WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral factors driving

  1. The background factor of the driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Taishi, Nozomi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors lead to driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers, particularly focusing on the effect of self-reported driving performance, and to investigate the relationship between driving compensation behavior and traffic accidents or violations. After analyzing 237 elderly drivers, the results showed that whereas self-reported driving performances influenced driving compensation behaviors, the relationship between self-reported driving perf...

  2. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. PMID:20685667

  3. Youth Personality Factors as Predictors of Risky All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Driving Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, H A; Stoneman, Z

    2016-04-01

    Children and youth account for a disproportionately high number of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries and deaths. This study explored whether and how youth personality factors such as sensation seeking (including thrill seeking and behavioral intensity) and youth safety consciousness predict risky A TV riding behaviors. Survey information was collected from farm families in Georgia having youth who were active on farms. Data were analyzed from 104 youth between the ages 10 through 14 years who were active users ofATVs. Boys and girls had similar exposure to ATVs. Risky ATV riding behaviors were associated with age but not with gender. Boys and girls were equally likely to drive adult-sized ATVs, drive ATVs on public roads, drive ATVs fast, and carry extra passengers on single-seat ATVs. Boys had higher scores than girls on personality factors like thrill seeking and behavioral intensity. Hierarchical regression revealed that although there were multiple determinants of risky ATV riding behaviors of youth, thrill seeking appeared to be an important factor, which was moderated by safety consciousness. Youth who are low in thrill seeking and have a high level of safety consciousness reported less risky ATV riding behaviors. High thrill seekers were more likely to report indulging in risky ATV riding behaviors regardless of their level of safety consciousness. Our results suggest that personality traits (such as sensation seeking) of the target population should be considered when developing ATV safety interventions, as these traits will likely influence an intervention's level of success. Low thrill seekers would be prime candidates for safety training, as an increase in their safety consciousness may be more likely to result in decreased risky riding behaviors. High thrill seekers may be less amenable to training and will more likely require interventions external to the individual, including legislation, improved ATV safety design, use of crush protection

  4. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Past Behavior, Situational Factors, and Self-Identity Factors Drive Indonesian Enterpreneurs to Be Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the factors affecting borrowing intention among young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. About 100 questionnaires were accepted and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM in determining the relationships. The results show that borrowing intention amongst young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community is influenced by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, self identity, situational temptation, and past behavior. The young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community believe that they have complete control of their behavior in borrowing as they perceived to be equipped with the knowledge about the personal financing. In addition, because of their experience in students’ loans since undergraduates’ level, the result explains why situational temptation were found to be a significant predictor. The findings offer implications for researchers and government.

  5. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  6. Aggressive Driving Behavior: Undergraduate Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rungson Chomeya

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main purposes of this research were (1) to study the aggressive driving behavior of graduate students, (2) to develop aggressive driving behavior standard test, (3) to compare the aggressive driving behavior between gender, years of study, academic achievement, driving confidence and driving experience and (4) to study the relationship among aggressive driving behavior, driving confidence, driving experience and accident experience. Approach: The subjects consisted of 4...

  7. Impact of subjective factors on driver vigilance : a driving simulator study, In : Driver behavior and training Vol 3

    OpenAIRE

    Vrignon, J.; RAKOTONIRAINY, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of subjective factors on driver's vigilance, using the driver's psychomotor performances assessed using an unobtrusive Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). We first described our experiment, with the design of the scenario used on a driving simulator, and the designed of a nonobtrusive Psychomotor Vigilance Test enabling to assess performance of the driver while driving. Then, the impact of subjective factors reported by participants is analysed with ANOVA. Fin...

  8. Unsafe driving behaviors and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuinen, M

    1994-04-01

    The medical costs associated with motor vehicle crashes are difficult to measure. Most attempts have used crash data and cost data that are only indirectly related to each other or have followed patients in a few hospitals or trauma centers. These studies produce localized estimates or rough national estimates of limited use to policy makers. The result has been a dependence on more readily available mortality data, such as the Fatal Accident Reporting System, to guide automotive safety efforts. The limitations of mortality data and the increasing sophistication of medical care data bases have resulted in a strong interest in obtaining crash-linked morbidity data. Hence, in 1993, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded the Missouri Department of Health and six other applicants grants to link automotive crash records to statewide ambulance trip, outpatient care, hospitalization and mortality records. By identifying an individual across multiple data sets, states would be able to determine directly the relationship of driver behaviors and crash characteristics to hospitalization rates and other medical outcomes. Examination of hospital pay source information would expose the toll of automotive crashes on public tax dollars. Having recently completed the record linkage phase of this project, Missouri Department of Health staff are beginning to analyze the impact of automotive crashes on health care costs in Missouri. In this report, three unsafe driving behaviors, failure to use a safety device (seatbelts and motorcycle helmets), driving under the influence of alcohol, and speeding, are related to the risk of hospitalization or death, hospital costs, and expected pay source. PMID:8202067

  9. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for great mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, resulting in substantial global burden. Factors contributing to RTC generally fall into three categories: environmental, vehicle, and human, with the human factor being by far the leading determinant. Obtaining an in-depth exploration of driving behavior and factors underpinning risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the establishment of effective policies. The present article provide...

  10. Driving Style: Determining Factors, Characteristics, Optimization Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A system of description, identification and classification of factors determining driving style is proposed in the article; stable (sustained) and variable (unstable) factors determining driving style are studied. Driving style is analyzed within the framework of structural approach. The variable factor are: specifications and technical condition of the vehicle, class of the car, its prestige (from a social point of view), training of the driver, social regulators, features of the road enviro...

  11. Retail Pricing Patterns and Driving Factors of Price Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Chenguang; Volpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the strategic pricing behaviors across retail chains for produce products. We adopt a Panel-VAR model to identify the driving factors of retail price variation and find that retail price history, competition, product cost are among the key drivers of retail price change. Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) is used to quantify the relative impact of driving factors to retail price changes and show how they affect prices differently across retail chains. We also fin...

  12. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost. PMID:20441810

  13. Sustainable Innovation - Driving Factors in Large Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Alderin, Clara; Do, Thao

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, there has been a growing interest in sustainable innovation both in academia and in practice. Our qualitative, multiple case study examines this emerging field in the context of large firms. By doing so, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the concept as well as the underlying factors driving sustainable innovation. Theory highlighted both external and internal factors in firms’ sustainable innovation engagement. The empirical evidence identifies five key fact...

  14. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  15. Analysis on unsafe driving behaviors and its influence factors in Guangzhou, 2008%2008年广州市居民不安全驾驶行为发生率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董航; 林国桢; 潘冰莹; 周琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and related influence factors of unsafe driving behaviors among residents in Guangzhou City, and provide information for establishing road traffic safety prevention and control policy. Methods Multi-stage random sampling method was used for selecting the sample, and 6987 residents aged 15-69 years old from 12 counties or districts in Guangzhou were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect unsafe driving behaviors and related influence factors in last 30 days. Results In last 30 days, the rates of driving without seatbelt, drinking driving, fatigue driving and driving without license were 15. 0% , 13.6%, 16.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results showed that rural areas ( OR = 2. 4) , low education level ( OR = 2. 4 ) were risk factors of driving without seatbelt. Frequency of driving without seatbelt in Group aged 35 ( OR = 0. 4) was lower than that in Group aged55-69. Male (OR =5. 2) , drinkers (OR = 13. 6) , rural areas ( OR = 2.0), smokers ( OR = 1. 8) were risk factors of drunk driving, and life and work pressure was ( OR = 0. 1 ) protect factor of drunk driving. Male ( OR = 7. 0) , smokers ( OR = 1.6) were risk factors of fatigue driving. Frequencies of fatigue driving in drivers with junior high school ( OR = 2. 6 ) or high school / technical secondary school ( OR = 1.8) were higher than that of drivers with college or above. Rural area ( OR — 0. 4) was protect factors of fatigue driving. Low education level ( OR — 8. 8 ) was risk factor of driving without license, male was protect factor ( OR = 0. 4 ). Frequencies of driving without license in Group aged 25 ( OR = 0. 2 ) and Group aged 35 (OR=0. 4) was slower than those in Group aged 55 -69. Conclusion Unsafe driving behaviors are common in Guangzhou City, the supervision of fatigue driving and drunk driving should be strengthened and the unsafe driving behaviors among aged people should not be ignored.%目的 了解广州市居民不

  16. Modeling motivation and habit in driving behavior under lifetime driver's license revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Ming; Chang, Hsin-Li; Woo, T Hugh

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify the motivational factors underlying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicting the driving behavior of lifetime driving license revoked offenders. Of a total of 639 drivers whose licenses had been permanently revoked, 544 offenders completed a questionnaire constructed to measure attitudes toward behaviors, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions (the key constructs of the TPB), and previous driving habit strength. The finding of the study revealed that an offenders' driving behavior after a lifetime license revocation was significantly correlated to behavioral intention (R=0.60, pbehavioral control (R=0.61, pbehavior (R=0.03). Low driving habit strength offenders are motivated to drive because of behavioral intention, whereas strong driving habit strength offenders are motivated to drive because of perceived behavioral control. Previous driving habit strength is a moderator in the intention-behavior relationship. The model appeared successful when previous habits were weak, but less successful when previous habits were strong. PMID:23287113

  17. Survey explores teen driving behavior in Central Valley, Los Angeles high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos, Ramona M; Borba, John A; Heck, Katherine E.; Nathaniel, Keith C; Sousa, Carla M

    2009-01-01

    Teenage drivers, particularly new drivers, have higher crash rates than adults. We surveyed 2,144 teenage drivers in California about their driving practices, factors influencing driving behavior, and views on driver education and resources. Teens wanted updated driver education courses and more behind-the-wheel training while learning to drive. They identified parents as their most important resource when learning to drive and also reported that parents were less likely to enforce the rule p...

  18. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the pri

  19. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAfter industrial revolution, driving vehicles became a necessity in fulfilling human needs in different aspects of life. This is a positive phenomenon but is not without negative side effects, such as, for example, accidents, air pollution, traffic jam etc. In many countries, road construction and maintenance is far behind innovations of new vehicles. In many places the road quality or size is not able to bare the traffic load, hence the reason for significant rise in accidents and human life loss in the second half of the twentieth century in developed and developing countries. That is, 1.2 million deaths worldwide are caused by vehicle accidents. Accidents are the first cause of injuries and second cause of death in the population of Iran at ages bellow 40. In vehicle accidents, three factors are involved: human, vehicle and road quality. The human factor is more apparent since it governs the other two. Since the human factor is influenced by social, economic, cultural, political and other environmental aspects, its behavior in driving varies with respect to space and time. Consequently the question addressed in this paper is as follow: is there a correlation between where does the driver live and how his driving behavior is? And how is the driver’s spatial distribution manner when it comes to improper driving behavior on the intra-city routs? The megacity of Isfahan as a touristic city is of concern in this respect. Thus the broader questions are: which are the factors involved in affecting the driving behavior of drivers in Isfahan? What are the patterns which influence driving behaviors and what are the effective factors involved in developing these behaviors? For this purpose, the drivers’ behavior of different sections of the city are evaluated based on different variables and the local roads. Finally, the worst exposed driving behaviors of domestic drivers on domestic roads are identified. Material and Methods This is a

  20. Transient and quasisteady behavior with rotating magnetic field current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2001-07-01

    The time-dependent behavior of rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive is investigated using a two-fluid model. The important new factor is the addition of transverse ion mobility in contrast to rigid-ion models of the past. The equations simplify conveniently, allowing the behavior on each surface (r=const) to be isolated, which permits a quadrature solution for the ion fluid rotation. A rapid transient phase leads to quasisteady behavior that evolves on the relatively slow diffusion timescale. The fast transient timescale is set by the ion inertia. Unless there is an ion momentum source to balance the electron drag on the ion fluid, there is no quasisteady current drive effect. Collisions with neutrals offer such a momentum source in some experiments, notably rotamaks and the Star Thrust Experiment. Other sources of ion momentum are essential for RMF current drive in hotter, fusion-relevant plasmas. The properties of the quasisteady state are found, including the self-consistent ion fluid rotation rate and radial electric field, and RMF corrections on the pressure balance.

  1. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Speed is a substantial factor contributing to road safety. Currently, speed reduction is mainly achieved through law enforcement and the implementation of traffic calming measures. An alternative speed reducing approach is to encourage drivers to voluntarily choose an appropriate driving speed....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed......- on collisions. Roadside trees did not cause drivers to adjust their driving speed; possibly due to trees not being perceived as a threat to safety by the drivers. Due to a relatively small sample size the findings of this study should be considered provisional and as pilot results for further simulator...

  2. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  3. Driving Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…

  4. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  6. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, J W; Voas, R B

    1996-12-01

    A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD. PMID:8997765

  7. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Xianping; Men Yugang; Yuan Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation a...

  8. Anticipation Driving Behavior and Related Reduction of Energy Consumption in Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wei, Yan-Fang; Song, Tao; Dai, Shi-Qiang; Dong, Li-Yun

    In view that drivers would pay attention to the variation of headway on roads, an extended optimal velocity model is proposed by considering anticipation driving behavior. A stability criterion is given through linear stability analysis of traffic flows. The mKdV equation is derived with the reductive perturbation method for headway evolution which could be used to describe the stop-and-go traffic phenomenon. The results show a good effect of anticipation driving behavior on the stabilization of car flows and the anticipation driving behavior can improve the numerical stability of the model as well. In addition, the fluctuation of kinetic energy and the consumption of average energy in congested traffic flows are systematically analyzed. The results show that the reasonable level of anticipation driving behavior can save energy consumption in deceleration process effectively and lead to an associated relation like a "bow-tie" between the energy-saving and the value of anticipation factor.

  9. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  10. 城市居民低碳消费行为驱动因素的实证研究%Empirical Study on Driving Factors for Carbon Consumption Behavior of Urban Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振南

    2016-01-01

    In the context of global warming, carbon consumption is becoming a new trend. However, recent literature review shows the lack of investigation and research in low-carbon consumption behavior. Based on the basic theory of low-carbon consumption, according to "KAP" theoretical model, the paper conducts an empirical study on factors that drive low carbon consumption behaviors through stepwise linear regression method. The re-sults show that: factors of global warming awareness, perception of life, environmental change perception, per-ceived effects of policies, education level and family income levels influence various low-carbon urban consumer behavior significantly. Through the analysis of the research results, in order to promote sustainable development of China's low-carbon economy, the paper puts forward several operational proposals concerning relative policies.%在全球变暖的大背景下,低碳消费日益成为一种新的趋势。本文立足于低碳消费的基本理论,依据“知信行”理论模式,通过逐步线性多元回归的方法实证探究驱动各低碳消费行为的因素。结果显示:气候变暖感知、生活影响感知、环境变化感知、政策效果感知、教育水平和家庭月收入水平对城市居民各低碳消费行为影响显著。通过对研讨结果的剖析,以推进我国低碳经济发展可持续性为目的,提出了几点具备操作性意义的政策提议。

  11. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  12. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xianping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation and retrieving of these video streams has an important role on visual aids for safety and driving behavior assessment. In a vehicle surveillance system, video as a primary data source requires effective ways of retrieving the desired clip data from a database. And data from naturalistic studies allow for an unparalleled breadth and depth of driver behavior analysis that goes beyond the quantification and description of driver distraction into a deeper understanding of how drivers interact with their vehicles. To do so, a model that classifies vehicle video data on the basis of traffic information and its semantic properties which were described by driver’s eye gaze orientation was developed in this paper. The vehicle data from OBD and sensors is also used to annotate the video. Then the annotated video data based on the model is organized and streamed by retrieval platform and adaptive streaming method. The experimental results show that this model is a good example for evidence-based traffic instruction programs and driving behavior assessment.

  13. Predicting consumers’ intention to purchase fully autonomous driving systems : which factors drive acceptance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelkel, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find which factors influence consumers’ intention to purchase a fully autonomous driving system in the future and which perceived product characteristics influence the purchase intention and how. Therefore, an extension of the acceptance model of Driver Assistant Systems by Arndt (2011) is presented. It integrates perceived product characteristics specific to autonomous driving technology, to investigate which factors determine the acceptance of fully autono...

  14. A Research on the Driving Factors of Customer Engagement Behavior Guided by Organizational Support Theory%基于组织支持理论的顾客契合行为驱动因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀村; 牛席席

    2016-01-01

    识别影响顾客契合行为的关键因素,对于培育和保持良好的企业顾客契合关系具有十分重要的意义。基于组织支持理论,构建理论模型并实证检验了顾客感知支持与顾客承诺及契合行为的关系。通过对于企业主导社区成员的深度访谈和问卷调查,开发了顾客感知支持的测量量表,证实了顾客情感性和工具性感知支持分别积极地影响顾客情感性承诺与规范性承诺,以及两种类型的顾客承诺对于顾客契合行为的驱动作用。%Identification of key factors influencing customer engagement behavior is vitally significant in cultivating and maintai-ning good enterprise-customer engagement relationship. Based on organizational support theories, a conceptual model is con-structed and applied in this empirical study of the relationship between customer-conceived support, customer commitment and customer engagement behavior. Through in-depth interviews and questionnaires to dominant sector members, a measurement scale is devised concerning customer-perceived emotional support. Results confirm that customer-perceived emotional and in-strumental support positively affect customer emotional and normative commitment respectively,and that the above-mentioned two commitments have a driving effect on customer engagement behavior.

  15. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a boost converter configuration, control scheme and design of single phase power factor controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. PMBLDC motors are the latest choice of researchers, due to the high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high...... reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  16. Power Factor Improvement in Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATESAN, G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM drive is a variable speed motor drive system with unique characteristics. The switching of voltage into the phase winding and pulsating AC input current leads to low power factor and high harmonic contents. In this paper, the power factor is improved using boost converter. The hardware results are taken for a DC input voltage of 60 V to the SRM with different load currents. From the results, it is found that the total current harmonic distortion and individual current harmonics are less with Power Factor Controller (PFC. The power factor of the circuit is improved with the proposed power factor controller.

  17. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M.; Addison, Aaron; Ghoshal, Nupur; Stout, Sarah H.; Vernon, Elizabeth K.; Sellan, Mark; Roe, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods: Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds), at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM), afternoon (2:00-5:00PM) and night (7:00-10pm). The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results: Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion: Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look at changes or

  18. Effectiveness of Variable Message Signs on Driving Behavior Based on a Driving Simulation Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable message signs (VMSs, as one of the important ITS devices, provide real-time traffic information of road network to drivers in order to improve route choice and relieve the traffic congestion. In this study, the effectiveness of VMS on driving behavior was tested based on a driving simulation experiment. A road network with three levels of VMS location to route-diverging intersection and three types of VMS information format was designed in a high fidelity driving simulator platform. Fifty-two subjects who were classified by driver age, gender, and vocation successfully completed this experiment. The experimental results showed that driver characteristics, VMS location, and information format profoundly influence driving behaviors. Based on the research findings, it is suggested that VMS would be positioned between 150 m and 200 m upstream of the diverging point to balance the VMS effects on traffic safety and operation and the graphic information VMS format is better than the format with text massage only.

  19. Automobile Driving in Older Adults: Factors Affecting Driving Restriction in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    MARIE-DIT-ASSE, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with driving restriction in elderly men and women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of French drivers from 2003 to 2009. SETTING: The Three-City Cohort of Bordeaux, a prospective study of 2,104 people aged 65 and older. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred twenty-three drivers with a mean age of 76 (273 male, 250 female). MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, driving habits, health variables, cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnosis. Predementia w...

  20. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  1. Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Harachi, Tracy W; Abbott, Robert D

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two targeted family sessions focused on driving issues delivered within the context of the Raising Healthy Children project. The Raising Healthy Children project began in the fall of 1993, drawing students in the 1st or 2nd grades from 10 schools. Schools were assigned to an intervention or control condition, and the school-wide, family- and student-focused preventive intervention to address developmentally salient risk and protective factors was delivered during elementary and middle school. The family driving sessions were administered to families in the intervention condition prior to and after teenagers received their driver's license. The first session consisted of a home visit with families designed to help parents and their children improve decision-making skills concerning driving and to develop clear standards and expectations regarding driving-related behavior. A second session, at the time of licensure, was designed to help parents and teens develop a written contract that stated family expectations, a plan for monitoring compliance with these expectations, and consequences for compliance or non-compliance. Consistent with the study's group-randomized design, intervention effects were assessed with multi-level logistic regression models in which students were grouped by their original school assignment. These models assessed specific effects of the driving sessions by adjusting for control variables measured when students were in 8th grade, prior to the driving sessions. Results indicated that students in the intervention group were more likely than students in the control group to report that they had a written driving contract (p = .003, OR = 4.98), and had participated in making the driving rules in the family (p = .025, OR = 1.70). Further, students in the intervention group reported significantly fewer risky behaviors including driving under the influence of alcohol (p = .021, OR = .45) and driving with someone who

  2. Learning driving behavior by timed syntactic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Verwer, S.E.; Weerdt, M.M.; C. Witteveen

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values of onboard sensors into simple events. Instead of the common syntactic pattern recognition approach of sampling the signal values at a fixed rate, we model the time constraints using timed models. ...

  3. Behavioral and neurophysiological signatures of benzodiazepine-related driving impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradly T Stone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem, worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; NHTSA, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004. Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009. Currently, drug recognition experts (law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving, have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS depressants (Smith, Hayes, Yolton, Rutledge, & Citek, 2002. The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake, Michie, Carter, & Jones, 2011, further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim™. This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (EEG, ECG. While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009, we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of drug recognition experts. Our analyses revealed that 1 specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and; 2 the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify impaired vs. unimpaired with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in

  4. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  5. Effects of fog, driver experience and gender on driving behavior on S-curved road segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wong, S C

    2015-04-01

    Driving on curved roads has been recognized as a significant safety issue for many years. However, driver behavior and the interactions among variables that affect driver performance on curves is complicated and not well understood. Previous studies have investigated various factors that influence driver performance on right- or left-turn curves, but have paid little attention to the effects of foggy weather, driver experience and gender on driver performance on complex curves. A driving simulator experiment was conducted in this study to evaluate the relationships between driving behavior on a continuous S-curve and foggy weather, driver experience and gender. The process of negotiating a curve was divided into three stages consisting of a straight segment, the transition from the straight segment to the S-curve and the S-curve. The experimental results indicated that drivers tended to drive more cautiously in heavy fog, but the driving risk was still increased, especially in the transition stage from the straight segment to the S-curve. The non-professional (NP) drivers were less sensitive to the impending change in the road geometry, and less skilled in both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control than the professional drivers. The NP female drivers in particular were found to be the most vulnerable group in S-curve driving. PMID:25700127

  6. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  7. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance.

  8. Factorization of Behavioral Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a bisimulation-based nonintereference property that describes the allowed dependencies between communication behaviors of different integrity levels. The property is able to capture all possible combinations of integrity levels for the “presence” and “content” of actual communications....

  9. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  10. Hand on the wheel, mind on the mobile: an analysis of social factors contributing to texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    In an era defined by social technology, mobile phones provide constant connection to others. However, they also present a very dangerous situation when people choose to use their mobile phones while driving. In particular, exchanging text messages while driving has resulted in numerous accidents and fatalities. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors that lead people to text while driving. Specifically, using a multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from a 2010 survey by the Pew Research Center, variables for general mobile talk, driving while talking on a mobile, using the Internet on a mobile, sexting, and various motivations for texting were examined to determine factors that increase the likelihood of texting while driving. The findings suggest that people engage in mobile multiplexing (i.e., communication using two or more media on the mobile) while driving. Additionally, exchanging text messages in public, and consequently texting while driving, has become normalized. Furthermore, people are socialized into such behaviors through observing others texting while driving and using a mobile recklessly while driving. Finally, a number of motivations for texting were found to increase the likelihood of texting while driving significantly. Ultimately, the author contends that texting while driving has become a cultural artifact in the United States, which conflicts with driver safety as well as laws prohibiting texting while driving. The findings of this study could inform future awareness campaigns and technology developers to help establish a safer driving environment within the multitasking culture.

  11. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF REAL-WORLD DRIVING BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN LESIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kelsey; Read, Katherine; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with circumscribed brain injuries, such as those caused by stroke or focal trauma, return to driving after a period of acute recovery. These persons often have chronic residual cognitive deficits that may impact on driving safety, but little is known about their driving behavior in the real world. Extant studies tend to rely on driving simulators or controlled on-road drives. These methods of observation are not able to capture the complexities of the typical driving environment...

  12. Driving Behavior Analysis with Smartphones: Insights from a Controlled Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Kehr, Flavius; Zhai, Yudan; Michahelles, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate a mobile application that assesses driving behavior based on in-vehicle acceleration measurements and gives corresponding feedback to drivers. In the insurance business, such applications have recently gained traction as a viable alternative to the monitoring of drivers via "black boxes" installed in vehicles, which lacks interaction opportunities and is perceived as privacy intrusive by policyholders. However, pose uncertainty and other noise-inducing factors make smartphones pot...

  13. Beyond the business cycle: factors driving aggregate mortality rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hanewald, Katja

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive econometric analysis of factors driving aggregate mortality rates over time. It differs from previous studies in this field by simultaneously considering an extensive set of macroeconomic, socio-economic and ecological factors as explanatory variables. Germany is chosen as an indicative example for other industrialized countries due to its advanced demographic transition process. Our regression analysis, which covers the time interval 1956-2004, indicates...

  14. Commonality in hedge fund returns: driving factors and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bussiere, M.; Hoerova, M.; Klaus, B.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the commonality in hedge fund returns, identify its main driving factor and analyse its implications for financial stability. We find that hedge funds’ commonality increased significantly from 2003 until 2006. We attribute this rise mainly to the increase in hedge funds’ exposure to emerging market equities, which we identify as a common factor in hedge fund returns over this period. Our results show that funds with a high commonality were affected disproportionately by illiquidity...

  15. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Xiong; Bao, S.; Kato, K.; SAYER, J

    2014-01-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realis...

