parental rearing pattern play a role in adolescents violence behaviors.
Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Cutting, Laurie; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate potential genetic and environmental correlations between working memory and three behavioral aspects of the attention network (i.e., executive, alerting, and orienting) using a twin design. Data were from 90 monozygotic (39% male) and 112 same-sex dizygotic (41% male) twins. Individual differences in working memory performance (digit span) and parent-rated measures of executive, alerting, and orienting attention included modest to moderate genetic variance, modest shared environmental variance, and modest to moderate nonshared environmental variance. As hypothesized, working memory performance was correlated with executive and alerting attention, but not orienting attention. The correlation between working memory, executive attention, and alerting attention was completely accounted for by overlapping genetic covariance, suggesting a common genetic mechanism or mechanisms underlying the links between working memory and certain parent-rated indicators of attentive behavior. PMID:21948215
Pryor, Richard J.; Schaller, Mark J.
Genetic programming is a powerful methodology for automatically producing solutions to problems in a variety of domains. It has been used successfully to develop behaviors for RoboCup soccer players and simple combat agents. We will attempt to use genetic programming to solve a problem in the domain of strategic combat, keeping in mind the end goal of developing sophisticated behaviors for compound defense and infiltration. The simplified problem at hand is that of two armed agents in a small room, containing obstacles, fighting against each other for survival. The base case and three changes are considered: a memory of positions using stacks, context-dependent genetic programming, and strongly typed genetic programming. Our work demonstrates slight improvements from the first two techniques, and no significant improvement from the last.
Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M
Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ± standard error; 0.26 ± 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ± 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ± 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ± 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ± 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ± 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity.
Len Thomas & Catriona Harris Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM) University of St Andrews St Andrews , UK...Specifically Dr. Hans Slabbekoorn (University of Leiden), Professor Vincent Janik (University of St Andrews ) and Professor Douglas Wartzok (Florida
Jacobson, Kristen C; Hoffman, Christy L; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Grant, Michael D; Lyons, Michael J; Xian, Hong; Franz, Carol E
There is growing evidence that pet ownership and human-animal interaction (HAI) have benefits for human physical and psychological well-being. However, there may be pre-existing characteristics related to patterns of pet ownership and interactions with pets that could potentially bias results of research on HAI. The present study uses a behavioral genetic design to estimate the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in frequency of play with pets among adult men. Participants were from the ongoing longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA), a population-based sample of 1,237 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 51-60 years. Results demonstrate that MZ twins have higher correlations than DZ twins on frequency of pet play, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in individual differences in interactions with pets. Structural equation modeling revealed that, according to the best model, genetic factors accounted for as much as 37% of the variance in pet play, although the majority of variance (63-71%) was due to environmental factors that are unique to each twin. Shared environmental factors, which would include childhood exposure to pets, overall accounted for influenced characteristics.
E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)
textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This
Behavioral avoidance of disease-causing parasites provides a first line of defense against the threat of infection, particularly when hosts are exposed to free-living parasite stages in the external environment. We report that suspension-feeding oysters (Crassostrea virginica) respond to the presenc...
National Academies Press, 2011
Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…
Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.
Deficits in social interaction are primary characteristics of autism, which has strong genetic components. Genetically-manipulated mouse models may provide a useful research tool to advance the investigation of genes associated with autism. To identify these genes using mouse models, behavioral assays for social relationships in the background strains must be developed. The present study examined colony formation in groups of one male and three female mice (Experiment 1) and, groups of three ...
Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fox, Charles W; Wagner, James D; Cline, Sara; Thomas, Frances Ann; Messina, Frank J
Independent populations subjected to similar environments often exhibit convergent evolution. An unresolved question is the frequency with which such convergence reflects parallel genetic mechanisms. We examined the convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Females avoid ovipositing on seeds bearing conspecific eggs, but the degree of host discrimination varies among geographic populations. In a previous experiment, replicate lines switched from a small host to a large one evolved reduced discrimination after 40 generations. We used line crosses to determine the genetic architecture underlying this rapid response. The most parsimonious genetic models included dominance and/or epistasis for all crosses. The genetic architecture underlying reduced discrimination in two lines was not significantly different from the architecture underlying differences between geographic populations, but the architecture underlying the divergence of a third line differed from all others. We conclude that convergence of this complex trait may in some cases involve parallel genetic mechanisms.
Frisch, D; Clemen, R T
Much research in psychology has evaluated the quality of people's decisions by comparisons with subjective expected utility (SEU) theory. This article suggests that typical arguments made for the status of utility theory as normative do not justify its use by psychologists as a standard by which to evaluate decision quality. It is argued that to evaluate decision quality, researchers need to identify those decision processes that tend to lead to desirable outcomes. It is contended that a good decision-making process must be concerned with how (and whether) decision makers evaluate potential consequences of decisions, the extent to which they accurately identify all relevant consequences, and the way in which they make final choices. Research that bears on these issues is reviewed.
Cardinal, Rudolf N
This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the
Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto
The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.
Wood, Sarah G.; Hart, Sara A.; Little, Callie W.; Phillips, Beth M.
Past research suggests that reading comprehension test performance does not rely solely on targeted cognitive processes such as word reading, but also on other nontarget aspects such as test anxiety. Using a genetically sensitive design, we sought to understand the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between test anxiety and…
Clemens, Benjamin J.; Wyss, Lance A.; McCoun, Rebecca; Courter, Ian; Schwabe, Lawrence; Peery, Christopher; Schreck, Carl B.; Spice, Erin K.; Docker, Margaret F.
Studies using neutral loci suggest that Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, lack strong spatial genetic population structure. However, it is unknown whether temporal genetic population structure exists. We tested whether adult Pacific lamprey: (1) show temporal genetic population structure; and (2) migrate different distances between years. We non-lethally sampled lamprey for DNA in 2009 and 2010 and used eight microsatellite loci to test for genetic population structure. We used telemetry to record the migration behaviors of these fish. Lamprey were assignable to three moderately differentiated genetic clusters (FST = 0.16–0.24 for all pairwise comparisons): one cluster was composed of individuals from 2009, and the other two contained individuals from 2010. The FST value between years was 0.13 and between genetic clusters within 2010 was 0.20. A total of 372 (72.5%) fish were detected multiple times during their migrations. Most fish (69.9%) remained in the mainstem Willamette River; the remaining 30.1% migrated into tributaries. Eighty-two lamprey exhibited multiple back-and-forth movements among tributaries and the mainstem, which may indicate searching behaviors. All migration distances were significantly greater in 2010, when the amplitude of river discharge was greater. Our data suggest genetic structuring between and within years that may reflect different cohorts.
Estevez Fernandez, M.A.
Game theory is the mathematical tool to study cooperation and competition. Since the beginnings of operations research and game theory both fields have been closely related. This thesis further investigates this relationship. Costs or rewards sharing problems arising from scheduling problems,
Full Text Available Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity-all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport.
Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Stodieck, Louis; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Klaus, David
Bacteria behave differently in space, as indicated by reports of reduced lag phase, higher final cell counts, enhanced biofilm formation, increased virulence, and reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. These phenomena are theorized, at least in part, to result from reduced mass transport in the local extracellular environment, where movement of molecules consumed and excreted by the cell is limited to diffusion in the absence of gravity-dependent convection. However, to date neither empirical nor computational approaches have been able to provide sufficient evidence to confirm this explanation. Molecular genetic analysis findings, conducted as part of a recent spaceflight investigation, support the proposed model. This investigation indicated an overexpression of genes associated with starvation, the search for alternative energy sources, increased metabolism, enhanced acetate production, and other systematic responses to acidity—all of which can be associated with reduced extracellular mass transport. PMID:27806055
Bhuian, Shahid N.; Amyx, Douglas A.; Shamma, Hamad M.
A wealth of research has explored different configurations of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, and values, and their influence on consumer environmental behavior. It is essential that a more comprehensive understanding of what lies at the root of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors be developed. This study aims to address some of the limitations in the current literature by theorizing and examining a consumer environmental behavior model that includes th...
Gaysina, Darya; Fergusson, David M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Horwood, John; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Elam, Kit K.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.
Context A number of studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty disaggregating prenatal environmental from genetic and postnatal environmental influences. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Design, Setting and Participants Three studies employing distinct but complementary research designs were utilized: The Christchurch Health and Development Study (a longitudinal cohort study that includes biological and adopted children), the Early Growth and Development Study (a longitudinal adoption at birth study), and the Cardiff IVF Study (genetically-related and -unrelated families; an adoption at conception study). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was measured as the average number of cigarettes/day (0, 1–9 or 10+) smoked during pregnancy. A number of possible covariates (child gender, ethnicity, birth weight, breast feeding, maternal age at birth, maternal education, family SES, family breakdown, placement age, and parenting practices) were controlled in the analyses. Main Outcome Measure Child conduct problems (age 4–10 years) reported by parents and/or teachers using the Rutter and Conners behaviour scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results A significant association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child conduct problems was observed among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Results from a meta-analysis affirmed this pattern of findings across pooled study samples. Conclusions Findings across the three studies using a complement of genetically-sensitive research designs suggest smoking during pregnancy is a prenatal risk factor for offspring conduct problems, when
Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy
Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…
Murphy, Eleanor; Thompson, Azure
With increasing emphasis on understanding genetic contribution to disease, inclusion of all racial and ethnic groups in molecular genetic research is necessary to ensure parity in distribution of research benefits. Blacks are underrepresented in large-scale genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. In an effort to understand the reasons for the underrepresentation, this study explored black participants’ attitudes towards genetic research of psychiatric disorders. Twenty-six adults, the majority of whom were black (n = 18) were recruited from a New York City community to participate in six 90-minute focus groups. This paper reports findings about respondents’ understanding of genetics and genetic research, and opinions about psychiatric genetic research. Primary themes revealed participants’ perceived lack of knowledge about genetics, concerns about potentially harmful study procedures, and confidentiality surrounding mental illness in families. Participation incentives included provision of treatment or related service, monetary compensation, and reporting of results to participants. These findings suggest that recruitment of subjects into genetic studies should directly address procedures, privacy, benefits and follow-up with results. Further, there is critical need to engage communities with education about genetics and mental illness, and provide opportunities for continued discussion about concerns related to genetic research. PMID:19614555
Shipulina, Olga V.; Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, Arda O.
This paper reports on the potential roles and importance of electrooculography (EOG) for mathematics educational neuroscience research. EOG enables accurate measurements of eye-related behavior (i.e., blinks & movements) by recording changes in voltage potentials generated by eye-related behavior. We identify and discuss three main uses of EOG.…
Petkus, Ed, Jr.
In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…
Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J
The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155
Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A
Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while
Villafuerte, Sandra; Trucco, Elisa M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A
Genetic predisposition and environmental influences are both important factors in the development of problematic behavior leading to substance use in adolescence. Involvement with delinquent peers also strongly predicts adolescent externalizing behavior. Several lines of evidence support a role of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior related to disinhibition. However, whether this genetic association is influenced by the environment such as peer behavior remains unknown. We examined the moderating role of GABRA2 genetic variation on the socialization model of delinquent peer affiliation (at ages 12-14 years) on externalizing behavior (at ages 15-17 years) in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS) adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 244 adolescents (75 females and 152 with at least one parent with a DSM-IV lifetime alcohol dependence/abuse diagnosis). Peer delinquent activity reported by the participant and teacher-reported adolescent externalizing behavior (Teacher Report Form (TRF) were assessed. No main effect of the GABRA2 SNP rs279826, which tags a large haplotype, on externalizing behavior was observed. However, there was a statistically reliable GABRA2 × peer delinquency interaction. The effect of peer delinquent involvement on externalizing scores and the rule breaking subscale is significantly stronger for those with the GG genotype compared to A-carriers, whereas there was no effect of genotype on externalizing in the absence of peer delinquent involvement. No interaction was observed for the aggression subscale. Our results suggest that the genetic effect of GABRA2 on externalizing behavior, more specifically on rule breaking is, at least in part, due to its effect on susceptibility to environmental exposure (i.e., peer delinquency).
Gorwood, Philip; Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas
The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Many endophenotypes were also assessed as potentially modulating the effect of nicotine, indirectly facilitating the development of nicotine dependence. Challenging the involved phenotype led to the demonstration that other potentially overlapping disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson disease, could also be involved, and further modulated by parent monitoring or the existence of a smoking partner. Such a complex mechanism of action is compatible with a gene-environment interaction, most clearly explained by epigenetic factors, especially as such factors were shown to be, at least partly, genetically driven.
Nugent, Nicole R.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Koenen, Karestan C.
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of genetic research involving post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). First, we summarize evidence for genetic influences on PTSD from family investigations. Second, we discuss the distinct contributions to our understanding of the genetics of PTSD permitted by twin studies. Finally, we summarize findings from molecular genetic studies, which have the potential to inform our understanding of underlying biological mechanisms for the development of PTSD. PMID:18412098
The Nuclear Research Reactors plants are expected to be operated with high levels of reliability, availability and safety. In order to achieve and maintain system stability and assure satisfactory and safe operation, there is increasing demand for automated systems to detect and diagnose such failures. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are one of the most popular solutions because of their parallel structure, high speed, and their ability to give easy solution to complicated problems. The genetic algorithms (GAs) which are search algorithms (optimization techniques), in recent years, have been used to find the optimum construction of a neural network for definite application, as one of the advantages of its usage. Nowadays, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are being an important implementation method of neural networks due to their high performance and they can easily be made parallel. The VHDL, which stands for VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) Hardware Description Language, have been used to describe the design behaviorally in addition to schematic and other description languages. The description of designs in synthesizable language such as VHDL make them reusable and be implemented in upgradeable systems like the Nuclear Research Reactors plants. In this thesis, the work was carried out through three main parts.In the first part, the Nuclear Research Reactors accident's pattern recognition is tackled within the artificial neural network approach. Such patterns are introduced initially without noise. And, to increase the reliability of such neural network, the noise ratio up to 50% was added for training in order to ensure the recognition of these patterns if it introduced with noise.The second part is concerned with the construction of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) using Genetic algorithms (GAs) for the nuclear accidents diagnosis. MATLAB ANNs toolbox and GAs toolbox are employed to optimize an ANN for this purpose. The results obtained show
Neitzke, Alex B
I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.
Vassy, Jason L; Donelan, Karen; Hivert, Marie-France; Green, Robert C; Grant, Richard W
Genetic testing for chronic disease susceptibility may motivate young adults for preventive behavior change. This nationally representative survey gave 521 young adults hypothetical scenarios of receiving genetic susceptibility results for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke and asked their (1) interest in such testing, (2) anticipated likelihood of improving diet and physical activity with high- and low-risk test results, and (3) readiness to make behavior change. Responses were analyzed by presence of established disease-risk factors. Respondents with high phenotypic diabetes risk reported increased likelihood of improving their diet and physical activity in response to high-risk results compared with those with low diabetes risk (odds ratio (OR), 1.82 (1.03, 3.21) for diet and OR, 2.64 (1.24, 5.64) for physical activity). In contrast, poor baseline diet (OR, 0.51 (0.27, 0.99)) and poor physical activity (OR, 0.53 (0.29, 0.99)) were associated with decreased likelihood of improving diet. Knowledge of genetic susceptibility may motivate young adults with higher personal diabetes risk for improvement in diet and exercise, but poor baseline behaviors are associated with decreased intention to make these changes. To be effective, genetic risk testing in young adults may need to be coupled with other strategies to enable behavior change.
Molenaar, Peter C. M.
In this short contribution I introduce myself to the readership of the "International Journal of Developmental Science" by describing some high points in my scientific career, leading up to a major change in my perspective on the proper way to conduct empirical research in developmental science.
Developmental Systems Theory and the Person-Oriented Approach. Commentary on: "An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics"
Bergman, Lars R.
Molenaar's (2015) article concerns Developmental Systems Theory (DST) in relation to behavior genetics and he presents implications of DST for empirical research, especially the need for subject-specific studies. In this commentary, the article is discussed from a broader developmental science perspective, particularly regarded through the lens of…
Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan
This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.
This article takes issue with the behavior-genetic analysis of parenting style presented by M. McGue, I. Elkins, B. Walden, and W. G. Iacono. The author argues that the attribution of their findings to inherited genetic effects was without basis because McGue et al. never indicated how those genetic effects manifested themselves. Instead, McGue et…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Schuengel, C.
In this first behavior genetic study on infant-father attachment, we estimated genetic and environmental influences on infant-father attachment behaviors and on temperamental dependency, both assessed with the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS; B. E.Vaughn & E. Waters, 1990; E. Waters, 1995). Mothers of mono-
Luczak, Susan E; Khoddam, Rubin; Yu, Sheila; Wall, Tamara L; Schwartz, Anna; Sussman, Steve
We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available. This review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature. Despite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions. Even with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:424-436). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Grant, Richard W; Meigs, James B; Florez, Jose C; Park, Elyse R; Green, Robert C; Waxler, Jessica L; Delahanty, Linda M; O'Brien, Kelsey E
The efficacy of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change for diabetes prevention is currently unknown. This paper presents key issues in the design and implementation of one of the first randomized trials (The Genetic Counseling/Lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention) to test whether knowledge of diabetes genetic risk can motivate patients to adopt healthier behaviors. Because individuals may react differently to receiving 'higher' vs 'lower' genetic risk results, we designed a 3-arm parallel group study to separately test the hypotheses that: (1) patients receiving 'higher' diabetes genetic risk results will increase healthy behaviors compared to untested controls, and (2) patients receiving 'lower' diabetes genetic risk results will decrease healthy behaviors compared to untested controls. In this paper we describe several challenges to implementing this study, including: (1) the application of a novel diabetes risk score derived from genetic epidemiology studies to a clinical population, (2) the use of the principle of Mendelian randomization to efficiently exclude 'average' diabetes genetic risk patients from the intervention, and (3) the development of a diabetes genetic risk counseling intervention that maintained the ethical need to motivate behavior change in both 'higher' and 'lower' diabetes genetic risk result recipients. Diabetes genetic risk scores were developed by aggregating the results of 36 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Relative risk for type 2 diabetes was calculated using Framingham Offspring Study outcomes, grouped by quartiles into 'higher', 'average' (middle two quartiles) and 'lower' genetic risk. From these relative risks, revised absolute risks were estimated using the overall absolute risk for the study group. For study efficiency, we excluded all patients receiving 'average' diabetes risk results from the subsequent intervention. This post-randomization allocation strategy was
Paradise, Louis V.
