WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral ecology vol

  1. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  2. Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Wolves are some of the world's most charismatic and controversial animals, capturing the imaginations of their friends and foes alike. Highly intelligent and adaptable, they hunt and play together in close-knit packs, sometimes roaming over hundreds of square miles in search of food. Once teetering on the brink of extinction across much of the United States and Europe, wolves have made a tremendous comeback in recent years, thanks to legal protection, changing human attitudes, and efforts to reintroduce them to suitable habitats in North America.As wolf populations have rebounded, scientific studies of them have also flourished. But there hasn't been a systematic, comprehensive overview of wolf biology since 1970. In Wolves, many of the world's leading wolf experts provide state-of-the-art coverage of just about everything you could want to know about these fascinating creatures. Individual chapters cover wolf social ecology, behavior, communication, feeding habits and hunting techniques, population dynamics, physiology and pathology, molecular genetics, evolution and taxonomy, interactions with nonhuman animals such as bears and coyotes, reintroduction, interactions with humans, and conservation and recovery efforts. The book discusses both gray and red wolves in detail and includes information about wolves around the world, from the United States and Canada to Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, and Mongolia. Wolves is also extensively illustrated with black and white photos, line drawings, maps, and fifty color plates.

  3. The ecology of collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Similar patterns of interaction, such as network motifs and feedback loops, are used in many natural collective processes, probably because they have evolved independently under similar pressures. Here I consider how three environmental constraints may shape the evolution of collective behavior: the patchiness of resources, the operating costs of maintaining the interaction network that produces collective behavior, and the threat of rupture of the network. The ants are a large and successful taxon that have evolved in very diverse environments. Examples from ants provide a starting point for examining more generally the fit between the particular pattern of interaction that regulates activity, and the environment in which it functions.

  4. Enriching behavioral ecology with reinforcement learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Barto, Andrew G

    2018-02-13

    This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods. These methods allow for the study of behavior in highly complex environments, which conventional dynamic programming methods do not feasibly address. In addition, reinforcement learning methods are well-suited to studying how biological mechanisms solve developmental and learning problems. For instance, we can use them to study simple rules that perform well in complex environments. Or to investigate under what conditions natural selection favors fixed, non-plastic traits (which do not vary across individuals), cue-driven-switch plasticity (innate instructions for adaptive behavioral development based on experience), or developmental selection (the incremental acquisition of adaptive behavior based on experience). If natural selection favors developmental selection, which includes learning from environmental feedback, we can also make predictions about the design of reward systems. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience, though we believe some novel insights can be drawn from our discussion. We hope our paper will help advance the emerging bridge connecting the fields of behavioral ecology and reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral Ecology of Coral Reef Fishes at Spawning Aggregation Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sancho, Gorka

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is an extensive investigation of the behavioral and ecological relationships between spawning reef fishes, their predators, and various environmental parameters at spawning aggregation sites...

  6. Individuality in Fish Behavior: Ecology and Comparative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Budaev, Dr. Sergey; Zworykin, Dr. Dmitry

    2002-01-01

    This work is a brief review of a series of studies of the phenotypic organization and ecological significance of individual differences in fish behavior. The following species were studied: guppy Poecilia retuculata, lion-headed cichlid Steatocranus cassuarius, and the convict cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatum. We developed methods for the analysis of individual differences in fish behavior and studied their structure, development, and ecological and evolutionary significance.

  7. Behavior of NPP personnel. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.J.; Reinartz, G.; Heyden, W.; Liere, B.