  16. Iranian Version of Manchester Driving Behavior ‎Questionnaire (MDBQ: Psychometric ‎Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi‎

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since the study of driving behavior is of great importance, we conducted this research to ‎investigate the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of the Manchester Driver ‎Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ in Iranian drivers.‎Method: This cross – sectional research was performed on a sample of 800 drivers (of category D and ‎C aged 23- 75 who were referred to Imam Sajjad Centre for drug Addiction Diagnosis. ‎Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, a demographic questionnaire, were ‎conducted to the sample. To analyze data, we used factor analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's’α, split half, and test-retest using SPSS18 Software.‎Results: As a result of reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis by principal component and Varimax rotation, we extracted six factors (willful violations, unintentional errors, advertent errors, deliberate mistakes, unintentional violation, and unintentional mistakes, respectively. The factors reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.75. The test-retest correlations of the DBQ and split- half reliability were 0.56 and 0.77, respectively.Conclusion: The results revealed that the Persian version of the DBQ in category D and C drivers is a ‎valid and reliable tool to assess driving behaviors in Iranian drivers.‎

  17. Analysis of Korean Students' International Mobility by 2-D Model: Driving Force Factor and Directional Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elisa L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of Korean students' international mobility to study abroad by using the 2-D Model. The first D, "the driving force factor," explains how and what components of the dissatisfaction with domestic higher education perceived by Korean students drives students' outward mobility to seek foreign…

  18. Validation of the Driver Stress Inventory in China: Relationship with dangerous driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Perceived stress while driving may affect how critical driving events are handled. The current study validates a Chinese version of the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI) and explores its correlation with dangerous driving behaviors and gender. A sample of 246 drivers completed the Chinese version of the DSI and the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). We also evaluated specific sociodemographic variables and traffic violations (including speeding, violating traffic signs or markings, driving while intoxicated, running a red light, and incurring penalty points). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the DSI's internal structure. The DSI was also validated using questionnaires related to the DBQ, self-reported traffic accidents and violations, and sociodemographic characteristics. First, all of the DSI dimensions were moderately or weakly correlated with the DBQ subscales. Second, aggression, hazard monitoring and fatigue were weakly correlated with minor accidents. Third, drivers who had sped and violated traffic signs during the previous three years reported higher aggression and thrill seeking, while drivers who had violated traffic signs or markings during the previous three years reported decreased hazard monitoring compared with non-offenders. Finally, there were significant gender differences in driver stress. The Chinese version of the DSI will be useful for classifying and diagnosing drivers who may be at an increased risk for stress reactions. PMID:26642077

  19. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  20. Usefulness of the driveABLE cognitive assessment in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong Youl; Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the usefulness of the DriveABLE cognitive assessment tool (DCAT) in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients, and compared the cognitive and driving functions of two groups discriminated by DCAT. [Subjects and Methods] A total of forty-two stroke patients with a driver’s license participated in this study. Two participants with communication problems were excluded. DCAT was used to evaluate the risk potential to the driver, and the subjects were clas...

  1. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  2. Eco-Driving: Pilot Evaluation of Driving Behavior Changes Among U.S. Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Vu, Alexander; Barth, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Among several strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles, “eco-driving†is one that had not received much attention in the United States (U.S.) until recently. The core of eco-driving programs is to provide drivers with a variety of advice and feedback to minimize fuel consumption while driving. The advice and feedback can be provided through various means including website or brochure, class or training, and in-vehicle driving aids. This study evaluated how an on-bo...

  3. TRACE Project. Deliverable 3.4. Driving Task-Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Naing, C.; Hill, J.; Maguire, M.; Schick, S.; Eggers, A.; Pastor, C. (Carlos); Van Elslande, P.; Fouquet, K.; Banos, A.; PLAZA, J; Tomasch, E.; Hell, W.

    2008-01-01

    Rapport de recherche Driving task-related factors by definition are 'directly and causally contributing to the accident occurrence, very specific and detailed, are short-term lasting or dynamic in nature, and refer to the actual conditions of the components'. The aim was to analyse specific driving task-related factors to investigate how these type of factors affect the driver undertaking their tasks within driving. A selection of driving task-related factors were chosen and analysed using...

  4. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGDuan-Ming; SUNHong-Zhang; LIZhi-Hua; PANGui-Jun; YUBo-Ming; LIRui; YINYan-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  5. Automobile driving in seniors: Factors affecting driving restriction in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    MARIE-DIT-ASSE, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Independence for older people is linked to driving, this being their main mode of travel. Even in normal aging, sensory, functional, and cognitive deficits appear, and are more severe in brain pathology leading to dementia. These may profoundly affect driving, which is a complex task involving all of these functions. Many studies show that older drivers modify their driving habits (reduced distance, avoiding certain driving situations ...). When this regulation process ...

  6. Eco-Driving with Electric Cars: Effect of Continuous and On-Demand feedback on Driving Behavior and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    BELOUFA, Sabrina; VAILLEAU, Benjamin; BOUCHEIX, Jean-Michel; KEMENY, Andras; Merienne, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of driver behavior has been the purpose of many studies for several years. A new aspect is the introduction of electric vehicles on the car market and the fact drivers are more concerned with their consumptions in EV (Electric Vehicle) due to the lack of the appropriate infrastructures. However, only a few studies focusing on ecological behavior and consumption have been carried out. The primary goal of the present study was to assess empirically the impact of feedback on EV driving ...

  7. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed.

  8. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  9. Co-variability in Three Dimensions of Teenage Driving Risk Behavior: Impaired Driving, Risky and Unsafe Driving Behavior, and Secondary Task Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Li, Kaigang; Ehsani, Johnathon; Vaca, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research examined the extent to which teenagers who engaged in one form of risky driving also engaged in other forms and if risky driving measures were reciprocally associated over time. METHODS The data were from waves 1, 2 and 3 (W1, W2 and W3) of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample starting with 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Three measures of risky driving were assessed in autoregressive and cross-lagged analyses: driving while alcohol/drug impaired, Checkpoints Risky Driving Scale (risky and unsafe driving), and secondary task engagement while driving. RESULTS In adjusted auto-regression models the risk variables, demonstrated high levels of stability, with significant associations observed across the three waves. However, associations between variables were inconsistent. DWI at W2 was associated with risky and unsafe driving at W3 (β = 0.21, p driving at W1 was associated with DWI at W2 (β = 0.20, p driving at W2 is associated with secondary task engagement at W3 (β = 0.19, p driving, with prospective associations between the Risky Driving Scale and the other measures, and reciprocal associations between all three variables at some time points. Secondary task engagement, however, appears largely to be an independent measure of risky driving. The findings suggest the importance of implementing interventions that addresses each of these driving risks. PMID:26514232

  10. A conceptual framework for reducing risky teen driving behaviors among minority youth

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N

    2006-01-01

    Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for cha...

  11. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  12. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleardi Megan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population.

  13. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  14. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  15. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  16. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs. PMID:23474239

  17. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Bradly T.; Correa, Kelly A.; Brown, Timothy L.; Spurgin, Andrew L.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18–23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugg...

  18. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yihe Sun; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Kun Li; Yifei Jiang; Jie Wu,

    2011-01-01

    Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system l...

  19. Effects of human-machine interface design for intelligent speed adaptation on driving behavior and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, A.M.; Hogema, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of human-machine interface (HMI) design for intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) on driving behavior and acceptance were measured in a moving-base research driving simulator. Sixty-four experienced drivers participated in two simulator experiments (32 in each). During the simulated runs wi

  20. Employer Behavior in the Face of Union Organizing Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.; Kleiner, Morris M.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a 1986 survey of employers and a 1982-83 survey of union organizers found that firms' responses to union organizing drives were consistent with the motive of profit maximization and that management opposition has been an important determinant of the decline of unionism. (JOW)

  1. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Gabriela; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P.; Rowe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimen...

  2. Prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors among young people in Ontario, Canada: Evidence from 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sean; Pek, Simon; Morrish, Jayne; Ruf, Megan

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors by age and gender in two large samples of youth aged 16-19 years in Ontario, Canada. In Study 1 (N=6133), we found that males reported more frequent texting while driving and speeding than females and, in terms of age, sixteen year olds reported frequent texting while driving than older participants. In Study 2 (N=4450), which was conducted two years later, males again reported more frequent texting while driving, however there was no difference in the rate of talking on the phone while driving among males and females. Participants also reported on experiences that led to a significant reduction in their texting while driving. The most common reasons were the perceived danger of texting while driving, laws and fines against texting while driving, and observing close-calls and accidents experienced by other people. The results of both studies suggest that driving-related risk-taking behaviors co-occur and that young passengers in vehicles, including 14 and 15 year olds, are bystanders to texting while driving. Finally, there was a substantial decline in the prevalence of texting while driving across the studies. In Study 1, 27% of participants reported "sometimes" to "almost always" texting while driving compared to 6% of participants in Study 2. Limitations and implications for public campaigns targeted youth distracted driving are discussed. PMID:26344898

  3. Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men. PMID:23852327

  4. Spatiotemporal dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors from 1949 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Lajiao

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal data on human population and its driving factors is critical to understanding and responding to population problems. Unfortunately, such spatio-temporal data on a large scale and over the long term are often difficult to obtain. Here, we present a dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors over a remarkably long period, from 1949 to 2013. Driving factors of population distribution were selected according to the push-pull migration laws, which were summa...

  5. A comparison of driving characteristics and environmental characteristics using factor analysis and k-means clustering algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation aims to classify drivers based on driving and environmental behaviors. The research determined significant factors using factor analysis, identified different driver types using k-means clustering, and studied how the same drivers map in each classification domain. The research consists of two study cases. In the first study case, a new variable is proposed and then is used for classification. The drivers were divided into three groups. Two alternatives were designed to evalu...

  6. Driving behavior and ergonomics of in-vehicle communicating systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, A

    2001-01-01

    In-vehicle systems display information in order to support the driver in his/her activity. This paper describes two main methodologies allowing to investigate driver's behaviour while using these systems : computation of glance frequency and duration toward the implemented screen displaying visual information for the visual strategies and computation of the Driving Activity Load Index for the mental workload. Both evaluation are complementary, being respectively objective and subjectiv...

  7. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Per Backlund; Tom Ziemke; Robert Ramberg; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.; Mikael Lebram

    2013-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone...

  8. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed. PMID:26056969

  9. Effects of Eccentricity on the Dynamic Behavior for Electromechanical Integrated Toroidal Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In electromechanical integrated toroidal drive, eccentric center errors occur which has important influences on the dynamic behavior of the drive system. Here, the dynamic equations of the drive system with eccentric center are presented. Changes of the natural frequencies and vibrating modes along with eccentric center distance are analyzed. The forced responses of the drive system to eccentric center excitation are investigated. Results show that the eccentric center causes some natural frequencies to increase, and the other natural frequencies to drop. It also causes some vibrations to become weak, and the other vibrations to become strong. The eccentric center has more obvious effects on the dynamic behavior of the planets. The results are useful in design and manufacture of the drive systems.

  10. Driving with Pets as a Risk Factor for Motor Vehicle Collisions among Older Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97 95% co...

  11. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  12. Factors Driving Changes To Remuneration Policy And Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the relative importance of the factors driving change to remuneration policy decision making and the impact on organisations. Data from 148 organisations was analysed and subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The results show that the most potent drivers of remuneration policy are retention of key staff, financial results and organisation strategy. The greatest changes to remuneration policy were in the areas of variable pay, merit/performance related pay, market position, total package and job evaluation/ broadbanding policy. A strong correlation was found between the extent of change in Remuneration policy and impact on the organisation. This suggests that the greater the change in Remuneration policy the greater the impact on the organisation. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie studie is om die relatiewe belangrikheid van die faktore wat verandering in die vergoeding besluitnemingsbeleid dryf asook die impak wat dit op organisasie het in diepte te verstaan. Data van 148 organisasies is geanaliseer onderworpe aan streng statisiese analises. Die resultaat wys dat die mees kritieke drywers vir vergoedingsbeleid die volgende is: retensie van sleutelpersoneel, finansiële resultate en organisasie strategie. Die grootste veranderinge in vergoedsbeleid was in die volgende areas: veranderlike betaling, meriete/prestasie verwante betaling, markposisie, totale pakket en rolevaluasie/‘broadband’ beleid? Sterk korrelasie is gevind tussen die vlak van verandering in die vergoedingsbeleid en die impak op die organisasie. Dit wys onder andere uit hoe groter die verandering in vergoedingsbeleid, hoe groter die impak op die organisasie.

  13. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pacific Gas & Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael [Nexant, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  14. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. PMID:26047833

  15. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  16. Volatile cues can drive the oviposition behavior in Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Francesca; Piersanti, Silvana; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-01-01

    Selection for the oviposition site represents the criterion for the behavioral process of habitat selection for the next generation. It is well known that in Odonata the most general cues are detected visually, but laboratory investigations on the coenagrionid Ischnura elegans showed through behavioral and electrophysiological assays that adults were attracted by olfactory cues emitted by prey and that males of the same species are attracted by female odor. The results of the present behavioral and electrophysiological investigations on I. elegans suggest the involvement of antennal olfactory sensilla in oviposition behavior. In particular, I. elegans females laid in the laboratory significantly more eggs in water from larval rearing aquaria than in distilled or tap water. Moreover, the lack of preference between rearing water and tap water with plankton suggests a role of volatiles related to conspecific and plankton presence in the oviposition site choice. I. elegans may rely on food odor for oviposition site selection, thus supporting the predictions of the "mother knows best" theory. These behavioral data are partially supported by electroantennographic responses. These findings confirm a possible role of olfaction in crucial aspects of Odonata biology. PMID:27349728

  17. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  18. Ranging behavior drives parasite richness: A more parsimonious hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicca-Marques, Júlio César; Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia

    2016-09-01

    Parasitism is a ubiquitous interspecific interaction that may play an important role in the evolution of hosts and parasites, molding many aspects of their behavior and ecology. Detecting behavioral changes of hosts infected with parasites is not a straightforward task. Extrapolating from individual-level responses to group-level decision-making is still a much more complex challenge. The ranging behavior of hosts that live in social groups is a good example. Many hypotheses of the cause-effect relationship between this behavior and parasite diversity and load have been proposed. For instance, Brockmeyer et al. [2015, Am. J. Primatol. 77:1036-1048] recently suggested that the richness of protozoan parasites influences the daily path length of free-ranging mandrills. We believe that this explanation for the relationship contains several implicit assumptions. Therefore, we offer an alternative, more parsimonious hypothesis in which daily path length is the driver of parasite richness rather than its consequence. Our hypothesis only assumes that ranging farther exposes animals to a richer parasite diversity. We discuss the data required to test these alternative hypotheses and recall empirical evidence and theoretical modeling results supporting or rejecting their assumptions. We also propose a model of the expected outcomes in terms of species richness, load, intensity of infection, and within-group community similarity of non-lethal environmentally transmitted parasites in social animal groups showing distinct patterns of range use. Am. J. Primatol. 78:923-927, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145909

  19. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  20. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  1. A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglin Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects.

  2. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Galagovsky, Diego; Grosjean, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allows animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors toward these stim...

  3. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin; Diego eGalagovsky; Yael eGrosjean

    2015-01-01

    Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stim...

  4. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  5. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  6. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  7. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact from Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Nicole [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada [Jaume I Univ. (Spain). International Economics Institute

    2009-08-15

    In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of CO2 for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries. (orig.)

  8. Driving Factors and Model of Change in Arable Land Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhanbo; Du, Haowen

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the characteristics of the change in arable land area in China according to the change data of arable land area and other relevant data from the year 1996 to 2006, and adopt Factor Analysis Method and Stepwise Regression Method to carry out quantitative analysis on the driving factors of arable land change of China. We also establish the regression model of driving factors and arable land area. Finally, some corresponding suggestions are put forward.

  9. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  10. The driving factors of coastal evolution : toward a systemic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garcin, Manuel; Le Cozannet, Gonéri

    2013-01-01

    International audience Presentation of the different forcing factors of the coastal evolution at the decadal timescale. Relative impact of climate change and sea level rise versus geodynamics and anthropogenics factors on coastal evolution.

  11. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wenshuo Wang; Junqiang Xi; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics de...

  12. The learning of longitudinal human driving behavior and driver assistance strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Mark; Möbus, Claus; Tango, Fabio; Pietquin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience Models of the human driving behavior are essential for the rapid prototyping of error-compensating assistance systems. Various authors proposed control-theoretic and production-system models. Here we present machine-learning alternatives to train assistance systems and estimate probabilistic driver models from human behavior traces. We present a partially autonomous driver assistance system based on Markov Decision Processes. Its assistance strategies are trained fro...

  13. Categorizing basic factors driving soil genesis, pedovariability and plant assemblages in Mediterranean Temporary Wetlands (TWs)

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, Gian Franco; CARIA, MARIA CARMELA; Buondonno, Andrea; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Vacca, Sergio; Bagella, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    A research was carried out in six Temporary Wetlands (TWs), located in north-western Sardinia (Italy), with the aim to categorize the basic factors driving and linking soil genesis and plant assemblages in Mediterranean basin.

  14. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  15. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  16. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  17. Driver's views and behaviors about safety in China--what do they NOT know about driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Roetting, Matthias; Wang, Ying; Wei, Hua

    2006-01-01

    Driving safety has become an extremely severe problem in China due to rapid motorization. Unless more effective measures are taken, the fatality risk and the total fatalities due to road traffic accidents are expected to continue to increase. Therefore, focus group discussions were conducted to explore driver attitudes and safe driver characteristics. The results were then compared with a similar study conducted with US drivers. Although similarities were found, differences were of more importance. The Chinese drivers concentrate more on driving skills and capabilities, whereas the US drivers concentrate more on practical safe driving guidelines. Then direct field observations were conducted for the Chinese drivers to empirically investigate the issues discovered. The use of safety belts, running lights, headlights, and turn signals were observed to investigate the drivers' behaviors. Results show that the safety belt use ratio is about 64%, running light use is nearly zero during rainy and snowy weather, headlights use after sunset is substantially delayed, and only about 40% of drivers use turn signals to indicate their intention to change lanes. These findings indicate that the authorities need to take appropriate countermeasures to change the views of the Chinese drivers regarding driving safety and their unsafe driving behaviors. Improvement of training content and methods as well as police enforcement would be recommended. PMID:16061188

  18. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Alireza Esmaeili,5  Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,81International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, Iran; 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran; 5Police University, Tehran, Iran; 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran; 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders.Methods: A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1% and 407 (47.9% were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior.Results: Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer

  19. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Phu Vu; Vien Cao; Lan Vu; Jude Cepero

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners’ activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online learners’ success in online professional development. In addition, there were also significant differences between successful and unsuccessful online lear...

  1. Assessments of risky driving: a Go/No-Go simulator driving task to evaluate risky decision-making and associated behavioral patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yutao; Zhang, Wei; Salvendy, Gavriel; Cheng, Andy S K; Ventsislavova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to develop and validate a Go/No-Go Simulator Driving Task (G/NG-SDT) to evaluate driver risky decision-making and associated behavioral assessments at a situation-specific level. Eighty-four participants were instructed to complete a route in as short time as possible, but avoiding any violations or crashes. To achieve this aim, they had to decide to go or wait in the dilemma scenes, paired with the baseline scenes in several scenarios. High-risk drivers with more Go decisions demonstrated more violations, in both simulator tasks and real road driving, as well as higher scores of Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) violations and more Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) pumps. These high-risk drivers also showed distinguishable behavioral patterns in simulator driving, moderated by the specific driving situations (e.g. scenario and scene). Several behavior assessments were consistently distinguishable in all tested situations, qualified as robust indictors to predict risk-taking in more general driving situations. PMID:26360218

  2. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  3. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.

  4. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand. PMID:26867401

  5. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  6. A TWO-STATE MIXED HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RISKY TEENAGE DRIVING BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John C.; Albert, Paul S.; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a joint model for longitudinal binary and count outcomes. We apply the model to a unique longitudinal study of teen driving where risky driving behavior and the occurrence of crashes or near crashes are measured prospectively over the first 18 months of licensure. Of scientific interest is relating the two processes and predicting crash and near crash outcomes. We propose a two-state mixed hidden Markov model whereby the hidden state characterizes the mean for the joint longitudinal crash/near crash outcomes and elevated g-force events which are a proxy for risky driving. Heterogeneity is introduced in both the conditional model for the count outcomes and the hidden process using a shared random effect. An estimation procedure is presented using the forward–backward algorithm along with adaptive Gaussian quadrature to perform numerical integration. The estimation procedure readily yields hidden state probabilities as well as providing for a broad class of predictors.

  7. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  8. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  9. Space crew productivity: A driving factor in space station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The criteria of performance, cost, and mission success probability (program confidence) are the principal factors that program or project managers and system engineers use in selecting the optimum design approach for meeting mission objectives. A frame of reference is discussed in which the interrelationships of these pertinent parameters can be made visible, and from which rational or informed decisions can be derived regarding the potential impact of adjustments in crew productivity on total Space Station System effectiveness.

  10. Characterization and interaction of driving factors in karst rocky desertification: a case study from Changshun, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, E. Q.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in Southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evo...

  11. Characterization and interaction of driving factors in karst rocky desertification: a case study from Changshun, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, E. Q.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have ...

  12. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-01-01

    Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current c...

  13. The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality and Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Carnovale, Maria; GIBSON, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate whether driving restrictions improve air quality.  While Milan's restriction decreases overall air pollution, there is a significant behavioral response that attenuates the effect.  Our study expoits the natural experiment created by an unanticipated court injunction suspending Milan's restriction.  Drivers respond to the restriction with: 1) intertemporal substituion toward the unpriced period; 2) substitution toward exempt vehicles; and 3) spatial substitution toward unpriced ro...

  14. Experiments and Simulation of Thermal Behaviors of the Dual-drive Servo Feed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; MEI Xuesong; FENG Bin; ZHAO Liang; MA Chi; SHI Hu

    2015-01-01

    The machine tool equipped with the dual-drive servo feed system could realize high feed speed as well as sharp precision. Currently, there is no report about the thermal behaviors of the dual-drive machine, and the current research of the thermal characteristics of machines mainly focuses on steady simulation. To explore the influence of thermal characterizations on the precision of a jib boring machine assembled dual-drive feed system, the thermal equilibrium tests and the research on thermal-mechanical transient behaviors are carried out. A laser interferometer, infrared thermography and a temperature-displacement acquisition system are applied to measure the temperature distribution and thermal deformation at different feed speeds. Subsequently, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the transient thermal behaviors of the boring machine. The complex boundary conditions, such as heat sources and convective heat transfer coefficient, are calculated. Finally, transient variances in temperatures and deformations are compared with the measured values, and the errors between the measurement and the simulation of the temperature and the thermal error are 2 ℃ and 2.5 μm, respectively. The researching results demonstrate that the FEM model can predict the thermal error and temperature distribution very well under specified operating condition. Moreover, the uneven temperature gradient is due to the asynchronous dual-drive structure that results in thermal deformation. Additionally, the positioning accuracy decreases as the measured point became further away from the motor, and the thermal error and equilibrium period both increase with feed speeds. The research proposes a systematical method to measure and simulate the boring machine transient thermal behaviors.

  15. 75 FR 82132 - ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive SM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive \\SM\\ (HFID); Public Meeting; Notice of Public.... ACTION: Notice. The U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and the National... trucks. At this meeting, ITS JPO and NHTSA will provide an overview of the entire Human Factors...

  16. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: A two-wave panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predictin...

  17. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  18. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms. PMID:26784203

  19. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics derived from the driver model are embedded into the advanced driver assistance systems, and the evaluation and verification of vehicle systems based on the driver model are described.

  20. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work.

  1. Videosensor for the detection of unsafe driving behavior in the proximity of black spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Andres; Fuentes, Ricardo; Cabello, Enrique; Conde, Cristina; Martin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work. PMID:25347580

  2. Validation of the Spanish version of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) among males: Confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Ana R; Parks, Melissa; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Blanco, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Drive for Muscularity (DM) has been shown to be a relevant construct for measuring and understanding male body image. For this reason, it is important to have reliable and valid instruments with which to measure DM, and to date no such instruments exist in Spain. This study analyzes the psychometric and structural properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) in a sample of Spanish adolescent males (N=212), with the aim of studying the structural validity of the scale by using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), as well as analyzing the internal consistency and construct (convergent and discriminant) and concurrent validity of the instrument. After testing three models, results indicated that the best structure was a two-dimensional model, with the factors of muscularity-oriented body image (MBI) and muscularity behavior (MB). The scale showed good internal consistency (α=.90) and adequate construct validity. Furthermore, significant associations were found between DM and increased difficulties in emotional regulation (rho=.37) and low self-esteem (rho=-.19). Findings suggest that the two-factor structure may be used when assessing drive for muscularity among adolescent males in Spain. PMID:26829369

  3. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  4. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  5. Screening Driving Transcription Factors in the Processing of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Construction of the transcriptional regulatory network can provide additional clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications in gastric cancer. Methods. Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer were downloaded from GEO database for integrated analysis. All of DEGs were analyzed by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Transcription factors were further identified and then a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Results. By integrated analysis of the six eligible datasets (340 cases and 43 controls, a bunch of 2327 DEGs were identified, including 2100 upregulated and 227 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that digestion was a significantly enriched GO term for biological process. Moreover, there were two important enriched KEGG pathways: cell cycle and homologous recombination. Furthermore, a total of 70 differentially expressed TFs were identified and the transcriptional regulatory network was constructed, which consisted of 566 TF-target interactions. The top ten TFs regulating most downstream target genes were BRCA1, ARID3A, EHF, SOX10, ZNF263, FOXL1, FEV, GATA3, FOXC1, and FOXD1. Most of them were involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Conclusion. The transcriptional regulatory network can help researchers to further clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

  6. Factors driving and influencing the development of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Møller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a large variety of serious games aimed at infusing knowledge into both teams and organizations. Some games aims at supporting the team in a given project or development process, whereas others aim at widening the knowledge, skills and competences in an organization on a more general level. In the serious game literature most focus and attention is given to the design and development of digital games. However in Denmark, at least, there has been a growing industry of analogue serious games and serious game facilitation, which give evidence to the fact that not all development in the area of serious games happens in terms of the digital versions. This paper investigate these new analog serious games and learning tools in the Danish market with focus on the drivers and influencing factors during their development and the effort of making a business out of the serious games. Empirically, the paper is based on close interaction and semi-structured interviews with some of the key serious game developers in Denmark (plus one in the US, some of them with a portfolio of up to ten serious games. Besides from uncovering some of the basic motivations to design and develop serious games, the paper will show, how the game developers’ interaction with the end-users and their different business strategies, influences the way the game is developed.

  7. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current configuration of social services at global level. The research analysed the demographic changes and the impact of the crisis in social services for Europe, the United States of America (USA and Japan based on statistical data provided by the national statistics institutes for the regions considered. The results highlight the necessity of continuous development and reconfiguration of social services in order to meet the social and economic demands and to ensure a better organisation of these type of services.

  8. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  9. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions.

  10. Driving factors for cluster development - Which kind of spatial rootedness and change?

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Tödtling; Alexander Auer; Tanja Sinozic

    2014-01-01

    Driving factors and mechanisms for cluster development have often been investigated based on the standard cluster approach as conceptualised e.g. by Michael Porter. These studies have revealed certain insights regarding the role of local entrepreneurship, factor conditions, demand, and related industries in supporting clusters. However, such factors were analysed often from a static competitiveness perspective, and they were often seen as rooted in a region or part of an overly ...

  11. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    This pa per proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement...

  12. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population. PMID:27180286

  13. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population.

  14. Investigating both ends of the driver age spectrum: assessment of driving behavior and evaluation of traffic safety interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenen, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate both ends of the driver age spectrum (i.e., both older and younger drivers). Regarding older drivers, the aim was to investigate driving behavior under neutral and distracting circumstances by investigating specific driving measures and the role of functional abilities in driving. Regarding both older and younger drivers, the aim was to investigate the immediate and extended effects of traffic safety interventions on (socio-cognitive determin...