This paper briefly examines research on the ethical behavior of counselors, demonstrating that new directions in this area are needed, and that new research questions must be asked if significant information relating to counseling and ethics is to advance. Areas of inquiry and methods for investigation are suggested. (Author)
... of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...
Jun 26, 2013 ... Basic genetic and cytogenetic information including polymorphic DNA markers, chromosomes and genome size was ..... Stepto and Cook(1998). H. asinina ... quantity of fertilized eggs and very expensive “French. Press” is ...
Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon
The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017
Paradise, Louis V.
The ethical behavior of counselors is an issue of current importance to those in the profession. This paper briefly examines the literature in this area. While considerable descriptive research on ethical behavior exists, the conspicuous absence of any experimental methodologies and theoretically-based investigations were noted. The need for new…
Logan, R W; Robledo, R F; Recla, J M; Philip, V M; Bubier, J A; Jay, J J; Harwood, C; Wilcox, T; Gatti, D M; Bult, C J; Churchill, G A; Chesler, E J
Historically our ability to identify genetic variants underlying complex behavioral traits in mice has been limited by low mapping resolution of conventional mouse crosses. The newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) population promises to deliver improved resolution that will circumvent costly fine-mapping studies. The DO is derived from the same founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC), including three wild-derived strains. Thus the DO provides more allelic diversity and greater potential for discovery compared to crosses involving standard mouse strains. We have characterized 283 male and female DO mice using open-field, light–dark box, tail-suspension and visual-cliff avoidance tests to generate 38 behavioral measures. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits with support intervals ranging from 1 to 3 Mb in size. These intervals contain relatively few genes (ranging from 5 to 96). For a majority of QTL, using the founder allelic effects together with whole genome sequence data, we could further narrow the positional candidates. Several QTL replicate previously published loci. Novel loci were also identified for anxiety- and activity-related traits. Half of the QTLs are associated with wild-derived alleles, confirming the value to behavioral genetics of added genetic diversity in the DO. In the presence of wild-alleles we sometimes observe behaviors that are qualitatively different from the expected response. Our results demonstrate that high-precision mapping of behavioral traits can be achieved with moderate numbers of DO animals, representing a significant advance in our ability to leverage the mouse as a tool for behavioral genetics PMID:23433259
Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron
G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, T W; Berger, Y M; Holman, P W; Baldin, M; Burgett, R L; Thomas, D L
For the past 2 decades, the Spooner Agriculture Research Station (ARS) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America. The objectives of the present study were to 1) obtain estimates of genetic parameters for lactation and reproductive traits in dairy ewes, 2) estimate the amount of genetic change in these traits over time, and 3) quantify the level of inbreeding in this flock over the last 20 yr. Multiple-trait repeatability models (MTRM) were used to analyze ewe traits through their first 6 parities. The first MTRM jointly analyzed milk (180-d-adjusted milk yield [180d MY]), fat (180-d-adjusted fat yield [180d FY]), and protein (180-d-adjusted protein yield [180d PY]) yields adjusted to 180 d of lactation; number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB); and lactation average test-day somatic cell score (LSCS). A second MTRM analyzed 180d MY, NLB, LSCS, and percentage milk fat (%F) and percentage milk protein (%P). The 3 yield traits were moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.32) and strongly genetically correlated (0.91 to 0.96). Percentage milk fat and %P were highly heritable (0.53 and 0.61, respectively) and moderately genetically correlated (0.61). Milk yield adjusted to 180 d was negatively genetically correlated with %F and %P (-0.31 and -0.34, respectively). Ewe prolificacy was not significantly ( > 0.67) genetically correlated with yield traits, %P, or LSCS but lowly negatively correlated with %F (-0.26). Lactation somatic cell score was unfavorably genetically correlated with yield traits (0.28 to 0.39) but not significantly ( > 0.09) correlated with %F, %P, and NLB. Within-trait multiple-trait models through the first 4 parities revealed that 180d MY, 180d FY, 180d PY, %F, and %P were strongly genetically correlated across parity (0.67 to 1.00). However, the genetic correlations across parity for NLB and LSCS were somewhat lower (0.51 to 0.96). Regressing predicted breeding values for 180d MY, without and with
Dailey, J T; Pickrel, E W
Behavioral research has been significant contributions to the government's successful program for defense against hijackers. Today's boarding gate defenses have a leading role in that program, but they were rejected until creation of the behavioral profile made selective search feasible. Metal detectors now make search of all travelers practical but with increasing involvement of boarding gate employees, so a behavioral program is used to monitor their performance. Experience shows that some persons have penetrated boarding gate defenses, so another requirement was in-flight defenses. Flightpersonnel had defeated some past hijackers, so a behavioral analysis of past hijackings was used to identify tactics for in-flight defense. These were incorporated into training programs and distributed to all U.S. airlines, many government organizations, and foreign carriers. Research continues for updating these and developing new courses for special needs, such as defense against gangs.
Lemke, A A; Wolf, W A; Hebert-Beirne, J; Smith, M E
Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository participant focus groups. In the public focus groups, 75% of participants were women, 75% had some college education or more, 46% were African-American and 29% were Hispanic. In the NUgene focus groups, 67% of participants were women, 95% had some college education or more, and the majority (76%) of participants was Caucasian. Five major themes were identified in the focus group data: (a) a wide spectrum of understanding of genetic research; (b) pros and cons of participation in genetic research; (c) influence of credibility and trust of the research institution; (d) concerns about sharing genetic research data and need for transparency in the Policy for Sharing of Data in National Institutes of Health-Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies; (e) a need for more information and education about genetic research. In order to increase public understanding and address potential concerns about genetic research, future efforts should be aimed at involving the public in genetic research policy development and in identifying or developing appropriate educational strategies to meet the public's needs.
Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary
Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765
Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I
The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.
McNabney, Daniel R
Understanding how species form is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Identifying the genetic bases of barriers that prevent gene flow between species provides insight into how speciation occurs. Here, I analyze a poorly understood reproductive isolating barrier, prezygotic reproductive isolation. I perform a genetic analysis of prezygotic isolation between two closely related species of Drosophila, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. I first confirm the existence of strong behavioral isolation between D. mauritiana females and D. sechellia males. Next, I examine the genetic basis of behavioral isolation by (1) scanning an existing set of introgression lines for chromosomal regions that have a large effect on isolation; and (2) mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that underlie behavioral isolation via backcross analysis. In particular, I map QTL that determine whether a hybrid backcross female and a D. sechellia male will mate. I identify a single significant QTL, on the X chromosome, suggesting that few major-effect loci contribute to behavioral isolation between these species. In further work, I refine the map position of the QTL to a small region of the X chromosome. © 2012 The Author(s).
Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko
Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.
Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye
The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.
Yacubian, J; Büchel, C
Dopaminergic neurotransmission is widely recognized to be critical to the neurobiology of reward, motivation and addiction. Interestingly, social interactions and related behavior also activate the same neuronal system. Consequently, genetic variations of dopamine neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. This review focuses on advances made to date in an effort to link genetic individual variations and reward processing as a possible basis for addictive behaviors.
Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P
Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
There is a continuing trend of making genetic research commercially available. It is not only 23andme that offers various types of genetic tests anymore. People do not need to rely on doctor's opinion, they can purchase genetic testing kits and test themselves. Unfortunately, not all available te...... tests are reliable; as the case of Theranos showed recently. The paper aims to investigate if there is any impact of gender and of personality traits on attitude towards genetic research. Big Five Inventory is used to measure personality traits....
Kerath Samantha M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a
O. Story-Jovanova (Olivera)
markdownabstractThis thesis includes several population-based studies that explore the aetiology of depression, with a specific interest on biological factors, genetics and epigenetics, and physical health factors for depression. Unravelling the aetiology of depression could potentially answer some
Brazilian sheep descended from several breeds brought to the New World by Portuguese and Spanish colonists, and they have evolved and adapted to local climatic variations and acquired tolerance or resistance to many diseases. Molecular markers are widely used in analyzing genetic variability, and markers such as ...
The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.
Precision breeding for developing varieties for a specific area would involve ... Presently India is the fifth largest soybean producing country after US, Brazil, ... Genetic analysis at E3 and E4 loci and assessment of effect of photoperiodic ... outsourced (Scigenom, Banglore) for Sanger sequencing of coding region of E1.
Pittenger, David J
The Internet offers many new opportunities for behavioral researchers to conduct quantitative and qualitative research. Although the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association generalize, in part, to research conducted through the Internet, several matters related to Internet research require further analysis. This article reviews several fundamental ethical issues related to Internet research, namely the preservation of privacy, the issuance of informed consent, the use of deception and false feedback, and research methods. In essence, the Internet offers unique challenges to behavioral researchers. Among these are the need to better define the distinction between private and public behavior performed through the Internet, ensure mechanisms for obtaining valid informed consent from participants and performing debriefing exercises, and verify the validity of data collected through the Internet.
Tutton, Richard; Prainsack, Barbara
The emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomics companies in 2007 was accompanied by considerable media attention and criticism from clinical geneticists and other health professionals, regulators, policy advisors, and ethicists. As well as offering genetic testing services, some firms are also engaged in building their own databases and conducting research with the data obtained from their customers. In this paper, we examine how one of these companies, 23andMe, is creating a certain kind of 'research subject' in opposition to that constituted in conventional forms of disease research. Drawing on debates about neoliberalism, contemporary health discourses and subjectivity, we consider two kinds of subjectivities produced through the discursive and material practices of 23andMe and UK Biobank, namely, 'enterprising' and 'altruistic' selves. We argue that the 23andMe model promotes the idea that curiosity about one's genome on the one hand, and participation in research on the other, are not only compatible but complementary aspects of being an entrepreneurial subject of contemporary health and medicine framed by the technologies of web 2.0. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Harper, J C; Aittomäki, K; Borry, P; Cornel, M C; de Wert, G; Dondorp, W; Geraedts, J; Gianaroli, L; Ketterson, K; Liebaers, I; Lundin, K; Mertes, H; Morris, M; Pennings, G; Sermon, K; Spits, C; Soini, S; van Montfoort, A P A; Veiga, A; Vermeesch, J R; Viville, S; Macek, M
Two leading European professional societies, the European Society of Human Genetics and the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, have worked together since 2004 to evaluate the impact of fast research advances at the interface of assisted reproduction and genetics, including their application into clinical practice. In September 2016, the expert panel met for the third time. The topics discussed highlighted important issues covering the impacts of expanded carrier screening, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, voiding of the presumed anonymity of gamete donors by advanced genetic testing, advances in the research of genetic causes underlying male and female infertility, utilisation of massively parallel sequencing in preimplantation genetic testing and non-invasive prenatal screening, mitochondrial replacement in human oocytes, and additionally, issues related to cross-generational epigenetic inheritance following IVF and germline genome editing. The resulting paper represents a consensus of both professional societies involved.
Differences among workers in susceptibility to workplace exposures to environmental agents such as metals, ultraviolet radiation, and x-radiation are discussed. The distinction is made between the need for (1) monitoring for effects on the genetic material (genetic toxicology) and (2) screening for predisposing inherited traits (eco-genetics). Genetically-determined differences in susceptibility are discussed in relation to mechanisms of metabolism and of target sites. While there is not enough evidence to support routine genetic screening at this time there is common agreement that several promising areas for research on potential genetic predispositions warrant careful study. There is also reassuring evidence that productive relationships for research can be established among unions, management, and universities. 56 references, 3 figures, 7 tables
Marcos Pascual Soler
Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.
Page, Robert E; Rueppell, Olav; Amdam, Gro V
Honeybees form complex societies with a division of labor for reproduction, nutrition, nest construction and maintenance, and defense. How does it evolve? Tasks performed by worker honeybees are distributed in time and space. There is no central control over behavior and there is no central genome on which selection can act and effect adaptive change. For 22 years, we have been addressing these questions by selecting on a single social trait associated with nutrition: the amount of surplus pollen (a source of protein) that is stored in the combs of the nest. Forty-two generations of selection have revealed changes at biological levels extending from the society down to the level of the gene. We show how we constructed this vertical understanding of social evolution using behavioral and anatomical analyses, physiology, genetic mapping, and gene knockdowns. We map out the phenotypic and genetic architectures of food storage and foraging behavior and show how they are linked through broad epistasis and pleiotropy affecting a reproductive regulatory network that influences foraging behavior. This is remarkable because worker honeybees have reduced reproductive organs and are normally sterile; however, the reproductive regulatory network has been co-opted for behavioral division of labor.
The Institute of Genetics performed R and D work on the following subjects: Effects induced by radiation, oxygen radicals, and chemical mutagens; Regulation of genetic activity; Mechanisms of tumor spreading; Genetic models of mice for simulation of defects in man; p53 and the 'dioxin' receptor as targets of toxic agents. The research results achieved in the reporting period are reviewed and explained. (orig./MG) [de
de Kogel, C H; Westgeest, E J M C
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too. To assess how neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information are used in criminal justice practice in the Netherlands, we systematically collect Dutch criminal cases in which neuroscientific or behavioral genetic information is introduced. Data and case law examples are presented and discussed. Although cases are diverse, several themes appear, such as prefrontal brain damage in relation to criminal responsibility and recidivism risk, and divergent views of the implications of neurobiological knowledge about addiction for judging criminal responsibility. Whereas in the international 'neurolaw literature' the emphasis is often on imaging techniques, the Dutch findings also illustrate the role of neuropsychological methods in criminal cases. Finally, there appears to be a clear need of practice oriented instruments and guidelines.
Smith, Marilyn E.
This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…
Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard
... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...
Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274; Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian
Well-known public administration scholars have stressed the importance of psychological research for the study of public administration. Neighboring disciplines such as economics and political science, have witnessed the emergence of the psychology-informed subfields of behavioral economics and
Organizational behavior, as a theory-developing field of research, is highly questionnaire-based and highly dependent on quantitative methods. In its dominant methodology tradition, variables are measured in a sample of respondents or other units of observation and the calculated relationships
Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric; Strachan, Eric; Duncan, Glen E.
Body mass index (BMI) has a strong genetic basis, with a heritability around 0.75, but is also influenced by numerous behavioral and environmental factors. Aspects of the built environment (e.g., environmental walkability) are hypothesized to influence obesity by directly affecting BMI, by facilitating or inhibiting behaviors such as physical activity that are related to BMI, or by suppressing genetic tendencies toward higher BMI. The present study investigated relative influences of physical activity and walkability on variance in BMI using 5,079 same-sex adult twin pairs (70% monozygotic, 65% female). High activity and walkability levels independently suppressed genetic variance in BMI. Estimating their effects simultaneously, however, suggested that the walkability effect was mediated by activity. The suppressive effect of activity on variance in BMI was present even with a tendency for low-BMI individuals to select into environments that require higher activity levels. Overall, our results point to community- or macro-level interventions that facilitate individual-level behaviors as a plausible approach to addressing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adults. PMID:25894925
Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R
Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.
E. E. Bragina
Full Text Available Genetic factors (chromosomal aberrations and point mutations are the cause of infertility in 10–15 % of men with impaired fertility. Homogeneous structural and functional defects in the sperm or the total terato-, asthenozoospermia – rare cases of genetically determined male infertility, are autosomal recessive diseases. Currently, described 4 types of «syndromic» spermopatology. 1. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD in men with total asthenozoospermia. Affects axoneme structures (microtubules, dynein arms, radial spokes. It identified more than 20 chromosomal loci responsible for the development of the PCD. 2. Dysplasia of the fibrous sheath of sperm tail in men with asthenozoospermia. The shortened and thickened sperm tail observed with disorganization of vertical columns and cross ribs of the fibrous sheath. Candidate genes – genes family ACAP. 3. Globozoospermia in men with teratozoospermia characterized by the presence of sperm with round heads, primary lack of acrosome and disorganization middle part of the flagellum. Found mutations or deletions of genes SPATA16, PICK1 and DPY19L2. 4. Syndrome decapitated spermatozoa in men with teratozoospermia (microcephaly. Abnormalities in the spermiogenesis development of connecting part jf the tail and proximal (morphologically normal centrioles.In 2012–2014 years we have studied the ultrastructure of 2267 semen samples of men with impaired fertility. Globozoospermia revealed in 7 patients, dysplasia of the fibrous sheath – 13, decapitated sperm – in one. PCD was revealed in 4 patients (lack of axoneme dynein arms was found in 1 patient, absence of axoneme radial spokes – in 3 patients.The problem of genetically determined patozoospermya must be taken into account when the assisted reproductive technologies practises. There are few cases of successful assisted reproductive technologies with sperm of these patients. We don»t know the etiological factors of syndromic spermopatologe, so
Nijman Isaäc J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-/- rat and the behaviorally and genetically divergent Brown Norway rat, and performed a QTL analysis. Results In a cohort of >150 intercross SERT-/- and control (SERT+/+ rats we characterized 12 traits that were previously associated with SERT deficiency, including activity, exploratory pattern, cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Using 325 genetic markers, 10 SERT-/--specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs for parameters related to activity and exploratory pattern (Chr.1,9,11,14, and cocaine-induced anxiety and locomotor activity (Chr.5,8 were identified. No significant QTLs were found for fat parameters. Using in silico approaches we explored potential causal genes within modifier QTL regions and found interesting candidates, amongst others, the 5-HT1D receptor (Chr. 5, dopamine D2 receptor (Chr. 8, cannabinoid receptor 2 (Chr. 5, and genes involved in fetal development and plasticity (across chromosomes. Conclusions We anticipate that the SERT-/--specific QTLs may lead to the identification of new modulators of serotonergic signaling, which may be targets for pharmacogenetic and therapeutic approaches.