    1986-01-01

    In this pilot study methods and analysis techniques were developed and tested, which were aimed at gathering fundamental knowledge about the behavior of nuclear power plant operators during unusual plant disturbances. In trials on the KWU simulator two teams of commissioning personnel each worked through two complex disturbances. The extensive data from three simulations were evaluated, condensed and documented in event tables. These formed the basis for the subsequent analyses of operator behavior, strategies and an ergonomic evaluation. As a result of these analyses the types of behavior characteristic in controlling disturbances have been identified. It was also possible to derive both general and specific strategies, tactics, rules and routines used by the operators. Suggestions for improvements in the ergonomic design of the control room and for the simulator training of operators have been made. In addition, the interface between the operator and the plant automatic system and the consequences was selected as an important theme for future research. (orig.) [de

  8. Fundamentals of ecology. Vol. 2. Grundlagen der Oekologie. Bd. 2. Standorte und Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odum, E P

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: freshwater flora and fauna; marine ecosystems; shelf, krill, mangroves, and coral reefs; terrestrial biota and biogeographic regions; deciduous wood, grassland, desert; microbial-ecological perspectives: taxonomy, efficiency, turnover; aquaculture, agriculture, forestry; types, cost, and phases of environmental pollution; specific population ecology of humans.

  9. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 9, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological effects of channelization on a tropical marine ecosystem: Impact on intertidal fish communities in the Cross River, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. IO Ewa-Oboho. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v9i1.45674 ...

  10. Applied ecology - man and the environment. Vol. 2. Angewandte Oekologie - Mensch und Umwelt. Bd. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, H; Olschowy, G; Hansmeyer, K H; Schmoock, P

    1984-01-01

    This is the second volume on the radio course entitled ''Man and his Environment'', a feature from the media association in 1981/2. Ecology as a science is concerned with the reciprocal relationship between organisms and their environment, a system of which man and his environment is only a small part. Applied ecology consists of protection of the environment with its two main areas ''the protection of the environment against mans intervention'' and ''protecting man against environmental dangers''. The second volume deals with the subjects: agriculture, energy, protection of nature and of the landscape, environment and society. The material covers many different subjects, and the book is concerned with promoting an awareness of and responsibility for the environment.

  11. A Common, Conceptual Framework for Behavioral Ecology and Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. White

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology have much in common despite their using different objects for their study, one might expect these disciplines to share a common conceptual framework with associated definitions. Unfortunately, such agreement does not entirely exist. To address the problem, we propose a common, conceptual framework, the Adaptive Behavioral System (ABS, which organizes behavior within an evolutionary framework around an organism's life history tasks. An ABS includes strategies that use decision rules and employs tactics administered by a hypothesized construct, the Evolved Processing Unit (EPU. The ABS also includes observed or predicted behavior which can be tested experimentally – the ultimate test of construct validity. Use of the proposed framework should help the two disciplines focus on their common, core business of behavior and, ultimately, be to the benefit of both.

  12. The consumer behavior towards an ecological fitness club

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Pérez, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The Gen Z is a new generation that, among others, cares about healthy and sustainable lifestyles. These two new tendencies together give rise to a new market opportunity, which has been taken by us by creating a new fitness concept: an ecologically-friendly gym called GreenMonkeyGym. Throughout this paper the reader will find two important parts. The first one consists of information about the current market trends, about important theoretical concepts regarding consumer behavior as well a...

  13. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604

  14. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental platforms for behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in using behavioral experiments to study hypotheses on the governance of social-ecological systems. A diversity of software tools are used to implement such experiments. We evaluated various publicly available platforms that could be used in research and education on the governance of social-ecological systems. The aims of the various platforms are distinct, and this is noticeable in the differences in their user-friendliness and their adaptability to novel research questions. The more easily accessible platforms are useful for prototyping experiments and for educational purposes to illustrate theoretical concepts. To advance novel research aims, more elaborate programming experience is required to either implement an experiment from scratch or adjust existing experimental software. There is no ideal platform best suited for all possible use cases, but we have provided a menu of options and their associated trade-offs.

  16. Book review: The ecology and behavior of amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This state‐of‐the‐art book has made its timely emergence amid a crisis of global magnitude: that of population declines, range reductions, and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians. A clear understanding of the fundamental concepts in amphibian biology is crucial to the success of any conservation effort. This volume compiles the information necessary to acquire that basic understanding. It is a comprehensive synthesis of both traditional and contemporary facets of amphibian biology, spanning a breadth of topics ranging from phylogeny, physiology, behavior, population and community ecology, and conservation. As such, it undoubtedly takes its place among contemporary volumes as the single, authoritative source for basic topics relevant to amphibian life.