  15. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  16. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  17. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among...

  18. The contribution of family climate for road safety and social environment to the reported driving behavior of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2012-07-01

    Two studies examined the contribution of the new concept of "family climate for road safety" and several aspects of the social environment to the driving behavior of young drivers. Study 1 (n=120) investigated the effect of the seven dimensions of the family climate for road safety - Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits - as well as a general tendency to conform to authority, and peer pressure. Study 2 (n=154) examined the dimensions of family climate for road safety and perceived popularity of reckless driving among peers. The findings indicate associations both between the familial and the social aspects, and between these variables and driving styles, willingness to take risks while driving, reckless driving habits, and personal commitment to safe driving. Positive aspects of the parent-child relationship and high levels of conformity to authority were related to greater endorsement of the careful driving style, whereas family's noncommitment to safety, higher peer pressure, and lower conformity to authority were associated with greater endorsement of the reckless driving style. In addition, positive aspects of the family climate for road safety and lower perceived popularity of reckless driving among friends were associated with more personal commitment to safe driving and a lower tendency for risky driving. The discussion stresses the need to look at the complex set of antecedents of reckless driving among young drivers and addresses the practical implications of the findings for road safety. PMID:22405232

  19. Personality and Driving Behavior. The Role of Extraversion and Neuroticism in Drivers' Behavior Toward Bicyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling is associated with a variety of personal and societal benefits and it is an important political agenda to increase the number of bicyclists on the roads. However, bicyclists are vulnerable to aggressive traffic behavior and harassment from drivers, and bicyclists' safety concerns stand out as a barrier against increased bicycling. Even so, research on mechanisms underlying drivers' behavior toward bicyclists is scarce. The present study aimed at exploring the relationship between pe...

  20. Obstacle avoidance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior of glaucoma patients in a driving simulator: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado Vega, R.; Van Leeuwen, P.M.; Rendon Velez, E.; Lemij, H.G.; De Winter, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23) and control participants (n = 12) completed four 5-min driving sessi

  1. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  2. An Empirical Study of Factors Driving the Adoption of Mobile Learning in Omani Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrab, Mohamed; Al Shibli, Ibtisam; Badursha, Nabeela

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning (M-learning) provides a new learning channel in which learners can access content and just in time information as required irrespective of the time and location. Even though M-learning is fast evolving in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of M-learning adoption is in short supply. This article…

  3. Understanding the Factors Driving M-Learning Adoption: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Han, Shengnan; Li, Hongxiu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: By surveying current literature, the purposes of this paper are twofold: to identify current situation of mobile learning (m-learning) adoption and specify the challenges and to identify the factors driving m-learning adoption. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews literature related to: m-learning applications and challenging…

  4. Factors Driving the Adoption of M-Learning: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu; Carlsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Even if m-learning is spreading rapidly in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of m-learning adoption is in short supply. Built on the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper proposes a hypothesized model of m-learning adoption. Employing structural equation modeling technology, the model was assessed based on the…

  5. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  6. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  7. An AC motor drive with power factor control for low cost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, Maria Dias

    2000-10-01

    The front-end rectifier followed by a pulse-width modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) has been a well-established power converter configuration for many industrial drives. The increasing costs on the utility usage, due to power quality regulations, and the need to improve the VA capacity of systems, e.g. off-shore drilling rigs, have increased the interest in the development of power electronic equipment with power factor control capability. Electrical motors consume a large amount of the available electrical energy, and this energy tends to increase due to the massive emerging applications of electrical motor drives in appliances and in industrial processes. Therefore, the improvement of the power factor of these low power drive systems, usually in the range from fractional horse-power (hp) to 1 hp, is of particular interest. For these power ratings, the system configuration usually comprises a single-phase to three-phase type of converter with additional circuitry for power factor control (PFC). However, this approach has an impact on the system cost and packaging. In this work, a new concept of integrating motor and power factor controls by using a single-phase to three-phase DSP based six-switch converter topology is presented. Unlike other configurations using extra switch(es) and/or extra boost inductor, in this circuit the boost action, for input current shaping, is done by the motor leakage inductances. The power factor control and inverter operation are performed by applying two modulating signals to the SPWM control logic of the converter. In this dissertation, the converter operation and a proposed control strategy will be explained. Simulation and experimental results for a DSP based induction motor drive will be provided as proof of concept. The feasibility and potential of this configuration for ac motor drive applications will be established. The impact of this scheme on the machine operation will also be discussed.

  8. Spatiotemporal dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors from 1949 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Lajiao

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal data on human population and its driving factors is critical to understanding and responding to population problems. Unfortunately, such spatio-temporal data on a large scale and over the long term are often difficult to obtain. Here, we present a dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors over a remarkably long period, from 1949 to 2013. Driving factors of population distribution were selected according to the push-pull migration laws, which were summarized into four categories: natural environment, natural resources, economic factors and social factors. Natural environment and natural resources indicators were calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques, whereas economic and social factors from 1949 to 2013 were collected from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Compendium of Statistics from 1949 to 2008. All of the data were quality controlled and unified into an identical dataset with the same spatial scope and time period. The dataset is expected to be useful for understanding how population responds to and impacts environmental change. PMID:27377410

  9. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  10. Study on the Behavior of Solar Array Deployment with Root Hinge Drive Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xilun; LI Xin; XU Kun; YANG Qiaolong; PU Hailing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a method of using a root hinge drive assembly (RHDA) to control the solar array deployment is provided and a multi-DOF mechanism dynamic model of the system is established.In this way,the root hinge torque can be calculated iteratively.Then taking the predicted torque as a reference,a RHDA is designed for a large multiple-stage packaging and deployable solar array system.The control effect of the drive assembly is validated by ground tests.The test results indicate that the solar arrays can be deployed smoothly,and the deployment velocities are restricted by the drive assembly as expected.During the tests,the RHDA output speed and output torque are obtained.In order to examine the impact force when the yoke is lock-up with a hard stop,dynamics simulations are performed according to the actual behavior.The simulation result indicates that the designed RHDA reduces the impact force significantly and improves the lock-up reliability effectively.

  11. Pyrrhic victories: the need for social status drives costly competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Golka, Philipp J M; Effelsberg, David; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-01

    Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one's payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.

  12. Pyrrhic Victories: The Need for Social Status Drives Costly Competitive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eVan Den Bos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Competitive behavior is commonly defined as the decision to maximize one’s payoffs relative to others. We argue instead that competitive drive derives from a desire for social status. We make use of a multi-player auction task in which subjects knowingly incur financial losses for the sake of winning auctions. First, we show that overbidding is increased when the task includes members of a rival out-group, suggesting that social identity is an important mediator of competitiveness. In addition, we show that the extent that individuals are willing to incur losses is related to affective responses to social comparisons but not to monetary outcomes. Second, we show that basal levels of testosterone predict overbidding, and that this effect of testosterone is mediated by affective responses to social comparisons. Based on these findings, we argue that competitive behavior should be conceptualized in terms of social motivations as opposed to just relative monetary payoffs.

  13. Factorial structure of Driving Log in a Spanish sample

    OpenAIRE

    David Herrero-Fernández; Sara Fonseca-Baeza; Sara Pla-Sancho

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed the adaptation of the Driving Log, a questionnaire that assesses aggressive and risky driving behaviors in a day by day basis, with 395 Spanish participants. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the questionnaire fitted properly in two correlated factors, labeled as Risky Driving and Aggressive Driving. Subsequent analyses showed that the number of drives is significantly associated to Risky Driving, while the number of occasions in which anger is experimented corr...

  14. Investigating the role of behavioral factors in non-fatal accidents of urban and suburban driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are of the most important events, which cause death and injury of a large number of people and impose huge economic losses. According to previous studies, human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of behavioral factors in driving-related non-fatal accidents. Material and Method: The present analytical study was carried out among 150 drivers of urban and suburban transportation system in Yazd province. The research tool was Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ which is consisted of two sections: demographic information and driving behavior. Result: 83/9 % of the participants reported to use safety belt nearly always. The highest deliberate violations, slips, and mistakes were belonged to drivers with age group of 18-25. Moreover, deliberate violations had a significant relationship with rage (P < 0.05. Survey of behavioral factors in terms of vehicle ownership type showed that “deliberate violations” and “slips and mistakes” high among personal bus drivers and state-owned bus drivers, respectively, which shows the significant association between these behavioral factors and ownership type. What is more, rates of deliberate and unintentional violations and slips were higher among those with a history of two times incidents (P < 0.004. Conclusion: The results revealed that behavioral factors such as age, type of vehicle ownership, and accident history played a significant role in occurrence of traffic accidents.

  15. Reducing Risky Driving Behavior: The Impact of an Adolescent Driver Intervention Program With and Without Mandatory Parental Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States is a vehicle-dependent society and allows adolescents to obtain driver’s licenses at age 16 or younger. This study examined the impacts of a driver intervention program on reducing risky driving behaviors among youths who had received their first traffic citation, as well as parental management of driving practices. Participants consisted of 243 youths ages 16 and 17 who were court-ordered to attend the Ohio 4-H CARTEENS (CAR = Caution and Responsibility and TEENS = Teens who volunteer as teachers program with and without parents. Results indicated that risky driving behavior decreased significantly for both groups after the intervention program. Parental management practices, however, increased only for youths attending without parents. Regression analysis indicated that risky driving behavior at Time 1 and levels of parental management (parental control at Time 2 predicted risky driving behavior after completion of the program. Implications of this study include the importance of adolescent driver intervention and prevention programs to teach youths about unsafe driving practices before licensure.

  16. Sustainable Paper Consumption: Exploring Behavioral Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Maya Sopha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the paperless office (PLO management system has been established with the goal of paper usage reduction, demand for paper has still showed an uptrend over the years. Given the substantial pressure on forest ecosystems due to a continued increase of paper consumption, understanding the behavioral aspects of paper consumption is, therefore, required. This present paper aims at exploring the factors underlying paper consumption behavior. Empirical data was acquired through a survey of 266 Indonesian students, involving both undergraduate and postgraduate students. A theoretical model, based on the Comprehensive Action Determination Model (CADM, was tested against the empirical data. It was found that the model received reasonable support from the data. Results indicate that reducing paper consumption behavior is strongly influenced by habit and, marginally significant, by intention. Furthermore, habit formation is influenced by both normative processes and situational influences. The results, to some extent, explain the PLO paradox in a way that the PLO program should have focused on breaking the habit of paper usage instead of promoting the benefits of PLO. Introducing a paper quota and rationing (fee to new students, as the main target, is a potential policy intervention implied from the results.

  17. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  18. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m2, with 0.5 MW/m2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  19. Driving Behavior Shaping Model in Road Traffic System%驾驶行为形成模型及其在道路交通系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武宏

    2001-01-01

    为了给驾驶行为模型化和道路交通事故原因辨识提供新的途径,以便从实践上达到解决诸如驾驶失误预防和驾驶行为分析等道路交通安全问题,提出了适于定量评价驾驶失误对道路交通安全影响程度的驾驶行为形成模型. 该模型能用于辩识道路交通事故原因,为驾驶员训练提供数据,评价驾驶步骤和道路交通系统中人的因素设计.%In order to give a new way for modeling driving behavior, identifying road traffic accident causation and solving a variety of road traffic safety problems such as driving errors prevention and driving behavior analysis, a new driving behavior shaping model is proposed, which could be used to assess the degree of effect of driving error upon road traffic safety. Driver behavior shaping model based on driving reliability and safety analysis could be used to identify the road traffic accident causation, to supply data for driver's behavior training, to evaluate driving procedures, to human factor design of road traffic system.

  20. FACTORS THAT DRIVE INTERNET USAGE AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Kwabena Obiri-Yeboah; Wilberforce Owusu-Ansah; Eliezer Ofori Odei-Lartey

    2013-01-01

    The internet continues to significantly affect the way business is carried out globally. As businesses of all sizes align information communication technology to its processes to achieve operational excellence while reducing cost, using the internet has become even more critical than ever. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess factors that drive the usage of internet as part of the business operations of small and medium-scale enterprises. The analysis compare...

  1. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed.

  2. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. PMID:26745271

  3. Quality-Factor Enhancement of Nanoelectromechanical Systems by Capacitive Driving Beyond Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barois, T.; Perisanu, S.; Poncharal, P.; Vincent, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Ayari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems are considered as ultrasensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to dc electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano-optomechanically and electrically by applying an ac capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We develop an analytical model of the phenomenon and show that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity.

  4. Quality factor enhancement of Nano electromechanical systems by capacitive driving beyond the resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Barois, T; Poncharal, P; Vincent, Philippe; Ayari, A

    2016-01-01

    Nano electromechanical systems are considered as ultra sensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to DC electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano optomechanically and electrically by applying an AC capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We developed an analytical model of the phenomenon and showed that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity. * anthony.ayari@univ-lyon1.fr 1

  5. To Communicate or Not to Communicate: Factors Predicting Passengers' Intentions to Ask a Driver to Stop Text Messaging While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication is important in health campaigns. This research examined factors that are associated with passengers' intentions to communicate no texting with a texting driver in a scenario where the driver is their friend. Based on survey data collected from 546 college students, results showed that students' attitudes toward communication about no texting while driving were predicted by their utilitarian (i.e., safety), value-expressive, and ego-defensive motivations, in addition to being predicted by self-efficacy and norms. Additional results revealed that empathic concern was correlated with the value-expressive motivation and anticipated guilt. Anticipated guilt, together with attitudes, norms, and efficacy, predicted communication intentions. Results revealed that including attitude functions (motivations) in the reasoned action model could help propose and test theory-based predictions in interpersonal communication and health behaviors. PMID:26452401

  6. Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Thomas A; Guo, Feng; Lee, Suzie; Antin, Jonathan F; Perez, Miguel; Buchanan-King, Mindy; Hankey, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The accurate evaluation of crash causal factors can provide fundamental information for effective transportation policy, vehicle design, and driver education. Naturalistic driving (ND) data collected with multiple onboard video cameras and sensors provide a unique opportunity to evaluate risk factors during the seconds leading up to a crash. This paper uses a National Academy of Sciences-sponsored ND dataset comprising 905 injurious and property damage crash events, the magnitude of which allows the first direct analysis (to our knowledge) of causal factors using crashes only. The results show that crash causation has shifted dramatically in recent years, with driver-related factors (i.e., error, impairment, fatigue, and distraction) present in almost 90% of crashes. The results also definitively show that distraction is detrimental to driver safety, with handheld electronic devices having high use rates and risk. PMID:26903657

  7. Road transport-related energy consumption: Analysis of driving factors in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible

  8. Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop Regulation at Railway Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihisa Sato; Motoyuki Akamatsu; Toru Shibata; Shingo Matsumoto; Naoki Hatakeyama; Kazunori Hayama

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicti...

  9. Extending the theory of planned behavior: The role of behavioral options and additional factors in predicting speed behavior

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTEA, Mioara; PARAN, Françoise; DELHOMME, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been successfully predicting behavior with a small number of factors. Nonetheless, to increase its predictive power we introduced several behavioral options and additional factors in the same prediction model about drivers’ self-reported speed behavior on a road with a speed limit of 90 km/h. We investigated the TPB factors as well as descriptive norms, perceived similarity with/description of the prototypical driver, and past behavior with re...

  10. Simulation-based Estimation of Thermal Behavior of Direct Feed Drive Mechanism with Updated Finite Element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiankun; LI Yanjun; LI Haolin

    2014-01-01

    Linear motors generate high heat and cause significant deformation in high speed direct feed drive mechanisms. It is relevant to estimate their deformation behavior to improve their application in precision machine tools. This paper describes a method to estimate its thermal deformation based on updated finite element(FE) model methods. Firstly, a FE model is established for a linear motor drive test rig that includes the correlation between temperature rise and its resulting deformation. The relationship between the input and output variables of the FE model is identified with a modified multivariate input/output least square support vector regression machine. Additionally, the temperature rise and displacements at some critical points on the mechanism are obtained experimentally by a system of thermocouples and an interferometer. The FE model is updated through intelligent comparison between the experimentally measured values and the results from the regression machine. The experiments for testing thermal behavior along with the updated FE model simulations is conducted on the test rig in reciprocating cycle drive conditions. The results show that the intelligently updated FE model can be implemented to analyze the temperature variation distribution of the mechanism and to estimate its thermal behavior. The accuracy of the thermal behavior estimation with the optimally updated method can be more than double that of the initial theoretical FE model. This paper provides a simulation method that is effective to estimate the thermal behavior of the direct feed drive mechanism with high accuracy.

  11. 企业环境经营驱动因素、行为与绩效关系研究--基于长株潭城市群企业问卷调查数据的实证检验%Study on the Relationship between Driving Factors,Behavior and Performance of Corporate Environmental Management--Empirical Test on Questionnaires of Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱东; 罗文兵; 邓明君

    2013-01-01

    Through combing the domestic and foreign related research,the paper builds a new theoretical model to study the driving factors of corporate environmental management and the relationship between the factors,and the impact of environmen⁃tal management acts on corporate environmental performance and economic performance.The paper takes Chang-Zhu-Tan ur⁃ban cluster corporation as research object,uses structural equation model to test and correct the model by applying the sam⁃pling survey questionnaires data.The result shows that the corporate environmental management behavior doesn’t drive by the government media pressure directly but by the market and efficiency,and corporate environmental management perfor⁃mance improves only by green manufacturing,corporate environmental performance plays a significant role in corporate eco⁃nomic performance under a good market environment and good efficiency driving force.%  文章通过梳理国内外相关研究成果,构建一个新的理论模型来研究驱动企业环境经营的因素及因素间的关系,环境经营行为对企业环境绩效和经济绩效产生的影响。文章以长株潭城市群企业为研究对象,以抽样调查所得的实际有效问卷数据为样本,运用结构方程模型进行检验和修正,结果发现,政府媒体压力并不直接驱动企业环境经营行为,企业环境经营行为需要通过市场和效率来驱动的;企业环境经营绩效只有通过绿色制造才能提高,企业环境绩效对经济绩效存在显著影响,但前提是有好的市场环境和效率驱动力。

  12. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pa\tper proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement. Furthermore, the zero-voltage switching in the half-bridge converter can be attained to promote the overall performance efficiency of the proposed circuit. Finally, the validity and production availability of the proposed circuit will be verified as well.

  13. Dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff changes at the catchment scale across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Yang, Hanbo; Yang, Dawen

    2016-07-01

    With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attention. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resource planning and management to understand the impact of climate change on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geographic characteristics across China. To gain a better understanding of the spatial variation of the response of runoff to changes in climatic factors and to detect the dominant climatic factors driving changes in annual runoff, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011). It is shown that, in most catchments of China, increasing air temperature and relative humidity have negative impacts on runoff, while declining net radiation and wind speed have positive impacts on runoff, which slow the overall decline in runoff. The dominant climatic factors driving annual runoff are precipitation in most parts of China, net radiation mainly in some catchments of southern China, air temperature and wind speed mainly in some catchments in northern China.

  14. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  15. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  16. The influence of multiple goals on driving behavior : The case of safety, time saving, and fuel saving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Ebru; Steg, Linda; Delhomme, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Due to the innate complexity of the task drivers have to manage multiple goals while driving and the importance of certain goals may vary over time leading to priority being given to different goals depending on the circumstances. This study aimed to investigate drivers' behavioral regulation while

  17. Development and review of Euro 5 passenger car emission factors based on experimental results over various driving cycles

    OpenAIRE

    FONTARAS GEORGIOS; FRANCO GARCIA Vicente; Dilara, Panagiota; MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano

    2013-01-01

    The mass emissions of CO2 and regulated pollutants (NOX, HC, CO, PM) of thirteen Euro 5 compliant passenger cars (seven gasoline, six Diesel) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were driven repeatedly over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) and the more dynamic WMTC and CADC driving cycles. Distance-specific emission factors were derived for each pollutant and sub-cycle which were subsequently compared to the corresponding emission factors provided by the referen...

  18. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  19. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  20. 基于计划行为理论的竞争驾驶行为建模0%Modeling of Competitive Driving Behavior Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 石建军; 刘小明

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensionality of drivers’behaviors and analyze the motives of competitive driving behavior. Data are collected from a self-reported questionnaire completed by 225 drivers on the internet. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are used to analyze the underlying factor structure. Four latent factors are derived, including speed advantage, space occupation, contention over the right-of-way, and space advantage. Structural equation modeling is established to explain the correlation between drivers’attitude and driving behavior based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Results indicate that competitive driving behavior could be predicted by the combination of attitudes, subjective norm, control of perceived behavior, and social environment through the medium of behavior intention. A high correlation between the dimensions of social environment and intention is observed. This is an effective way to rectify the competitive driving behavior.%为获取竞争驾驶行为的潜变量因子,分析驾驶员竞争驾驶行为的产生动机。对225名驾驶员进行了网上问卷调查,通过主成分分析和验证性因子分析提取竞争驾驶行为的4个潜变量因子:速度领先、空间占用、路权争夺和空间领先争夺。基于计划行为理论,构建了竞争驾驶意图与行为关系结构方程模型。研究表明,驾驶员的竞争驾驶态度、主观标准、知觉行为控制等心理因素和社会环境外界因素,通过行为意向能够很好地对竞争驾驶行为进行预测。社会环境因素对竞争驾驶意图有显著影响,为驾驶员竞争驾驶行为的矫正提供了有效途径。

  1. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  2. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  3. Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived obesity threats, social support, and college students' eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that perceived vulnerability to obesity negatively predicted healthy eating behavior. In addition, the perceived severity of obesity-related health problems positively predicted women's drive for thinness. Social support played a significant role in explaining health behaviors. Specifically, appraisal by others indirectly predicted college students' healthy eating behavior through increased self-efficacy. Among women, informational support moderated the relationships between both vulnerability and severity on healthy eating behavior. At low levels of support, vulnerability and severity negatively predicted students' healthy eating behavior. Overall, results suggest that messages designed to increase perceived vulnerability and severity may be detrimental when trying to improve people's dietary habits; however, among women certain types of social support may buffer the defensive responses resulting from obesity threats. PMID:20183382

  4. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Behavior and Sensation-Seeking Disposition in a College Population Receiving Routine Care at Campus Health Services Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Mundt, Marlon P.; Balousek, Stacey L.; Wilson, Ellen L.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents stemming from alcohol-impaired driving are the leading cause of injury and death among college students. Research has implicated certain driver personality characteristics in the majority of these motor vehicle crashes. Sensation seeking in particular has been linked to risky driving, alcohol consumption, and driving while intoxicated. This study investigated the effect of sensation-seeking on self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior in a college student population while adju...

  5. Analysis of the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow based on a modified CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Mei-Ying; Shi, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    As the global population ages, there are more and more older drivers on the road. The decline in driving performance of older drivers may influence the properties of traffic flow and safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow. A modified cellular automaton (CA) model which takes driving behaviors of older drivers into account is proposed. The simulation results indicate that older drivers’ driving behaviors induce a reduction in traffic flow especially when the density is higher than 15 vehicles per km per lane and an increase in Lane-changing frequency. The analysis of stability shows that a number of disturbances could frequently emerge, be propagated and eventually dissipate in this modified model. The results also reflect that with the increase of older drivers on the road, the probability of the occurrence of rear-end collisions increases greatly and obviously. Furthermore, the value of acceleration influences the traffic flow and safety significantly. These results provide the theoretical basis and reference for the traffic management departments to develop traffic management measure in the aging society.

  6. Reducing Risky Driving Behavior: The Impact of an Adolescent Driver Intervention Program With and Without Mandatory Parental Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    James L. Jordan; Kristi S. Lekies; Scott D. Scheer

    2015-01-01

    The United States is a vehicle-dependent society and allows adolescents to obtain driver’s licenses at age 16 or younger. This study examined the impacts of a driver intervention program on reducing risky driving behaviors among youths who had received their first traffic citation, as well as parental management of driving practices. Participants consisted of 243 youths ages 16 and 17 who were court-ordered to attend the Ohio 4-H CARTEENS (CAR = Caution and Responsibility and TEENS = Teens wh...

  7. Transcription factor hlh-2/E/Daughterless drives expression of α integrin ina-1 during DTC migration in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Christopher M; Kann, Allison P; Egress, Emily R

    2015-09-01

    Integrins are involved in a vast number of cell behaviors due to their roles in adhesion and signaling. The regulation of integrin expression is of particular interest as a mechanism to drive developmental events and for the role of altered integrin expression profiles in cancer. Dynamic regulation of the expression of integrin receptors is required for the migration of the distal tip cell (DTC) during gonadogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. α integrin ina-1 is required for DTC motility, yet is up-regulated by an unknown mechanism. Analysis of the promoter for α integrin ina-1 identified two E-box sequences that are required for ina-1 expression in the DTC. Knockdown of transcription factor hlh-2, an established E-box binding partner and ortholog of E/Daughterless, prevented expression of a transcriptional fusion of the ina-1 promoter to RFP and blocked DTC migration. Similarly, knockdown of hlh-2 also prevented expression of a translational fusion of the genomic ina-1 gene to GFP while blocking DTC migration. Knockdown of HLH-2 binding partner MIG-24 also reduced ina-1 expression and DTC migration. Overall, these results show that the transcription factor hlh-2 is required for up-regulation of ina-1 at the onset of DTC migration.

  8. Relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers%汽车驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为和事故的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章; 贾杰; 尹莲; 唐勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为、事故的关系.方法 采用简单随机抽样方法,抽取347名驾驶员进行应对方式问卷、驾驶行为问卷的调查.结果 (1)除回避性应对与驾驶行为相关不显著外,对抗性应对、情绪性应对与驾驶行为有显著正相关( r=0.18~0.56,P<0.01);积极评估应对与驾驶行为有显著负相关(r=-0.34~-0.41,P<0.01).(2)积极评估应对、对抗性应对和情绪性应对对错误行为和疏忽行为均有显著的预测作用,解释率分别为33.5%和23.5%.对抗性应对和积极评估应对对超速及违规行为有显著预测作用,解释率为40.2%.(3)在轻微事故和一般事故中,事故驾驶员和安全驾驶员均在对抗性应对上差异有统计学意义(t=-2.75;2.80,P<0.01).结论 驾驶员应对方式是影响驾驶行为和事故安全的重要因素.%Objective To explore the relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers.Methods Three hundreds and thirty-seven drivers were randomly surveyed by Driving Coping Questionnaire ( DCQ),Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).Results ( 1 ) Except avoidance coping style,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping were correlated positively with the three driving behaviors ( r =0.18 ~ 0.56,P < 0.01 ),and positive appraisal coping had negatively correlations with them (( r =-0.34 ~-0.41,P<0.01 ).(2)Positive appraisal coping,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping could predict 33.5% of error behaviors and 23.5% of slip behaviors.And confrontive coping and positive appraisal coping could predict 40.2% of speeding and violation behaviors.(3) Compared with safety drivers,accident drivers had significantly differences in confrontive coping in mild and moderate crashes( t=-2.75,2.80,P< 0.01 ).Conclusion Driving coping styles are the important factors influencing drivers' behaviors and road safety.