Barbaro, Nicole; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Shackelford, Todd K
Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we argue that their appraisal of the behavioral genetics literature is incomplete. The suggested research focus on shared environmental effects may dissuade the pursuit of profitable avenues of research and may hinder progress in attachment theory. Specifically, further research on the "transmission gap" will continue to limit our understanding of attachment etiology. We discuss recent theoretical developments from an evolutionary psychological perspective that can provide a valuable framework to account for the existing behavioral genetic data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Balancing the therapeutic potential of genetic science with the adoption of policies that reflect social values has proven to be a formidable task for Latin American countries. This essay presents some reflections on human genetics research policy in Latin America and explores a path forward for policy development.
Aphanomyces root rot, caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, is a major soil borne disease of pea in many countries. Genetic resistance is considered to be a main way to control the disease. Since 2000, INRA has engaged a long-term research program to study genetic resistance to A. euteiches ...
Bredenoord, A.L.; Kroes, H.Y.; Cuppen, E.; Parker, M.; van Delden, J.J.M.
Despite extensive debate, there is no consensus on whether individual genetic data should be disclosed to research participants. The emergence of whole-genome sequencing methods is increasingly generating unequalled amounts of genetic data, making the need for a clear feedback policy even more
Alemany, Silvia; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Haworth, Claire Margaret Alison; Fañanás, Lourdes; Plomin, Robert
Little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the association between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence. The current study fitted a cross-lagged model in a sample consisting of 4,075 twin pairs to explore (a) the role of genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from age 4 to age 12, (b) whether parent-driven and child-driven processes independently explain the association, and (c) whether there are sex differences in this relationship. Both phenotypes showed substantial genetic influence at both ages. The concurrent overlap between them was mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Causal pathways representing stability of the phenotypes and parent-driven and child-driven effects significantly and independently account for the association. Significant but slight differences were found between males and females for parent-driven effects. These results were highly similar when general cognitive ability was added asa covariate. In summary, the longitudinal association between parental negativity and behavior problems seems to be bidirectional and mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, child-driven effects were mainly genetically mediated, and parent-driven effects were a function of both genetic and shared-environmental factors. PMID:23627958
Fanshawe, Thomas R; Prevost, A Toby; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C; Armstrong, David; Marteau, Theresa M
This paper explores whether and how the behavioral impact of genotype disclosure can be disentangled from the impact of numerical risk estimates generated by genetic tests. Secondary data analyses are presented from a randomized controlled trial of 162 first-degree relatives of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Each participant received a lifetime risk estimate of AD. Control group estimates were based on age, gender, family history, and assumed epsilon4-negative apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype; intervention group estimates were based upon the first three variables plus true APOE genotype, which was also disclosed. AD-specific self-reported behavior change (diet, exercise, and medication use) was assessed at 12 months. Behavior change was significantly more likely with increasing risk estimates, and also more likely, but not significantly so, in epsilon4-positive intervention group participants (53% changed behavior) than in control group participants (31%). Intervention group participants receiving epsilon4-negative genotype feedback (24% changed behavior) and control group participants had similar rates of behavior change and risk estimates, the latter allowing assessment of the independent effects of genotype disclosure. However, collinearity between risk estimates and epsilon4-positive genotypes, which engender high-risk estimates, prevented assessment of the independent effect of the disclosure of an epsilon4 genotype. Novel study designs are proposed to determine whether genotype disclosure has an impact upon behavior beyond that of numerical risk estimates.
Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.
Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T
Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.
Talebizadeh, Zohreh; Shah, Ayten
Concerns over the need to improve translational aspects of genetics research studies and engaging community members in the research process have been noted in the literature and raised by patient advocates. In addition to the work done by patient advocacy groups, organizations such as the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute advocate for a change in the culture of research from being researcher-driven to becoming more patient-driven. Our project, Autism Genetics and Outcomes (AutGO), consists of two phases. The goal for phase I was to initiate a general discussion around the main topic (i.e., linking genetics and outcomes research). We used the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute engagement approach to: (aim 1) develop a partnership with a wide range of stakeholders to assess their perspective on developing projects that use both genetics and outcomes research data/principles; (aim 2) identify barriers, facilitators, and needs to promote engagement in patient-centered genetics research; and (aim 3) distill and describe actions that may facilitate utilization of patient/parent perspectives in designing genetics research studies. In phase I, we formed a community advisory board composed of 33 participants, including outcomes and genetics researchers, clinicians, healthcare providers, patients/family members, and community/industry representatives, and convened six sessions over the 12-month period. We structured the sessions as a combination of online PowerPoint presentations, surveys, and in-person group discussions. During the sessions, we discussed topics pertaining to linking genetics and outcomes research and reviewed relevant materials, including patient stories, research projects, and existing resources. Two sets of surveys, project evaluations (k = 2) and session evaluations (k = 6), were distributed among participants. Feedback was analyzed using content analysis strategies to identify the themes and subthemes. Herein, we describe: the
Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea
Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.
Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A
The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.
Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio
Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects.
Bell, Jerold S
Breeders of dogs have ethical responsibilities regarding the testing and management of genetic disease. Molecular genetics researchers have their own responsibilities, highlighted in this article. Laboratories offering commercial genetic testing should have proper sample identification and quality control, official test result certificates, clear explanations of test results and reasonably priced testing fees. Providing test results to a publicly-accessible genetic health registry allows breeders and the public to search for health-tested parents to reduce the risk of producing or purchasing affected offspring. Counseling on the testing and elimination of defective genes must consider the effects of genetic selection on the population. Recommendations to breed quality carriers to normal-testing dogs and replacing them with quality normal-testing offspring will help to preserve breeding lines and breed genetic diversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H
There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.
Miller, Jon D.
Utilizing data from the 1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) survey of young adults, summarizes attitudes toward genetic modification research and the demographic, educational, and occupational correlates of these attitudes. (Author/SK)
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Besides that, tomato is the model for the genetics of fruit development and composition. Tobacco was the major model used to establish the principals and methods of plant somatic cell genetics including in vitro propagation of cells and tissues, totipotency of somatic cells, doubled haploid production and genetic transformation. Petunia was a model for elucidating the biochemical and genetic basis of flower color and development. The cultivated potato is the economically most important Solanaceous plant and ranks third after wheat and rice as one of the world's great food crops. Potato is the model for studying the genetic basis of tuber development. Molecular genetics and genomics of potato, in particular association genetics, made valuable contributions to the genetic dissection of complex agronomic traits and the development of diagnostic markers for breeding applications. Pepper and eggplant are horticultural crops of worldwide relevance. Genetic and genomic research in pepper and eggplant mostly followed the tomato model. Comparative genome analysis of tomato, potato, pepper and eggplant contributed to the understanding of plant genome evolution.
Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R
Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.
Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion
Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V
The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O
The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Geppert, Cynthia M A; Rogers, Melinda; Green Hammond, Katherine A
Insights from genetic research may greatly improve our understanding of physical and mental illnesses and assist in the prevention of disease. Early experience with genetic information suggests that it may lead to stigma, discrimination, and other psychosocial harms, however, and this may be particularly salient in some settings, such as the workplace. Despite the importance of these issues, little is known about how healthy adults, including workers, perceive and understand ethically important issues in genetic research pertaining to physical and mental illness. We developed, pilot tested, and administered a written survey and structured interview to 63 healthy working adults in 2 settings. For this paper, we analyzed a subset of items that assessed attitudes toward ethically relevant issues related to participation in genetic research on physical and mental illness, such as its perceived importance, its acceptability for various populations, and appropriate motivations for participation. Our respondents strongly endorsed the importance of physical and mental illness genetic research. They viewed participation as somewhat to very acceptable for all 12 special population groups we asked about, including persons with mental illness. They perceived more positives than negatives in genetic research participation, giving neutral responses regarding potential risks. They affirmed many motivations for participation to varying degrees. Men tended to affirm genetic research participation importance, acceptability, and motivations more strongly than women. Healthy working persons may be willing partners in genetic research related to physical and mental illnesses in coming years. This project suggests the feasibility and value of evidence-based ethics inquiry, although further study is necessary. Evidence regarding stakeholders' perspectives on ethically important issues in science may help in the development of research practices and policy.
Dawn M. Reding; Samuel A. Cushman; Todd E. Gosselink; William R. Clark
Spatial heterogeneity can constrain the movement of individuals and consequently genes across a landscape, influencing demographic and genetic processes. In this study, we linked information on landscape composition, movement behavior, and genetic differentiation to gain a mechanistic understanding of how spatial heterogeneity may influence movement and gene flow of...
Ostergren, Jenny E; Dingel, Molly J; McCormick, Jennifer B; Koenig, Barbara A
The cost of addiction in the United States, in combination with a host of new tools and techniques, has fueled an explosion of genetic research on addiction. Because the media has the capacity to reflect and influence public perception, there is a need to examine how treatments and preventive approaches projected to emerge from addiction genetic research are presented to the public. The authors conducted a textual analysis of 145 news articles reporting on genetic research on addiction from popular print media in the United States and from popular news and medical internet sites. In articles that report on prevention, the media emphasize vaccine development and identifying individuals at genetic risk through population screening. Articles that emphasize treatment often promote current pharmaceutical solutions and highlight the possibility of tailoring treatments to specific genetic variants. The authors raise concerns about the tendency of this coverage to focus on the benefits of pharmaceutical treatments and genetic-based approaches to prevention while neglecting or downplaying potential risks and ethical issues. This analysis suggests a need for more balanced, evidence-based media reporting on the potential outcomes of genetic research.
Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E
There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.
Stewart, Alan E.
Edwin Grant Dexter (1868-1938) was one of the first researchers to study empirically the effects of specific weather conditions on human behavior. Dexter (1904) published his findings in a book, Weather influences. The author's purposes in this article were to (1) describe briefly Dexter's professional life and examine the historical contexts and motivations that led Dexter to conduct some of the first empirical behavioral biometeorological studies of the time, (2) describe the methods Dexter used to examine weather-behavior relationships and briefly characterize the results that he reported in Weather influences, and (3) provide a historical analysis of Dexter's work and assess its significance for human behavioral biometeorology. Dexter's Weather influences, while demonstrating an exemplary approach to weather, health, and behavior relationships, came at the end of a long era of such studies, as health, social, and meteorological sciences were turning to different paradigms to advance their fields. For these reasons, Dexter's approach and contributions may not have been fully recognized at the time and are, consequently, worthy of consideration by contemporary biometeorologists.
Full Text Available Tourist’s behavior research is focused on understanding and explaining the factors that affect tourist’s preferences and holiday destination choice. In this paper is analyzed the impact of the global economic crisis on the preferences toward leisure travels of the residents from Serbia. The paper is based on researches conducted in 2006-2009, through travel agencies and in 2011 on the general population major of age with support of TNS Medium Gallupa. Better understanding of the perception process and how tourists react to certain factor can give more accurate information on the dynamics of tourism demand and its dependence on tourist’s perception.
Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M
The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mehta, N S; Wang, L; Redei, E E
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating illness with high prevalence of comorbid anxiety. The incidence of depression and of comorbid anxiety is much higher in women than in men. These gender biases appear after puberty and their etiology is mostly unknown. Selective breeding of the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, an accepted model of adult and adolescent depression, resulted in two fully inbred substrains. Adult WKY more immobile (WMI) rats of both sexes consistently show increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test when compared with the control WKY less immobile (WLI) strain. In contrast, here we show that while adult female WMIs and WLIs both display high anxiety-like behaviors, only WLI males, but not WMI males, show this behavior. Moreover, the behavioral profile of WMI males is consistent from early adolescence to adulthood, but the high depression- and anxiety-like behaviors of the female WMIs appear only in adulthood. These sex-specific behavioral patterns are paralleled by marked sex differences in hippocampal gene expression differences established by genome-wide transcriptional analyses of 13th generation WMIs and WLIs. Moreover, sex- and age-specific differences in transcript levels of selected genes are present in the hippocampus of the current, fully inbred WMIs and WLIs. Thus, the contribution of specific genes and/or the influence of the gonadal hormonal environment to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors may differ between male and female WMIs, resulting in their distinct behavioral and transcriptomic profiles despite shared sequences of the somatic chromosomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Steven M. Phelps
Full Text Available Social behavior is among the most complex and variable of traits. Despite its diversity, we know little about how genetic and developmental factors interact to shape natural variation in social behavior. This review surveys recent work on individual differences in the expression of the vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR, a major regulator of social behavior, in the neocortex of the socially monogamous prairie vole. V1aR exhibits profound variation in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC, a region critical to spatial and contextual memory. RSC-V1aR abundance is associated with patterns of male space-use and sexual fidelity in the field: males with high RSC-V1aR show high spatial and sexual fidelity to partners, while low RSC-V1aR males are significantly more likely to mate outside the pair-bond. Individual differences in RSC-V1aR are predicted by a set of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms within the avpr1a locus. These alternative alleles have been actively maintained by selection, suggesting that the brain differences represent a balanced polymorphism. Lastly, the alleles occur within regulatory sequences, and result in differential sensitivity to environmental perturbation. Together the data provide insight into how genetic, epigenetic and evolutionary forces interact to shape the social brain.
Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.
Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A
Previous research documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In this study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin's attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic households. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation.
Wang, Zhe; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.
Previous research has documented a robust link between difficulties in self-regulation and development of externalizing problems (i.e., aggression and delinquency). In the current study, we examined the longitudinal additive and interactive genetic and environmental covariation underlying this well-established link using a twin design. The sample included 131 pairs of monozygotic twins and 173 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins who participated in three waves of annual assessment. Mothers and fathers provided reports of externalizing problems. Teacher report and observer rating were used to assess twin’s attention regulation. The etiology underlying the link between externalizing problems and attention regulation shifted from a common genetic mechanism to a common environmental mechanism in the transition across middle childhood. Household chaos moderated the genetic variance of and covariance between externalizing problems and attention regulation. The genetic influence on individual differences in both externalizing problems and attention regulation was stronger in more chaotic household. However, higher levels of household chaos attenuated the genetic link between externalizing problems and attention regulation. PMID:22781853
behavior (food magazine head entries. Overall, these assays provide robust paradigms for future studies using the mouse to elucidate the neural, molecular and genetic factors underpinning reward-related behaviors relevant to addiction research.
Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew
magazine head entries). Overall, these assays provide robust paradigms for future studies using the mouse to elucidate the neural, molecular and genetic factors underpinning reward-related behaviors relevant to addiction research.
Full Text Available Despite the advances in the understanding of neural and genetic foundations of violence, the investigation of the biological bases of a mental disorder is rarely included in psychiatric evaluation of mental insanity. Here we report on a case in which cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics methods were applied to a psychiatric forensic evaluation conducted on a young woman, J.F., tried for a violent and impulsive murder. The defendant had a history of multidrug and alcohol abuse and non-forensic clinical evaluation concluded for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. We analyzed the defendant’s brain structure in order to underlie possible brain structural abnormalities associated with pathological impulsivity. Voxel-Based Morphometry indexed a reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal cortex, in a region specifically associated with response inhibition. Furthermore, J.F.’s DNA was genotyped in order to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with various forms of violence and impulsive behaviour. Five polymorphisms that are known to be associated with impulsivity, violence, and other severe psychiatric illnesses were identified in J.F.’s DNA. Taken together, these data provided evidence for the biological correlates of a mental disorder characterized by high impulsivity and aggressive tendencies. Our claim is that the use of neuroscience and behavioral genetics do not change the rationale underlying the determination of criminal liability, which must be based on a causal link between the mental disorder and the crime. Rather, their use is crucial in providing objective data on the biological bases of a defendant’s mental disorder.
Regenwetter, Michel; Robinson, Maria M
Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory. Although simple, these theoretical links are heuristics. They are subject to well-known reasoning fallacies, most notably the fallacy of sweeping generalization and the fallacy of composition. No amount of replication can alleviate these fallacies. On the contrary, reiterating logically inconsistent theoretical reasoning over and again across studies obfuscates science. As a case in point, we consider pairwise choices among simple lotteries and the hypotheses of overweighting or underweighting of small probabilities, as well as the description-experience gap. We discuss ways to avoid reasoning fallacies in bridging the conceptual gap between hypothetical constructs, such as, for example, "overweighting" to observable pairwise choice data. Although replication is invaluable, successful replication of hard-to-interpret results is not. Behavioral decision research stands to gain much theoretical and empirical clarity by spelling out precise and formally explicit theories of how hypothetical constructs translate into observable behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hatfield, Linda A; Pearce, Margaret M
To examine factors that influence a parent's decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research. Grounded theory, using semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 postpartum mother or mother-father dyads in an urban teaching hospital. Data were collected from July 2011 to January 2012. Audiorecorded semistructured interviews were conducted in private rooms with mothers or mother-father dyads 24 to 48 hr after the birth of their healthy, full-term infant. Data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Parents' willingness to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk pediatric genetic research emerged as a process involving three interacting components: the parents, the scientist, and the comfort of the child embedded within the context of benefit to the child. The purpose of the study and parents' perception of their commitment of time and resources determined their willingness to participate. The scientist's ability to communicate trust in the research process influenced parents' decisions. Physical discomfort of the child shaped parents' decision to donate DNA. Parental perception of a direct benefit to their child affected their willingness to discuss genetic research and its outcomes. Significant gaps and misunderstandings in parental knowledge of pediatric genetic research may affect parental willingness to donate their healthy child's DNA. Nurses knowledgeable about the decision-making process parents utilize to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research and the factors influencing that decision are well positioned to educate parents about the role of genetics in health and illness and reassure potential research participants of the value and safeguards in pediatric genetic research. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile
The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis
Sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) (http://sift.bii.a-star.edu.sg/) and .... science and technology research projects of Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region ..... color schemes, with bright red for very strong LD (LOD > 2, D'= 1), pink red (LOD >.
Patricia L. Brougham
Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.
Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell
There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.
McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y
The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Pagliaroli, Luca; Vető, Borbála; Arányi, Tamás; Barta, Csaba
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by the appearance of multiple involuntary motor and vocal tics. TS presents high comorbidity rates with other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). TS is highly heritable and has a complex polygenic background. However, environmental factors also play a role in the manifestation of symptoms. Different epigenetic mechanisms may represent the link between these two causalities. Epigenetic regulation has been shown to have an impact in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, however very little is known about its effects on Tourette Syndrome. This review provides a summary of the recent findings in genetic background of TS, followed by an overview on different epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic studies in other neurological and psychiatric disorders are discussed along with the TS-related epigenetic findings available in the literature to date. Moreover, we are proposing that some general epigenetic mechanisms seen in other neuropsychiatric disorders may also play a role in the pathogenesis of TS. PMID:27462201
Chan, David K
Despite criticism that dignity is a vague and slippery concept, a number of international guidelines on bioethics have cautioned against research that is contrary to human dignity, with reference specifically to genetic technology. What is the connection between genetic research and human dignity? In this article, I investigate the concept of human dignity in its various historical forms, and examine its status as a moral concept. Unlike Kant's ideal concept of human dignity, the empirical or relational concept takes human dignity as something that is affected by one's circumstances and what others do. I argue that the dignity objection to some forms of genetic research rests on a view of human nature that gives humans a special status in nature - one that is threatened by the potential of genetic research to reduce individuals to their genetic endowment. I distinguish two main philosophical accounts of human nature. One of these, the Aristotelian view, is compatible with the use of genetic technology to help humans realize their inherent potential to a fuller extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.
Purpose To examine whether family history of unprovoked seizures is associated with behavioral disorders in epilepsy probands, thereby supporting the hypothesis of shared underlying genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Methods We conducted an analysis of the 308 probands with childhood onset epilepsy from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy with information on first degree family history of unprovoked seizures and of febrile seizures whose parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at the 9-year follow-up. Clinical cut-offs for CBCL problem and DSM-Oriented scales were examined. The association between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and behavioral disorders was assessed separately in uncomplicated and complicated epilepsy and separately for first degree family history of febrile seizures. A subanalysis, accounting for the tendency for behavioral disorders to run in families, adjusted for siblings with the same disorder as the proband. Prevalence ratios were used to describe the associations. Key findings In probands with uncomplicated epilepsy, first degree family history of unprovoked seizure was significantly associated with clinical cut-offs for Total Problems and Internalizing Disorders. Among Internalizing Disorders, clinical cut-offs for Withdrawn/Depressed, and DSM-Oriented scales for Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizures. Clinical cut-offs for Aggressive Behavior and Delinquent Behavior, and DSM-Oriented scales for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizure. Adjustment for siblings with the same disorder revealed significant associations for the relationship between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and Total Problems and Agressive Behavior in probands with uncomplicated epilepsy; marginally significant results were seen for Internalizing Disorder
Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M
In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.
The present annual report describes the results of research work done by the Institute of Genetics and Toxicology of Fissionable Materials (IGT) in 1991. The following eight subjects were dealt with: genetic repair; genetic regulation; biological carcinogenesis; molecular genetics of eukaryontic genes; genetic mouse models for human illnesses; radiation toxicology of actinides; molecular and cellular environmental toxicology, and in vivo fractionation and speciation of actinides. (MG) [de
Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.
is a scarcity of research database for allelic association of DRB and DQB alleles .... typed for genotype of DRB or DQB1. μ = the intercept; Cj = cohort effect; ... amino acid occurs divided by the total number of protein examined. .... Alleles in low ranking genotypes and high ranking genotypes were exclusive to .... Health Prod.
Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Coulon, N; Roubertoux, P L
Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Coulon, N; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Roubertoux, P L
Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Anthony J Deo
Full Text Available For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms.We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21.The findings presented are novel and demonstrate the efficacy of this
K. Paige Harden
Full Text Available The dual systems model posits that adolescent risk-taking results from an imbalance between a cognitive control system and an incentive processing system. Researchers interested in understanding the development of adolescent risk-taking use a diverse array of behavioral and self-report measures to index cognitive control and incentive processing. It is currently unclear whether different measures commonly interpreted as indicators of the same psychological construct do, in fact, tap the same underlying dimension of individual differences. In a diverse sample of 810 adolescent twins and triplets (M age = 15.9 years, SD = 1.4 years from the Texas Twin Project, we investigated the factor structure of fifteen self-report and task-based measures relevant to adolescent risk-taking. These measures can be organized into four factors, which we labeled premeditation, fearlessness, cognitive dyscontrol, and reward seeking. Most behavioral measures contained large amounts of task-specific variance; however, most genetic variance in each measure was shared with other measures of the corresponding factor. Behavior genetic analyses further indicated that genetic influences on cognitive dyscontrol overlapped nearly perfectly with genetic influences on IQ (rA = −0.91. These findings underscore the limitations of using single laboratory tasks in isolation, and indicate that the study of adolescent risk taking will benefit from applying multimethod approaches.
Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.
The results of the research program on ''Investigation of the physical and chemical environmental behavior of radionuclides characterized by a particular biological effectivenes - Pu, Am, Cm'' are presented. Analytical procedures for Pu, Am, and Cm were developed. The behavior of Pu in the environment has been studied. Releases, dispersion, deposition, transport in soil, transfer to animals, dilution in a river and sedimentation were measured using Pu from nuclear weapon fallout and Pu release of Karlsruhe Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The distribution coefficients and the availability of Pu, Am, and Cm in soil were determined. A greenhouse strated its operation during the last months. The transfer factors for Pu, Am, and Cm will be determined for 15 to 20 food plants, and different types of soil. (orig./DG)
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of latent class analysis (LCA) and examples from symptom cluster research that includes biomarkers and genetics. A review of LCA with genetics and biomarkers was conducted using Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Google Scholar. LCA is a robust latent variable model used to cluster categorical data and allows for the determination of empirically determined symptom clusters. Researchers should consider using LCA to link empirically determined symptom clusters to biomarkers and genetics to better understand the underlying etiology of symptom clusters. The full potential of LCA in symptom cluster research has not yet been realized because it has been used in limited populations, and researchers have explored limited biologic pathways.
Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A
In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.
George W. Howe
Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.
Neha S. Raghavan
Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a debilitating illness that affects twice as many women than men postpuberty. This female bias is thought to be caused by greater heritability of MDD in women and increased vulnerability induced by female sex hormones. We tested this hypothesis by removing the ovaries from prepubertal Wistar Kyoto (WKY more immobile (WMI females, a genetic animal model of depression, and its genetically close control, the WKY less immobile (WLI. In adulthood, prepubertally ovariectomized (PrePubOVX animals and their Sham-operated controls were tested for depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, using the routinely employed forced swim and open field tests, respectively, and RNA-sequencing was performed on their hippocampal RNA. Our results confirmed that the behavioral and hippocampal expression changes that occur after prepubertal ovariectomy are the consequences of an interaction between genetic predisposition to depressive behavior and ovarian hormone-regulated processes. Lack of ovarian hormones during and after puberty in the WLIs led to increased depression-like behavior. In WMIs, both depression- and anxiety-like behaviors worsened by prepubertal ovariectomy. The unbiased exploration of the hippocampal transcriptome identified sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the strains and treatment groups. The relatively small number of hippocampal DEGs resulting from the genetic differences between the strains confirmed the genetic relatedness of these strains. Nevertheless, the differences in DEGs between the strains in response to prepubertal ovariectomy identified different molecular processes, including the importance of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanisms, that may be causative of the increased depression-like behavior in the presence or absence of genetic predisposition. This study contributes to the understanding of hormonal maturation-induced changes in affective behaviors and the hippocampal
Key message This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Abstract Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100?years...
Bemelmans, S A S A; Tromp, K; Bunnik, E M; Milne, R J; Badger, S; Brayne, C; Schermer, M H; Richard, E
Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosure are. This systematic review therefore examines the psychological, behavioral and social effects of disclosing genetic and nongenetic AD-related biomarkers to cognitively healthy research participants. We performed a systematic literature search in eight scientific databases. Three independent reviewers screened the identified records and selected relevant articles. Results extracted from the included articles were aggregated and presented per effect group. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data synthesis. None of the identified studies examined the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers. All studies but one concerned the disclosure of APOE genotype and were conducted in the USA. Study populations consisted largely of cognitively healthy first-degree relatives of AD patients. In this group, disclosure of an increased risk was not associated with anxiety, depression or changes in perceived risk in relation to family history. Disclosure of an increased risk did lead to an increase in specific test-related distress levels, health-related behavior changes and long-term care insurance uptake and possibly diminished memory functioning. In cognitively healthy research participants with a first-degree relative with AD, disclosure of APOE ε4-positivity does not lead to elevated anxiety and depression levels, but does increase test-related distress and results in behavior changes concerning insurance and health. We did not find studies reporting the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers and only one study included people without a family history of AD. Empirical studies on the effects of disclosing nongenetic biomarkers
Laurino, Mercy Y; Truitt, Anjali R; Tenney, Lederle; Fisher, Douglass; Lindor, Noralane M; Veenstra, David; Jarvik, Gail P; Newcomb, Polly A; Fullerton, Stephanie M
The extent to which participants act to clinically verify research results is largely unknown. This study examined whether participants who received Lynch syndrome (LS)-related findings pursued researchers' recommendation to clinically verify results with testing performed by a CLIA-certified laboratory. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center site of the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry offered non-CLIA individual genetic research results to select registry participants (cases and their enrolled relatives) from 2011 to 2013. Participants who elected to receive results were counseled on the importance of verifying results at a CLIA-certified laboratory. Twenty-six (76.5%) of the 34 participants who received genetic results completed 2- and 12-month postdisclosure surveys; 42.3% of these (11/26) participated in a semistructured follow-up interview. Within 12 months of result disclosure, only 4 (15.4%) of 26 participants reported having verified their results in a CLIA-certified laboratory; of these four cases, all research and clinical results were concordant. Reasons for pursuing clinical verification included acting on the recommendation of the research team and informing future clinical care. Those who did not verify results cited lack of insurance coverage and limited perceived personal benefit of clinical verification as reasons for inaction. These findings suggest researchers will need to address barriers to seeking clinical verification in order to ensure that the intended benefits of returning genetic research results are realized. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Publically funded biobanking initiatives and genetic research should contribute towards reducing inequalities in health by reducing the prevalence and burden of disease. It is essential that Maori and other Indigenous populations share in health gains derived from these activities. The Health Research Council of New Zealand has funded a research project (2012-2015 to identify Maori perspectives on biobanking and genetic research, and to develop cultural guidelines for ethical biobanking and genetic research involving biospecimens. This review describes relevant values and ethics embedded in Maori indigenous knowledge, and how they may be applied to culturally safe interactions between biobanks, researchers, individual participants, and communities. Key issues of ownership, privacy, and consent are also considered within the legal and policy context that guides biobanking and genetic research practices within New Zealand. Areas of concern are highlighted and recommendations of international relevance are provided. To develop a productive environment for "next-generation" biobanking and genomic research,"‘next-generation" regulatory solutions will be required.
AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...
Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor
Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Majima, Yoshimasa; Nishiyama, Kaoru; Nishihara, Aki; Hata, Ryosuke
Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk. We conducted three surveys ( N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions. The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several recommendations concerning this sample are presented.
Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.
Maki, Katherine A; DeVon, Holli A
The notion that genetics, through natural selection, determines innate traits has led to much debate and divergence of thought on the impact of innate traits on the human phenotype. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine how innate theory informs genetic research and how understanding innate theory through the lens of Martha Rogers' theory of unitary human beings can offer a contemporary view of how innate traits can inform epigenetic and genetic research. We also propose a new conceptual model for genetic and epigenetic research. The philosophical, theoretical, and research literatures were examined for this synthesis. We have merged philosophical and conceptual phenomena from innate theory with the theory of unitary beings into the University of Illinois at Chicago model for genetic and epigenetic research. Innate traits are the cornerstone of the framework but may be modified epigenetically by biological, physiological, psychological, and social determinants as they are transcribed. These modifiers serve as important links between the concept of innate traits and epigenetic modifications, and, like the theory of unitary human beings, the process is understood in the context of individual and environmental interaction that has the potential to evolve as the determinants change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product qua...
Full Text Available Evangelia Stergiakouli, Anita ThaparDepartment of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, United KingdomAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a highly disruptive childhood-onset disorder that often persists into adolescence and adulthood. Comorbidity with other problems, such as autism, dyslexia and conduct disorder (CD is very common. Although little is known about the pathophysiology of ADHD, family, twin and adoption studies have shown that it is highly heritable. Whole genome linkage studies suggest there are no common susceptibility genes of moderate effect size. Most published research has been based on functional candidate gene studies. The most consistent evidence for association with ADHD relates to a dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, a dopamine D5 receptor (DRD5 gene microsatellite and a dopamine transporter (DAT1 gene VNTR. In addition, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT val158/108 met variant has been shown to increase risk for associated antisocial behavior. The first genome-wide association studies (GWAS of ADHD have been completed and although larger studies are still required to detect common risk variants, novel risk pathways are being suggested for ADHD. Further research on the contribution of rare variants, larger genome-wide association and sequencing studies and ADHD phenotype refinement is now needed.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, genetics, molecular genetics, genome-wide association study (GWAS, gene-environment interplay
This study incorporates means-end chain (MEC) theory and dynamic programming for understanding the implications of consumer decision making. The conceptual framework of this study can help programmers design information systems for analyzing consumption behaviors. Such analyses will provide marketers with meaningful information for formulating marketing strategies. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) to enable researchers to obtain information for consumer cognitive hierarchies utilizing an information system, (2) to enhance the functions of traditional MEC methodology and provide an integrated method for analyzing consumption information, and (3) to construct an information system for analyzing consumer decision-making processes.
Jin; WANG; Pengcheng; LIU
Since the development of organic food,to a great extent,depends on the needs of consumers,the studies on the consumer behavior of organic food would have far-reaching significance to the development of the whole organic food industry. The recent studies in this field mainly include the following four aspects: the consumers’ recognition of organic food; the consumers’ attitude towards organic food; the consumers’ purchase of organic food; the consumers’ willingness to pay. The paper would review the recent domestic and foreign studies on the four aspects mentioned above,aiming to provide references to the researches in this field.
Paul F. DRAGOȘ
Full Text Available Starting from the definitions found in the literature, according to which the management is strictly related to the manner in which managers behave and act in their relationship with the employees and to the manner in which their behavior can influence the subordinates’ motivation, the conducted research wishes to establish the presence of these elements in the daily activities and their role increasing performance within sports organizations. Therefore, based on the analysis of the data gathered through the survey, a series of action plans can be outlined for the improvement of the work relationships at the level of managers and employees.
Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
A common problem associated with the effort to better assess potential behaviors of various individuals within different countries is the shear difficulty in comprehending the dynamic nature of populations, particularly over time and considering feedback effects. This paper discusses a theory-based analytical capability designed to enable analysts to better assess the influence of events on individuals interacting within a country or region. These events can include changes in policy, man-made or natural disasters, migration, war, or other changes in environmental/economic conditions. In addition, this paper describes potential extensions of this type of research to enable more timely and accurate assessments.
Williams, Paul T; Blanche, Patricia J; Krauss, Ronald M
Lipoprotein and weight differences between vigorously active and sedentary monozygotic (MZ) twins were used to (1) estimate the effects of training while controlling for genotype and (2) estimate genetic concordance (ie, similarity) in the presence of divergent lifestyles. Thirty-five pairs of MZ twins (25 male, 10 female) were recruited nationally who were discordant for vigorous exercise (running distances differed by > or =40 km in male and > or =32 km in female twins). The active twins ran an average (mean+/-SD) of 63.0+/-20.4 km/wk, whereas the mostly sedentary twins averaged 7.0+/-13.5 km/wk. The active twins had significantly lower body mass index (difference+/-SE, -2.12+/-0.57 kg/m2, P=0.0007) and significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.14+/-0.04 mmol/L, P=0.004), HDL2 (2.71+/-1.04 U, P=0.01), and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (0.10+/-0.03 g/L, P=0.004). Despite the difference in lifestyle, when adjusted for sex, the correlations between the discordant MZ twin pairs were significant (PHDL cholesterol (r=0.69), apoA-I (r=0.58), and HDL2 (r=0.67). There was no significant MZ twin correlation for body mass index (r=0.17). None of the active twins having an overweight twin were themselves overweight. Behavior (vigorous exercise) may reduce genetic influences on body mass index. In contrast, genetics (or shared environment) substantially influences HDL cholesterol and HDL subclasses, even in the presence of extreme behavioral differences. There may be greater individual control over moderate degrees of obesity, whereas low HDL cholesterol may be largely predetermined and less effectively treated by vigorous exercise.
Moran, Rachel L.; Zhou, Muchu; Catchen, Julian M.; Fuller, Rebecca C.
Abstract Determining which reproductive isolating barriers arise first between geographically isolated lineages is critical to understanding allopatric speciation. We examined behavioral isolation among four recently diverged allopatric species in the orangethroat darter clade (Etheostoma: Ceasia). We also examined behavioral isolation between each Ceasia species and the sympatric rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum. We asked (1) is behavioral isolation present between allopatric Ceasia species, and how does this compare to behavioral isolation with E. caeruleum, (2) does male color distance and/or genetic distance predict behavioral isolation between species, and (3) what are the relative contributions of female choice, male choice, and male competition to behavioral isolation? We found that behavioral isolation, genetic differentiation, and male color pattern differentiation were present between allopatric Ceasia species. Males, but not females, discerned between conspecific and heterospecific mates. Males also directed more aggression toward conspecific rival males. The high levels of behavioral isolation among Ceasia species showed no obvious pattern with genetic distance or male color distance. However, when the E. caeruleum was included in the analysis, an association between male aggression and male color distance was apparent. We discuss the possibility that reinforcement between Ceasia and E. caeruleum is driving behavioral isolation among allopatric Ceasia species. PMID:28776645
Toffoli, M; Dreussi, E; Cecchin, E; Valente, M; Sanvilli, N; Montico, M; Gagno, S; Garziera, M; Polano, M; Savarese, M; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Placidi, F; Terzaghi, M; Toffoli, G; Gigli, G L
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is an early marker of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, it is still unclear which patients with RBD will eventually develop PD. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of alpha-synuclein (SNCA) have been associated with PD, but at present, no data is available about RBD. The 3'UTR hosts regulatory regions involved in gene expression control, such as microRNA binding sites. The aim of this study was to determine RBD specific genetic features associated to an increased risk of progression to PD, by sequencing of the SNCA-3'UTR in patients with "idiopathic" RBD (iRBD) and in patients with PD. We recruited 113 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of iRBD (56 patients) or PD (with or without RBD, 57 patients). Sequencing of SNCA-3'UTR was performed on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to predict the potential effect of the identified genetic variants on microRNA binding. We found three SNCA-3'UTR SNPs (rs356165, rs3857053, rs1045722) to be more frequent in PD patients than in iRBD patients (p = 0.014, 0.008, and 0.008, respectively). Four new or previously reported but not annotated specific genetic variants (KP876057, KP876056, NM_000345.3:c*860T>A, NM_000345.3:c*2320A>T) have been observed in the RBD population. The in silico approach highlighted that these variants could affect microRNA-mediated gene expression control. Our data show specific SNPs in the SNCA-3'UTR that may bear a risk for RBD to be associated with PD. Moreover, new genetic variants were identified in patients with iRBD.