  17. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Benjamin J; Gownaris, Natasha J; Heerhartz, Sarah M; Monaco, Cristián J

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral traits and diet were traditionally thought to be highly plastic within individuals. This view was espoused in the widespread use of optimality models, which broadly predict that individuals can modify behavioral traits and diet across ecological contexts to maximize fitness. Yet, research conducted over the past 15 years supports an alternative view; fundamental behavioral traits (e.g., activity level, exploration, sociability, boldness and aggressiveness) and diet often vary among individuals and this variation persists over time and across contexts. This phenomenon has been termed animal personality with regard to behavioral traits and individual specialization with regard to diet. While these aspects of individual-level phenotypic variation have been thus far studied in isolation, emerging evidence suggests that personality and individual specialization may covary, or even be causally related. Building on this work, we present the overarching hypothesis that animal personality can drive specialization through individual differences in various aspects of consumer foraging behavior. Specifically, we suggest pathways by which consumer personality traits influence foraging activity, risk-dependent foraging, roles in social foraging groups, spatial aspects of foraging and physiological drivers of foraging, which in turn can lead to consistent individual differences in food resource use. These pathways provide a basis for generating testable hypotheses directly linking animal personality to ecological dynamics, a major goal in contemporary behavioral ecology.

  19. Ecological momentary assessment in a behavioral drinking moderation training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R L; Morsheimer, E T; Shiffman, S; Paty, J A; Gnys, M; Papandonatos, G D

    1998-08-01

    We assessed predictors of self-reported excessive drinking (> 5 drinks) in a sample of heavy drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to moderation training or a waiting-list control condition. They were trained in ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-monitoring of drinking and other variables on a small hand-held computer, the electronic diary (ED). During the 8-week study, participants were compliant in their use of the ED for both random prompts and the entry of data related to specific drinking episodes. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit models involving predictors related to past history of drinking, aspects of the training program, drinking restraint, and episode-specific mood. The models indicated robust predictors of decreased and increased drinking. Our results suggest that EMA is a useful methodology for assessing drinking and related behaviors.

  20. Self-generated strategic behavior in an ecological shopping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Carolina; Wai Shun, Priscilla Lam; Dorze, Guylaine Le; Gosselin, Nadia; Dawson, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The use of cognitive strategies optimizes performance in complex everyday tasks such as shopping. This exploratory study examined the cognitive strategies people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) effectively use in an unstructured, real-world situation. METHOD. A behavioral analysis of the self-generated strategic behaviors of 5 people with severe TBI using videotaped sessions of an ecological shopping task (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile) was performed. RESULTS. All participants used some form of cognitive strategy in an unstructured real-world shopping task, although the number, type, and degree of effectiveness of the strategies in leading to goal attainment varied. The most independent person used the largest number and a broader repertoire of self-generated strategies. CONCLUSION. These results provide initial evidence that occupational therapists should examine the use of self-generated cognitive strategies in real-world contexts as a potential means of guiding therapy aimed at improving independence in everyday activities for people with TBI. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Mindfully Green and Healthy: An Indirect Path from Mindfulness to Ecological Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Geiger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature of the link between mindfulness and ecological behavior. Based on the notion that mindfulness incorporates heightened awareness of bodily sensations, we suggest an indirect path from mindfulness to ecological behavior that is mediated through individual health behavior, such as improved nutrition and increased exercise. This indirect path is corroborated with two online studies (n = 147/n = 239 where mindfulness, personal health behavior and ecological behavior were assessed. We conclude that increased mindful awareness of momentary experience indeed favors more healthy lifestyles, which in turn relate to increased ecological behavior beyond personal health benefits. The findings support an agreeableness of personal and planetary health behavior and open up a path for environmental educational interventions based on mindfulness practices and personal health gains.