  9. The influence of the factors of consumer behavior in tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Cuculeski, Nikola; Cuculeski, Vasko; Taskov, Nako

    2015-01-01

    The consumer behavior in general and especially in tourism is affected of multitude factors. The efforts in this publication are to define and examine the key factors that influence consumer behavior in tourism. Because the marketing aspect is in the focus of the theoretical framework, these aspects and specifics are related to marketing. Consumer behavior is connected to the studying of and for the individual, group or organization and processes that are used to select, secure, usage and ...

  10. Externalizing Behaviors and Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LIVAZOVIĆ, Goran; Ručević, Silvija

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative contribution of risk factors from different domains (i.e. family, peers and school) in the explanation of externalizing behaviors (i.e. proactive aggressive behavior and risky sexual behavior) and disordered eating in a community sample of boys (n=429) and girls (n=307), aged 15–20. In order to examine the predictive value of examined variables on types of externalizing behaviors and disordered eating as criterion variables, several hierarchical regress...

  11. Personal and Contextual Factors in the Escalation of Driving after Drinking Across the College Years

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2012-01-01

    College students continue to drive after drinking at alarmingly high rates. Age trends suggest that driving after drinking increases from late adolescence across the college years, largely mirroring trends in binge drinking. Relatively little research, however, has examined change over time in driving after drinking among college students or tested whether some students might be at greater risk of escalations in driving after drinking. Using a sample of 1,833 non-abstaining students who compl...

  12. The relationship between trait anxiety and driving behavior with regard to self-reported Iranian accident involving drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Pourabdian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded from the results (according to the relation between TA with error and lapses factor that the rate of TA is destructive effective on the memory performance and process in the drivers and cause absent minded and memory imperfect function and process in these people during the driving.

  13. Transmission of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and Its Potential Driving Factors in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Peng; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease with substantial disease burden in Asia. Mixed results were reported on the associations between HFMD incidence and meteorological factors or school holidays, while limited studies focused on their association on transmissibility. We aimed to measure the transmissibility of HFMD and to examine its potential driving factors in Hong Kong. A likelihood-based procedure was used to estimate time-dependent effective reproduction number (Rt) based on weekly number of HFMD-associated hospitalizations from 2010 to 2014. The associations of between-year effects, depletion of susceptibles, absolute humidity and school holidays with Rt were examined using linear regression. Rt usually started increasing between early spring and summer and peaked in April to May at around 1.1-1.2, followed by a slight rebound in autumn. Depletion of susceptibles and between-years effects explained most of the variances (19 and 13% respectively) in Rt. We found a negative association between depletion of susceptibles and Rt (coefficients ranged from -0.14 to -0.03 for different years), but the estimated effects of absolute humidity and school holidays were insignificant. Overall, HFMD transmission was moderate in Hong Kong and was mainly associated with depletion of susceptibles. Limited impact was suggested from meteorological factors and school holidays. PMID:27271966

  14. Development of real-world driving cycles and estimation of emission factors for in-use light-duty gasoline vehicles in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Mei-Yin; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2014-07-01

    This investigation adopts vehicle tracking manner to establish real-world driving patterns and estimates emission factors with dynamometers with 23 traffic-driving variables for 384 in-use light-duty passenger vehicles during non-rush hour. Adequate numbers of driving variables were decided with factor analysis and cluster analysis. The dynamometer tests were performed on FTP75 cycle and five local driving cycles derived from real-world speed profiles. Results presented that local driving cycles and FTP75 cycle were completely different in driving characteristic parameters of typical driving cycles and emission factors. The highest values of emission factor ratios of local driving cycle and FTP75 cycle for CO, NMHC, NO x , CH4, and CO2 were 1.38, 1.65, 1.58, 1.39, and 1.14, respectively. PMID:24526615

  15. Optimizing the charge profile: Considering users' driving profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Fabian; Dallinger, David; Wietschel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    PHEVs are discussed controversially. On the one hand, the evolutionary approach of a hybrid vehicle helps the consumer to adopt to electric driving, using the range extender when driving longer distances. On the other hand, PHEVs have a more complex propulsion system and a potentially low emission impact due to a low electric driving share. These factors, however, strongly depend on the consumers' driving and charging behavior. Therefore, this paper simulates realistic driving based on the na...

  16. Development of emission factors for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws using real-world driving cycle for a typical Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Prasenjit; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-02-15

    Vehicular emission is one of the most important contributors of urban air pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic on urban air quality, it is necessary to quantify vehicular emission. In many cities of India, such as Dhanbad, shared auto-rickshaw is the pre-dominant mode of transportation. Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) are used for emission testing of motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in India for regulatory purposes. IDC used for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws does not recognize the difference in two vehicle classes in terms of driving pattern. In real world, shared auto-rickshaws, behave differently than motorcycles. To quantify the impact of shared auto-rickshaws on urban air quality accurately, emission factors (EFs) are required to derive from real-world driving cycles (DCs). In heterogeneous traffic, vehicles of one class affect the behavior of vehicles of other classes. To estimate the emissions from different vehicle classes accurately, EFs for motorcycles and passenger cars are also required to be revised. In this study, real-world DCs were developed for motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in Dhanbad. Developed DCs were used to calculate EFs for respective classes. Shared auto-rickshaws were found to have the highest deviation from EFs derived using IDC. PMID:26657376

  17. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  18. Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…

  19. Protest behavior: Individual and group factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normative and nonnormative collective actions are the consequence of differences in estimation of political situation. The article regards the predictors in selection of normative (participation in meetings, signing petitions, etc. vs. nonnormative (strike, violent actions, etc. forms of protest behavior (perception of unfairness, self-efficacy, social identity, ideas of out-group. The carried out analysis showed that high self-efficacy, idea of out-group members as equal participants of interaction and experiencing of emotion of anger lead to the choice of various normative protest behavior. Low self-efficacy, steady social identity (including politicized identity, experiencing the emotion of contempt to out-group members often lead to choice of nonnormative forms. In conclusion the article regards the link of various predictors with the choice of individual and group forms of protest and analyzes the possible directions for further empirical studies.

  20. Links between behavioral factors and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Irwin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on those biobehavioral factors that show robust associations with markers of inflammation, including discussion of the following variables: diet, smoking, coffee, alcohol, exercise and sleep disruption. Each of these variables has been assessed in large-scale epidemiological studies, and many in clinical and experimental studies as well. Treatment strategies that target biobehavioral factors have the potential to complement and add to the benefit of anti-inflammatory medic...

  1. The Role of Economic and Social Factors Driving Predator Control in Small-Game Estates in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important human-wildlife conflicts in the world is that where predators are involved. Predators may compete with us for the same resources, such as game species. As a consequence, predators have been frequently controlled by game managers, which has negatively affected many predator populations worldwide. The understanding of human-wildlife conflicts requires a multidisplicinary framework that is rarely considered. We aim to evaluate the attitudes and behavior of game managers with regard to predator management in central Spain, as well as to explore factors that lead to these attitudes and behavior. Data were gathered through face to face interviews with game managers from 59 small-game hunting estates within central Spain. Predator control was employed in 90% of the estates, but control intensity was very variable among estates. Economic interests and perceptions about predators apparently influenced variation in control intensity. The main methods employed were cage-traps and shooting, but some illegal practices (e.g., leg-hold traps or snares without stopping devices were also admittedly used for carnivores. Most managers considered that efficacy of legal methods for control of foxes (Vulpes vulpes was very limited. Overall, nonselective methods, such as some types of snares, were more frequently employed in commercial than in noncommercial estates. Most managers believed that predators had an important effect on prey, and therefore that not doing it would lead to smaller hunting bags. Only managers from commercial hunting estates used stronger discourses such as that hunting would be impossible without carrying out predator control, which suggests that their tolerance for predators was lower than that of managers whose main motivation was not economic. Most managers considered that predator control was effective to reduce the number of predators, but only in the short term. Therefore, they highlighted the need of maintaining

  2. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  3. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent injuries and deaths from alcohol-impaired driving. The Problem Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of ...

  4. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18%) in which someone was injured involved distracted driving. 1 What are the risk factors? Activities Some activities—such as texting—take the driver’s attention away from driving more frequently and for longer periods than other ...

  5. A brief peripheral motion contrast threshold test predicts older drivers' hazardous behaviors in simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Woods-Fry, Heather; Collin, Charles A; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Misha; Grant, John; Rosenthal, Ted; Allen, Wade

    2015-05-01

    Our research group has previously demonstrated that the peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) test predicts older drivers' self-report accident risk, as well as simulated driving performance. However, the PMCT is too lengthy to be a part of a battery of tests to assess fitness to drive. Therefore, we have developed a new version of this test, which takes under two minutes to administer. We assessed the motion contrast thresholds of 24 younger drivers (19-32) and 25 older drivers (65-83) with both the PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min test and investigated if thresholds were associated with measures of simulated driving performance. Younger participants had significantly lower motion contrast thresholds than older participants and there were no significant correlations between younger participants' thresholds and any measures of driving performance. The PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min thresholds of older drivers' predicted simulated crash risk, as well as the minimum distance of approach to all hazards. This suggests that our tests of motion processing can help predict the risk of collision or near collision in older drivers. Thresholds were also correlated with the total lane deviation time, suggesting a deficiency in processing of peripheral flow and delayed detection of adjacent cars. The PMCT-2min is an improved version of a previously validated test, and it has the potential to help assess older drivers' fitness to drive.

  6. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: Etiological Factors in Childhood Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…

  7. Therapeutic Factors of Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment for Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young-Hee; Park, Kee-Hwan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic factors influencing the outcome of cognitive behavioral group treatment for social phobia and the most helpful therapeutic component. Fifty psychiatric outpatients who were diagnosed with social phobia according to the DSM-IV criteria were chosen as subjects. Patients were asked to complete the Yalom's Curative Factors Questionnaire and Therapeutic Components Evaluation Form at the end of their Cognitive Behavioral Group Treatment (CBGT). The patients w...

  8. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Rutherford, P. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Attenberger, S. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Holmes, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Borowski, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brown, T. G. [Grumman Aerospace; Carreras, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ehst, D. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Haines, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hively, L. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Iida, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI); Lee, V. D. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace; Lynch, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Reid, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rothe, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Strickler, Dennis J [ORNL; Stewart, L. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  9. [Eco-efficiency change and its driving factors in Tongling City of Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Ke; Ren, Ke-Xiu; Lu, Gen-Fa

    2011-02-01

    This paper first applied material flow analysis (MFA) to construct three levels of regional eco-efficiency indicators, i.e., regional direct eco-efficiency (RDE), regional total eco-efficiency (RTE), and holistic eco-efficiency (HE), and adopted the newly developed data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the eco-efficiency of Tongling City during the period of 1990-2008. We also applied Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to explore the eco-efficiency change between two following years and its driving factors. The main results were summarized as 1) though the RDE of Tongling City in 1990-2008 kept an increasing trend, its mean eco-efficiency was not high (close to 0.8 in 80% of the years), being lower than that of the RTE and HE, and 2) the RDE change was closely relevant to the improvement in resource management and the technical input in environmental protection in recent years. In order to further improve the RDE of the City, it would be necessary to raise its eco-efficiency via expanding raw material input, reducing domestic extraction, promoting resources productivity, and taking more measures on environmental protection facilities construction.

  10. Transforming Growth Factor β Drives Hemogenic Endothelium Programming and the Transition to Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rui; Pinheiro, Philip; Joseph, Nicola; Peterkin, Tessa; Koth, Jana; Repapi, Emmanouela; Bonkhofer, Florian; Kirmizitas, Arif; Patient, Roger

    2016-08-22

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that generate mature blood lineages throughout life. They, together with hematopoietic progenitor cells (collectively known as HSPCs), emerge from hemogenic endothelium in the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta by an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is required for HSPC specification and that it regulates the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1a in endothelial cells prior to EHT, in a striking parallel with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The requirement for TGFβ is two fold and sequential: autocrine via Tgfβ1a and Tgfβ1b produced in the endothelial cells themselves, followed by a paracrine input of Tgfβ3 from the notochord, suggesting that the former programs the hemogenic endothelium and the latter drives EHT. Our findings have important implications for the generation of HSPCs from pluripotent cells in vitro. PMID:27499523

  11. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  12. Advising on human factors for field trials with (partially) self-driving vehicles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Boele, M.J. Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E. & Hoekstra, A.T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Vehicles are increasingly equipped with systems that take over (elements of) the driving task. Eventually, this is expected to result in fully self-driving vehicles. The human role will shift from driver to supervisor, and ultimately to passenger. These systems are assumed to reduce the risk of huma

  13. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from na

  14. Genetic and environmental risk factors in congenital heart disease functionally converge in protein networks driving heart development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Greenway, Steven C.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.;

    2012-01-01

    in protein networks driving the development of specific anatomical structures (e.g., outflow tract, ventricular septum, and atrial septum) that are malformed by CHD. This integrative analysis of CHD risk factors and responses suggests a complex pattern of functional interactions between genomic variation...

  15. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haghshenas Kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  16. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  17. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Haghshenas

    2011-07-01

    One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  18. Driving and hindering factors for rural electrification in developing countries: Lessons from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification is essential for bringing about social and economic developments, but the progress is distressingly slow in most developing countries. The Bangladesh Rural Electrification Program (BREP) has been highlighted as a positive case among developing countries, but from 2006 onwards there have been doubts about the program's chances of success. In this paper, we examine the rural electrification practices in Bangladesh and evaluate the claim that, whereas they were successful up to 2005, they then began to decline in terms of their performance. This study determines the factors behind the initial success of the program as well as those that account for the recent downturn in BREP. We found that the BREP was a clear success in terms of its growth and progress; however, its performance has been declining since 2006. The key driving factors for the success of this program had to do with prioritizing system investment, community involvement, anti-corruption features, standardized practices and performance-based incentives while excluding political parties. The major issues accounting for the decline were the lack of organizational autonomy, a shortage of funding, unrealistic tariffs, and power supply shortages. Renewable-based, off-grid technologies have been successfully supplementing the on-grid program in remote areas. - Highlights: • Rural electrification is essential for bringing about socio-economic developments. • The pace of rural electrification in the developing countries has been very slow. • A multitude of issues plays behind in making the task a success or a failure. • Lack of policy reforms, unrealistic tariffs are the main hinderers. • Rural electrification cannot be successful by sticking to a rigid model

  19. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  20. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  1. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Hamid, Malai Hayati; Osman, Ratna Suriani

    2016-01-01

    We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not) influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years), employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy) in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. PMID:27382342

  2. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  3. Social, Behavioral, and Biological Factors, and Sex Differences in Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Richard G.; Everett, Bethany G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether sex differences in mortality are associated with different distributions of risk factors or result from the unique relationships between risk factors and mortality for men and women. We extend previous research by systematically testing a variety of factors, including health behaviors, social ties, socioeconomic status, and biological indicators of health. We employ the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III Linked Mortality File and use Cox p...

  4. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  5. 企业缺陷管理的驱动因素和使能因素分析%Analysis on Business Defect Management Driving and Enabling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁莹莹

    2016-01-01

    Analyze business defect management driving and enabling factors from the organizational level , the team level and the individual level. Driving factors on the organizational level include the support of senior managers, incentive and control mechanism, subjective norm and perceived behavior. Driving factors on the team level include team creativity, team supervision, team work, team self reflection and team learning capability. Driving factors on the individual level include employee self-efficacy, proactive behavior, employee creativity, organizational climate and organizational psychological ownership. Enabling factors include trust, communication, coordination and organization culture. Regression analysis model verified driving and enabling factors at different levels. The results showed that the support of senior managers, incentive and control mechanism, subjective norm and perceived behavior all have signifi-cant positive effects on the defect management. Team creativity, team supervision, team work, team self reflection and team learning capability have significant positive effects on the defect management. Employee self-efficacy, proactive behavior, employee creativity, organizational climate and organizational psychological ownership all have significant positive effects on the defect management. Trust , communication, coordination and organization culture also have significant positive effects on the defect management.%文章从组织层面、团队层面和个体层面分析企业缺陷管理的驱动因素和使能因素。组织层面的驱动因素包括高层管理者的支持、激励机制、主观规范和知觉行为控制,团队层面的驱动因素包括团队创造力、团队监督、团队努力、团队自省和团队学习能力,个体层面的驱动因素包括员工自我效能感、员工前摄行为、员工创造力、组织氛围和组织心理所有权。企业缺陷管理的使能因素主要包括信任、沟通机制、协

  6. Driver Gaze Behavior Is Different in Normal Curve Driving and when Looking at the Tangent Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Itkonen

    Full Text Available Several steering models in the visual science literature attempt to capture the visual strategies in curve driving. Some of them are based on steering points on the future path (FP, others on tangent points (TP. It is, however, challenging to differentiate between the models' predictions in real-world contexts. Analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN parameters is one useful measure, as the different strategies predict measurably different OKN patterns. Here, we directly test this prediction by asking drivers to either a "drive as they normally would" or b to "look at the TP". The design of the experiment is similar to a previous study by Kandil et al., but uses more sophisticated methods of eye-movement analysis. We find that the eye-movement patterns in the "normal" condition are indeed markedly different from the "tp" condition, and consistent with drivers looking at waypoints on the future path. This is the case for both overall fixation distribution, as well as the more informative fixation-by-fixation analysis of OKN. We find that the horizontal gaze speed during OKN corresponds well to the quantitative prediction of the future path models. The results also definitively rule out the alternative explanation that the OKN is produced by an involuntary reflex even while the driver is "trying" to look at the TP. The results are discussed in terms of the sequential organization of curve driving.

  7. The road to automated driving: dual mode and human factors considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Beukel, van den A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological developments have shown a transition from informative driving support systems to more automated vehicles. Although automated vehicles are designed to overcome limitations in human perception, decision making and response, there may be a downside to introducing these technologies

  8. The road to automated driving: Dual mode and human factors considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Beukel, A.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological developments have shown a transition from informative driving support systems to more automated vehicles. Although automated vehicles are designed to overcome limitations in human perception, decision making and response, there may be a downside to introducing these technologies

  9. [Factors of the drive for thinness and dieting: from the viewpoint of impression management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro

    2012-12-01

    Thinness is considered as one type of adornment; as such, it has a psychological function for others. Thus the drive for thinness and dieting were investigated from the viewpoint of impression management. Study 1 investigated a model that the need for approval affects dieting through the outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results of structural equation modeling indicated high validity for this model. Study 2 investigated the moderating role of self-esteem in the relationship between positive/negative outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results showed that self-esteem did not act as a moderator between the two components and the drive for thinness.

  10. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  11. Factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures: systematic review and metasummary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhana Seifert Guimarães Suga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists' adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235. Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES were teamwork (21% and post-graduation (12%, while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%, and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%. Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the

  12. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  13. Atmospheric evaporative demand observations, estimates and driving factors in Spain (1961-2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution of evaporation observations from Piché atmometers (1961-2011; 56 stations) and Pan evaporimeters (1984-2011; 21 stations) across Spain, and compared both measurements with evaporation estimates obtained by four physical models: i.e., Food and Agricultural Organization-56 Penman-Monteith, Food and Agricultural Organization-Pan, PenPan and Penman, based on climate data. In this study we observed a positive and statistically significant correlation between Piché and Pan evaporation measurements during the common period (1984-2011; 19 stations), mainly in summer. When evaporation observations and estimates were compared, we detected positive and statistically significant correlations with the four methods, except for winter. Among the four physical models, the FAO-Pan showed the best fitting to both Piché and Pan evaporation measurements; the PenPan model overestimated evaporation rates; and the FAO-Penman-Monteith and Penman methods underestimated evaporation observations. We also observed a better spatial agreement between Pan evaporation and estimates than that obtained by Piché measurements. Annual and seasonal trends of evaporation estimates show a statistically significant increase for 1961-2011, which do not agree with long-term Piché evaporation trends; e.g. a discontinuity was found around the 1980s. Radiative and aerodynamic driving factors suggest that this discontinuity, and the observed evaporation trends across Spain could be associated with the abrupt increase in air temperature observed during last few decades (i.e., global warming). Further investigations using available Piché evaporation observations for other regions are needed to better understand physical components influencing long-term trends of evaporation.

  14. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  15. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

  16. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors. PMID:27533112

  17. Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20–49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors. PMID:27533112

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Paula Jaudy Pedroso; Domingos, Isabela Prado; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Ana Paula MURARO; Sichieri, Rosely; Regina Maria Veras GONÇALVES-SILVA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of sedentary behavior and associated factors in adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study with adolescents aged 10 to 17 years, of both sexes, belonging to a 1994-1999 birth cohort in the city of Cuiabá, MT, Central Western Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing sociodemographic, economic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables. Sedentary behavior was determined as using television and/or computer/video games for a time greater than...

  19. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  20. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Hayford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Extensive research in both developed and developing countries has shown that preferences and intentions for future childbearing predict behavior. However, very little of this research has examined high-fertility contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the factors that increase or decrease correspondence between fertility desires and behavior in these settings are not well understood. OBJECTIVE This article documents the degree to which the desire to stop childbearing predicts fertility behavior over the short term among married women in rural southern Mozambique, a context where fertility transition is still in the early stages. Analyses test the moderating powers of individual, household, and community characteristics. METHODS Analyses use data from a longitudinal survey of married women of reproductive age (N=1678 carried out in 2006 and 2009 in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Logistic regression models are estimated to predict childbearing between 2006 and 2009 based on desires to stop childbearing and characteristics measured in 2006. RESULTS As expected, the desire to stop childbearing is strongly predictive of fertility behavior. Household wealth, local adult AIDS mortality, and being married to an unsuccessful labor migrant are associated with higher correspondence between reported desire to stop childbearing and fertility behavior. CONCLUSIONS Both factors related to the ability to carry out desires to stop childbearing and factors related to the strength and consistency of these desires moderate the association between desires and behaviors. Future research should expand measurement of fertility preferences to incorporate their strength and consistency as well as direction.

  1. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. We found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. Surprisingly, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a pronounced asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using a reinforcement learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is difficult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior.

  2. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. As expected, we found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. However, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a striking asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward strongly scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using the Reinforcement Learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is diffcult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior. PMID:25824862

  3. Can behavioral health drive its own reformation? The challenges of shifting direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A

    2016-03-01

    This paper is designed to provide a broad-view perspective on at least some of the implications of the Affordable Care Act for children's behavioral health. Historical trends in behavioral health have tended to isolate both consumers of services (including children, youth and families) and practitioners from the larger world of healthcare, with decidedly mixed results. This paper uses the concept of path dependence to highlight the multiple challenges facing child behavioral health as it moves forward. The paper builds its recommendations on the 4 pillars of sustainable change: politics, practice, economics, and science. In a changing health care environment, behavioral health has to transform. The paper concludes with some observations on the kinds of transformative change required to move in new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963187

  4. Common-mode Voltage Reduction in a Motor Drive System with a Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, J.; Boora, A.A.; Zare, F.;

    2012-01-01

    to reduce shaft voltage in a three-phase AC motor drive system. In this topology, the AC-DC diode rectifier influences the common-mode voltage generated by the inverter because the placement of the neutral point is changing in different rectifier circuit states. A pulse width modulation technique......Common-mode voltage generated by a power converter in combination with parasitic capacitive couplings is a potential source of shaft voltage in an AC motor drive system. In this study, a three-phase motor drive system supplied with a single-phase AC-DC diode rectifier is investigated in order...... is presented by a proper placement of the zero vectors to reduce the common-mode voltage level, which leads to a cost-effective shaft voltage reduction technique without load current distortion, while keeping the switching frequency constant. Analysis, simulations and experimental implementation have been...

  5. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006-2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  6. The histone demethylase Jmjd3 sequentially associates with the transcription factors Tbx3 and Eomes to drive endoderm differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kartikasari, Apriliana E R; Zhou, Josie X; Kanji, Murtaza S;

    2013-01-01

    feedback loop. In addition, Eomes activates a transcriptional network of core regulators of endodermal differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Jmjd3 sequentially associates with two T-box factors, Tbx3 and Eomes to drive stem cell differentiation towards the definitive endoderm lineage.......Stem cell differentiation depends on transcriptional activation driven by lineage-specific regulators as well as changes in chromatin organization. However, the coordination of these events is poorly understood. Here, we show that T-box proteins team up with chromatin modifying enzymes to drive...... the expression of the key lineage regulator, Eomes during endodermal differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The Eomes locus is maintained in a transcriptionally poised configuration in ES cells. During early differentiation steps, the ES cell factor Tbx3 associates with the histone demethylase Jmjd3...

  7. Primary factors influencing online shopping behavior in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ngoc Thao Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Vietnam, e-commerce is growing significantly, and the growth rate of Vietnam online shopping is among the highest in the Asia-Pacific region. The purpose of this thesis was to examine and get a deep understanding of factors affecting online shopping behavior in Vietnam. Price, Trust, Convenience, and Products were identified as important factors. Another purpose of this thesis is to, based on the results, give suggestions for an electronics manufacturer and retailer in Vietnam – ...

  8. The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Wafa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG - mean age ± SD: 29.47 ± 10.45 years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9 ± 3.7; mean duration of WPS (WPS is (7.5 ± 2.1 years - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33 ± 13.92 years were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t = 11.84, p  Conclusion The results show that WPS has a significant impact on driving behavior and on the risk of being involved in road accidents and causing driving to become riskier and less careful and stable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such relationships have been tested. After WPS the total number of traffic accidents and driving violations increase. The results show a significant increase in the pulse rate immediately after WPS with a decrease in the saturation rate (the level of blood oxygenation; these changes continue half an hour after WPS.

  9. The Baetylus Theorem—the central disconnect driving consumer behavior and investment returns in Wearable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wearable Technology market may increase fivefold by the end of the decade. There is almost no academic investigation as to what drives the investment hypothesis in wearable technologies. This paper seeks to examine this issue from an evidence-based perspective. There is a fundamental disconnect in how consumers view wearable sensors and how companies market them; this is called The Baetylus Theorem where people believe (falsely) that by buying a wearable sensor they will receive health benefit; data suggest that this is not the case. This idea is grounded social constructs, psychological theories and marketing approaches. A marketing proposal that fails to recognize The Baetylus Theorem and how it can be integrated into a business offering has not optimized its competitive advantage. More importantly, consumers should not falsely believe that purchasing a wearable technology, improves health. PMID:27617162

  10. Calculation of slip energy recovery induction motor drive behavior using the equivalent circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, P. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Refoufi, L. (Inst. National D' Electricite et d' Electronique, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    A transformer-type equivalent circuit model for the calculation of the steady state performance of a slip energy recovery induction motor drive with a step down chopper in the dc link is described. Experimental data of rms currents, power, reactive power and overall efficiency satisfactorily correlate with calculations over most of the operating speed range. Also, detailed calculations of rotor, stator and supply harmonic currents due to the rectifier and inverter actions are performed using the conventional version of the equivalent circuit. The computed and measured instantaneous current waveforms show satisfactory agreement except at a slip of 1/6 where significant deviations appear. This effect is adequately catered for by using a more rigorous model.