Johnson, Jennifer L; Wittgenstein, Helena; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hyma, Katie E; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Vladimirova, Anastasiya V; Fong, Hiu Wa Flora; Acland, Gregory M; Trut, Lyudmila N; Kukekova, Anna V
The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.
Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige
Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Genetic association studies of transplantation outcomes have been hampered by small samples and highly complex multifactorial phenotypes, hindering investigations of the genetic architecture of a range of comorbidities which significantly impact graft and recipient life expectancy. We describe here the rationale and design of the International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network. The network comprises 22 studies to date, including 16494 transplant recipients and 11669 donors, of whom more than 5000 are of non-European ancestry, all of whom have existing genomewide genotype data sets. We describe the rich genetic and phenotypic information available in this consortium comprising heart, kidney, liver, and lung transplant cohorts. We demonstrate significant power in International Genetics & Translational Research in Transplantation Network to detect main effect association signals across regions such as the MHC region as well as genomewide for transplant outcomes that span all solid organs, such as graft survival, acute rejection, new onset of diabetes after transplantation, and for delayed graft function in kidney only. This consortium is designed and statistically powered to deliver pioneering insights into the genetic architecture of transplant-related outcomes across a range of different solid-organ transplant studies. The study design allows a spectrum of analyses to be performed including recipient-only analyses, donor-recipient HLA mismatches with focus on loss-of-function variants and nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Calafell, Francesc; Larmuseau, Maarten H D
The Y chromosome is currently by far the most popular marker in genetic genealogy that combines genetic data and family history. This popularity is based on its haploid character and its close association with the patrilineage and paternal inherited surname. Other markers have not been found (yet) to overrule this status due to the low sensitivity and precision of autosomal DNA for genetic genealogical applications, given the vagaries of recombination, and the lower capacities of mitochondrial DNA combined with an in general much lower interest in maternal lineages. The current knowledge about the Y chromosome and the availability of markers with divergent mutation rates make it possible to answer questions on relatedness levels which differ in time depth; from the individual and familial level to the surnames, clan and population level. The use of the Y chromosome in genetic genealogy has led to applications in several well-established research disciplines; namely in, e.g., family history, demography, anthropology, forensic sciences, population genetics and sex chromosome evolution. The information obtained from analysing this chromosome is not only interesting for academic scientists but also for the huge and lively community of amateur genealogists and citizen-scientists, fascinated in analysing their own genealogy or surname. This popularity, however, has also some drawbacks, mainly for privacy reasons related to the DNA donor, his close family and far-related namesakes. In this review paper we argue why Y-chromosomal analysis and its genetic genealogical applications will still perform an important role in future interdisciplinary research.
Lemke, A.A.; Wolf, W.A.; Hebert-Beirne, J.; Smith, M.E.
Research assessing attitudes toward consent processes for high-throughput genomic-wide technologies and widespread sharing of data is limited. In order to develop a better understanding of stakeholder views toward these issues, this cross-sectional study assessed public and biorepository participant attitudes toward research participation and sharing of genetic research data. Forty-nine individuals participated in 6 focus groups; 28 in 3 public focus groups and 21 in 3 NUgene biorepository pa...
Full Text Available Although, genetically modified (GM crops have to be a broadly debated topic in different countries, there has been much less attention devoted to farmer attitudes towards GM crops. This paper attempts to research farmers’ insights on GM crops in Georgia through February-March 2014. An in-depth survey of 611 farmers revealed that respondents lack sufficient knowledge about genetic engineering. They tend to have a negative attitude towards GM crops and are strongly against of import and adoption of GM seeds. An empirical examination based on analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient verified that both education and age were significant determinants of awareness of farmers about genetically engineered crops, while income used to have no significant influence on the farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops. In addition, relationship between awareness about genetic engineering and farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops has to be insignificant, as well.
Hayes, Matthew R
While energy balance is under the control of the central nervous system (CNS), a major source of neural regulation for the behavioral, physiological and endocrine processes governing energy balance originates in the periphery. Indeed, the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, supporting organs of the peritoneal cavity and adipose tissue are the source of numerous neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine signals released from non-neuronal peripheral tissue that signal in a paracrine and endocrine fashion to regulate the physiological and behavioral processes that affect energy balance. Given the ever increasing appreciation that chronic hyperphagia of highly-palatable/rewarding food is a major contributing factor to the obesity epidemic, it is not surprising that the field has increased research efforts focusing on understanding what role peripherally-derived neuroendocrine signals play in modulating food reward and motivated behaviors. Research throughout my career has focused on understanding gut-to-brain communication of relevance to energy balance control. Through very fortuitous opportunities and amazing collaborations, my research program has also expanded widely to include analyses of multiple GI-, pancreatic- and adipose tissue-derived anorectic signals involved in food intake and energy balance control, as well as analyses of higher-order determinants of food reward, nausea, aversion and maladaptive motivated behaviors. I am honored to be the recipient of the 2016 Alan N. Epstein Research Award from the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and express much appreciation for the amazing collaborations I have had with my mentors, colleagues and trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fiori, Elena; Oddi, Diego; Ventura, Rossella; Colamartino, Marco; Valzania, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesca Romana; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; van der Zee, Eddy; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Pascucci, Tiziana
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common human inborn errors of metabolism, caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, leading to high phenylalanine and low tyrosine levels in blood and brain causing profound cognitive disability, if untreated. Since 1960, population is screened for hyperphenylalaninemia shortly after birth and submitted to early treatment in order to prevent the major manifestations of the disease. However, the dietetic regimen (phenylalanine free diet) is difficult to maintain, and despite the recommendation to a strict and lifelong compliance, up to 60% of adolescents partially or totally abandons the treatment. The development and the study of new treatments continue to be sought, taking advantage of preclinical models, the most used of which is the PAHenu2 (BTBR ENU2), the genetic murine model of PKU. To date, adult behavioral and neurochemical alterations have been mainly investigated in ENU2 mice, whereas there are no clear indications about the onset of these deficiencies. Here we investigated and report, for the first time, a comprehensive behavioral and neurochemical assay of the developing ENU2 mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENU2 mice are significantly smaller than WT until pnd 24, present a significant delay in the acquisition of tested developmental reflexes, impaired communicative, motor and social skills, and have early reduced biogenic amine levels in several brain areas. Our results extend the understanding of behavioral and cerebral abnormalities in PKU mice, providing instruments to an early preclinical evaluation of the effects of new treatments.
Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…
Fisher, Celia B
The pressing need for empirically informed public policies aimed at understanding and promoting children's health has challenged environmental scientists to modify traditional research paradigms and reevaluate their roles and obligations toward research participants. Methodologic approaches to children's environmental health research raise ethical challenges for which federal regulations may provide insufficient guidance. In this article I begin with a general discussion of privacy concerns and informed consent within pediatric environmental health research contexts. I then turn to specific ethical challenges associated with research on genetic determinants of environmental risk, prenatal studies and maternal privacy, and data causing inflicted insight or affecting the informational rights of third parties.
Full Text Available Using data about votes emitted by funds in meetings held by United States banks from 2003 to 2013, we apply a genetic algorithm to a set of financial variables in order to detect the determinants of the vote direction. Our findings indicate that there are three main explanatory factors: the market value of the firm, the shareholder activism measured as the total number of funds voting, and the temporal context, which reflects the influence of recent critical events affecting the banking industry, including bankruptcies, reputational failures, and mergers and acquisitions. As a result, considering that voting behavior has been empirically linked to reputational harms, these findings can be considered as a useful insight about the keys that should be taken into account in order to achieve an effective reputational risk management strategy.
Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Breen, Gerome; Bögels, Susan; Creswell, Cathy; Hudson, Jennifer L.; McKinnon, Anna; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schneider, Silvia; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne H.; Eley, Thalia C.
Extinction learning is an important mechanism in the successful psychological treatment of anxiety. Individual differences in response and relapse following Cognitive Behavior Therapy may in part be explained by variability in the ease with which fears are extinguished or the vulnerability of these fears to re‐emerge. Given the role of the endocannabinoid system in fear extinction, this study investigates whether genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system explains individual differences in response to CBT. Children (N = 1,309) with a primary anxiety disorder diagnosis were recruited. We investigated the relationship between variation in the CNR1, CNR2, and FAAH genes and change in primary anxiety disorder severity between pre‐ and post‐treatment and during the follow‐up period in the full sample and a subset with fear‐based anxiety disorder diagnoses. Change in symptom severity during active treatment was nominally associated (P < 0.05) with two SNPs. During the follow‐up period, five SNPs were nominally associated with a poorer treatment response (rs806365 [CNR1]; rs2501431 [CNR2]; rs2070956 [CNR2]; rs7769940 [CNR1]; rs2209172 [FAAH]) and one with a more favorable response (rs6928813 [CNR1]). Within the fear‐based subset, the effect of rs806365 survived multiple testing corrections (P < 0.0016). We found very limited evidence for an association between variants in endocannabinoid system genes and treatment response once multiple testing corrections were applied. Larger, more homogenous cohorts are needed to allow the identification of variants of small but statistically significant effect and to estimate effect sizes for these variants with greater precision in order to determine their potential clinical utility. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27346075
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a male predominance, behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder which is characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted and repetitive activities. Abnormalities in serotoninergic function play a major role in ASD pathophysiology. Monoamine oxidases, encoded by two X-chromosomal genes MAOA and MAOB regulate the serotonergic function by the degradation of serotonin and other biological amines. Therefore, the objective of present study is to investigate genetic correlation of MAOB markers with the severity of specific behavioral traits as scored by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS has been examined as quantitative trait (QT analysis using IBM-SPSS program. A total of 225 ASD patients (190 male and 35 female were recruited after psychometric evaluation done by DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria and assessment by CARS. Genotyping carried by PCR/RFLP/sequencing methods, and population were found in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The outcome of the QT analysis indicating the increased score in overall CARS were associated with G and C allele of MAOB marker rs3027449 (p-value: 0.03 and rs1040399 (p-value: 0.01, respectively in male ASD children. In addition to this, major alleles of studied polymorphisms of gene were found to be statistically associated with the higher impairment in social communication domain only in male ASD children. Overall outcome of the study suggests likely involvement of MAOB with ASD in a gender-specific manner with the severity in behavior phenotypes. Considering the cumulative impact of these markers in regulating the severity of the behavioral symptoms of ASD, it is likely that MAOB gene is associated with the disorder.
Dr. Thomas Balk
Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.
Long, Ke; Xu, Haishui
In view of the correlation software behavior, we evaluate software behavior credibility from two levels of control flow and data flow. In control flow level, method of the software behavior of trace based on support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. In data flow level, behavioral evidence evaluation based on fuzzy decision analysis method is put forward.
Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt
The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...
Recently, four premature ejaculation (PE) subtypes have been distinguished on the basis of the duration of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). These four PE subtypes have different etiologies and pathogeneses. Genetic research on PE should consider the existence of these PE subtypes and the accurate measurement of the IELT with a stopwatch. Currently, three methods of genetic research on PE have been used. They differ in the investigated population, tool of measurement, study design, and variables of PE. From animal and human research, it is derived that the central serotonergic system "modulates" ejaculation, whereas the ejaculation (reflex) itself is probably not under direct influence of the serotonergic system, but rather under the influence of other neurotransmitter systems in the spinal cord. For genetic research on PE, it is important to take into account that the (serotonergic) modulation of the IELT is variable among men and may even be absent. This means that serotonergic genetic polymorphisms may only be found in men with PE who respond with an ejaculation delay treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. PMID:21344023
Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N
This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.
In the year under report, the institute's scope of investigations comprised the seven topics surveyed in the following together with the most recent research results obtained. These were genetic repair and genetic regulation mechanisms, biologic carcinogenesis, molecular genetics of eukaryotic genes, genetic mouse models of human disorders, toxicology of radioactive and non-radioactive heavy metals as well as environmental toxicology at the molecular and cellular levels. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available Juliana Castilhos Beauvalet,1,2 Caroline Luísa Quiles,1,2 Melissa Alves Braga de Oliveira,1,2 Carlos Augusto Vieira Ilgenfritz,1 Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo,1–3 André Comiran Tonon1 1Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Even though light is considered the main cue that entrains inner biological rhythms according to circadian environmental rhythms, social organizations have the capacity to take the body “out of sync”. An emergent field of research on the topic refers to what has been described as social jetlag, the biological misalignment that arises from alternated work and free days. However, to the present moment, there is still controversial evidence on the effects of such a phenomenon to human health.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify current peer-reviewed evidence of the health and behavioral risks associated with social jetlag.Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, Embase and LILACS electronic databases using the terms “social AND (jet lag OR jetlag”. The search was finalized on August 22, 2016, resulting in 26 research articles included in the review.Results and discussion: Our results point to a variety of health and behavioral outcomes that seem to be associated with the mismatch existent between work or study days and free days. They are epilepsy, minor psychiatric symptoms, aggression and conduct problems, mood disorders, cognitive impairment (eg, work and academic performance, substance use, cardiometabolic risk and adverse endocrine profiles
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of
Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George
Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…
Parens, Erik; Appelbaum, Paul S
The advent of new technologies has rekindled some hopes that it will be possible to identify genetic variants that will help to explain why individuals are different with respect to complex traits. At least one leader in the development of "whole genome sequencing"-the Chinese company BGI-has been quite public about its commitment to using the technique to investigate the genetics of intelligence in general and high intelligence in particular. Because one needs large samples to detect the small effects associated with small genetic differences in the sequence of those base pairs, to make headway with the new sequencing technologies, one also needs to enlist much larger numbers of study participants than geneticists have enrolled before. In an effort to increase the size of a sample, one team of researchers approached the Center for Talented Youth at Johns Hopkins University. They wanted to gain access to records concerning participants in CTY's ongoing Study of Exceptional Talent, and they wanted to approach those individuals to see if they would be willing to share samples of their DNA. We agreed that CTY's dilemma about whether to give the researchers access to those records raised larger questions about the ethics of research into the genetics of intelligence, and we decided to hold a workshop at The Hastings Center that could examine those questions. Our purpose was to create what, borrowing from Sarah Richardson, we came to call a "transformative conversation" about research into the genetics of general cognitive ability-a conversation that would take a wide and long view and would involve a diverse group of stakeholders, including both people who have been highly critical of the research and people who engage in it. This collection of essays, which grew out of that workshop, is intended to provide an introduction to and exploration of this complex and important area. © 2015 The Hastings Center.
Full Text Available Advances in human genetics and genomic sciences and the corresponding explosion of biomedical technologies have deepened current understanding of human health and revolutionized medicine. In developed nations, this has led to marked improvements in disease risk stratification and diagnosis. These advances have also led to targeted intervention strategies aimed at promoting disease prevention, prolonging disease onset, and mitigating symptoms, as in the well-known case of breast cancer and the BRCA1 gene. In contrast, in the developing nation of Trinidad and Tobago, this scientific revolution has not translated into the development and application of effective genomics-based interventions for improving public health. While the reasons for this are multifactorial, the underlying basis may be rooted in the lack of pertinence of internationally driven genomics research to the local public health needs in the country, as well as a lack of relevance of internationally conducted genetics research to the genetic and environmental contexts of the population. Indeed, if Trinidad and Tobago is able to harness substantial public health benefit from genetics/genomics research, then there is a dire need, in the near future, to build local capacity for the conduct and translation of such research. Specifically, it is essential to establish a national human genetics/genomics research agenda in order to build sustainable human capacity through education and knowledge transfer and to generate public policies that will provide the basis for the creation of a mutually beneficial framework (including partnerships with more developed nations that is informed by public health needs and contextual realities of the nation.
Segal, Nancy L.; Cortez, Franchesca A.; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Cherry, Barbara J.; Mechanic, Mindy; Munson, Jaimee E.; Velázquez, Jaime M.A.; Reed, Brandon
Twins living in different countries offer opportunities to explore associations between observed differences and experiential effects. This report compared the life histories, cognitive abilities, personality traits, psychomotor skills, medical characteristics, job satisfaction, social support and social relations of dizygotic (DZ) female twins reunited at 78, the world's longest separated set. The twins’ advanced age also enabled a study of how co-twin differences in aging may be associated with current behavioral and social differences. Consistent with previous studies, these dizygotic reared apart (DZA) twins showed discordance across some, but not all, traits. Their different rearing situations and life histories may explain current differences in their responses to meeting their twin. This case highlights the importance of both genetic and rearing factors on behavior, but does not allow firm conclusions regarding the extent to which these sources explain individual developmental differences. However, such data contribute to the growing number of cross-culturally separated twins, generating novel hypotheses that may be assessed using larger samples. PMID:26366029
Full Text Available In the Evolve and Resequence method (E&R, experimental evolution and genomics are combined to investigate evolutionary dynamics and the genotype-phenotype link. As other genomic approaches, this methods requires many replicates with large population sizes, which imposes severe restrictions on the analysis of behavioral phenotypes. Aiming to use E&R for investigating the evolution of behavior in Drosophila, we have developed a simple and effective method to assess spontaneous olfactory preferences and learning in large samples of fruit flies using a T-maze. We tested this procedure on (a a large wild-caught population and (b 11 isofemale lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to previous methods, this procedure reduces the environmental noise and allows for the analysis of large population samples. Consistent with previous results, we show that flies have a preference for orange vs. apple odor. With our procedure wild-derived flies exhibit olfactory learning in the absence of previous laboratory selection. Furthermore, we find genetic differences in the olfactory learning with relatively high heritability. We propose this large-scale method as an effective tool for E&R and genome-wide association studies on olfactory preferences and learning.