  2. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  3. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  4. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  5. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  6. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  7. Environmental competence : the interplay between connection with nature and environmental knowledge in promoting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roczen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate goal of environmental education is to advance people’s ecological performance, and not only to pass on knowledge. To be able to promote people's ecological behavior, the preceding abilities and dispositions have to be identified. In this dissertation, we conceptualize environmental

  8. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  9. Is ecological personality always consistent with low-carbon behavioral intention of urban residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of low-carbon economics, researchers have become interested in residential consumption as a potential means for reducing carbon emissions. By analyzing and expanding the fundamental concept of personality, a type of personality, namely ecological personality (EP), was defined and a structural model of EP was constructed based on a five-factor model. The study surveyed 890 urban residents to examine the relationship between EP and low-carbon behavioral intention (LCBI). Ecological personality is a five-dimensional concept comprising eco-neuroticism, eco-agreeableness, eco-openness, eco-extraversion, and eco-conscientiousness. Ecological personality traits were positively correlated with the LCBI. However, a quadrifid graph model showed that the EP is not always consistent with LCBI, and respondents fell into two groups: one group comprised ecological residents with consistent traits (positive EP and high LCBI) and non-ecological residents with consistent traits (negative EP and low LCBI), and their EP was consistent with LCBI; the other group comprised ecological residents with gap traits (positive EP and low LCBI) and non-ecological residents with gap traits (negative EP and high LCBI), and neither showed any consistency between personality and intentions. A policy to guide the conversion of different groups into ecological residents with consistent traits is discussed. - Highlights: • The structural model of ecological personality was constructed. • The relationship between personality and behavioral intention was examined. • Ecological personality and low-carbon behavioral intention donot always match up. • A policy urging residents to be ecological was discussed.

  10. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  11. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.

    1978-01-01

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  13. Physiological, behavioral, and ecological aspects of migration in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Amanda; Avens, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal movements between foraging, breeding, and overwintering sites occur in a wide variety of reptile species. Terrestrial snakes, lizards, and turtles migrate short distances (\\20 km) between seasonal habitats, whereas fully aquatic marine turtles migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers between foraging and breeding areas. The purpose of this article is to summarize aspects of migratory physiology and behavior in reptiles, particularly with regards to energetics and sensory mechanisms for navigation and orientation. We discuss the influence of aerobic scope, endurance, and cost of transport on migratory capacity, the effects of temperature and circulating hormones on activity and behavior, and mechanisms of detecting and transducing environmental cues to successfully navigate and orient toward a goal during migration. Topics worthy of further research are highlighted in the text, and we conclude with a discussion of how information on migration patterns of reptiles may be used to manage and conserve threatened populations.

  14. The behavioral ecology of a cognitive constraint: limited attention

    OpenAIRE

    Colin W. Clark; Reuven Dukas

    2003-01-01

    Limited attention may constrain animal behavior in situations in which the rate of relevant information exceeds the threshold processing capacity of the brain. In the present study, we examine why attention is limited by quantifying how attention affects the ubiquitous problem of balancing foraging and antipredator activity. We analyze how a given attentional capacity affects feeding requirements, the optimal attentional focus during predator scanning, and the probability of detecting predato...

  15. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

    1977-07-01

    Progress is summarized under six subprojects; engineering design and development; statistical procedures and quantitative methods for analysis of ecological and behavioral data; coexistence and population dynamics of selected vertebrates; application of radiotelemetry to selected problems in vertebrate censusing and population study; fish response to alterations in water quality resulting from power production; and seasonal migrations and habitat selection of the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  16. Behavioral ecology of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) at Mono Craters, California: living on the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Smith; John D. Nagy; Connie Millar

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) was investigated at a relatively hot south-facing, low-elevation site in the Mono Craters, California, a habitat quite different from the upper montane regions more typically inhabited by this species and where most prior investigations have been conducted. Mono Craters pikas exhibited...

  17. Transitioning from Elementary School to Middle School: The Ecology of Black Males' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Alma Christienne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study is to explain the ecology Black males experience as they transition from elementary school to middle school in terms of behavior. The Black male graduation rate is well below 50% nationally (Orfield, Losen, Wald, & Swanson, 2004; Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010). Graduating from high school…

  18. Research Base for Improved Classroom Learning: Brain or Behavior? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit in recent Evidence Speaks postings is the need to develop evidence-based interventions for improving student achievement. Comparative analysis of the education research literature versus the educational neuroscience literature suggests that education research, grounded in the behavioral and cognitive sciences, is currently the better…

  19. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  20. Supportive relationships and sexual risk behavior in adolescence: an ecological-transactional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan

    2006-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.