  11. Factors Associated with Violent Behavior among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and factors associated with violent behavior among adolescents in Aracaju and Metropolitan region. The study included 2207 adolescents (16.03 ± 1.08 years old enrolled in high schools of the State Public Network. Violent behavior was identified from question 14 of the YRBS-2007 questionnaire with responses categorized as “never” and “one or more times.” Higher prevalence in males in relation to risk factors for adoption of violent behavior was found: cigarette consumption (7.3%, alcohol consumption (39.1%, and marijuana use (3.4%. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression with hierarchical model at two levels: (a sociodemographic variables and (b behavioral variables. For both sexes, association between violent behavior and cigarette smoking (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 2.06–6.92 and OR = 1.99, CI 95% = 1.04 to 3.81, male and female, resp. and alcohol consumption (OR = 3.38, CI 95% = 2.22 to 5.16 and OR = 1.83, CI 95% = 1.28 to 2.63, male and female, resp. was verified. It was concluded that violent behavior is associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages and cigarettes among adolescents.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF SOME FACTORS ON THE INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkh-Otgon, D.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the impact of the need for achievement that moderates the climate of silence and job complexity factors involved in innovative behavior. The paper adopts a quantitative approach. After analyzing construct validity and reliability, the study empirically tests its hypotheses by performing a hierarchical regression analysis with a sample of 394 individuals.

  13. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was se

  14. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...

  15. Dynamic behavioral fingerprinting': What drives the deployment of environmental information and communication capabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Haverkamp, D.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of organizational drivers for the implementation of business process and network information and communication capabilities (ICCs) supporting cleaner production in the Dutch food and beverage industry. We do so with the intention to promote `dynamic behavioral fi

  16. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  17. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Kostermans

    Full Text Available We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes.Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey-controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking.Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving.In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents' reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving, with lower self

  18. Factors and Predictors of Online Security and Privacy Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bubaš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Assumptions and habits regarding computer and Internet use are among the major factors which influence online privacy and security of Internet users. In our study a survey was performed on 312 subjects (college students who are Internet users with IT skills that investigated how assumptions and habits of Internet users are related to their online security and privacy. The following four factors of online security and privacy related behaviors were revealed in factor analysis: F1 – conscientiousness in the maintenance of the operating system, upgrading of the Internet browser and use of antivirus and antispyware programs; F2 –engagement in risky and careless online activities with lack of concern for personal online privacy; F3 – disbelief that privacy violations and security threats represent possible problems; F4 – lack of fear regarding potential privacy and security threats with no need for change in personal online behavior. Statistically significant correlations were found between some of the discovered factors on the one side, and criteria variables occurrence of malicious code (C1 and data loss on the home computer (C2 on the other. In addition, a regression analysis was performed which revealed that the potentially risky online behaviors of Internet users were associated with the two criteria variables. To properly interpret the results of correlation and regression analyses a conceptual model was developed of the potential causal relationships between the behavior of Internet users and their experiences with online security threats. An additional study was also performed which partly confirmed the conceptual model, as well as the factors of online security and privacy related behaviors.

  19. Eco-driving with eco-cognition: development of cognitive indicators, experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Delhomme, P.; PARAN, F; NICOLAS, PA

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the aims of the present study were to examine the actual behaviors and the acceptability of the rules of eco-driving and to predict two behavioral components of eco-driving among French motorists (N= 1243). Additional TPB factors were taken into account - descriptive norm, expanded descriptive norm, environmental problem awareness, concern for reducing car-related environmental problem, actual eco-driving behaviors and perceived difficulty to ado...

  20. A Review on Driving Behavior Models%驾驶行为模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段冀阳; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    驾驶员行为模型的研究对于预测和干预驾驶员的风险行为、设计相关的道路安全设施与车内设备,以及制定交通法律法规等具有重要的意义.为了解和掌握学术界关于驾驶行为模型的研究进展,搜集、筛选和归纳了1960-2010年被SCI数据库索引的相关文章,将驾驶行为模型分类为描述性模型、信息处理模型、动机模型、计划行为理论(TPB)和躯体标识假设,并对每种模型进行评述和总结,理清这些模型间的内在联系.研究发现,现有各模型只是从某个角度研究驾驶员行为的部分特征,而不能解释驾驶员的全部行为.今后应不断完善和整合各类模型,并借鉴心理学、生理学和行为科学等相关领域的理论、知识,使驾驶行为模型变得更为实用、有效.%The research on driving behavior models could be useful for the prediction and intervention of risky behavior of drivers, the design of road facilities and in-vehicle equipment, and the improvement of traffic regulations. Relevant articles indexed by Web of Science from 1960 to 2010 were collected for the review of the development of driver behavior models, including descriptive models, information processing models, motivational models, TPB model and Somatic marker hypothesis. Summary and comments were given to those models which were widely cited, along with the internal relationships among these models. It is concluded that each of these models can only partly explain driving behaviors, thus much effort should be spent on their continuous improvement, integration, and the introduction of new findings from psychology , physiology, behavior science, and other related disciplines, so that they would become more practical and effective.

  1. Reading Text While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yulan; Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone)...

  2. Lattice hydrodynamic modeling of two-lane traffic flow with timid and aggressive driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model is proposed by considering the aggressive or timid characteristics of driver's behavior. The effect of driver's characteristic on the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. It is shown that for both the cases of lane changing or without lane changing the stability region significantly enlarges (reduces) as the proportion of aggressive (timid) drivers increases. To describe the propagation behavior of a density wave near the critical point, nonlinear analysis is conducted and mKdV equation representing kink-antikink soliton is derived. The effect of anticipation parameter with more aggressive (timid) drivers is also investigated and found that it has a positive (negative) effect on the stability of two-lane traffic flow dynamics. Simulation results are found consistent with the theoretical findings which confirm that the driver's characteristics play a significant role in a two-lane traffic system.

  3. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; BRIJS, Kris; Ruiter, Rob; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie'...

  4. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation se...

  5. Estimating direction in brain-behavior interactions: Proactive and reactive brain states in driving

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Javier O.; Brooks, Justin; Kerick, Scott; Johnson, Tony,; Mullen, Tim; Vettel, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional neuroimaging analyses have revealed the computational specificity of localized brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to...

  6. N-cadherin is required for the polarized cell behaviors that drive neurulation in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Elim; Brewster, Rachel

    2006-10-01

    Through the direct analysis of cell behaviors, we address the mechanisms underlying anterior neural tube morphogenesis in the zebrafish and the role of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad) in this process. We demonstrate that although the mode of neurulation differs at the morphological level between amphibians and teleosts, the underlying cellular mechanisms are conserved. Contrary to previous reports, the zebrafish neural plate is a multi-layered structure, composed of deep and superficial cells that converge medially while undergoing radial intercalation, to form a single cell-layered neural tube. Time-lapse recording of individual cell behaviors reveals that cells are polarized along the mediolateral axis and exhibit protrusive activity. In N-cad mutants, both convergence and intercalation are blocked. Moreover, although N-cad-depleted cells are not defective in their ability to form protrusions, they are unable to maintain them stably. Taken together, these studies uncover key cellular mechanisms underlying neural tube morphogenesis in teleosts, and reveal a role for cadherins in promoting the polarized cell behaviors that underlie cellular rearrangements and shape the vertebrate embryo.

  7. A veterinary and behavioral analysis of dolphin killing methods currently used in the "drive hunt" in Taiji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Andrew; Brakes, Philippa; Vail, Courtney S; Reiss, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Annually in Japanese waters, small cetaceans are killed in "drive hunts" with quotas set by the government of Japan. The Taiji Fishing Cooperative in Japan has published the details of a new killing method that involves cutting (transecting) the spinal cord and purports to reduce time to death. The method involves the repeated insertion of a metal rod followed by the plugging of the wound to prevent blood loss into the water. To date, a paucity of data exists regarding these methods utilized in the drive hunts. Our veterinary and behavioral analysis of video documentation of this method indicates that it does not immediately lead to death and that the time to death data provided in the description of the method, based on termination of breathing and movement, is not supported by the available video data. The method employed causes damage to the vertebral blood vessels and the vascular rete from insertion of the rod that will lead to significant hemorrhage, but this alone would not produce a rapid death in a large mammal of this type. The method induces paraplegia (paralysis of the body) and death through trauma and gradual blood loss. This killing method does not conform to the recognized requirement for "immediate insensibility" and would not be tolerated or permitted in any regulated slaughterhouse process in the developed world.

  8. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danczak, Robert; Yabusaki, Steven; Williams, Kenneth; Fang, Yilin; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  9. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search.

  10. The attitude of adolescents to aggressive behavior in sports and the factors that influence such behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Čižauskas, Liutauras

    2006-01-01

    THE ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN SPORTS AND THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SUCH BEHAVIOR Keywords: aggression, sports, children. Scientists, psychologists, teachers, and students nowadays pay a lot of attention to the increasing wave of aggression among adolescents. This problem is broadly studied in different journals; in manuals the whole chapters are dedicated to it but it has not been studied a lot in Lithuanian context. In sports, namely among adolescents, diffe...

  11. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, A.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 血液酒精浓度对驾驶行为的影响研究%Effect of Blood Alcohol Concentration on Driving Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣婷

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of alcohol on the driving behavior, 13 different drivers′driv⁃ing behaviors, such as acceleration and braking, were tested under different blood alcohol concentration (0mg/dl、20mg/dl、50 mg/dl、80 mg/dl)and different scenarios based on driving simulator. The drivers′subjective feelings were also investigated. Results show that drunk driving, especially under high BAC, has an impact on driving behavior and may cause some dangerous driving behavior;gender and driving ex⁃perience also have an impact on driving behavior under different blood alcohol concentration.%为了探讨饮酒对驾驶员驾驶行为的影响,以驾驶模拟器为平台,测试了13名驾驶人员在不同血液酒精浓度(0mg/dl,20mg/dl,50 mg/dl,80 mg/dl)、不同场景下加速、刹车情况并调查了其主观感受。进行数据分析后初步得到一些结论:饮酒(特别是在较高血液酒精浓度的情况下)确实会对驾驶行为产生影响并可能会导致某些危险驾驶行为;性别和驾驶经验也会对不同酒精浓度下的驾驶行为产生影响。

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE WEAR BEHAVIOR OF PM STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A. Wang; H. Danninger

    2001-01-01

    A review was made on the research progress of wear behavior of PM steels in recentyears. Wear is not an intrinsic property of PM steels, which is strongly influencedby the wear test conditions. However, many other factors that determine the me-chanical properties of PM steels also affect the wear behavior. Porosity has differenteffects on the wear of PM steels depending on the application conditions. Under drysliding condition, higher porosity results in lower wear resistance. The influence ofmicrostructures on wear resistance was in the order: carbide, martensite, bainite andlamellar pearlite. The wear resistance increases with hardness, but this relationshipchanges with the porosity and microstructures of PM steels.``

  14. Research of Novice Drivers′ Behavior Based on Factor Analysis%基于因子分析法的初驾者驾驶行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪益纯; 陈川

    2012-01-01

    According to the accident cases, this article summarizes the bad driving behaviors leading to accidents based on the research of driving behavior at home and abroad. These bad behaviors are classified. At the same time, the questionnaire is designed and performed investigation. Then the common factor of driving behavior classification are concluded used factor analysis which avoids the shortcoming that the classification of driving behavior can't be survey directly. The association of common factor and social and economic characteristics is analyzed. Life attitude and daily driving situation of drivers is also considered. And also the differences among the different kinds of novice driver would be get using One-Way ANOV. Those could promote the study of driving behavior to more quantitative, detailed-oriented and specific direction, and assist traffic safety education to more targeted, specific direction.%在国内外驾驶行为的研究基础上,根据事故案例总结导致事故发生的不良驾驶行为,进行归纳与分类后开展问卷调查.利用因子分析法对无法直接进行调查的驾驶行为分类进行公共因子提取.分析公共因子与初驾者性别、年龄、职业、文化程度等社会经济特征的关联性.考虑到日常驾驶情况、生活态度对驾驶行为的影响,文中引入了生活态度指标以及日常驾驶情况指标,利用单因素方差分析法得到不同类型初驾者在驾驶行为分类上的差异.

  15. Abnormal driving behavior detection based on the smart phone%智能手机车辆异常驾驶行为检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周后飞; 刘华平; 石红星

    2016-01-01

    Using the smart phone as a tool for detecting abnormal driving behavior, this paper designs an abnormal driving behavior detection method and a practical system. First, the system obtains data from the acceleration, mag⁃netic, and gyroscope sensors of an on⁃board smart phone. Then, through coordinate rotation, feature extraction, and an online driving behavior analysis algorithm, which is based on the kernel extreme learning machine ( ELM) algorithm, the system identifies real⁃time abnormal driving behavior, including frequent lane⁃changing, frequent speed⁃changing, and emergency braking. It then sets off an alarm when abnormal driving behavior has been identi⁃fied. Test results indicate that the driving behavior classifier, which is based on the kernel ELM algorithm, performs better than the support vector machine algorithm. In addition, the proposed abnormal driving behavior detection sys⁃tem can effectively identify various driving behaviors.%将智能手机作为车辆异常驾驶行为检测工具,设计了一种车辆异常驾驶行为检测方法和系统。系统通过获取车载智能手机内部的加速度传感器数据、陀螺仪传感器数据以及磁场传感器数据,经坐标旋转和特征提取,并利用基于核方法极限学习机(核ELM)得到的驾驶行为在线分析算法,以实现能实时识别包括频繁变道、频繁变速及急刹车在内的多种车辆异常驾驶行为,并在车辆出现异常驾驶行为时开启报警语音。测试结果表明,基于核ELM算法的驾驶行为分类器性能比基于支持向量机( SVM )算法更好,提出的异常驾驶行为检测系统能有效识别各种驾驶行为。

  16. On the molecular mechanisms driving pain perception and emergent collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Patti, F.; Fanelli, D.

    2010-05-01

    A stochastic model to investigate the microscopic processes which trigger the sensation of pain is considered. The model, presented in Di Patti and Fanelli [Di Patti F, Fanelli D. Can a microscopic stochastic model explain the emergence of pain cycles in patients? J Stat Mech 2009. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2009/01/P01004], accounts for the action of analgesic drug and introduces an effect of competition with the inactive species populating the bloodstream. Regular oscillations in the amount of bound receptors are detected, following a resonant amplification of the stochastic component intrinsic to the system. The condition for such oscillations to occur are here studied, resorting to combined numerical and analytical techniques. Extended and connected patches of the admissible parameters space are detected which do correspond to the oscillatory behaviors. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing literature on patients' response to the analgesic treatment.

  17. Haploinsufficiency for Steroidogenic Factor 1 Affects Maternal Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanic, Tanja; Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), officially designated NR5A1, is essential for gonadal and adrenal development and for the normal structure of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), as demonstrated by SF-1 knockout mice (SF-1 KO), but much less is known about the possible effects of haploinsufficiency of the SF-1 gene. In the present study, maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous mice was evaluated. Behavioral tests revealed that SF-1 KO heterozygous females have impaired maternal behavior. In comparison to wild-type (WT) females, SF-1 KO heterozygous females retrieved significantly fewer pups into their nests, latency to retrieve and crouch over the pups was longer, and their nests were lower quality. As suggested by previous studies full dosage of SF-1 gene is needed for appropriate stress response and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and this might present a mechanism through which maternal behavior in SF-1 KO heterozygous females is impaired. PMID:27445727

  18. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  19. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  20. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  1. Dental Anxiety and its Association with Behavioral Factors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU, SANDA MIHAELA; DASCĂLU, IONELA TEODORA; SCRIECIU, MONICA; Mercuţ, Veronica; Iren MORARU; ŢUCULINĂ, MIHAELA JANA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental anxiety is a condition that causes a decrease in population addressability to the dentist with adverse consequences for long-term oral health. Assessment of behavioral factors that correlate with dental anxiety is important for accurate evaluation of dental fear. Its diagnosis in childhood is important for establishing therapeutic management strategies to reduce anxiety and promote oral health. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental anxiety in a group of Romanian ...

  2. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    OpenAIRE

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demogr...

  3. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  4. Maternal Depression, Child Frontal Asymmetry, and Child Affective Behavior as Factors in Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…

  5. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  6. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  7. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  8. Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Guillén

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption prevalence in Bolivia is one of the highest in the region and the most degrading practices faced by the society. To apply the changes, social policy makers require objective, accurate, and complete information about the factors that could be considered both guards and risky. Hence, links between socio-demographics, family, personal/behavioral and social variables and youth alcohol use were analyzed in order to know their particular contributions to the explanation of drinking behavior. The study was carried out with a sample of 1,023 young students (13---23 years old, of both sexes (515 male and 508 female recruited from local high schools and university initial undergraduate courses. The results showed strong ties between such variables and adolescent alcohol drinking behavior. The predictive model (linear regression model fitted relatively well including variables such as age, parental monitoring, father---adolescent relationship, peer pressure, antisocial behavior and risk perception. Nevertheless, only social and parental variables proved a good fit with the empirical data when a theoretical model was proposed through a structured equation modeling. Although this model seems to be in good shape, it should be adjusted to a more comprehensive approach to a risk/protection conceptual framework.

  9. Liver-derived systemic factors drive β-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce β-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human β-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of β-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  10. The role of selection and historical factors in driving population differentiation along an elevational gradient in an island bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J A M; Delahaie, B; Bourgeois, Y X C; Duval, T; García-Jiménez, R; Cornuault, J; Pujol, B; Thébaud, C; Milá, B

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation to local environmental conditions and the range dynamics of populations can influence evolutionary divergence along environmental gradients. Thus, it is important to investigate patterns of both phenotypic and genetic variations among populations to reveal the respective roles of these two types of factors in driving population differentiation. Here, we test for evidence of phenotypic and genetic structure across populations of a passerine bird (Zosterops borbonicus) distributed along a steep elevational gradient on the island of Réunion. Using 11 microsatellite loci screened in 401 individuals from 18 localities distributed along the gradient, we found that genetic differentiation occurred at two spatial levels: (i) between two main population groups corresponding to highland and lowland areas, respectively, and (ii) within each of these two groups. In contrast, several morphological traits varied gradually along the gradient. Comparison of neutral genetic differentiation (FST ) and phenotypic differentiation (PST ) showed that PST largely exceeds FST at several morphological traits, which is consistent with a role for local adaptation in driving morphological divergence along the gradient. Overall, our results revealed an area of secondary contact midway up the gradient between two major, cryptic, population groups likely diverged in allopatry. Remarkably, local adaptation has shaped phenotypic differentiation irrespective of population history, resulting in different patterns of variation along the elevational gradient. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding both historical and selective factors when trying to explain variation along environmental gradients. PMID:26779843

  11. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. PMID:25247553

  12. Thin and small form factor cells : simulated behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clews, Peggy Jane; Pluym, Tammy; Grubbs, Robert K.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Young, Ralph Watson; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James

    2010-07-01

    Thin and small form factor cells have been researched lately by several research groups around the world due to possible lower assembly costs and reduced material consumption with higher efficiencies. Given the popularity of these devices, it is important to have detailed information about the behavior of these devices. Simulation of fabrication processes and device performance reveals some of the advantages and behavior of solar cells that are thin and small. Three main effects were studied: the effect of surface recombination on the optimum thickness, efficiency, and current density, the effect of contact distance on the efficiency for thin cells, and lastly the effect of surface recombination on the grams per Watt-peak. Results show that high efficiency can be obtained in thin devices if they are well-passivated and the distance between contacts is short. Furthermore, the ratio of grams per Watt-peak is greatly reduced as the device is thinned.

  13. Process Factors Influence on Cavity Pressure Behavior in Microinjection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C. A.; Dimov, S. S.; Scholz, S.;

    2011-01-01

    about the filling behavior of different polymer melts. In this paper, a pressure sensor mounted inside a tool cavity was employed to analyse maximum cavity pressure, pressure increase rate during filling and pressure work. The influence of four mu IM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature......Process monitoring of microinjection moulding (mu IM) is of crucial importance when analysing the effect of different parameter settings on the process and then in assessing its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide valuable information about the process dynamics and also......, injection speed, and packing pressure on these three pressure-related process parameters was investigated. A design of experiment study was conducted by moulding a test part, a microfluidic component, in three different polymer materials, PP, ABS, and PC. The results show a similar process behavior for all...

  14. Family - protective factor to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana R. Rusu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no problems with parents (p<0.001, being understoodby them (p<0.001 and having the belief that family is very important to them (p<0.001, are protected from the risk of committing suicide. Atthe same time, parents’ ability to listen children opinion (p<0.001 and help them take important decisions (p<0.001, the time spent discussingwith teens the problems they’re going through (p<0.001, and the fact that parents know what they do in their spare time (p=0.003 showsprotective factors of suicidal behavior with a statistically significant value in this study.Conclusion: The family is a psychosocial system witha major impact on adolescents’ personality formation. The attitude towards children, the parents availability to important moments for teens,the ability to be both subjective and objective towards their children initiatives, are factors of protection against adolescents’ suicidal behavior.

  15. Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Bich Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST, drinking alcohol (DA, and underage motorbike driving (MD. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8 were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results: Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01. School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion: This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of

  16. Spatial distribution of wind erosion and its driving factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on remote sensing and geographic information system, the spatial distribution of nation-wide wind erosion is studied, and the 1:100 000 national map of soil erosion by wind in China is made. Wind speed, soil dryness, NDVI, soil texture and the slope of land surface are the key factors to wind erosion. The relations between wind erosion and each factor are discussed. The method of principal component is used to pick up the information included in the five factors, and the wind erosion dynamic index (WEDI) is established. Its comparison with the RS/GIS derived data shows that WEDI can reflect the potential capacity of soil erosion by wind. The dynamic process of the wind erosion is studied to reveal the distribution of the most intense wind erosion regions and the dominant factors in these regions. All these studies may greatly help the mitigation of wind erosion of soil.

  17. Driving Factors of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Impact from Kyoto Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental quality and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the...

  18. Efficiency Factors and Motivations Driving Innovative Activity of Russian Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Kuznetzova; Vitaly Roud

    2011-01-01

    Innovation activity is about the intersection of economic, social and cognitive dimensions, each of which has an impact on the choice of behavioral patterns by a company as well as the extent of its involvement in the innovation process. Regarding innovation in Russia there is a "terminological paradox". The basic conceptual framework has been introduced by OECD and Eurostat as an international standard more than 20 years ago. Relevant methodological and methodical approaches are thoroughly s...

  19. Plant diversity drives soil microbial biomass carbon in grasslands irrespective of global environmental change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhav Prakash; Milcu, Alexandru; Manning, Pete; Niklaus, Pascal A; Roscher, Christiane; Power, Sally; Reich, Peter B; Scheu, Stefan; Tilman, David; Ai, Fuxun; Guo, Hongyan; Ji, Rong; Pierce, Sarah; Ramirez, Nathaly Guerrero; Richter, Annabell Nicola; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Vogel, Anja; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Soil microbial biomass is a key determinant of carbon dynamics in the soil. Several studies have shown that soil microbial biomass significantly increases with plant species diversity, but it remains unclear whether plant species diversity can also stabilize soil microbial biomass in a changing environment. This question is particularly relevant as many global environmental change (GEC) factors, such as drought and nutrient enrichment, have been shown to reduce soil microbial biomass. Experiments with orthogonal manipulations of plant diversity and GEC factors can provide insights whether plant diversity can attenuate such detrimental effects on soil microbial biomass. Here, we present the analysis of 12 different studies with 14 unique orthogonal plant diversity × GEC manipulations in grasslands, where plant diversity and at least one GEC factor (elevated CO2 , nutrient enrichment, drought, earthworm presence, or warming) were manipulated. Our results show that higher plant diversity significantly enhances soil microbial biomass with the strongest effects in long-term field experiments. In contrast, GEC factors had inconsistent effects with only drought having a significant negative effect. Importantly, we report consistent non-significant effects for all 14 interactions between plant diversity and GEC factors, which indicates a limited potential of plant diversity to attenuate the effects of GEC factors on soil microbial biomass. We highlight that plant diversity is a major determinant of soil microbial biomass in experimental grasslands that can influence soil carbon dynamics irrespective of GEC. PMID:26118993

  20. Assessment of factors affecting on immediate selling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolghasem gholamreza tehrani

    2013-09-01

    Topics in descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the questionnaire is used. The study of factors influencing buying behavior instantaneously evaluate the effect of component purchase immediate end to help promote marketing in the country has been conducted. Survey of the research and application of research descriptive survey are. Cross-sectional data from a questionnaire survey in 1391 by the city of Karaj passages have been collected from the sale of clothing and apparel. effect between knowledge and intention to purchase the new product is positive. than seven 9 Assumption accepted hypothesis and other hypotheses were rejected

  1. Factors driving deforestation in common-pool resources in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Kim, Yeon-Su; Hospodarsky, Denver; Tecle, Aregai

    2009-01-01

    The theory of collective action has been extensively used to explain the relationship between common-based property regimes and the conservation of natural resources. However, there are two key components of the theory that literature reports as puzzles in which no consensus exists about their effect on the performance of common-pool resources. These are group size and heterogeneity. This study analyzes the effects of these two key components on the effectiveness of community-based forestry, called ejidos, to protect their forest resources in northern Mexico. We used a multinomial logit model to determine the contribution of 16 explanatory variables to the dependent variable, a measure of success of ejidos defined by the presence of deforested, degraded, or forested conditions. The results show that corn yield, marginality, percent of forest area, total population, a forest value index, distance to markets, roads and towns, were all statistically significant in driving deforested conditions. Deforestation becomes more attractive for poor communities and as corn yield and distance to towns, roads, and markets decrease. In general, group size and heterogeneity had no significant effects on the presence of deforested conditions. Deforestation is driven by resource-specific characteristics, such as location and soil productivity, not by ejidos' attributes, such as total area or number of members. We argue that current institutional policies focusing on the structure of property right arrangements should be shifted (1) to provide better technology for land cultivation; (2) to reduce the marginality problem in poor communities; and (3) to strengthen local institutions.