Tiarapuspa; Indyastuti, D. L.; Sari, W. R.
This study aims to explore the definition of counterproductive behavior based on supervisors’ and sub ordinaries’ perceptions. Recently, environmental management system is a strategic tool to gain a competitive advantage. Human resource is the vital factor for successful environmental management system. Counterproductive behavior will destroy environmental management system. Unfortunately, the construct of counterproductive behavior is still debatable. Different culture show different dimensions and indicators of counterproductive behavior. The unclear construct results ambiguous empirical evidence. This study results that many items are included of counterproductive behavior, such as come late, impolite communication, playing gadget in working time, and the other negative behaviors.
Canada has recently seen significant commercial growth in biotechnology; at the same time we have witnessed a considerable reduction in public funding for research. One result is the development of partnerships between academic institutions and industry, which has had important effects on the relationships between researchers, companies, research subjects and society, particularly in the field of genetics. Commercialization of research creates obstacles to the diffusion of research results which is fundamental to the advancement of science. Several recent studies and cases, which are briefly reviewed here, have highlighted these problems. In this paper, the author examines clauses in research contracts in order to analyze and categorize the types of provisions these contracts may contain regarding publication and disclosure of research results. She then discusses the relationships between various actors in genetic research and the issues and conflicts that may arise. Finally, an examination of some recently developed policies in this area reveals the complex network of norms to which a researcher must adhere. The normative framework must take into account the interests of all the various actors, should apply to the broadest possible population, and its various parts must be consistent. Researchers must then be vigilant that they do not enter into contracts which conflict with their rights and obligations regarding publication and dissemination of results.
Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.
Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958
Mezuk, Briana; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S
We tested 3 hypotheses-social causation, social drift, and common cause-regarding the origin of socioeconomic disparities in major depression and determined whether the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and major depression varied by genetic liability for major depression. Data were from a sample of female twins in the baseline Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders interviewed between 1987 and 1989 (n = 2153). We used logistic regression and structural equation twin models to evaluate these 3 hypotheses. Consistent with the social causation hypothesis, education (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.93; P social mobility was associated with lower risk of depression. There was no evidence that childhood SES was related to development of major depression (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.09; P > .1). Consistent with a common genetic cause, there was a negative correlation between the genetic components of major depression and education (r(2) = -0.22). Co-twin control analyses indicated a protective effect of education and income on major depression even after accounting for genetic liability. This study utilized a genetically informed design to address how social position relates to major depression. Results generally supported the social causation model.
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.
Schauer, James J.
reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of
Full Text Available The nesting habits of ants play an important role in structuring ant populations. They vary from monodomy, a colony occupies a single nest, via polydomy, a colony occupies multiple adjacent nests, to supercoloniality, a colony spans over large territories comprising dozen to thousands nests without having any boundaries. The population structure of the desert ant Cataglyphis niger, previously considered to form supercolonies, was studied using genetic, chemical and behavioral tools in plots of 50x50 meters at two distinct populations. At the Palmahim site, the plot comprised 15 nests that according to the genetic analysis constituted three colonies. Likewise at the Rishon Leziyyon site 14 nests constituted 5 genetic colonies. In both sites, both chemical analysis and the behavioral (aggression tests confirmed the colony genetic architecture. The behavioral tests also revealed that aggression between colonies within a population was higher than that exhibited between colonies of different populations, suggesting the occurrence of the nasty neighbor phenomenon. In contrast to supercolony structure previously reported in another population of this species, the presently studied populations were composed of polydomous colonies. However, both the genetic and chemical data revealed that the inter-colonial differences between sites were larger than those within site, suggesting some within-site population viscosity. Thus, C. niger exhibits flexible nesting characteristics, from polydomy to supercoloniality, and can be considered at the brink of supercoloniality. We attribute the differences in population structure among sites to the intensity of intraspecific competition.
Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam
We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be
Discussed are the determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, the attitude-behavior discrepancy problem, how environmental attitudes are formed and changed, and the effects of individual differences on appropriateness of educational techniques. (CW)
Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.
Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about
Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Yang, Qian; Chi, Wanhao; Turkson, Susie A; Du, Wei A; Kemkemer, Claus; Zeng, Zhao-Bang; Long, Manyuan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi
Foraging behavior is critical for the fitness of individuals. However, the genetic basis of variation in foraging behavior and the evolutionary forces underlying such natural variation have rarely been investigated. We developed a systematic approach to assay the variation in survival rate in a foraging environment for adult flies derived from a wild Drosophila melanogaster population. Despite being such an essential trait, there is substantial variation of foraging behavior among D. melanogaster strains. Importantly, we provided the first evaluation of the potential caveats of using inbred Drosophila strains to perform genome-wide association studies on life-history traits, and concluded that inbreeding depression is unlikely a major contributor for the observed large variation in adult foraging behavior. We found that adult foraging behavior has a strong genetic component and, unlike larval foraging behavior, depends on multiple loci. Identified candidate genes are enriched in those with high expression in adult heads and, demonstrated by expression knock down assay, are involved in maintaining normal functions of the nervous system. Our study not only identified candidate genes for foraging behavior that is relevant to individual fitness, but also shed light on the initial stage underlying the evolution of the behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
van Doorn, J.; Lemon, K.N.; Mittal, V.; Nass, S.; Pick, D.; Pirner, P.; Verhoef, P.C.
This article develops and discusses the concept of customer engagement behaviors (CEB), which we define as the customers' behavioral manifestation toward a brand or firm, beyond purchase, resulting from motivational drivers. CEBs include a vast array of behaviors including word-of-mouth (WOM)
Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.
It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…
Coventry, William; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Levisen, Christina; Byrne, Brian; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.
We present one of the first behavior-genetic studies of individual differences in school students' levels of achievement in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA). We assessed these language abilities in Australian twin pairs (maximum N pairs = 251) by means of teacher ratings, class rankings, and self-ratings of proficiency, and used the…
Molenaar, Peter C. M.
In this article, Peter Molenaar responds to three commentaries (this issue) on his article, "An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics." He addresses aspects of relational developmental systems (RDS) mentioned and questions raised in each of the…
Pemberton, Caroline K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Ge, Xiaojia
This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers' behavior problems through the longitudinal and multigenerational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9 months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways.
Wolraich, M L
One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.
Claudia M. Testa
Full Text Available Genetics research is an avenue towards understanding essential tremor (ET. Advances have been made in genetic linkage and association: there are three reported ET susceptibility loci, and mixed but growing data on risk associations. However, causal mutations have not been forthcoming. This disappointing lack of progress has opened productive discussions on challenges in ET genetics research, including fundamental assumptions in the field. This article reviews the ET genetics literature, results to date, the open questions in ET genetics and the current challenges in addressing them. Several inherent ET features complicate genetic linkage and association studies: high potential phenocopy rates, inaccurate tremor self-reporting, and ET misdiagnoses are examples. Increasing use of direct exam data for subjects, family members and controls is one current response. Smaller moves towards expanding ET phenotype research concepts into non-tremor features, clinically disputed ET subsets, and testing phenotype features instead of clinical diagnosis against genetic data are gradually occurring. The field has already moved to considering complex trait mechanisms requiring detection of combinations of rare genetic variants. Hypotheses may move further to consider novel mechanisms of inheritance, such as epigenetic. It is an exciting time in ET genetics as investigators start moving past assumptions underlying both phenotype and genetics experimental contributions, overcoming challenges to collaboration, and engaging the ET community. Multicenter collaborative efforts comprising rich longitudinal prospective phenotype data and neuropathologic analysis combined with the latest in genetics experimental design and technology will be the next wave in the field.
Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris
A critique of research examining whether early experiences with primary caregivers are reflected in adaptation is that relevant longitudinal studies have generally not employed genetically informed research designs capable of unconfounding shared genes and environments. Using the twin subsample (N = 485 pairs) of the Early Childhood Longitudinal…
Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil
Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716
Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, J; Li, X; McGue, M
Little is known about the etiology of adolescents' externalizing behavior (Ext) in collectivistic cultures. We aimed to fill this gap by investigating the genetic and environmental influences on Ext in Chinese adolescents. The etiological heterogeneity of aggression (AGG) and rule breaking (RB) was also examined. The study sample included 908 pairs of same-sex twins aged from 10 to 18 years (mean = 13.53 years, s.d. = 2.26). Adolescents' Ext were assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment including Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report. Univariate genetic analyses showed that genetic influences on all measures were moderate ranging from 34% to 50%, non-shared environmental effects ranged from 23% to 52%, and shared environmental effects were significant in parent- and teacher-reported measures ranging from 29% to 43%. Bivariate genetic analyses indicated that AGG and RB shared large genetic influences (r g = 0.64-0.79) but moderate non-shared environmental factors (r e = 0.34-0.52). Chinese adolescents' Ext was moderately influenced by genetic factors. AGG and RB had moderate independent genetic and non-shared environmental influences, and thus constitute etiologically distinct dimensions within Ext in Chinese adolescents. The heritability of AGG, in particular, was smaller in Chinese adolescents than suggested by previous data obtained on Western peers. This study suggests that the collectivistic cultural values and Confucianism philosophy may attenuate genetic potential in Ext, especially AGG.
Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Plomin, Robert; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane
The behavioral susceptibility model proposes that inherited differences in traits such as appetite confer differential risk of weight gain and contribute to the heritability of weight. Evidence that the FTO gene may influence weight partly through its effects on appetite supports this model, but testing the behavioral pathways for multiple genes with very small effects is not feasible. Twin analyses make it possible to get a broad-based estimate of the extent of shared genetic influence between appetite and weight. The objective was to use multivariate twin analyses to test the hypothesis that associations between appetite and weight are underpinned by shared genetic effects. Data were from Gemini, a population-based birth cohort of twins (n = 4804) born in 2007. Infant weights at 3 mo were taken from the records of health professionals. Appetite was assessed at 3 mo for the milk-feeding period by using the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ), a parent-reported measure of appetite [enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, slowness in eating (SE), satiety responsiveness (SR), and appetite size (AS)]. Multivariate quantitative genetic modeling was used to test for shared genetic influences. Significant correlations were found between all BEBQ traits and weight. Significant shared genetic influence was identified for weight with SE, SR, and AS; genetic correlations were between 0.22 and 0.37. Shared genetic effects explained 41-45% of these phenotypic associations. Differences in weight in infancy may be due partly to genetically determined differences in appetitive traits that confer differential susceptibility to obesogenic environments.
Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Son, Young-Jin; Uddin, Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab; Yusuf, Md. Abdullah; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Banu, Laila Anjuman
Bacteria and archaea possess adaptive immunity against foreign genetic materials through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems. The discovery of this intriguing bacterial system heralded a revolutionary change in the field of medical science. The CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) based molecular mechanism has been applied to genome editing. This CRISPR-Cas9 technique is now able to mediate precise genetic corrections or disruptions in in vitro and in vivo environments. The accuracy and versatility of CRISPR-Cas have been capitalized upon in biological and medical research and bring new hope to cancer research. Cancer involves complex alterations and multiple mutations, translocations and chromosomal losses and gains. The ability to identify and correct such mutations is an important goal in cancer treatment. In the context of this complex cancer genomic landscape, there is a need for a simple and flexible genetic tool that can easily identify functional cancer driver genes within a comparatively short time. The CRISPR-Cas system shows promising potential for modeling, repairing and correcting genetic events in different types of cancer. This article reviews the concept of CRISPR-Cas, its application and related advantages in oncology. PMID:29434679
Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.
Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher
In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.
Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline
The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Kosseim, Patricia; Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton
To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research.
Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton
Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. Discussion A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. Conclusion The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research. PMID
Appiah-Poku, John; Newton, Sam; Kass, Nancy
Both the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences and the Helsinki Declaration emphasize that the potential benefits of research should outweigh potential harms; consequently, some work has been conducted on participants' perception of benefits in therapeutic research. However, there appears to be very little work conducted with participants who have joined non-therapeutic research. This work was done to evaluate participants' perception of benefits in a genetic epidemiological study by examining their perception of the potential benefits of enrollment. In-depth interviews lasting between 45 and 60 minutes were conducted with a convenient sample of 25 ill patients and 25 healthy accompanying relatives enrolled in a genetic epidemiological study of tuberculosis. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Participants perceived that research was beneficial and some of the benefits included the generation of new knowledge, finding the cause of diseases, as well as the control, eradication and prevention of disease. Some thought that research was risky whilst others thought that the benefits outweighed the risks. Participants perceived research to be beneficial and most of them thought that, though it was risky, the benefits outweighed the risks. It is our view that researchers need to give serious consideration to participant's perception of benefits in designing their consent forms, to see to the fulfillment of achievable goals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Mendle, Jane; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Conclusions about the effects of harsh parenting on children have been limited by research designs that cannot control for genetic or shared environmental confounds. The present study used a sample of children of twins and a hierarchical linear modeling statistical approach to analyze the consequences of varying levels of punishment while controlling for many confounding influences. The sample of 887 twin pairs and 2,554 children came from the Australian Twin Registry. Although corporal punishment per se did not have significant associations with negative childhood outcomes, harsher forms of physical punishment did appear to have specific and significant effects. The observed association between harsh physical punishment and negative outcomes in children survived a relatively rigorous test of its causal status, thereby increasing the authors’ conviction that harsh physical punishment is a serious risk factor for children. PMID:16756394
Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.
of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.
Jung, Sook; Jesudurai, Christopher; Staton, Margaret; Du, Zhidian; Ficklin, Stephen; Cho, Ilhyung; Abbott, Albert; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Main, Dorrie
Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.
Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.
Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model
Hooker, Gillian W; Babu, D; Myers, M F; Zierhut, H; McAllister, M
As the demand for evidence to support the value of genetic counseling increases, it is critical that reporting of genetic counseling interventions in research and other types of studies (e.g. process improvement or service evaluation studies) adopt greater rigor. As in other areas of healthcare, the appraisal, synthesis, and translation of research findings into genetic counseling practice are likely to be improved if clear specifications of genetic counseling interventions are reported when studies involving genetic counseling are published. To help improve reporting practices, the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) convened a task force in 2015 to develop consensus standards for the reporting of genetic counseling interventions. Following review by the NSGC Board of Directors, the NSGC Practice Guidelines Committee and the editorial board of the Journal of Genetic Counseling, 23 items across 8 domains were proposed as standards for the reporting of genetic counseling interventions in the published literature (GCIRS: Genetic Counseling Intervention Reporting Standards). The authors recommend adoption of these standards by authors and journals when reporting studies involving genetic counseling interventions.
Amjad, Muhammad Kamal; Butt, Shahid Ikramullah; Kousar, Rubeena; Ahmad, Riaz; Agha, Mujtaba Hassan; Faping, Zhang; Anjum, Naveed; Asgher, Umer
Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP) is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA) have gained the most popularity. Keeping in...
Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying
The core of the logistics distribution system is the vehicle routing planning, research path planning problem, provide a better solution has become an important issue. In order to provide the decision support for logistics and distribution operations, this paper studies the problem of vehicle routing with capacity constraints (CVRP). By establishing a mathematical model, the genetic algorithm is used to plan the path of the logistics vehicle to meet the minimum logistics and transportation costs.
Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.
Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists. 2014 FRAME.
Ormandy, Elisabeth H
This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. 2016 FRAME.
Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…
Karl, Tim; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan
The evaluation of behavioral effects is an important component for the in vivo screening of drugs or potentially toxic compounds in mice. Ideally, such screening should be composed of monitoring general health, sensory functions, and motor abilities, right before specific behavioral domains are tested. A rational strategy in the design and procedure of testing as well as an effective composition of different well-established and reproducible behavioral tests can minimize the risk of false positive and false negative results in drug screening. In the present review we describe such basic considerations in planning experiments, selecting strains of mice, and propose groups of behavioral tasks suitable for a reliable detection of differences in specific behavioral domains in mice. Screening of general health and neurophysiologic functions (reflexes, sensory abilities) and motor function (pole test, wire hang test, beam walking, rotarod, accelerod, and footprint) as well as specific hypothesis-guided testing in the behavioral domains of learning and memory (water maze, radial maze, conditioned fear, and avoidance tasks), emotionality (open field, hole board, elevated plus maze, and object exploration), nociception (tail flick, hot plate), psychiatric-like conditions (porsolt swim test, acoustic startle response, and prepulse inhibition), and aggression (isolation-induced aggression, spontaneous aggression, and territorial aggression) are described in further detail. This review is designed to describe a general approach, which increases reliability of behavioral screening. Furthermore, it provides an overview on a selection of specific procedures suitable for but not limited to behavioral screening in pharmacology and toxicology.
Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C
Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.
Xing, Wan-jin; Morigen, Morigen
The classroom is the main venue for undergraduate teaching. It is worth pondering how to cultivate undergraduate's research ability in classroom teaching. Here we introduce the practices and experiences in teaching reform in genetics for training the research quality of undergraduate students from six aspects: (1) constructing the framework for curriculum framework systematicaly, (2) using the teaching content to reflect research progress, (3) explaining knowledge points with research activities, (4) explaining the scientific principles and experiments with PPT animation, (5) improving English reading ability through bilingual teaching, and (6) testing students' analysing ability through examination. These reforms stimulate undergraduate students' enthusiasm for learning, cultivate their ability to find, analyze and solve scientific problems, and improve their English reading and literature reviewing capacity, which lay a foundation for them to enter the field of scientific research.
Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.
There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.
Katharine A. Anderson
Full Text Available There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.
Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E.
Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of ‘lifestyle-genetic’ tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for sell...
Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.
Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu
The commentary aims to provide clarity to the article "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research." We provide another viewpoint for the important issues of behavior addiction. The course of behavior addiction should be further studied. The criteria of withdrawal and tolerance of behavior addiction are ill-defined and need to be further evaluated. The etiology, course, presentation, and functional impairment of behavior addiction should be validated by evidence-based data before being defined as a disorder.
Voils Corrine I
Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the study design, procedures, and development of the risk counseling protocol used in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of genetic testing for diabetes mellitus (DM on psychological, health behavior, and clinical outcomes. Methods/Design Eligible patients are aged 21 to 65 years with body mass index (BMI ≥27 kg/m2 and no prior diagnosis of DM. At baseline, conventional DM risk factors are assessed, and blood is drawn for possible genetic testing. Participants are randomized to receive conventional risk counseling for DM with eye disease counseling or with genetic test results. The counseling protocol was pilot tested to identify an acceptable graphical format for conveying risk estimates and match the length of the eye disease to genetic counseling. Risk estimates are presented with a vertical bar graph denoting risk level with colors and descriptors. After receiving either genetic counseling regarding risk for DM or control counseling on eye disease, brief lifestyle counseling for prevention of DM is provided to all participants. Discussion A standardized risk counseling protocol is being used in a randomized trial of 600 participants. Results of this trial will inform policy about whether risk counseling should include genetic counseling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01060540
The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…
Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John
This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…
The current USDA ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station’s (TARS) cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, consists of 262 clonally propagated accessions. Each accession is represented by six individual trees grafted onto a common ‘Amelonado’ seedling rootstock and planted ...
Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe genetic profiling of Vitis vinifera species has long been a rather esoteric interest of researchers investigating the family relationships between different wine grapes, partly as a surer way of identification than the traditional study of vine leaves known as ampelography. Two recent publications, each examining more than 1000 wine grape varieties, have expanded the field not only for the academic researcher1 but also for the consumer.2 The first publication has already been discussed in an editorial in this journal,3 but the latter is a newly published tome of more than 1200 pages authored by two distinguished Masters of Wine from the UK, Jancis Robinson and Julia Harding, and by the academic researcher José Vouillamoz from the University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, who is responsible for the Swiss Vitis Microsatellite Database (SVMD. The new book covers not only the genetics of wine grapes but also viticultural characteristics, places of cultivation, and the various wines and their taste. Some of these factors are more important to wine consumers than to researchers.
Beskow, Laura M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Daly, Mary; Juengst, Eric T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Merz, Jon F; Pentz, Rebecca; Press, Nancy A; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Sugarman, Jeremy; Susswein, Lisa R; Terry, Sharon F; Austin, Melissa A; Burke, Wylie
Family-based research is essential to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of human disease. The success of family-based research often depends on investigators' ability to identify, recruit, and achieve a high participation rate among eligible family members. However, recruitment of family members raises ethical concerns due to the tension between protecting participants' privacy and promoting research quality, and guidelines for these activities are not well established. The Cancer Genetics Network Bioethics Committee assembled a multidisciplinary group to explore the scientific and ethical issues that arise in the process of family-based recruitment. The group used a literature review as well as expert opinion to develop recommendations about appropriate approaches to identifying, contacting, and recruiting family members. We conclude that there is no single correct approach, but recommend a balanced approach that takes into account the nature of the particular study as well as its recruitment goals. Recruitment of family members should be viewed as part of the research protocol and should require appropriate informed consent of the already-enrolled participant. Investigators should inform prospective participants why they are being contacted, how information about them was obtained, and what will happen to that information if they decide not to participate. The recruitment process should also be sensitive to the fact that some individuals from families at increased genetic risk will have no prior knowledge of their risk status. These recommendations are put forward to promote further discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to family-based recruitment. They suggest a framework for considering alternative recruitment strategies and their implications, as well as highlight areas in need of further empirical research. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Maienschein, J L
The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.
This report summarizes the key themes from a symposium held on February 12, 2014, to discuss opportunities and challenges using cellular location data for national travel behavior analysis. Participants discussed the availability of cellular data and...
Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Satkoski Trask, J; George, D A; Kou, A J; Hoffman, L N; Doherty, T B; Houghton, P; Smith, D G
The genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques used in biomedical research is not as well-characterized as that of rhesus macaques. Populations of cynomolgus macaques from Sumatra, Corregidor, Mauritius, Singapore, Cambodia, and Zamboanga were analyzed using 24 STRs. The Sumatran and Cambodian populations exhibited the highest allelic diversity, while the Mauritian population exhibited the lowest. Sumatran cynomolgus macaques were the most genetically similar to all others, consistent with an Indonesian origin of the species. The high diversity among Cambodian animals may result from interbreeding with rhesus macaques. The Philippine and Mauritian samples were the most divergent from other populations, the former due to separation from the Sunda Shelf by deepwater and the latter due to anthropogenic translocation and extreme founder effects. Investigators should verify their research subjects' origin, ancestry, and pedigree to minimize risks to biomedical experimentation from genetic variance stemming from close kinship and mixed ancestry as these can obscure treatment effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adrian MITROI; Alexandru OPROIU
The paper presents a critique of standard investment analysis, fundamental and technical, and develops an alternative more comprehensive approach that should include some of the tenets of behavioral finance. In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relies on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly. People view a sample random...
Boerman, S.C.; Kruikemeier, S.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.J.
Advertisers are increasingly monitoring people's online behavior and using the information collected to show people individually targeted advertisements. This phenomenon is called online behavioral advertising (OBA). Although advertisers can benefit from OBA, the practice also raises concerns about privacy. Therefore, OBA has received much attention from advertisers, consumers, policymakers, and scholars. Despite this attention, there is neither a strong definition of OBA nor a clear accumula...
Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David
As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process. The transfer of genetic material or genetic modification of cells for performance enhancement is gene doping and should not be used on athletes. There are, however, valid roles for genetic research and the AIS supports genetic research which aims to enhance understanding of athlete susceptibility to injury or illness. Genetic research is only to be conducted after careful consideration of a range of ethical concerns which include the provision of adequate informed consent. The AIS is committed to providing leadership in delivering an ethical framework that protects the well-being of athletes and the integrity of sport, in the rapidly changing world of genomic science. PMID:27899345
Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David
As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process. The transfer of genetic material or genetic modification of cells for performance enhancement is gene doping and should not be used on athletes. There are, however, valid roles for genetic research and the AIS supports genetic research which aims to enhance understanding of athlete susceptibility to injury or illness. Genetic research is only to be conducted after careful consideration of a range of ethical concerns which include the provision of adequate informed consent. The AIS is committed to providing leadership in delivering an ethical framework that protects the well-being of athletes and the integrity of sport, in the rapidly changing world of genomic science. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...
Patterson, Nick; Petersen, Desiree C; van der Ross, Richard E; Sudoyo, Herawati; Glashoff, Richard H; Marzuki, Sangkot; Reich, David; Hayes, Vanessa M
Coloured individuals and made comparisons with historically predicted founder populations. We show that there is substantial genetic contribution from at least four distinct population groups: Europeans, South Asians, Indonesians and a population genetically close to the isiXhosa sub-Saharan Bantu. This is in good accord with the historical record. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, not only for furthering understanding of human evolution out of Africa, but also for genome-wide association studies using admixture mapping. In conclusion, we define the genetic structure of a uniquely admixed population that holds great potential to advance genetic-based medical research.
Chen, Fan-guo; Li, Qing-qing
Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transient giant transcripts that exist at the diplotene stage of the first meiotic division in female gametocytes of almost all animals except mammals. LBCs are named for their lampbrush-like structure, however, they received the lowest research attention in studies of three classical cytogenetic chromosomes. They have been excellent models for studying the structure, organization, transcription, and transcriptional processing of chromosomes during meiosis. Here we briefly summarized these studies and LBCs forming mechanism and also discussed their possible functions, such as providing enough transcriptional products for embryonic development by oocytes LBCs or polyploidy demonstrated by previous reports. Finally, we discussed the possibility of introducing this typical case into our genetics teaching to inspire students' interest in genetics.
In order to improve the economic performance and reduce pollutant emissions of thermal power units, the characteristics of neural network in establishing boiler combustion model are analyzed based on the analysis of the main factors affecting boiler efficiency by using orthogonal method. In addition, on the basis of this model, the genetic algorithm is used to find the best control amount of the furnace combustion in a certain working condition. Through the genetic algorithm based on real number encoding and roulette selection is concluded: the best control quantity at a condition of furnace combustion can be combined with the boiler combustion system model for neural network training. The precision of the neural network model is further improved, and the basic work is laid for the research of the whole boiler combustion optimization system.
Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.
This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263
Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa
Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.
Sanderson, Saskia C; Wardle, Jane; Humphries, Steve E
Human genetics research is increasingly concerned with multifactorial conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which are influenced not only by genetic but also lifestyle factors such as diet and smoking. Although the results of 'lifestyle-genetic' tests using this information could conceivably motivate lifestyle changes in the future, companies are already selling such tests and related lifestyle advice commercially. Some academics and lobby groups have condemned the companies for selling these tests in advance of scientific support. Others are concerned that the tests may not motivate lifestyle improvements, instead causing distress in people receiving adverse test results and complacency in those receiving reassuring results. There is currently no regulatory oversight of genetic test utility, despite consensus in the Public Health Genomics community that clinical utility (including psychological and behavioural impact) of all emerging genetic tests should be evaluated before being introduced for individual use. Clearly, empirical data in this area is much needed, to inform understanding of the potential utility of these tests, and of whether stricter regulation of commercial exploitation is needed. In this article, we review the current situation regarding lifestyle-genetic tests, and discuss the challenges inherent in conducting this kind of behavioural research in the genomics era. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Lieberman, David
Electronic health records (EHRs) are being increasingly utilized and form a unique source of extensive data gathered during routine clinical care. Through use of codified and free text concepts identified using clinical informatics tools, disease labels can be assigned with a high degree of accuracy. Analysis linking such EHR-assigned disease labels to a biospecimen repository has demonstrated that genetic associations identified in prospective cohorts can be replicated with adequate statistical power and novel phenotypic associations identified. In addition, genetic discovery research can be performed utilizing clinical, laboratory, and procedure data obtained during care. Challenges with such research include the need to tackle variability in quality and quantity of EHR data and importance of maintaining patient privacy and data security. With appropriate safeguards, this novel and emerging field of research offers considerable promise and potential to further scientific research in gastroenterology efficiently, cost-effectively, and with engagement of patients and communities. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The genome of the bacteria has considerable diversity in terms of sequence of nucleotide bases and change over the time. With the advancement of bioinformatics science possibility of the vast comparison to living organisms has risen. During the last two decades many information about genome sequencing of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria have been published. Using this information and to find connections between them and many phenotypic characteristics and behavior of bacteria could be used in many studies. In this study we compared some of the genetic, phenotypic and behavioral properties of archaebacteria and eubacteria. Methods: In this analytical study, genomic Information of 286 species of archaebacteria and 122 species of eubacteria were collected from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information site which was conducted in April to June 2015. Mean of gene size, gene number, protein number and C+G content compared in the two groups of archaebacteria and eubacteria. Association of genomic characterization of bacteria with several other characteristics were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 19 (Chicago, IL, USA. For this purpose, the Pearson correlation coefficient (Pearson, Student’s t-test and ANOVA test (One-way analysis of variance was used. The P values less than 0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: There was significant association between means discrepancy in two group (P= 0.01. The genome size of eubacteria and archaebacteria have significant association with some of the characteristics of bacteria, such as the C+G content, the number of proteins, genes and habitats of the bacteria (P= 0.01. As well as there was significant association between genome size and features such as number of pseudogene, mobility and type of breathing in eubacteria (P= 0.01 but not in archaebacterial (P˃ 0.05. Conclusion: Many characteristics of eubacteria and archaebacteria are significantly
Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin
Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.
Full Text Available The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for social anxiety disorder (SAD has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 G-703T polymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202. Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.ClinicalTrials.gov (ID-NCT0056496.
Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.
The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…
Dymond, Simon; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno
In a recent article, Schlinger (2008) marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) by considering its impact on the field of behaviorism and research on verbal behavior. In the present article, we comment on Schlinger's conclusions regarding the impact of the book and highlight the extensions and…
Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...
Sun, Xiao; Wu, Zhaomin; Cao, Qingjiu; Qian, Ying; Liu, Yong; Yang, Binrang; Chang, Suhua; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng
As a childhood-onset psychiatric disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Lifelong executive function deficits in ADHD are described in many literatures and have been proposed as endophenotypes of ADHD. However, its genetic basis is still elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study of executive function, rated with Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in ADHD children. We identified one significant variant (rs852004, P = 2.51e-08) for the overall score of BRIEF. The association analyses for each component of executive function found this locus was more associated with inhibit and monitor components. Further principle component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis provided an ADHD-specific executive function pattern including inhibit and monitor factors. SNP rs852004 was mainly associated with the Behavioral Regulation factor. Meanwhile, we found the significant locus was associated with ADHD symptom. The Behavioral Regulation factor mediated its effect on ADHD symptom. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses further showed evidence that this variant affected the activity of inhibition control related brain regions. It provided new insights for the genetic basis of executive function in ADHD.
Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.
Waller, M. C.
The oculometer is an electrooptical device designed to measure pilot scanning behavior during instrument approaches and landing operations. An overview of some results from a simulation study is presented to illustrate how information from the oculometer installed in a visual motion simulator, combined with measures of performance and control input data, can provide insight into the behavior and tactics of individual pilots during instrument approaches. Differences in measured behavior of the pilot subjects are pointed out; these differences become apparent in the way the pilots distribute their visual attention, in the amount of control activity, and in selected performance measures. Some of these measured differences have diagnostic implications, suggesting the use of the oculometer along with performance measures as a pilot training tool.
Bemelmans, S.AS.A.; Tromp, K.; Bunnik, E.M.; Milne, R.J.; Badger, S.; Brayne, C.; Schermer, M.H.; Richard, E.
BACKGROUND: Current Alzheimer's disease (AD) research initiatives focus on cognitively healthy individuals with biomarkers that are associated with the development of AD. It is unclear whether biomarker results should be returned to research participants and what the psychological, behavioral and
Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S
Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0
Espelage, Dorothy L
This commentary reviews research findings of the five papers in the special entitled "School-related Factors in the Development of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization", which represent critical areas that are often overlooked in the literature. First, one paper points to the complex interaction between a genetic disposition for aggression and classroom norms toward aggression. Second, an intervention paper unpacks the underlying mechanisms of an efficacious school-wide bully prevention program by opening the "black box" and testing for mediators. Third, the remaining studies employ a wide range of rigorous designs to identify how teachers' attitudes, behaviors, and classroom practices play a critical role in the prevalence of victimization and bullying in the classroom. Further, teachers' attitudes and behaviors are shown to be predictive of youth's willingness to intervene to assist a peer who is being victimized. Results are situated in what is known about bullying prevention, and how the findings from these studies could maximize the sensitivity of future prevention efforts.
Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K
Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population. 4,5 In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.
Rosenthal, Robert; Rosnow, Ralph L; Rubin, Donald B
.... Researchers, teachers of research methods, and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis but will also be introduced to a series of newly developed...
Full Text Available Gerald (Gerry Rubin, pioneer in Drosophila genetics, is Founding Director of the HHMI-funded Janelia Research Campus. In this interview, Gerry recounts key events and collaborations that have shaped his unique approach to scientific exploration, decision-making, management and mentorship – an approach that forms the cornerstone of the model adopted at Janelia to tackle problems in interdisciplinary biomedical research. Gerry describes his remarkable journey from newcomer to internationally renowned leader in the fly field, highlighting his contributions to the tools and resources that have helped establish Drosophila as an important model in translational research. Describing himself as a ‘tool builder’, his current focus is on developing approaches for in-depth study of the fly nervous system, in order to understand key principles in neurobiology. Gerry was interviewed by Ross Cagan, Senior Editor of Disease Models & Mechanisms.
Muhammad Kamal Amjad
Full Text Available Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP. The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA have gained the most popularity. Keeping in view this aspect, this article presents a comprehensive literature review of the FJSSPs solved using the GA. The survey is further extended by the inclusion of the hybrid GA (hGA techniques used in the solution of the problem. This review will give readers an insight into use of certain parameters in their future research along with future research directions.
Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha
Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.
Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Martin E. Alexander; Craig B. Clements; Miguel G. Cruz; Mark A. Finney; Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick; Chad Hoffman; W. Matt Jolly; Sara S. McAllister; Roger D. Ottmar; Russell A. Parsons
The National Wildfire Coordinating Groupâs definition of extreme fire behavior indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/ spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...
Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).
The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…
Vyas, Dhaval; de Groot, S.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Dainoff, Marvin J.
Searching for relevant peer-reviewed material is an integral part of corporate and academic researchers. Researchers collect huge amount of information over the years and sometimes struggle organizing it. Based on a study with 30 academic researchers, we explore, in combination, different searching
In view of increased life expectancy the risk for disturbed integrity of genetic information increases. This inevitably holds the implication for higher incidence of age-related diseases leading to considerable cost increase in health care systems. To develop preventive strategies it is crucial to evaluate external and internal noxae as possible threats to our DNA. Especially the interplay of DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair (DR) mechanisms needs further deciphering. Moreover, there is a distinct need for alternative in vivo test systems for basic research and also risk assessment in toxicology. Especially the evaluation of combinational toxicity of environmentally present genotoxins and adverse effects of clinically used DNA damaging anticancer drugs is a major challenge for modern toxicology. This review focuses on the applicability of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to unravel and tackle scientific questions related to the biological consequences of genotoxin exposure and highlights methods for studying DDR and DR. In this regard large-scale in vivo screens of mixtures of chemicals and extensive parallel sequencing are highlighted as unique advantages of C. elegans. In addition, concise information regarding evolutionary conserved molecular mechanisms of the DDR and DR as well as currently available data obtained from the use of prototypical genotoxins and preferential read-outs of genotoxin testing are discussed. The use of established protocols, which are already available in the community, is encouraged to facilitate and further improve the implementation of C. elegans as a powerful genetic model system in genetic toxicology and biomedicine.