  2. The study on LUCC and its human drive factors in Quanzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, JianShun; Zhong, KaiWen; Zhang, JinQian; Chen, SongLin

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 1988 and 2000 remote sensing data and the "3S" technology, we not only attempt to analyze the dynamic change form the structure of quantity and spatial change of Land Use in Quanzhou City, but also use the representatively correlation method to explain the interrelation between this change of Land Use and the social economic factors, by the CANCORR program of SPSS. Furthermore, according to the viewpoint of Humanism, we try to find out the function of the social power factors, the social culture factors which conclude natural view, axiology, dietetically custom, habitation fashion and consumed tropism .etc and the developing industries of local color on the Land Use change. From this research, the result show: 1) the structure of quantity of Land Use change remarkably from county to county, the most reducing quantity of paddy field, dry land and garden plot are separately the county of DeHua, HuiAn and NanAn. And the most driver factor is the developing industries of local color; 2) the type change of Land Use caused by the production value of extractive industry, light industry and the third industry, basic contracture investment, output of tea and fruit, convenient extent of road and income of per farmer and so on in Quanzhou City between 1988 and 2000. In a word, the dynamic change of Land Use impact by more factors we have mentioned, and it's extend is more and more multistage, especially in Quanzhou City. As we study, the dynamic change of Land Use is enslaved to human factors in Quanzhou City.

  3. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  4. Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop Regulation at Railway Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihisa Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicting the probability based on the collected data. In the simulator experiment, we measured the distances between a lead vehicle and the driver’s vehicle and the driver’s response time to the deceleration of the leading vehicle when entering the railway crossing. We investigated the influence of the presence of two leading vehicles on the driver’s vehicle movements. The deceleration data were recorded in the field experiments. Slower driving speed led to a higher probability of stopping inside the railway crossing. The probability was higher when the vehicle in front of the leading vehicle did not slow down than when both the lead vehicle and the vehicle in front of it slowed down. Finally, advantages of our new assessment method were discussed.

  5. Main Factors Analysis of Affecting the Steam Drive Impact%影响蒸汽驱效果的主要因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高幻实; 高瑞

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了影响蒸汽驱效果的主要因素,分析了油藏地质条件和蒸汽驱过程中的操作参数两方面因素对蒸汽驱效果的影响,总结出适合蒸汽驱的油藏地质条件和合理的蒸汽驱操作条件.%This paper presents main factors of affecting the steam drive impact, analyses the effect of steam drive impact from the geologic reservoir conditions and the operation parameters in the process of steam drive. Summarizes the geologic reservoir conditions and reasonable steam drive operation conditions fitting for steam drive.

  6. A new approach to in-situ determination of roadside particle emission factors of individual vehicles under conventional driving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Claudia S.; Hallquist, Mattias; Ljungström, Evert; Svane, Maria; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    A method for continuous on-road measurements of particle number emissions for both diesel- and petrol-fuelled vehicles is presented. The setup allows the determination of particle number emission factors on an individual vehicle basis by the simultaneous measurement of CO 2 and particle concentrations. As an alternative to previous measurements on the kerbside, the sample is taken directly in the street, with the advantage of sampling in-situ within the exhaust plumes of passing vehicles, allowing the separation of the individual high-concentration plumes. The method was tested in two experiments that were conducted in the Gothenburg area. In the first study, which was performed at an urban roadside, we were able to determine particle emission factors from individual vehicles in a common car fleet passing the measurement site. The obtained emission factors were of the same order of magnitude (between 1.4 × 10 12 and 1.8 × 10 14 particles km -1) as values published in the recent literature for light duty vehicles. An additional on-road experiment was conducted at a rural road with four light duty reference vehicles (three of them petrol-powered and one diesel-powered) at driving speeds of 50 and 70 km h -1, realised with different engine speeds. The results of the traffic emission studies show that the method is applicable provided that instruments with an adequate dynamic range are used and that the traffic is not too dense. In addition, the variability in particle emissions for a specified driving condition was estimated.

  7. Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments : Team learning beliefs and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, P. van den; Segers, Mien; Kirschner, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A team is more than a group of people in the same space, physical or virtual. In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the social bases of cognition, taking into consideration how social processes in groups and teams affect performance. This article investigates when and how teams i

  8. Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments : Team learning beliefs and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bossche, P. van den; Segers, Mien; Kirschner, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A team is more than a group of people in the same space, physical or virtual. In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the social bases of cognition, taking into consideration how social processes in groups and teams affect performance. This article investigates when and how teams in collaborative learning environments engage in building and maintaining mutually shared cognition, leading to increased perceived performance. In doing so, this research looks for discourse practi...

  9. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Gender differences and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose — This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. Design/Methodology — The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings — Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male...

  10. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Regional and behavioral differences among women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...

  11. Ecological factors driving avian influenza virus dynamics in Spanish wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the ecological interactions between avian influenza viruses (AIV, natural hosts and the environment are scarce. Most work has focused on viral survival and transmission under laboratory conditions and through mathematical modelling. However, more integrated studies performed under field conditions are required to validate these results. In this study, we combined information on bird community, environmental factors and viral epidemiology to assess the contribution of biotic and abiotic factors in the occurrence of low pathogenic AIV in Spanish wetlands. For that purpose, seven locations in five different wetlands were studied during two years (2007-2009, including seven sampling visits by location. In each survey, fresh faeces (n = 4578 of wild birds and water samples were collected for viral detection. Also, the vegetation structure, water physical properties of wetlands, climatic conditions and wild bird community composition were determined. An overall AIV prevalence of 1.7%±0.4 was detected in faecal samples with important fluctuations among seasons and locations. Twenty-six AIV were isolated from the 78 RRT-PCR positive samples and eight different haemagglutinines and five neuraminidases were identified, being the combination H3N8 the most frequent. Variation partitioning procedures identified the combination of space and time variables as the most important pure factor - independently to other factors - explaining the variation in AIV prevalence (36.8%, followed by meteorological factor (21.5% and wild bird community composition/vegetation structure (21.1%. These results contribute to the understanding of AIV ecological drivers in Spanish ecosystems and provide useful guidelines for AIV risk assessment identifying potential hotspots of AIV activity.

  12. Does positive selection drive transcription factor binding site turnover? A test with Drosophila cis-regulatory modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Z He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site(s (TFBS gain and loss (i.e., turnover is a well-documented feature of cis-regulatory module (CRM evolution, yet little attention has been paid to the evolutionary force(s driving this turnover process. The predominant view, motivated by its widespread occurrence, emphasizes the importance of compensatory mutation and genetic drift. Positive selection, in contrast, although it has been invoked in specific instances of adaptive gene expression evolution, has not been considered as a general alternative to neutral compensatory evolution. In this study we evaluate the two hypotheses by analyzing patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism in the TFBS of well-characterized CRM in two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. An important feature of the analysis is classification of TFBS mutations according to the direction of their predicted effect on binding affinity, which allows gains and losses to be evaluated independently along the two phylogenetic lineages. The observed patterns of polymorphism and divergence are not compatible with neutral evolution for either class of mutations. Instead, multiple lines of evidence are consistent with contributions of positive selection to TFBS gain and loss as well as purifying selection in its maintenance. In discussion, we propose a model to reconcile the finding of selection driving TFBS turnover with constrained CRM function over long evolutionary time.

  13. Indoor imitation experimental study on driving factors of rainfall-runoff process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shifeng; LIU Changming; XIA Jun; TAN Ge; LI Lin; LIU Caitang; ZHOU Changqing; GUO Lei

    2005-01-01

    The driving actions of rainfall-runoff process can be attributed to two aspects. The first is the influence of precipitation process, and the second is that of the ground pad. The research results of 179 indoor experiments conducted to imitate rainfall-runoff process indicate that both precipitation duration and intensity play important roles in affecting confluence lag time,which is obviously inconsistent with the traditional hypotheses. The nonlinear relationship is of great significance to the confluence curve especially when the precipitation duration is less than the total confluence time or the precipitation intensity is small. Therefore it can be concluded that the unit hydrograph (UH) can be applied to rainfall-runoff process imitation in the humid areas in the south China region. However, the UH application should be strictly modified in accordance with precipitation conditions in the arid and semiarid region of north China where the precipitation duration is short and the intensity is unstable. It will be hard to get ideal imitation results if the UH is applied blindly without considering specific conditions in the north China region. This also explains the unsatisfactory imitation results caused by using various hydrological models in the north China region. When the precipitation duration is short, and the watershed has not reached total watershed concentration, the characteristics of confluence change greatly, which reflects the actual situation in the north China region. Therefore necessary nonlinear corrections should be made when UH is applied. If the duration is longer than the total confluence time and the balance between pondage and discharge is stricken, the imitation research results will be applicable to both rainfall-runoff relation with longer duration in the south China region and the basic theoretical research on runoff generation and concentration. On conditions of adequate rainfall, peak discharge is in linear relationship with intensity

  14. Shaping the future of higher education in Romania: challenges and driving factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. ROŞCA; Păunescu, Carmen; Cristian Pârvan

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes the main challenges that the Romanian higher education will be facing during the years to come, in terms of its responsibilities for both the individual development and community evolvement. These challenges are revealed as gaps against the European and international tertiary education system, but also as opportunities as well as threats. In addition, the article explores the changing factors that shape the future of higher education in Romania, with a focus on those fact...

  15. Constitutive asymmetric dimerization drives oncogenic activation of epidermal growth factor receptor carboxyl-terminal deletion mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Angela K.J.; Francis, Joshua M; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Joon-Oh; Cho, Jeonghee

    2015-01-01

    Genomic alterations targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene have been strongly associated with cancer pathogenesis. The clinical effectiveness of EGFR targeted therapies, including small molecules directed against the kinase domain such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, have been proven successful in treating non-small cell lung cancer patients with tumors harboring EGFR kinase domain mutations. Recent large-scale genomic studies in glioblastoma and lung cancer have ide...

  16. Factors that drive team participation in surgical safety checks: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Withers, Teresa K.; Lavin, Joanne; Gardiner, Therese; Marshall, Andrea P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Team-based group communications using checklists are widely advocated to achieve shared understandings and improve patient safety. Despite the positive effect checklists have on collaborations and reduced postoperative complications, their use has not been straightforward. Previous research has described contextual factors that impact on the implementation of checklists, however there is limited understanding of the issues that impede team participation in checklist use in surgery....

  17. Relationship between Power Factors of Mixer Drive and Selected Technological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; E. Ziółkowski; K. Smyksy

    2008-01-01

    Thc paper summarizes the selected results of tcsts pcrforrncd to find thc relationship bctwcca thc tcchnological and operational paramctcrsand power consumption by a mixcr drivc. Major tcchnological pammetcrs of moulding sand to considcr arc: mixing lime. moisturecontent. pan load. EIectric power demand is cxprcsscd by crfcctivc valucs, assuming thc bnlanccd tod. Thc propcrtics of moulding sandare shown to be correlated with pwcr factors. As thc mixing lcvcts changc, thc tcchnologicnl pararna...

  18. Competitive binding of transcription factors drives Mendelian dominance in regulatory genetic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Adam H.; Johnson, Norman A.; Tulchinsky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for allelic dominance in regulatory genetic interactions that we call binding dominance. We investigated a biophysical model of gene regulation, where the fractional occupancy of a transcription factor (TF) on the cis-regulated promoter site it binds to is determined by binding energy (-{\\Delta}G) and TF concentration. Transcription and gene expression proceed when the TF is bound to the promoter. In diploids, individuals may be heterozygous at the cis-site, at the T...

  19. Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the end of the quasi-moratorium on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the European Union in 2004, the establishment of GMO-free zones has become an EU wide phenomenon. In contrast to other European countries, Germany follows the concept of cooperative GMO-free zones where neighbouring farmers contractually refrain from GMO cultivation. In this article, we address the question which underlying factors could account for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany. Draw...

  20. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  1. Reduced Total Energy Requirements for the Original Alcubierre and Natario Warp Drive Spacetimes-the Role of Warp Factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows Superluminal Travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre Warp Drive discovered in 1994 and the Natario Warp Drive discovered in 2001. However as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the Warp Drive violates all the known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the Eins...

  2. The transcription factor Ets21C drives tumor growth by cooperating with AP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Janine; Willecke, Maria; Basler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is driven by genetic alterations that perturb the signaling networks regulating proliferation or cell death. In order to block tumor growth, one has to precisely know how these signaling pathways function and interplay. Here, we identified the transcription factor Ets21C as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth and propose a new model of how Ets21C could affect this process. We demonstrate that a depletion of Ets21C strongly suppressed tumor growth while ectopic expression of Ets21C further increased tumor size. We confirm that Ets21C expression is regulated by the JNK pathway and show that Ets21C acts via a positive feed-forward mechanism to induce a specific set of target genes that is critical for tumor growth. These genes are known downstream targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also on Ets21C suggesting a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism. Taken together we show that Ets21C is a crucial player in regulating the transcriptional program of the JNK pathway and enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern neoplastic growth. PMID:27713480

  3. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  4. Epidermal growth-factor-induced transcript isoform variation drives mammary cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang J Köstler

    Full Text Available Signal-induced transcript isoform variation (TIV includes alternative promoter usage as well as alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of mRNA. To assess the phenotypic relevance of signal-induced TIV, we employed exon arrays and breast epithelial cells, which migrate in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF. We show that EGF rapidly--within one hour--induces widespread TIV in a significant fraction of the transcriptome. Importantly, TIV characterizes many genes that display no differential expression upon stimulus. In addition, similar EGF-dependent changes are shared by a panel of mammary cell lines. A functional screen, which utilized isoform-specific siRNA oligonucleotides, indicated that several isoforms play essential, non-redundant roles in EGF-induced mammary cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of TIV in the rapid evolvement of a phenotypic response to extracellular signals.

  5. Factors That Drives Young Adult Consumers’ Online Purchase Intention in Social Media Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the drivers of online purchase intentions using social media as a medium. This study was able to obtain a sample size of 232 respondents using the stratified sampling method. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, a reliability test, and the multiple regressions. In the proposed model, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust, enjoyment, and perceived security are postulated to influence the online purchase intention. It is found that perceived security and trust plus with perceived usefulness and enjoyment have positively influence the online purchase intention among young adults. However, perceived ease of use has no significant influence on online purchase intention. The findings in this study can be adopted as outlines for businesses as well as individuals who intent to exploit online business through social media.

  6. Driving Factors of Carbon Distribution in Soils as Determined by z*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnich, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Harden, J. W.; Treat, C. C.; Schulz, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial soils store approximately three times the amount of carbon(C) stored in the atmosphere. Understanding the mechanisms resulting in soil organic carbon stabilization is necessary for predicting the fate of this carbon and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here, we explore how soil carbon depth gradients are influenced by factors such as age, parent material, mean annual temperature (MAT) and a modeled moisture/leaching index (LI). Specifically, we calculate a quantitative metric reflecting the depth gradient of organic carbon, z*, described by Rosenbloom et al. 2006, which describes the depth attenuation of C turnover by fitting the %C by depth relationship with an exponential decay function. We compare z* across several soil chronosequences (n=33) spanning a broad array of ecosystems and climates. The compiled chronosequence data were collected from previously published studies and ongoing USGS work. Each sequence consisted of at least two soils spanning a developmental age gradient and each soil included depth resolved carbon concentrations, with at least four different depths sampled in vertical profile. When the soil profile data were integrated across all depths, we found only weak relationships between total C in these profiles with various soil forming factors. Comparing depth resolved concentrations provided an opportunity to determine the significance of depth resolved gradients and particularly the importance of deep soil C. We found a significant positive relationship between z* and age, (R2=0.57, p=4.0*10-13), a significant negative relationship between z* and LI (R2=0.02, p=0.02), a significant relationship between (age x LI) and z* (R2=0.02, p=0.02, a positive relationship between z* and MAT (R2=0.1 p=0.01), and no relationship between z* and general parent material type (felsic, mafic, calcareous ; R2=0.04, p=0.01). These findings aid in determining the drivers of soil carbon storage across sites.

  7. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. PMID:27473771

  8. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E; Franklin, Jerry F; Laurance, William F; Stein, John A R; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  9. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans. Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009. Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1 the prolonged time required (>120 years for initiation of cavities; and (2 repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  10. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E; Franklin, Jerry F; Laurance, William F; Stein, John A R; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide. PMID:23071486

  11. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  12. Conditioning factors of innovation in the internet purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colmenero Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The several discussions about the electronic commerce and their implications encourage as much the companies as the consumers. However, more important than the quantification of the phenomenon, it the understanding of itself, as the Internet can be assumed as a business tool with positive repercussions in the businesses, as well as the potential market was transactions can be realized.In this study, we tried to identify the most relevant factors in the configuration and presentation of the offer whose impacts allow to unchain a certain purchase decision, as well as, to verify the relationship among the degree of entertainment, pleasure/easy to use and implication/involvement with the information of each Website and the adoption of purchase innovators' behaviors.

  13. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively. PMID:23197385

  14. CONDITIONING FACTORS OF INNOVATION IN THE INTERNET PURCHASE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colmenero Ferreira

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The several discussions about the electronic commerce and their implications encourage as much the companies as the consumers. However, more important than the quantification of the phenomenon, it the understanding of itself, as the Internet can be assumed as a business tool with positive repercussions in the businesses, as well as the potential market was transactions can be realized. In this study, we tried to identify the most relevant factors in the configuration and presentation of the offer whose impacts allow to unchain a certain purchase decision, as well as, to verify the relationship among the degree of entertainment, pleasure/easy to use and implication/involvement with the information of each Website and the adoption of purchase innovators' behaviors.

  15. Psychological factors that promote behavior modification by obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Akinori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-loss effect of team medical care in which counseling is provided by clinical psychologists was investigated in an university hospital obesity (OB clinic. Nutritional and exercise therapy were also studied. In our previous study, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial with obese patients and confirmed that subjects who received counseling lost significantly more weight than those in a non-counseling group. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics assessed by ego states that promote behavior modification by obese patients. Methods 147 obese patients (116 females, 31 males; mean age: 45.9 ± 15.4 years participated in a 6-month weight-loss program in our OB clinic. Their psychosocial characteristics were assessed using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG before and after intervention. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare weight and psychological factors before and after intervention. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting weight loss. Results Overall, 101 subjects (68.7% completed the program, and their data was analyzed. The subjects mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 7.3 kg (Z = 7.72, p 2 (Z = 7.65, p Z = 1.95, p Z = 2.46, p p p = 0.06 was observed. Conclusion This study of a 6-month weight-loss program that included counseling by clinical psychologists confirmed that the A ego state of obese patients, which is related to their self-monitoring skill, and the FC ego state of them, which is related to their autonomy, were increased. Furthermore, the negative aspects of the FC ego state related to optimistic and instinctive characteristics inhibited the behavior modification, while the A ego state represented objective self-monitoring skills that may have contributed to weight loss.

  16. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Older U.S. Adults With and Without Disabilities, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Indu B. Ahluwalia, MPH, PhD; Catherine A. Okoro, MS; Tara W. Strine, MPH; Lisa C. McGuire, PhD; Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between healthy behaviors and the prevalence of chronic diseases in older adults with disabilities. This study examines the prevalence of selected healthy lifestyle behaviors related to chronic diseases among adults aged 65 years and older with and without disabilities. Methods Data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to assess having a healthy weight and six behaviors: current cigarette smoking status,...

  17. Factors Associated with Bullying Behavior in Islamic Private Schools, Pattani Province, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between students’ bullying behaviors in Islamic private schools, Pattani province and classroom management factors (democracy, authoritarian, and permissive classroom management), family upbringing factors (strict, permissive, and democracy upbringing), environment violence factors (influence of peers violence, community violence, and parents violence), and to identify risk factors for bullying behaviors. A cross-sectional surve...

  18. An ecological overview on the factors that drives to Trypanosoma cruzi oral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; González, Oscar Noya

    2015-11-01

    American trypanosomiasis is one of the few native parasites of this continent. As a zoonosis, Trypanosoma cruzi infects about 180 species out of 25 families of mammals. Its regular transmission is through triatomines, which can easily transmit parasites either by the skin route (contamination of mammals skin with their feces) or by oral route (ingestion of food contaminated with complete triatomines or their feces) and additionally through haematogenous via (congenital and transfusional) and by tissues (transplants). The oral route, which seems to be the ancestral form of transmission to wild and domestic mammals, has recently become more important after the success achieved in the control of domicile vectors using residual pesticides. From its initial diagnosis in 1967, tens of oral outbreaks have been diagnosed mostly in the Brazilian Amazon and subsequently in other four countries in South America. Environmental imbalance caused by man through the invasion and deforestation of woodlands, results in reduction of biodiversity of mammals as food source for triatomines, affecting the "dilution effect" of T. cruzi in the nature increasing the risk of human infection. On the other hand, triatomines invade houses looking for new blood sources. One of the consequences of domiciliated triatomines is the food contamination spread, especially in home-made juices, which has been the source of infection of most oral outbreaks. Other biotic and abiotic factors help to explain the recent increase of oral transmission outbreaks of Chagas disease, distributed in nine eco-regions of America. PMID:26066984

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor signaling in intrapancreatic ductal cells drives pancreatic morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Anderson

    Full Text Available In a forward genetic screen for regulators of pancreas development in zebrafish, we identified donut(s908 , a mutant which exhibits failed outgrowth of the exocrine pancreas. The s908 mutation leads to a leucine to arginine substitution in the ectodomain of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. This missense mutation impedes the proteolytic maturation of the receptor, its trafficking to the plasma membrane, and diminishes the phospho-activation of its kinase domain. Interestingly, during pancreatogenesis, met and its hgf ligands are expressed in pancreatic epithelia and mesenchyme, respectively. Although Met signaling elicits mitogenic and migratory responses in varied contexts, normal proliferation rates in donut mutant pancreata together with dysmorphic, mislocalized ductal cells suggest that met primarily functions motogenically in pancreatic tail formation. Treatment with PI3K and STAT3 inhibitors, but not with MAPK inhibitors, phenocopies the donut pancreatic defect, further indicating that Met signals through migratory pathways during pancreas development. Chimera analyses showed that Met-deficient cells were excluded from the duct, but not acinar, compartment in the pancreatic tail. Conversely, wild-type intrapancreatic duct and "tip cells" at the leading edge of the growing pancreas rescued the donut phenotype. Altogether, these results reveal a novel and essential role for HGF signaling in the intrapancreatic ducts during exocrine morphogenesis.

  20. Health Behaviors of the Young Adult U.S. Population: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCracken, MPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHealth-risk behaviors such as eating poorly, being physically inactive, and smoking contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and are often established during adolescence and young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to characterize the health-risk behaviors of young adults (aged 18–24 years using a large population-based survey of Americans and to determine if behaviors of this group differ by weight category, as assessed by body mass index (BMI.MethodsPrevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors were calculated for respondents aged 18 to 24 years to the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Respondents were categorized by BMI, and comparisons between sex and race and ethnicity were made within the overweight and obese categories.ResultsMore than three quarters (78.4% of respondents consumed fewer than five fruits and vegetables per day, 43.2% reported insufficient or no physical activity, 28.9% were current smokers, 30.1% reported binge drinking, and 11.9% reported frequent mental distress. One quarter (26.1% of respondents were overweight, and 13.6% were obese. Of obese young adults, 67.2% reported that they currently were trying to lose weight; however, only 24.3% reported having received professional advice to lose weight. More obese women (34.2% than obese men (16.7% reported having received professional advice to lose weight. Only 19.1% of obese non-Hispanic white respondents had received professional advice to lose weight compared with 28.0% of obese Hispanic respondents and 30.6% of obese non-Hispanic black respondents.ConclusionMany young adults engage in unhealthy behaviors, and differences exist in health-risk behaviors by BMI category and specifically by sex and race and ethnicity within BMI categories. The transition from adolescence to adulthood may be an opportune time for intervening to prevent future chronic disease.

  1. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  2. Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to uncover driving forces for provincial CO2 emission in China, a case study was undertaken to shed light on the CO2 emission growth in such a region. Liaoning province was selected due to its typical features as one industrial province. The environmental input–output analysis and structure decomposing analysis have been conducted in order to provide a holistic picture on Liaoning's CO2 emissions during 1997–2007. Research outcomes indicate that rapid increase of per capita consumption activities is the main driver for Liaoning to have a significant CO2 emission growth, followed by consumption structure, production structure and population size. Energy intensity and energy structure partly offset the CO2 emission increase. Electricity power and heat supply and construction sectors caused the most CO2 emission, indicating that more specific mitigation policies for these two sectors should be prepared. From final demand point of view, it is clear that trade plays a leading role in regional CO2 emission, followed by fixed capital investment and urban household consumption which become increasingly important over time. Consequently, in order to realize low carbon development, local governments should consider all these factors so that appropriate mitigation policies can be raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • Driving forces for Liaoning's CO2 emission have been uncovered through the use of IO-SDA model. • Construction and electricity power/heat supply sectors have the highest embodied emissions. • Trade plays a key role on regional CO2 emission in Chinese old industrial base. • Fixed capital investment and urban households generated more CO2 emissions

  3. DRIVING AND LIMITING FACTORS IN THE FARM MANAGEMENT BY YOUNG FARMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kiełbasa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify driving and limiting factors of farm management in a region of fragmented agriculture. The paper presents the results of the research conducted in the South-Eastern Poland (Macroregion of Małopolska and Pogórze. The survey was conducted in 2014 in the farms managed by young farmers, i.e. the benefi ciaries of the measure “Setting up of young farmers” from the RDP 2007–2013, with the use of a survey method with a questionnaire interview. The research was empirical, and its main goal was to present a case study of the farm management by young farmers in terms of specifi c management barriers. The results of the studies pointed to the fragmented agrarian structure as the one of the biggest barriers of the eff ective farm management. The young farmers pointed that fragmented agrarian structure signifi cantly impedes the purchase or lease of agricultural land, and the farm development in the same way. The survey pointed to the factors that contribute to the young farmers: the entrepreneurial attitude, activity and creativity, training, the management knowledge and better access to the Common Agricultural Policy instruments.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of reclamation and cultivation and its driving factors in parts of China during the last three centuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Quansheng; DAI Junhu; HE Fanneng; ZHENG Jingyun; MAN Zhimin; ZHAO Yun

    2004-01-01

    Different from other similar studies, in this paper, most of the data were excerpted from historical archives and documents, and were used to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of cultivated land resources in China during the last 300 years. It is clear that these data may help reveal land use change dynamics and its regional differences, but they may be problematic due to the constraints of the original data in the Ming Dynasty, Conversion of Land Area for the purpose of collecting land taxes, and the deliberate or inadvertent omission of cultivated land area during land surveys, therefore, such data were adjusted to our need. In processing the data, we made great efforts to analyze the historical context of their sources and reduced the possible errors. The results show that the cultivated land area increased most quickly in the early Qing Dynasty, and slowed down after the middle Qing Dynasty, and then was stable in the late Qing Dynasty until 1949, and has been decreasing since then. It is also found that the cultivated land use varied greatly in different regions. The east of the country was cultivated much more heavily than the west, but in some western provinces cultivated land area increased more quickly. It is considered that the driving factors of such cultivated land area change include the increase of the population, the political issues, and the impacts of wars. Natural environmental factors and the introduction of new crops might also have affected the cultivated land use change in the past 300 years.

  5. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

  6. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack.

  7. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack. PMID:27261761

  8. Phosphorylation of a WRKY transcription factor by two pathogen-responsive MAPKs drives phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guohong; Meng, Xiangzong; Liu, Yidong; Zheng, Zuyu; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Shuqun

    2011-04-01

    Plant sensing of invading pathogens triggers massive metabolic reprogramming, including the induction of secondary antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins. We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In search of the transcription factors downstream of MPK3/MPK6, we found that WRKY33 is required for MPK3/MPK6-induced camalexin biosynthesis. In wrky33 mutants, both gain-of-function MPK3/MPK6- and pathogen-induced camalexin production are compromised, which is associated with the loss of camalexin biosynthetic gene activation. WRKY33 is a pathogen-inducible transcription factor, whose expression is regulated by the MPK3/MPK6 cascade. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that WRKY33 binds to its own promoter in vivo, suggesting a potential positive feedback regulatory loop. Furthermore, WRKY33 is a substrate of MPK3/MPK6. Mutation of MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation sites in WRKY33 compromises its ability to complement the camalexin induction in the wrky33 mutant. Using a phospho-protein mobility shift assay, we demonstrate that WRKY33 is phosphorylated by MPK3/MPK6 in vivo in response to Botrytis cinerea infection. Based on these data, we conclude that WRKY33 functions downstream of MPK3/MPK6 in reprogramming the expression of camalexin biosynthetic genes, which drives the metabolic flow to camalexin production in Arabidopsis challenged by pathogens.

  9. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  10. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; F.J. Oort; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and exter

  11. Do drivers have a realistic view of their driving ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two......The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ...

  12. 考虑驾驶员行为特性的行车安全仿真试验%Simulation test on effect of driver behavior characteristics on driving safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 杨娇; 杭文; 陈志伟; 吴德华

    2013-01-01

    The driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system which is proved out by virtual simulation test is effec-tuated for analyzing the effect of the driving behavior characteristics on safety of driving.By combining the domestic and foreign research findings on driver′s physical function,the driving behavior characteristics were divided into 12 types and the characterization parameters were determined.The road traffic safety of drivers with different characteristics who drive on different radius of horizontal curve and under heavy weather was analyzed by orthogonal test.The result indicates that the fatigue states have the most signifi-cant impact on driver′s driving ability.When driving under heavy weather,the vehicle speed is the most important factor impacting on the driver′s traveling safety.%为了分析驾驶员行为特性对行车安全的影响状况,首先建立了基于 MATLAB/Simulink 和 AD-AMS 联合仿真的人-车-路闭环系统,通过不同车速下的双移线和蛇形线的闭环仿真试验验证了该系统的有效性。此外,在综合国内外学者研究成果的基础上,综合驾驶员的生理、心理特性和疲劳程度将驾驶员的驾驶特性分为12类,并确定相应类型驾驶特性的表征参数。选取某省道设计方案的部分路段为试验路段,对不同类型驾驶员在弯道上的行车安全以及不同疲劳程度的驾驶员在恶劣天气下的行车安全进行正交试验设计,基于人-车-路闭环系统开展虚拟行车仿真试验。试验数据的极差和方差分析结果显示,驾驶员疲劳程度对行车安全状况影响显著,在雨天与冰雪等恶劣天气下行驶时车速是影响行车安全的决定性因素。

  13. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Sagaspe; Jacques Taillard; Torbjorn Akerstedt; Virginie Bayon; Stéphane Espié; Guillaume Chaumet; Bernard Bioulac; Pierre Philip

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years)...

  14. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  15. Self-reported halitosis and associated demographic and behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis. PMID:27556677

  16. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  17. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  18. Alcohol consumption among adolescents: attitudes, behaviors and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Granville-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol use and analyze associated factors among schoolchildren in public schools of Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 574 adolescents, with the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used (5% level of significance. Among the adolescents 54.5% had drunk alcohol and 6.7% of them were heavy drinkers. The majority of them drank alcohol between 11 and 14 years of age (42.8%; 26.3% of the adolescents purchased alcoholic beverages; and beer was the most drink most consumed (43.8%. The risk of alcohol drinking was higher between 16 and 19 years of age (OR = 4.44; p < 0.001, among those without religious affiliation (OR = 4.36; p = 0.002, among those who worked (OR = 2.13; p = 0.012 and among those who had a fair to poor relationship with their father (OR = 2.18; p = 0.010. The results of this study underscore the complexity of this issue and the need to pay particular attention to the adolescent population. Public policies alone are not sufficient. Support from family, school and society is essential to curtail early alcohol use and its consequences.

  19. Opioid Treatment of Migraine: Risk Factors and Behavioral Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Melissa T; Weed, Valerie; Kulich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Migraine can impact every aspect of a person's functioning. Psychological comorbidities, cognitive constructs, and behavioral responses to pain greatly impact the perception of migraine pain, treatment efficacy and outcome, and overall quality of life and functioning. Current considerations for migraine treatment emphasize the utility of the biopsychosocial model in understanding and treating migraine, noting both the importance of addressing psychological factors such as cognitive beliefs as well as psychiatric comorbidities. The guidelines for migraine treatment implicate opioid therapy as a second or third tier treatment. Guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of opioid medications among patients with chronic pain emphasize the importance of screening prior to prescribing opioid medications. Chronic opioid therapy has been shown to further levels of disability, decrease quality of life, and correlate to psychiatric comorbidities, concerns that are already present in migraine patients. While opioid treatment provides an alternative for persons with contraindications for alternative migraine treatments, it is critical that opioids be used sparingly and exclusively in conjunction with comprehensive assessment and integration of psychological treatment. PMID:27474093

  20. Systematic analysis of impact factors and level of coal miners’ safety behavior

    OpenAIRE

    He Gang; Qiao Guo-tong; Li Tian-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper indicates that coal miners’ unsafe behavior is the major internal reason causing coal mine accidents. Factors affecting coal miners’ unsafe behavior were identified. The relatively entire system of coal miners’ safety behavior was built accordingly. Coal miners’ unsafe behavior system was analyzed quantitatively. Path and divergence of impact factors within the system were explained in detail. Management decision can be formulated to advance management level in coal mine industry....

  1. Factors affecting anticipated emotions in association with aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína VASKOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict situations and situations of guile are not rare in our everyday life. In context of broadly conceived study, inspired by Richetins and Richardson’s (2011 extension of Theory of Planned Behavior, the character of anticipated emotions in relation to situation of aggressive and non aggressive reaction is analyzed. Influence of behavioral desire and perceived behavioral control is examined. Results show anticipating different emotions in relation to situation and acknowledge significant role of behavioral desire. Unimportant role of perceived behavioral control is ascer tained. Closer explanations in relation to self-control and self-regulation is discussed.

  2. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  3. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  4. Psychometric examination and validation of the aggressive driving scale (ADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Houston, Rebecca; Wu, Changxu

    2016-07-01

    Aggressive driving behavior is an important cause of traffic accidents. Based on the recent view that aggressive driving is one way that trait aggression manifests itself, a growing research area has focused on the development of scales to assess aggressive driving. The aggressive driving scale (ADS) analyzed in the present study consists of 24 items. A sample of 276 participants was analyzed to obtain the factor structure and reliability of the ADS and 67 of them participated in the behavioral experiment in order to examine the construct and predictive validity of the scale. Results indicated a 3-factor structure (interference with other drivers, violations/risk taking, and anger/aggression expression behavior) with high item loadings. The ADS had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity of the ADS was established as the ADS subscale scores correlated significantly with trait measures of anger and aggression. Predictive validity of the ADS was verified as most items were significantly correlated with behavioral measures derived from a driving simulator. The ADS was a significant predictor of behavioral measures both in the simulated environment (i.e., frequency of driving off the road, red light running behavior, frequency of colliding with a vehicle, frequency and distance of over speeding, frequency and distance of central crossing) and reported real world situations (i.e., annual moving violations and accidents). These results suggest that the ADS is a reliable and valid tool in evaluating aggressive driving behavior as the current study provides behavioral support for the effectiveness of the ADS in measuring aggressive driving behavior. Aggr. Behav. 42:313-323, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848038

  5. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source ap

  6. Analysis of nomofobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the developments in technology have made our lives and daily activities easier, it is believed that problematic and excessive use of technology could have some negative effects on people. One of these negative effects is the prevalence of nomophobia, which is considered as a new phobia in recent years. Nomophobia is defined as the fear and anxiety when an individual cannot access his or her mobile/smart phone or cannot have the chance to communicate online and offline via mobile devices. Nomophobic tendencies can change individuals’ daily habits. Negative emotions due to nomophobic tendencies like fear and anxiety especially in young people is thought to affect their school lives and academic achievements. The purpose of this research is to analyze the prevalence of nomophobia among high school students regarding various factors. The Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q, which was used in this study, was developed by Yildirim and Correia (2015, and adapted into Turkish by Yildirim, Sumuer, Adnan and Yildirim (2015. The study group consists of 475 high school students attending six different schools situated in diverse socio-economic areas in Izmir and Edirne in 2015-2016 education year. The study was conducted in survey model and descriptive statistics. T-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA techniques were used at the analysis stage. According to the findings, mean scores obtained from the scale demonstrated that the levels of nomophobic behaviors of high school students were above the average. Besides, female students have higher nomophobia levels compared to male students in terms of gender variable and a significant difference was found in terms of the duration of mobile internet usage. A significant difference could not be found in terms of the variables such as grade, parents’ education levels, and the duration of smartphone usage. Furthermore, the study has revealed that high school students use their

  7. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. PMID:18089215

  8. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  9. Factors of Problem Behavior in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittjer, Carl J.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    The Behavior Problem Checklist was completed by teachers of 104 students in a residential school for the visually impaired. Overall, the visually impaired children tended to have problem-behavior patterns similar to other populations and these patterns were largely independent of the visual handicap. (Author)

  10. Predictors of Behavior Factors of High School Students against Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict high school students' recycling behaviors. The study was designed as survey model. The study's sample consists of 203 students at a high school in Ankara. A recycling behavior scale developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The scale has 3 dimensions: recycling…

  11. Psychosocial Factors and Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E.; Trueba, Ana F.; Fritzsche, Anja; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This review examines the evidence for psychosocial influences in asthma and behavioral medicine approaches to its treatment. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on psychosocial influences and the evidence for behavioral interventions in asthma with a focus on research in the past 10 years and clinical trials.…

  12. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelija Samoškienė

    2011-01-01

    The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the ...

  13. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P behavioral control (b = 0.19, P behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P behavioral control (b = 0.56, P behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

  14. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  15. Early diagenesis and clay mineral adsorption as driving factors of metal pollution in sediments: the case of Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Mane, Miguel Ângelo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Santos, José Francisco; da Silva, Frederico Sobrinho; Terroso, Denise; Miranda, Paulo; Figueira, Rubens; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Bernardes, Cristina; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dias, João M Alveirinho; Rocha, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to define the factors driving the accumulation of metals in the sediment of the lagoon of Aveiro (Portugal). The role of initial diagenetic processes in controlling trace metal retention in surface sediment is traced by mineralogy, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses. Although several studies have focused on the metal distribution in this polihaline and anthropized coastal lagoon, most of them have been solely focused on the total metal concentrations. This study instead represents the first attempt to evaluate in a vast area of the Aveiro Lagoon the role of biogeochemical processes in metal availability and distribution in three extracted phases: exchangeable cations adsorbed by clay and elements co-precipitated with carbonates (S1), organic matter (S2) and amorphous Mn hydroxides (S3). According to the sediment guideline values, the sediment is polluted by, for instance, As and Hg in the inner area of the Murtosa Channel, Pb in the Espinheiro Channel, Aveiro City canals and Aveiro Harbour, and Zn in the northern area of the Ovar Channel. These sites are located near the source areas of pollutants and have the highest total available concentrations in each extracted phase. The total available concentrations of all toxic metals are however associated, firstly, with the production of amorphous Mn hydroxides in most of the areas and, secondly, with adsorption by organic compounds. The interplay of the different processes implies that not all of the sites near pollution sources have polluted surface sediment. The accumulation of metals depends on not only the pollution source but also the changing in the redox state of the sediments that may cause alterations in the sediment retention or releasing of redox-sensitive metals. Results of this work suggest that the biogeochemical processes may play a significant role in the increase of the pollutants in the sediment of the Aveiro Lagoon.

  16. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus;

    2016-01-01

    We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20mmin1) roll-to-roll (R2R) flexographic printing[1] of the drain (D) and source (S) electrode structures directly on polyester foil. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by spin coating or slot-die coating...... to drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial...... with respect to both transconductance and on/off ratio. We achieve high currents of up to 45mA at a temperature of 80 C with an on/ off ratio of 100 which is sufficient to drive large area organic electronics such as an EC device powered by OPV devices that we also demonstrate. Finally, we observe...

  17. Prevalence of Selected Chronic, Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Jordan: Results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Zindah, Meyasser; Belbeisi, Adel; Hadaddin, Raja; Brown, David W.; Walke, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of illness and death in Jordan. Since 2002, the Jordan Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to collect information on many of the behaviors and conditions related to NCDs. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of selected NCD risk factors and the relations...

  18. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  19. A Study of Driving Anger Expression Scale Based on Driving Behavior%基于驾驶行为的驾驶愤怒表现量表研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷虎; 吴超仲; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    对456名驾驶人的调查数据进行了因子分析,得到一份有21个项目的驾驶愤怒表现量表(Cronbach α=0.861),量表包括操作强度、操作频率、言语攻击、对车发泄、自我调节5个可靠的分量表,子量表的信度系数(Cronbach α)在0.667~0.894之间.除自我调节子量表外,其余各子量表彼此显著正相关.并通过比较月收入不同的驾驶人驾驶愤怒表现得分平均数对量表的结构效度进行了检验.研究结果表明,本量表具有较高的信度和效度,符合心理测量学标准.%A factor analysis of responses from 456 drivers yielded a 21-item driving anger expression scale (alpha reliability = 0. 861) with five reliable subscales involving operational fiery, operational frequency, verbal aggression, venting by vehicle and self-regulation. The subscale of reliability coefficients ranged between =0. 667 and =0. 894. In addition to self-regulation subscale, the other sub-scales correlated positively and significantly with each other. The scale of construct validity was tested by comparing the driving anger performance average score of drivers with different monthly income. The results show that the scale has high reliability and validity, meets the psychometric standards,and is a valid instrument to study the driver of driving anger performance.

  20. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Külshammer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12 and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1. We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8. While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our

  1. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In

  2. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102...

  3. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  4. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd; Babb, Jessica A.; Steven eBradburn; Carini, Lindsay M.; Gillian L Beamer; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS) of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral ...

  5. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Babb, Jessica A.; Bradburn, Steven; Carini, Lindsay M.; Gillian L Beamer; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS) of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral lev...

  6. Research on Driving Behavior Prediction Method Based on HMM%基于隐马尔可夫模型的驾驶行为预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖献强; 任春燕; 王其东

    2013-01-01

    根据驾驶行为受驾驶意图驱使,在时空上应先产生驾驶意图后有驾驶动作执行,再有具体的驾驶行为的时空顺序,利用意图到行为实现过程中的时间差,研究建立了基于多驾驶操作动作特征观测信息和隐马尔可夫模型的驾驶行为预测方法,实现了跑偏驾驶、一般转向和紧急转向3种驾驶行为的预测。从机动车安全预警的角度进行分析,预测出驾驶员的驾驶行为等同于获得驾驶员对车辆未来运行状态的需求,有助于及时纠正或干预驾驶员正在或即将实施的危险行为。%According to time and space relationship of driving behavior and driving intention,driv-ing intention of driver drived driving behavior and manoeuvre,The driver first produced driving inten-tion,and then driving manoeuvre.On the basis of the time difference between driving intention and driving manoeuvre,this paper researched driving behavior prediciton method based on multi-charac-teristics of driving manoeuvre and HMM.The results show that the method has successfully forecas-ted three type driving behaviors of lane departure,steering and urgent steering.In the vehicle safety warning term,if was understood the demand of the driver to vehicle in the future can be calculated the driving behavior of driver.The method presented herein will help to correct and intervene the hazard-ous driving behavior of driver for the vehicle safety warning.

  7. Violent Video Games and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents: a Risk Factor Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between viole...

  8. Investigating Factors Affecting Environmental Behavior of Urban Residents: A Case Study in Tehran City- Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S.   Fami; Ali Asadi; H. M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out f...

  9. 因子分析在汽车行驶工况构建过程中的应用%Application of Factor Analysis in Driving Cycle Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琴; 郑与波

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车行驶工况构建过程,提出了因子分析结合模糊聚类的工况构建方法,并利用该方法建立了城市道路代表性行驶工况.采用因子分析法对大量运动学片段的特征参数进行压缩,选出能代表原始片段大部分特征信息的3个公因子来进行模糊聚类分析;由聚类分析的结果,根据相关系数理论从每一类片段中提取代表性片段来构建典型行驶工况.合肥市行驶工况试验数据分析结果表明:典型行驶工况的速度-加速度矩阵与试验数据的平均误差为13.01%,构建工况能综合反映合肥市道路的交通状况.%As for the reseach of construction process of vehicle driving cycle, a method of factor analysis combined with fuzzy clustering was proposed herein,and a representative driving cycle was developed urban roads by this method. The method of factor analysis was applied to reduce the characteristic parameters of many microtrips, all microtrips were classified by using 3 common factors that can represent most of the features of the original microtrips; Based on the results of cluster analysis and the correlation coefficient theory, some representive microtrips were extracted from each type of microtrips to construct a typical driving cycle. The application of the driving cycle model to the roads in Hefei city shows that the average error in obtained typical driving cycles is 13.01% compared with the experimental data in terms of V-A matrix of the typical driving cycle. So the typical driving cycle can reflect Hefei road traffic condition comprehensively.

  10. Characterizing water and CO2 fluxes and their driving impact factors by using a hierarchical diagnostic geophysical monitoring concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Uta; Schütze, Claudia; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Processes in soil, plants and near surface atmosphere interact with each other in a complex way. Soil is an environmental component and important part of our ecosystems. Parent material of soils determines the original supply of nutrients. However, environmental parameters such as meteorological and land use have also an influence to the soil conditions. The objective of our research work is the development of a hierarchical diagnostic monitoring concept for the characterization of water and CO2 fluxes and their driving impact factors to provide information on structures and fluxes in the soil-vegetation- atmosphere system. As part of this hierarchical diagnostic monitoring concept, several methods and technologies from different disciplines (such as chemistry, hydrogeology, and geophysics) will either be combined or used complementary to one another. Our approach will allow large spatial areas to be consistently covered, for efficient monitoring of increases in spatial and temporal resolutions. Firstly, remote sensing monitoring methods for large-scale application (more than 1km2) are used to obtain information about energy and matter fluxes in the atmosphere. A common spectroscopic method for analysis is FTIR spectroscopy, where chemical anorganic and organic compounds can be detected through their characteristic infra-red absorption frequencies or wavelengths. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometry is a sensitive and non-invasive method to detect and quantify a wide range of gases simultaneously. Subsequently, meso-scale methods (0.01-1km2) can be employed which investigate subsurface characteristics to describe geological and soil structures and dynamics. Various soil parameters can be mapped using rapid, nearly non-destructive methods (e.g. geophysics, spectroscopy), for quasi-continuous 2D as well as 3D mapping of soil physical and hydrological properties. Finally, point measurements at plot scale (less than 0.01km2) enable high

  11. A Review of Electronic Inductor Technique for Power Factor Correction in Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Inductor (EI) techniques are promising approaches for improving the grid-side current quality, and they are suitable for motor drive applications. In this paper, different EI topologies are investigated from the efficiency perspective, including the effect of employing Silicon Carbide...... (SiC) power devices. Moreover, the influence of partial loading on component sizing in Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) is studied. Finally the analytical loss modelling of power switches is utilized for efficiency measurement. The theoretical analyses are verified by experimental benchmarking in an ASD...

  12. Nonlinear Torsional Vibration Dynamics Behaviors of Rolling Mill’s Multi-DOF Main Drive System under Parametric Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence caused by joint angle, nonlinear damping, and nonlinear rigidity, the nonlinear torsional vibration dynamical modeling of the multi-DOF rolling mill’s main drive system is established. To analyze the coupled equations by analytic method, the equations are decoupled by transforming them into principal coordinates. The amplitude-frequency characteristic equations are obtained by multiscale method. Furthermore, numerical example based on the 1780 rolling mill’s main drive system of some Steel Co. is given to illustrate the effects of the resonance on the response of the system. The relationship between amplitude and frequency varies according to the parameters changes of nonlinear stiffness, nonlinear friction damping, torque disturbance, and joint angle. During the rolling process, the limited joint angles range is obtained and the variation rules of the joint angle caused by the nonlinear damping, nonlinear stiffness, and the disturbance torque are gained. The results present that the rolling mill can work more stably with the joint angle at a range from 2° to 8° by controlling the value of parameters. The research results provide a theoretical basis and reference for analyzing torsional vibration of rolling mill’s transmission system caused by joint angle.

  13. FAMILY RISK FACTORS AS INDICATORS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WITH YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko KOVACHEVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This project researches whether risk factors within family have any predictive power in describing youth behavioural problems. Family risk factors such as family functioning problems and conflicts within family have the strongest predictive power. Preventive actions and treatment must be directed toward the youth living in risky families.

  14. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Behavior of Single College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigates the premarital contraceptive behavior of 222 male and female college students. Contraceptive practice was examined in relation to dating patterns, level of emotional involvement with sex partners, types of birth control used, number of different sex partners, and reasons for failure to use birth control. (Author)

  15. Analysis to the Driving Force Model and Driving Factor on the Utilized Changes of Cultivated Land in Gonghe County%共和县耕地利用变化驱动力模型建立及驱动因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞文政; 刘丹; 祁英香; 史军

    2009-01-01

    Using gradually regression analysis to establish the driving force model of utilized change of cultivated land in Gonghe County, and using path analysis, correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and system dynamics method to inspect the effect of driving changing on cultivated land change under different change situations. Driving factors, action mechanism and process of utilized change of cultivated land were analyzed from the county territory scale level. At last, some corresponding policies and measures were put forward.

  16. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  17. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vorobyev

    Full Text Available Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections and outcome (pass or crash phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens, midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.

  18. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  19. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  20. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  1. Transportation Institute releases findings on driver behavior and crash factors

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Driver inattention is the leading factor in most crashes and near-crashes, according to a landmark research report released today by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI).

  2. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  3. Environmental Information—Explanatory Factors for Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Andersson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being targeted, i.e., those reluctant to recycle. This study examined individual differences in attention to recycling information and demand for such information. A nationwide survey in Sweden showed that having personal norms for recycling is important when it comes to obeying and seeking environmentally relevant information. In contrast to earlier research, this study found that lack of information alone is not a significant antecedent to the intention to seek information. Personal norms were found to moderate the effect of perceived lack of information on the intention to seek information.

  4. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Macbeth, David

    1996-01-01

    adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are ii an increasing dilemma facing American society . There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine ...

  6. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  7. Factors Affecting Consumers’ Green Purchasing Behavior: An Integrated Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ruediger Kaufmann; Mohammad Fateh Ali Khan Panni; Yianna Orphanidou

    2012-01-01

    In this modern era of societal marketing business ethics and social responsibility are becoming the guiding themes for marketing strategies and practices. Within the field of ethics and social responsibility environmental and green marketing topics are the central topics, which are closely related to biodiversity and sustainability. This paper suggests a different approach to assessing the variables of consumers’ green purchasing behavior. Based on thoroughly researched secondary data, this c...

  8. Evacuation plan of the city of almere: simulating the impact of driving behavior on evacuation clearance time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Tamminga, G.F.; De Wit, J.; Van der Berg, W.

    2010-01-01

    The evacuation clearance time is one of the key indicators in an evacuation plan and is determined by the expected behavior of the endangered residents and roadway network characteristics. The city of Almere has developed an evacuation plan in case of the emergency of a flooding, but assumes a norma

  9. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents’ risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims’ and parents’ educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Peer Victimization and Bystander Behaviors among Adolescent Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zepeng; Liu, Zhenni; Liu, Xiangxiang; Lv, Laiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ou, Limin; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the phenomena of peer victimization and bystander behaviors, little data has generated to describe their relationships and risk factors. In this paper, a self-administered survey using a cross-sectional cluster-random sampling method in a sample of 5450 participants (2734 girls and 2716 boys) between 4th and 11th grades was conducted at six schools (two primary schools and four middle schools) located in Shantou, China. Self-reported peer victimization, bystander behaviors and information regarding parents' risky behaviors and individual behavioral factors were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate risk factors affecting peer victimization and bystander behaviors. The results indicated that urban participants were more likely to become bullying victims but less likely to become passive bystanders. Contrarily, bullying victimization was related to the increasing of passive bystander behaviors. Father drinking and mother smoking as independent factors were risk factors for peer victimization. Participants who were smoking or drinking had a tendency to be involved in both peer victimization and passive bystander behaviors. This study suggested that bystander behaviors, victims' and parents' educations play a more important role in peer victimization than previously thought. PMID:27472354

  12. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sunhee; Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or...

  13. Behavior Analysis Of Malicious Web Pages Through Client Honeypot For Detection Of Drive-By-Download Malwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malwares which is also known as malicious software’s is spreading through the exploiting the client side applications such as browsers, plug-ins etc. Attackers implant the malware codes in the user’s computer through web pages; thereby they are also known malicious web pages. Here in the paper, we present the usefulness of controlled environment in the form of client honeypots in detection of malicious web pages through collections of malicious intent in web pages and then perform detailed analysis for validation and confirmation of malicious web pages. First phase is collection of malicious infections through high interaction client honeypot, second phase is validations of the malicious infections embedded into web pages through behavior based analysis. Malwares which infect the client side applications and drop the malwares into user’s computers sometimes overrides the signature based detection techniques; thereby there is a need to study the behavior of the complete malicious web pages.

  14. Synergistic interactions between the molecular and neuronal circadian networks drive robust behavioral circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Weiss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms use 24-hr circadian clocks to keep temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila melanogaster CLOCK (CLK and CYCLE (CYC initiates the circadian system by promoting rhythmic transcription of hundreds of genes. However, it is still not clear whether high amplitude transcriptional oscillations are essential for circadian timekeeping. In order to address this issue, we generated flies in which the amplitude of CLK-driven transcription can be reduced partially (approx. 60% or strongly (90% without affecting the average levels of CLK-target genes. The impaired transcriptional oscillations lead to low amplitude protein oscillations that were not sufficient to drive outputs of peripheral oscillators. However, circadian rhythms in locomotor activity were resistant to partial reduction in transcriptional and protein oscillations. We found that the resilience of the brain oscillator is depending on the neuronal communication among circadian neurons in the brain. Indeed, the capacity of the brain oscillator to overcome low amplitude transcriptional oscillations depends on the action of the neuropeptide PDF and on the pdf-expressing cells having equal or higher amplitude of molecular rhythms than the rest of the circadian neuronal groups in the fly brain. Therefore, our work reveals the importance of high amplitude transcriptional oscillations for cell-autonomous circadian timekeeping. Moreover, we demonstrate that the circadian neuronal network is an essential buffering system that protects against changes in circadian transcription in the brain.