Homberg, J.R.; Nijman, I.J.; Kuijpers, S.; Cuppen, E.
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain
Malyna, D.V.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Horck, van F.B.M.
A practical example of power electronic converter synthesis is presented, where a multi-objective genetic algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used. The optimization algorithm takes an experimentally-derived thermal model for the converter into account. Experimental
Carsrud, Robert Steven
Since the identification of self-handicapping strategies in 1978, considerable attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Self-handicapping is a strategy for discounting ability attributions for probable failure while augmenting ability attributions for possible success. Behavioral self-handicaps are conceptually distinct from self-reported…
Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris
Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.; Chow, Jason C.; Gordon, Jason R.; Mahany, Laura A.
Teachers' reported knowledge about and implementation of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies were examined. A total of 160 elementary teachers from two districts in different regions of the same state completed the researcher-developed "Survey of Classroom and Behavior Management." On average, teachers reported to…
Advertising research is a scientific discipline that studies artifacts (e.g., various forms of marketing communication) as well as natural phenomena (e.g., consumer behavior). Empirical advertising research therefore requires methods that can model design constructs as well as behavioral constructs,
Zhan Mingkui; Zhao Jingrong
This paper summarized the achievements and developments in mutation breeding and genetic research of soybean. The optimal irradiation dosage was determined for 22 varieties of soybean which have been released and popularized so far. Analyses of mutants, mutant characters and mutation frequency in the generations of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 of soybean were carried out and a procedure of mutation breeding was described. Discussion of the effect of different radiant agents, the selection of progeny induced by radiation, the breeding method by combining mutation with hybridization and resistant varieties with good quality ones have been conducted
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.
Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels have attracted considerable attention because of their vital roles in primary sensory neurons, mediating responses to a wide variety of external environmental stimuli. However, much less is known about how TRP channels in the brain respond to intrinsic signals and are involved in neurophysiological processes that control complex behaviors. Painless (Pain is the Drosophila TRP channel that was initially identified as a molecular sensor responsible for detecting noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli. Here, we review recent behavioral genetic studies demonstrating that Pain expressed in the brain plays a critical role in both innate and learned aspects of sexual behaviors. Several members of the TRP channel superfamily play evolutionarily conserved roles in sensory neurons as well as in other peripheral tissues. It is thus expected that brain TRP channels in vertebrates and invertebrates would have some common physiological functions. Studies of Pain in the Drosophila brain using a unique combination of genetics and physiological techniques should provide valuable insights into the fundamental principles concerning TRP channels expressed in the vertebrate and invertebrate brains.
Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren
The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.
Quality Management (TQM) programs in industry and government. The essence of TQM involves respect for personal choice and the participation of every level of workers in decisions which impact the organization. Typically, structured questionnaires developed by behavioral scientists are designed to be easy to summarize and generally lack any mechanism for personal comments, ideas, and suggestions. New open-ended, interactive, and iterative survey methodologies are needed to enhance creativity, encourage feedback, and foster a sense of participation. Total Quality
Inoue, Hiroyuki; Noda, Kenji
When a formation disposal system is thought about, it is important to evaluate long-term dynamics behavior of boundary condition and near field bedrock of an artificial barrier adequately. In this study, three matters were executed for improvement of a dependability of the evaluation as follows. (1) Creep test was executed as purpose by dependability improvement of evaluation technique of creep problem by Okubo model. Okubo model constant was calculated than the unconfined compression test which let strain rate change with true rock, and the creep test which the constant was used, and estimated breaking time was done. As a result, the estimation of breaking time by Okubo model almost suffered according to the estimation although a variation of test-piece influenced it. (2) A tunnel model apparatus was produced in the purpose which grasped near field bedrock behavior, and it was tested. Simulation rock test body of 1 m * 1 m * 0.5 m was used for a test, and 15 cm tunnel excavation was carried out in an initial stress bottom. Quantities of inner space displacement were measured in a test, and a hardness-test was done after dismantlement, and looseness area was grasped quantitatively. As a result, the looseness area was able to be estimated with about 17.5 cm than tunnel center position. (3) A test approach in deep underground laboratory was examined, and examination/the in situ test which took advantage of rock core analysis/borehole as purpose and done examination item by grip of long-term bedrock behavior (a bord is taken advantage of, and bord itself is used) was shown. In addition, layout of the deep underground laboratory which carried out various tests about long-term behavior in 3 depth was shown. (author)
Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel
Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shavelson, Richard J.; Stern, Paula
Based on research done in the past decade, the authors formulated a "schema" of teachers' judgments, planning and interactive decisions. Recommendations for future research included development of a taxonomy of critical teaching decisions, intervention, and alteration of teachers' plans and decisions to improve teaching, and implementation of…
Heathfield, Laura J; Maistry, Sairita; Martin, Lorna J; Ramesar, Raj; de Vries, Jantina
The use of tissue collected at a forensic post-mortem for forensic genetics research purposes remains of ethical concern as the process involves obtaining informed consent from grieving family members. Two forensic genetics research studies using tissue collected from a forensic post-mortem were recently initiated at our institution and were the first of their kind to be conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. This article discusses some of the ethical challenges that were encountered in these research projects. Among these challenges was the adaptation of research workflows to fit in with an exceptionally busy service delivery that is operating with limited resources. Whilst seeking guidance from the literature regarding research on deceased populations, it was noted that next of kin of decedents are not formally recognised as a vulnerable group in the existing ethical and legal frameworks in South Africa. The authors recommend that research in the forensic mortuary setting is approached using guidance for vulnerable groups, and the benefit to risk standard needs to be strongly justified. Lastly, when planning forensic genetics research, consideration must be given to the potential of uncovering incidental findings, funding to validate these findings and the feedback of results to family members; the latter of which is recommended to occur through a genetic counsellor. It is hoped that these experiences will contribute towards a formal framework for conducting forensic genetic research in medico-legal mortuaries in South Africa.
Cook, Lola; Schulze, Jeanine
There are multiple autosomal recessive disorders in which carriers may be at risk for other diseases. This observation calls into question the previous understanding that carriers of autosomal recessive disorders escape clinical consequences. We also know that childhood genetic conditions may have adult disease counterparts (Zimran et al., The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 16(11), 723-724, 2014). Individuals who have Gaucher disease and carriers of the disorder are at increased risk for a seemingly unrelated and complex neurological condition, Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is, in part, caused by the same mutations in the GBA gene that lead to Gaucher disease, and the two conditions are thought to have shared pathophysiology. Briefly reviewed are how these two diseases historically became linked, where their paths cross, potential problems and considerations in disclosure of the link, and current guidelines and research in this area. Genetic counseling experience with a large Parkinson disease cohort is used as a starting point to question the state of clinical and nonclinical practice in disclosing this unusual connection We conclude that more research and discussion are needed to inform practice regarding the crossroads of Gaucher and Parkinson disease.
Gliwa, Catherine; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jones, Nathan; Berkman, Benjamin E
Researchers' obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings (GIFs) have been widely debated, but there has been little empirical study of the engagement of institutional review boards (IRBs) with this issue. This article presents data from the first extensive (n = 796) national survey of IRB professionals' understanding of, experience with, and beliefs surrounding GIFs. Most respondents had dealt with questions about GIFs (74%), but only a minority (47%) felt prepared to address them. Although a majority believed that there is an obligation to disclose GIFs (78%), there is still not consensus about the supporting ethical principles. Respondents generally did not endorse the idea that researchers' additional time and effort (7%), and lack of resources (29%), were valid reasons for diminishing a putative obligation. Most (96%) supported a right not to know, but this view became less pronounced (63%) when framed in terms of specific case studies. IRBs are actively engaged with GIFs but have not yet reached consensus. Respondents were uncomfortable with arguments that could be used to limit an obligation to return GIFs. This could indicate that IRBs are providing some of the impetus for the trend toward returning GIFs, although questions remain about the relative contribution of other stakeholders.Genet Med 18 7, 705-711.
Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research. Problems with atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches in the study of behavioral addictions.
This commentary is written in response to a paper by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Hereen (2015) published in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions. It supports and extends the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015): that the study of behavioral addictions too often rests on atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches. This tends to lead to theories that lack specificity and a neglect of the underlying processes that might explain why repetitive problem behaviors occur. In this commentary I extend the arguments by Billieux, Schimmenti et al. (2015) and argue that such research approaches might take us further away from conceptualizing psychiatric diagnoses that can be properly validated, which is already a problem in the field. Furthermore, I discuss whether the empirical support for conceptualizing repetitive problem behaviors as addictions might rest on research practices that have been methodologically biased to produce a result congruent with the proposal that substance addictions and behavioral addictions share similar traits. I conclude by presenting a number of ways of going forward, chief of which is the proposal that we might wish to go beyond a priori assumptions of addiction in favor of identifying the essential problem manifestations for each new potential behavioral addiction.
Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M
Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.
Argyriou, Evangelia; Um, Miji; Carron, Claire; Cyders, Melissa A
Impulsive behavior is implicated in the initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors involved in drug addiction. Research shows that changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan contribute to drug use and addiction. The goal of this review is to examine existing research on the relationship between impulsive behavior and drug use across the lifespan and to recommend directions for future research. Three domains of impulsive behavior are explored in this review: impulsive behavior-related personality traits, delay discounting, and prepotent response inhibition. First, we present previous research on these three domains of impulsive behavior and drug use across developmental stages. Then, we discuss how changes in impulsive behavior across the lifespan are implicated in the progression of drug use and addiction. Finally, we discuss the relatively limited attention given to middle-to-older adults in the current literature, consider the validity of the measures used to assess impulsive behavior in middle-to-older adulthood, and suggest recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Binh, Do Quang; Huy, Ngo Quang; Hai, Nguyen Hoang
This paper presents a new approach based on a binary mixed integer coded genetic algorithm in conjunction with the weighted sum method for multi-objective optimization of fuel loading patterns for nuclear research reactors. The proposed genetic algorithm works with two types of chromosomes: binary and integer chromosomes, and consists of two types of genetic operators: one working on binary chromosomes and the other working on integer chromosomes. The algorithm automatically searches for the most suitable weighting factors of the weighting function and the optimal fuel loading patterns in the search process. Illustrative calculations are implemented for a research reactor type TRIGA MARK II loaded with the Russian VVR-M2 fuels. Results show that the proposed genetic algorithm can successfully search for both the best weighting factors and a set of approximate optimal loading patterns that maximize the effective multiplication factor and minimize the power peaking factor while satisfying operational and safety constraints for the research reactor.
Binh, Do Quang [University of Technical Education Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Huy, Ngo Quang [University of Industry Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hai, Nguyen Hoang [Centre for Research and Development of Radiation Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
This paper presents a new approach based on a binary mixed integer coded genetic algorithm in conjunction with the weighted sum method for multi-objective optimization of fuel loading patterns for nuclear research reactors. The proposed genetic algorithm works with two types of chromosomes: binary and integer chromosomes, and consists of two types of genetic operators: one working on binary chromosomes and the other working on integer chromosomes. The algorithm automatically searches for the most suitable weighting factors of the weighting function and the optimal fuel loading patterns in the search process. Illustrative calculations are implemented for a research reactor type TRIGA MARK II loaded with the Russian VVR-M2 fuels. Results show that the proposed genetic algorithm can successfully search for both the best weighting factors and a set of approximate optimal loading patterns that maximize the effective multiplication factor and minimize the power peaking factor while satisfying operational and safety constraints for the research reactor.
Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony; Ye, Gong-yin
From the first insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) rice transformation in 1989 in China to October 2009 when the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued biosafety certificates for commercial production of two cry1Ab/Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) lines, China made a great leap forward from IRGM rice basic research to potential commercialization of the world's first IRGM rice. Research has been conducted on developing IRGM rice, assessing its environmental and food safety impacts, and evaluating its socioeconomic consequences. Laboratory and field tests have confirmed that these two Bt rice lines can provide effective and economic control of the lepidopteran complex on rice with less risk to the environment than present practices. Commercializing these Bt plants, while developing other GM plants that address the broader complex of insects and other pests, will need to be done within a comprehensive integrated pest management program to ensure the food security of China and the world.
Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.
Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Krauss, Ronald M.
Lipoprotein and weight differences between vigorously active and sedentary MZ twins are used to: (1) estimate the effects of training while controlling for genotype; (2) estimate genetic concordance in the presence of divergent lifestyles.
Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul
There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior.
Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.
Cytokine-induced sickness behavior was recognized within a few years of the cloning and expression of interferon-α, IL-1 and IL-2, which occurred around the time that the first issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity was published in 1987. Phase I clinical trials established that injection of recombinant cytokines into cancer patients led to a variety of psychological disturbances. It was subsequently shown that physiological concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines that occur after infection act in the brain to induce common symptoms of sickness, such as loss of appetite, sleepiness, withdrawal from normal social activities, fever, aching joints and fatigue. This syndrome was defined as sickness behavior and is now recognized to be part of a motivational system that reorganizes the organism's priorities to facilitate recovery from the infection. Cytokines convey to the brain that an infection has occurred in the periphery, and this action of cytokines can occur via the traditional endocrine route via the blood or by direct neural transmission via the afferent vagus nerve. The finding that sickness behavior occurs in all mammals and birds indicates that communication between the immune system and brain has been evolutionarily conserved and forms an important physiological adaptive response that favors survival of the organism during infections. The fact that cytokines act in the brain to induce physiological adaptations that promote survival has led to the hypothesis that inappropriate, prolonged activation of the innate immune system may be involved in a number of pathological disturbances in the brain, ranging from Alzheimers' disease to stroke. Conversely, the newly-defined role of cytokines in a wide variety of systemic co-morbid conditions, ranging from chronic heart failure to obesity, may begin to explain changes in the mental state of these subjects. Indeed, the newest findings of cytokine actions in the brain offer some of the first clues about the
Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna
This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne Sonne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....
Serdar Öge; Pınar Erdogan
The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be researched that whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated ...
The paper contains the results of a special research developed by the author on the organizational behavior in some multinational companies with branches in Romania. This research is confirming the fact that the organizational behavior is very much influenced by the core organizational values and is answering to the questions about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations and why. The research demonstrated how the core values of an organization are influencing the organization...
Trace, Sara Elizabeth; Thornton, Laura Marie; Baker, Jessica Helen; Root, Tammy Lynn; Janson, Lauren Elizabeth; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Bulik, Cynthia Marie
Bulimia nervosa (BN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and may share genetic factors; however, the nature of their association is not fully understood. We assessed the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to BN and AUD. A bivariate structural equation model using a Cholesky decomposition was fit to data from 7,241 women who participated in the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The proportion of variance accounted for by genetic and environmental factors for BN and AUD and the genetic and environmental correlations between these disorders were estimated. In the best-fitting model, the heritability estimates were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.70) for BN and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.70) for AUD. Unique environmental factors accounted for the remainder of variance for BN. The genetic correlation between BN and AUD was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.44), and the correlation between the unique environmental factors for the two disorders was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.61), suggesting moderate overlap in these factors. Findings from this investigation provide additional support that some of the same genetic factors may influence liability to both BN and AUD. PMID:23790978
Matos, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Hirotsu, Camila; Scorza, Fulvio A; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana; Noguti, Juliana; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L
The interaction between sleep deprivation and epilepsy has been well described in electrophysiological studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on locomotor activity and genetic damage in the brains of rats treated with saline or pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). After 50 days of pilocarpine or saline treatment, both groups were assigned randomly to total sleep deprivation (TSD) for 6 h, paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 24 h, or be kept in their home cages. Locomotor activity was assessed with the open field test followed by resection of brain for quantification of genetic damage by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Status epilepticus induced significant hyperactivity in the open field test and caused genetic damage in the brain. Sleep deprivation procedures (TSD and PSD) did not affect locomotor activity in epileptic or healthy rats, but resulted in significant DNA damage in brain cells. Although PSD had this effect in both vehicle and epileptic groups, TSD caused DNA damage only in epileptic rats. In conclusion, our results revealed that, despite a lack of behavioral effects of sleep deprivation, TSD and PSD induced genetic damage in rats submitted to pilocarpine-induced SE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woodall, Anna; Howard, Louise; Morgan, Craig
The aim of this study was to investigate why people with a first episode of psychosis choose or decline to participate in mental health research, using a qualitative study design. Participants were recruited via referrals from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. A total of 26 individuals with a first-episode of psychosis (nine of whom declined participation in the GAP study and 17 who participated) were individually interviewed and asked about their attitudes towards mental health research participation. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was used to determine dominant themes and sub-themes on what constituted barriers and facilitators to participation. Reasons for research participation identified included a desire to help others, curiosity, and positive experiences with clinicians. Decisions to participate or not were also influenced by practical issues, including the timing of the approach, researchers' communication skills and whether individuals had concerns that it may be potentially harmful to their health. Other barriers to participation included patients' conceptualizations of mental health problems and the influence of other inpatients. Information on barriers and facilitators to recruitment in mental health research could inform recruitment strategies, thereby maximizing recruitment rates and minimizing the risk of selection biases.
Full Text Available The fracture behavior of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX seriously affects the safety and reliability of weapon system. The effects of interface debonding and initial meso-damage on the fracture behavior of PBX under quasi-static tension are studied using numerical method. A two-dimensional representative volume element (RVE is established based on Voronoi model in which the component contents could be regulated and the particles are randomly distributed. A nonlinear damage model of polymer matrix relative to matrix depth between particles is constructed. The results show that the simulated strain-stress relation is coincident with experiment data. It is found that interface debonding leads to the nucleation and propagation of meso-cracks, and a main crack approximately perpendicular to the loading direction is generated finally. The interface debonding tends to occur in the interface perpendicular to the loading direction. There seems to be a phenomenon that strain softening and hardening alternatively appear around peak stress of stress and strain curve. It is shown that the initial damages of intragranular and interfacial cracks both decrease the modulus and failure stress, and the main crack tends to propagate toward the initial meso-cracks.