  15. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  17. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1993 - 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data are from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). All respondents to the BRFSS...

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  19. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadian, Hashem; Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework. Methods This cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, so...

  20. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Brakel, Anna; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms...

  1. Test-and behavior-specific genetic factors affect WKY hypoactivity in tests of emotionality

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Amber E.; Solberg, Leah C.; Churchill, Gary A.; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Redei, Eva E.

    2006-01-01

    Inbred Wistar–Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measure...

  2. Associations Between Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video gam...

  3. Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamian Arsham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral risk factors are known to co-occur among youth, and to increase risks of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality later in life. However, little is known about determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors, particularly among youth. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and carried out without a sound theoretical framework. Methods Using longitudinal data (n = 1135 from Cycle 4 (2000-2001, Cycle 5 (2002-2003 and Cycle 6 (2004-2005 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children who are followed biennially, the present study examines the influence of a set of conceptually-related individual/social distal variables (variables situated at an intermediate distance from behaviors, and individual/social ultimate variables (variables situated at an utmost distance from behaviors on the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and high body mass index in a sample of children aged 10-11 years at baseline. Multiple behavioral risk factors were assessed using a multiple risk factor score. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.1, and SUDAAN, version 9.01. Results Multivariate longitudinal Poisson models showed that social distal variables including parental/peer smoking and peer drinking (Log-likelihood ratio (LLR = 187.86, degrees of freedom (DF = 8, p p p p = .05 contributed minimally to the rate of co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors. Conclusions The results suggest targeting individual/social distal variables in prevention programs of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth.

  4. Factors Associated with Aggressive Behavior among Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whall, Ann L.; Colling, Kathleen B.; Kolanowski, Ann; Kim, HyoJeong; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeCicco, Barry; Ronis, David L.; Richards, Kathy C.; Algase, Donna; Beck, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In an attempt to more thoroughly describe aggressive behavior in nursing home residents with dementia, we examined background and proximal factors as guided by the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model. Design and Methods: We used a multivariate cross-sectional survey with repeated measures; participants resided in nine randomly…

  5. Factors Influencing the Relationship between Sexual Trauma and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L.; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between sexual trauma and risky sexual behavior (RSB) has received much attention, only a handful of studies have investigated the factors that protect victims of sexual trauma from developing this maladaptive pattern of behavior. The current study investigated the protective role of social support, quality and quantity, in…

  6. Emotion Skills as a Protective Factor for Risky Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Susan E.; Brackett, Marc A.; Omori, Mika; Sickler, Cole; Bertoli, Michelle C.; Salovey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in health-endangering behaviors is considered a reflection of college students' psychosocial development; however, not all students participate in these activities. Emotion skills, such as the ability to interpret and manage emotions, may serve as a protective factor against risk-taking behavior among emerging adults. We compared the…

  7. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  8. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control childre

  9. The Influence of Demographic Risk Factors on Children's Behavioral Regulation in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Acock, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study examined the role of demographic risk factors in the development of children's behavioral regulation. We investigated whether being from a low-income family and being an English language learner (ELL) predicted behavioral regulation between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Results indicated that children from…

  10. Factors Affecting Isfahanian Mobile Banking Adoption Based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile banking is considered a new era in banking, in which banks are spending considerable amount of money to have it available to their customers and to cut their operations costs. The current exploratory study is an attempt to investigate the factors that influence Isfahanian’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior model (DTPB by additionally examining the effects of trust and perceived risk as components of attitude on behavioral intention. A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Isfahan city. Out of 400 questionnaires that have been distributed, 315 are returned (78.0%. Of these, five (5 responses had to be discarded due to invalid or incomplete data entries. Thus the sample comprising of a total of 310 respondents was used for analysis. The data was analyzed by AMOS software. Results of the study discovered that the decisive or crucial factors influencing mobile banking adoption are attitude and perceived behavioral control, However, social norms were the only factor found insignificant. The perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use ,compatibility, and trust under 'behavioral attitude' have positive effect on behavioral attitude; while perceived risk under 'behavioral attitude' has negative effect on behavioral attitude. the influence of the interpersonal influence under 'subjective norms' was also evident, while self-efficacy and facilitating condition under 'perceived behavioral control' are significant influential factors.

  11. The Five-Factor Model of Impulsivity-Like Traits and Emotional Lability in Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Factors that increase automatic psychological processes may result in impulsive action and, consequently, aggressive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the five-factor model of impulsivity-like traits (negative urgency, positive urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking), emotional lability, and physically aggressive behaviors among college students (n = 481) in a negative binomial hurdle model. In the logistic portion of the model, ...

  12. Seatbelt Use Following Stricter Drunk Driving Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Adams; Chad Cotti; Nathan Tefft

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that shows increased seat-belt use following the enactment of stricter BAC thresholds in states where seat-belt laws are primarily enforced. This suggests that inebriated drivers may use their seat-belts more judiciously to avoid being identified as a drunk driver by law enforcement. The interactive effect of stricter drunk driving laws and primary seat-belt laws are also shown to be...

  13. Factors influencing Australian construction industry apprentices' dietary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices. PMID:21862566

  14. Factors Associated with Backyard Composting Behavior at the Household Level

    OpenAIRE

    Park, William M.; Lamons, Kevin S.; Roberts, Roland K.

    2002-01-01

    Communities in most states are under pressure to reduce the amount of solid waste going into landfills. Many are making efforts to encourage their citizens to practice backyard composting. A logit regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with backyard composting of yard and food wastes in a case study area. Sample data were obtained through a September 1997 telephone survey of 865 households residing in single-family dwellings in Knox County, Tennessee. Findings indica...

  15. Family - protective factor to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana R. Rusu; Doina Cosman; Bogdan Nemeş

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our research was to establish a possible correlation between suicide risk in adolescents and a series ofintra-familial protective factors such as family harmony, intact families, increased family involvement in child education, empathy, ability toexpress emotions. Materials and Methods The study comprised the 1143 pupils, aged between 14 and 16 years from Cluj and Maramures counties,that participated in the SEYLE baseline evaluation. Results: Adolescents who have no ...

  16. Conditioning factors of innovation in the internet purchase behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Colmenero Ferreira; Elisabete Magalhães Serra

    2004-01-01

    The several discussions about the electronic commerce and their implications encourage as much the companies as the consumers. However, more important than the quantification of the phenomenon, it the understanding of itself, as the Internet can be assumed as a business tool with positive repercussions in the businesses, as well as the potential market was transactions can be realized. In this study, we tried to identify the most relevant factors in the configuration and presentation of the o...

  17. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  18. Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior. A Biopsychosocial Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The price of crime is enormous. In addition to the monetary costs of the investigative process and the criminal procedure, crime often leads to health and social problems for victims and perpetrators. Approximately 5% of the population is responsible for a sizeable portion of the total amount of crime; thus, preventing high-risk individuals from developing into offenders can provide society with significant savings. To track high-risk individuals and tailor prevention programs, risk factors f...

  19. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  20. Review on the Application of EEG in Traffic Driving Behavior Study%脑电在交通驾驶行为中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关伟; 杨柳; 江世雄; 张文义

    2016-01-01

    驾驶人是交通系统中的自驱动因素,其感知特性与交通驾驶行为密切相关,通过脑电定量分析驾驶人在驾驶过程中的大脑活动规律,是获知驾驶人感知特性的有效途径。本文主要从疲劳驾驶、分心驾驶、睡眠剥夺驾驶和其他特定场景驾驶4个方面,对脑电研究涉及的关键科学问题、实验环境、脑电信号处理方法、数据分析方法等进行归纳总结。总结发现:相关研究的本质可归结为不同驾驶状态与脑电波间的定性和定量关系研究;研究方法则主要借助真人驾驶模拟实验收集脑电等相关数据,再利用功率谱分析等信号处理技术处理脑电信号,再通过方差分析等方法对脑电信号数据进行统计分析。最后,给出了脑电研究在交通驾驶行为中的研究展望。%Drivers are“self-driven particle”factors of a traffic system, and its perception characteristics have close relationship with traffic driving behavior. It is an effective way to detect the drivers’perception characteristics by using electroencephalography (EEG) to analyze their brain signals quantitatively. This paper presents the key scientific problems of EEG researches, experimental environment, EEG signal processing methods and data analysis methods from four aspects which are fatigued driving, distracted driving, sleep-deprived driving and driving under some other specific conditions. It is founded that the research essence is to study the qualitative and quantitative relationship between various driving states and EEG;the common study approaches including using simulation driving experiments to collect various data, such as EEG data;and then some signal processing methods, such as power spectrum analysis, are adopted to process EEG signals;after that, statistical methods, such as variance analysis, are used to analyze the data. In the end, the potential future directions of EEG research in traffic research

  1. Comportamentos no trânsito: um estudo epidemiológico com estudantes universitários Driving-related behavior: an epidemiologic study of undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marín-León

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever os comportamentos auto-referidos no trânsito e comparar a freqüência de comportamentos de risco entre condutores com e sem história de acidentes de trânsito (AT, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 2.116 estudantes de 18 a 25 anos, de uma universidade pública do Brasil. Para observar quais as variáveis independentes que se associam ao antecedente de AT como condutor de carro, foram calculadas: freqüências, chi2, p, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. O sexo masculino foi analisado mediante modelo de Regressão Logística. Observou-se maior risco de AT no sexo masculino. Os condutores com maior freqüência de comportamentos inseguros para o trânsito apresentaram maior risco de AT. No sexo masculino as variáveis comportamentais associadas a AT foram "ter sido multado", "dirigir pelo acostamento" e "dirigir logo após consumir álcool". Também foi observado que os jovens tendem a não reconhecer sua responsabilidade nos AT. São necessárias intervenções dirigidas aos estudantes, devendo priorizar os homens, especialmente os de renda elevada.The purpose of this article was to describe self-reported driving-related behavior and compare the frequency of risk-taking among drivers with and without a history of traffic accidents (TA. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 2,116 undergraduate students from a public university in Brazil ranging in age from 18 to 25 were interviewed. Association between independent variables and history of TA was described using frequency, chi2, p, odds ratio, and 95% confidence intervals. Male data were analyzed through logistic regression. Men showed a higher risk than women of having been involved in TA. Drivers with more frequent risk-taking had a greater risk of history of TA. Behaviors observed to be associated with TA in men were: "history of fines", "driving on the shoulder", and "drinking and driving". Open-ended questions demonstrated that students show

  2. A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

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    A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.

  3. Multiple risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and associated factors in adolescents

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    Paulo Rogério Melo RODRIGUES

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases and analyze their associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with 1,139 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years attending public and private high schools in Cuiabá, Midwestern Brazil. Data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire, including a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol experimentation, physical inactivity, unsatisfactory meal pattern, and excessive intake of saturated fat and sodium were evaluated. The associations between risk behaviors and socioeconomic variables, weight status, and self-perceived health status were evaluated. Results: The most common risk behaviors were excessive sodium intake (88%, unsatisfactory meal pattern (72%, excessive intake of saturated fat (39%, and alcohol experimentation (39%. Four of 10 adolescents were exposed to two risk behaviors simultaneously. Among male adolescents, the main factors associated with risk behaviors were: type of school, class schedule, education level of the household head, weight status, and self-perceived health status. Among female adolescents, age, type of school, class schedule, and education level of the household head were the main factors associated with risk behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalence of exposure to risk behaviors for non-communicable diseases was high, highlighting the simultaneous presence of tobacco smoking and experimentation of alcoholic beverages. Special attention should be given to educational activities to minimize the effects of the simultaneous occurrence of multiple risk behaviors.

  4. Factors associated with hospitalization after suicide spectrum behaviors: results from a multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Corcoran, Paul; Burón, Patricia; García-Portilla, Ma Paz; Chinea, Eugenio Ramón; Navio, Mercedes; Fernández, Vanessa; Jimenez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Gracia, Ramón; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with hospital admission after suicide spectrum behaviors. Patients' characteristics, the nature of the suicidal behavior, admission rates between centers, and factors associated with admission have been examined in suicide spectrum presentations to emergency departments in 3 Spanish cities. The intent of the suicidal behavior had the greatest impact on hospitalization. Older age, living alone, self-harm method not involving drug overdose, previous history of suicide spectrum behaviors, and psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia, mood, or personality disorder were independently associated with being admitted. There was a 3-fold between-center difference in the rate of hospitalization. Widespread differences in the rate of hospitalization were primarily accounted for by characteristics of the individual patients and their suicidal behavior.

  5. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  6. Francisella tularensis elicits IL-10 via a PGE₂-inducible factor, to drive macrophage MARCH1 expression and class II down-regulation.

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    Danielle Hunt

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a bacterial pathogen that uses host-derived PGE₂ to subvert the host's adaptive immune responses in multiple ways. Francisella-induced PGE₂ acts directly on CD4 T cells to blunt production of IFN-γ. Francisella-induced PGE₂ can also elicit production of a >10 kDa soluble host factor termed FTMØSN (F. tularensismacrophage supernatant, which acts on IFN-γ pre-activated MØ to down-regulate MHC class II expression via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism, blocking antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we report that FTMØSN-induced down-regulation of MØ class II is the result of the induction of MARCH1, and that MØ expressing MARCH1 "resistant" class II molecules are resistant to FTMØSN-induced class II down-regulation. Since PGE₂ can induce IL-10 production and IL-10 is the only reported cytokine able to induce MARCH1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, these findings suggested that IL-10 is the active factor in FTMØSN. However, use of IL-10 knockout MØ established that IL-10 is not the active factor in FTMØSN, but rather that Francisella-elicited PGE₂ drives production of a >10 kDa host factor distinct from IL-10. This factor then drives MØ IL-10 production to induce MARCH1 expression and the resultant class II down-regulation. Since many human pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila also induce production of host PGE₂, these results suggest that a yet-to-be-identified PGE₂-inducible host factor capable of inducing IL-10 is central to the immune evasion mechanisms of multiple important human pathogens.

  7. Explaining educational differences in mortality: the role of behavioral and material factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); K. Stronks (Karien); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study examined the role of behavioral and material factors in explaining educational differences in all-cause mortality, taking into account the overlap between both types of factors. METHODS: Prospective data were used on 15,451 participants in a Dutch

  8. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  9. Influential Factors on Adolescent Males' Non-Relational Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, and…

  10. 网络品牌忠诚驱动因素分类研究%Classification Research on the Driving Factors of Cyber-Brand Loyalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐昕; 黄永兴

    2011-01-01

    将网络品牌分为传统品牌的网络延伸和网络新品牌两种形式,通过分析网络品牌忠诚的动态形成过程,构建了网络品牌忠诚驱动要素研究模型。实证研究发现,网络品牌的符号因素、属性因素、精神因素、价值观因素、传播因素、体验因素都与网络品牌忠诚正相关,但两类网络品牌忠诚的关键驱动因素存在差别。体验因素、价值观因素和属性因素是网络新品牌忠诚的关键驱动因素,而属性因素、体验因素和传播因素对网络化的传统品牌忠诚度有重要影响。%Classifing the internet brands into the extended traditional brands and new internet brands. It analyzes the dynamic formation process of the Internet brands and sets up a research model of driving factors of the loyalty degree of Internet brands. The empirical result finds that all the six factors of symbols, properties, spirits, values, spreading and experience are the driving factors of the Internet brand loyalty, but the key driving factors differ as for the two types of Internet brands loyalty. The factor of experience imposes the most significant influence on the brand loyalty with regard to the new Internet brands, followed by the factors of values and properties. While as per the extended traditional brands, the factors of properties, spreading and experience have an important effect on the brand loyalty degree.

  11. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Suprabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1 age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2 dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 125 children aged between 7 and 14 years undergoing dental treatment under local anesthesia. The parent completed a questionnaire on family situation, medical history, and past dental experiences of the child. Child′s dental fear was recorded using Children′s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale and behavior was rated using Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using chi square test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Unpleasant experience in dental clinic and age of the child significantly influenced dental behavior. Visited pediatrician in the past one year, prior history of hospital admission, previous visit to dentist, experience at the first dental visit, and age of the child were contributing factors for dental fear. There was also significant association between dental fear levels and behavior. Conclusions: In 7 to 14 year olds, dental fear influences dental behavior, but the factors affecting them are not the same. Although dental fear decreases and dental behavior improves with age, experiences at the previous dental visits seem to influence both dental fear and behavior. Past medical experiences are likely to influence dental fear but not dental behavior.

  12. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  13. Nonmonotonic behaviors of Fano factor in double quantum dot connected with Luttinger liquid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we discuss the behavior of the Fano factor in a double quantum dot (DQD) connected with Luttinger liquid (LL) electrodes. At the Toulouse point, we study the dependence of the Fano factor on the bias voltage, the energy level of the dots, the interdot coupling, and the asymmetry parameter. We show that the behavior of the Fano factor in a DQD is similar to that in a single quantum dot (SQD); however, it behaves nonmonotonically with bias voltage and three local extrema can occur. The condition for the occurrence of nonmonotonic behavior is determined, and it is shown that local extrema result from the mixing of the bare energy levels of the dots caused by the interdot coupling. The influence of the Klein factor on the conductance in a DQD and the limitation of the perturbation calculation for a DQD are discussed.

  14. Nonmonotonic behaviors of Fano factor in double quantum dot connected with Luttinger liquid electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-09-30

    In this study, we discuss the behavior of the Fano factor in a double quantum dot (DQD) connected with Luttinger liquid (LL) electrodes. At the Toulouse point, we study the dependence of the Fano factor on the bias voltage, the energy level of the dots, the interdot coupling, and the asymmetry parameter. We show that the behavior of the Fano factor in a DQD is similar to that in a single quantum dot (SQD); however, it behaves nonmonotonically with bias voltage and three local extrema can occur. The condition for the occurrence of nonmonotonic behavior is determined, and it is shown that local extrema result from the mixing of the bare energy levels of the dots caused by the interdot coupling. The influence of the Klein factor on the conductance in a DQD and the limitation of the perturbation calculation for a DQD are discussed. PMID:21832386

  15. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast fo...

  16. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Consumer International Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pingjun Jiang; David B. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Few studies in the literature on electronic commerce provide empirical investigation of consumer behavior in the international online shopping context. This study identifies and discusses factors that influence international online purchases and profile the characteristics of those who purchase and those who do not purchase from online stores overseas in three main categories: the online shopping experiential factors, the international shopping motivational factors, and the international trus...

  17. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  18. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 331-335

  19. Determination of Breastfeeding Behaviors of Mothers and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research which was planned to determine the factors related to beginning and maintaining the breastfeeding of the mothers. This research was conducted with the mothers who applied to the The Healthy Child Department in Pediatrics Clinic at Gulhane Medical Millitary Academy (GMMA. The women who applied to this department constituted the population of the study (N=750, and the women who volunteered to join the study between April and June constituted the sampling (n=120. In the result of this study, the most of the women planned to feed their babies with breast milk, and for their choice of preferring the breast milk, they thought that breast milk is the best nutrient for their babies, and keeping their babies from the illnesses. It was found that the half of the mothers who had vaginal birth fed their babies with the breast milk in an early one hour. Seventy-nine point two percentages of the mothers pointed out giving no meals before feeding with breast milk, and the others generally fed their babies with infant food and liquid with sugar. In this study, it was determined that breastfeeding is still common among the mothers, and most of the babies are fed with the breast milk for several times. However the babies are fed with the milk for a long time, the mothers still need education and training programme about the subjects like initial breastfeeding time, giving the liquid and infant food, only not giving the breast milk and start to feed with infant food early or later. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 331-335

  20. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  1. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Older U.S. Adults With and Without Disabilities, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu B. Ahluwalia, MPH, PhD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle is known about the relationship between healthy behaviors and the prevalence of chronic diseases in older adults with disabilities. This study examines the prevalence of selected healthy lifestyle behaviors related to chronic diseases among adults aged 65 years and older with and without disabilities. MethodsData from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS were used to assess having a healthy weight and six behaviors: current cigarette smoking status, consumption of at least one alcoholic beverage daily, consumption of at least five fruits or vegetables daily, physical activity during the average week, influenza immunization in the past year, and lifetime pneumococcal immunization. ResultsPeople with a disability were less likely than people without a disability to have a healthy weight (28.5% vs 37.2% and to engage in the recommended level of weekly physical activity (14.7% vs 26.2%. However, people with a disability were more likely than those without a disability to be nonsmokers (91.8% vs 89.9%, to consume up to one alcoholic beverage daily (95.1% vs 91.5%, to have received their influenza immunization in the past year (72.7% vs 69.0%, and to have received a lifetime pneumococcal immunization (72.1% vs 63.0%. There was no difference between people with and without a disability in the prevalence rates of consuming at least five fruits or vegetables daily. ConclusionThe prevalence of having a healthy weight and six chronic-disease related behaviors among adults aged 65 years and older varies by disability status and by specific modifiable lifestyle behavior. Screening older adults with and without disabilities and counseling them about health behaviors should be integrated into every interaction between older adults and their health care providers to potentially lower the rates of morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases in the later years.

  2. ANALYSIS ON LAND-USE CHANGE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FACTORS IN HAINAN ISLAND DURING 50 YEARS FROM 1950 TO 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Land-use change is an important part of global change research (IGBP, 1990 - 1992). But the majorityof researches focus on the natural driving force of land use change. In this paper, the authors studied the relationship between socio-economic driving factors and land-use change with time series in Hainan Island. Based on the study for theevolution of administrative system and policies in Hainan Island and the comprehensive analysis on the social economy data and changes of social policies, the socio-economic policies, human activities and land use of Hainan can be dividedinto three periods with different characters: period from 1950 to 1978 characterized by the planning economic system, peried from 1978 to 1988 characterized by the transfer of economic system and adoption of open policy, new stage from 1988to 1998 with high growing speed.On the other hand the authors describe the character of the periods and land-use changeprocess affected by socio-economic factors. This paper provides an important method for evaluating the development andchanges of Hainam social economy during the 50 years from 1950 to 1999 and forecasting the development of Hainan social economy in future.

  3. Driving offences

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, C

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010, Taylor & Francis Group. This material is posted on this site with the permission of the publishers. This chapter on driving offences will largely follow the template of earlier chapters except that owing to their vast number, a limited selection only will be examined based on their high volume, seriousness and public concern. The first section will define what driving offences are, how they developed alongside the emerging car culture, and it will consider the contempora...

  4. Cycloconverter drive systems. Cycloconverter gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiashi, M.; Osawa, H.; Endo, K. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-10

    Fuji Electric has completed preparation for the production of various cycloconverter variable-speed AC drive systems used for low-speed large-capacity drives, and is ready to supply the optimum system to meet purposes. Among cycloconverter drive systems of Fuji Electric, circulating current-free cycloconverter fed synchronous motor drive is superior in respect of input power factor and equipment capacity, induction motor drive is superior in respect of maintenance, and circulating current cycloconverter fed motor drive is superior in respect of controllability. This report describes outlines, system components, comparison of performances, control systems and their characteristics, and technology for advanced performance of these various cycloconverter drive systems. Furthermore, was introduced a development of hybrid cycloconverter using a GTO thyristor which can regulate input power factor at 1. 2 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Basic Conditioning Factors' Influences on Adolescents' Healthy Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a secondary statistical analysis of data from a study investigating the relationships among health-promoting self-care behaviors, self-care self-efficacy, and self-care agency in an adolescent population (Callaghan, 2005). The purpose of this study was to identify the influences of selected basic conditioning factors on the practice of healthy behaviors, self-efficacy beliefs, and ability for self-care in 256 adolescents. The research instruments used to collect data for ...

  6. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Siyan; Poudel Krishna C; Yasuoka Junko; Palmer Paula H; Yi Songky; Jimba Masamine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 stud...

  7. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jong Kyung [Kim, In Hwan Internal Medicine Health Promotion Cnter, Youngcheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duk Mun [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic Univesity Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's {alpha}=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's {alpha}=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  8. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, co...

  9. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's α=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's α=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  10. The Role of Economic and Social Factors Driving Predator Control in Small-Game Estates in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos; Silvia Díaz-Fernández; Pablo Ferreras; Javier Viñuela; Beatriz Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important human-wildlife conflicts in the world is that where predators are involved. Predators may compete with us for the same resources, such as game species. As a consequence, predators have been frequently controlled by game managers, which has negatively affected many predator populations worldwide. The understanding of human-wildlife conflicts requires a multidisplicinary framework that is rarely considered. We aim to evaluate the attitudes and behavior of game...

  11. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed. PMID:27309026

  12. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  13. A Survey of affecting factors on high school student\\\\\\'s vandalistic behaviors in Izeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Nabavi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The aim of this study is to examine affecting factors on high school student's vandalistic behaviors in Izeh. In this respect, we use sociological, psychological and socio–psychological theories as our theoretical frame. Survey is our research method and a questionnaire used for collecting data. The sample consists of 386 students, who were selected through stratified random sampling. Finding show that age, socio- economical status and educational condition of student have significant inverse relationship with vandalistic behavior, and there is direct significant relationship between punishment, parent's discompromise , self alienation and having bad friends vandalistic behavior among students .In multivariate regression analysis for predictive equation of tendency for vandalistic behavior, variables including self alienation and punishment in school could explain 42 percent of dependent variable variation, and for vandalistic behavior, variables including punishment in school , self alienation, educational condition of student and socio- economical status could explain 38 percent of dependent variable variations.

  14. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  15. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors. PMID:26165928

  16. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25732796

  17. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. The surrounding tr...

  19. Rural residence is not a risk factor for frequent mental distress: a behavioral risk factor surveillance survey

    OpenAIRE

    Borders Tyrone F; Rohrer James E; Blanton Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Residents of rural areas may be at increased risk of mental health problems. If so, public health programs aimed at preventing poor mental health may have to be customized for delivery to rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between residing in a rural area and frequent mental distress, which is one indicator of poor mental health. Methods The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey for the state of Texas was the source o...

  20. Victim and victimizer: the role of traumatic experiences as risk factors for sexually abusive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A

    2012-01-01

    The Victim to Victimizer paradigm purports to explain the connection between being a victim of sexual abuse and becoming a perpetrator, attributing sexually abusive behavior to a predictable cycle of cognitive distortions and self-destructive and/or abusive behaviors. Integration of two ecological models, Trauma Outcome Process Assessment and Family Lovemap provides a more comprehensive explanation of salient contributors to sexually abusive behavior in youth (i.e., trauma). A case example illustrates the parallel Trauma Outcome Process in a victim, and the victim's perpetrator, identifying protective factors beneficial for trauma recovery. PMID:23585464