  1. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  2. Applying the Policy Ecology Framework to Philadelphia’s Behavioral Health Transformation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Byron J.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Rubin, Ronnie M.; Stewart, Rebecca E.; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Matlin, Samantha L.; Weaver, Shawna; Hurford, Matthew O.; Evans, Arthur C.; Hadley, Trevor R.; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Raghavan et al. (2008) proposed that effective implementation of evidence-based practices requires implementation strategies deployed at multiple levels of the “policy ecology,” including the organizational, regulatory or purchaser agency, political, and social levels. However, much of implementation research and practice targets providers without accounting for contextual factors that may influence provider behavior. This paper examines Philadelphia’s efforts to work toward an evidence-based and recovery-oriented behavioral health system, and uses the policy ecology framework to illustrate how multifaceted, multilevel implementation strategies can facilitate the widespread implementation of evidence-based practices. Ongoing challenges and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27032411

  3. THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE LONG BILLED CURLEW (NUMENIUS AMERICANUS) IN SOUTHEASTERN WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia N. Fitzner

    1978-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine in depth the nesting ecology and behavior of the Long-billed Curlew on a breeding area relatively free of disruptive human activity. Two surruners of field work were devoted to that end; a post-breeding season survey in 1976 of the major National Wildlife Refuges in Washington, Southern Idaho, Utah, Nevada California, and Oregon enlarged the scope by including unpublished records of Long-billed Curlews in these areas.

  4. The proposition of a general version of the theory of planned behavior: Predicting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Gutscher, H.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper explores whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) must abandon the notion that perceived behavioral control (PBC) has a direct influence on behavior. In a cross-sectional survey of 895 Swiss residents, our hypothesis was tested by means of structural equation models. Applied

  5. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1) anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution); and (2) deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1) Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2) Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3) Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4). Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch. PMID:29439549

  6. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Seymoure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1 anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution; and (2 deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1 Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2 Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3 Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4. Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch.

  7. Vol draadwerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Die motto van Marius Crous se derde bundel,. Vol draadwerk (2012) is ontleen aan die vader van die psigoanalise, Sigmund Freud, wat lui: “Everywhere I go I find a poet has been there before me.” Vol draadwerk verskyn ses jaar ná sy vorige bundel, Aan 'n beentjie sit en kluif. (2006). Vir sy bundel, Brief uit die kolonies ...

  8. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Potts, Kevin B; Krupenye, Christopher; Byrne, Maisie-Rose; Mackworth-Young, Constance; McGrew, William C; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned.

  9. POPs, Fatty acids, lipid and Stable Isotopes data - The behavioral ecology of deep-diving odontocetes in the Bahamas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will use a unique set of individual-based data to quantify and model the behavioral ecology of six Department of Defense priority cetacean species in...

  10. Movement ecology: size-specific behavioral response of an invasive snail to food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sunny B; Gilliam, James F

    2008-07-01

    Immigration, emigration, migration, and redistribution describe processes that involve movement of individuals. These movements are an essential part of contemporary ecological models, and understanding how movement is affected by biotic and abiotic factors is important for effectively modeling ecological processes that depend on movement. We asked how phenotypic heterogeneity (body size) and environmental heterogeneity (food resource level) affect the movement behavior of an aquatic snail (Tarebia granifera), and whether including these phenotypic and environmental effects improves advection-diffusion models of movement. We postulated various elaborations of the basic advection diffusion model as a priori working hypotheses. To test our hypotheses we measured individual snail movements in experimental streams at high- and low-food resource treatments. Using these experimental movement data, we examined the dependency of model selection on resource level and body size using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). At low resources, large individuals moved faster than small individuals, producing a platykurtic movement distribution; including size dependency in the model improved model performance. In stark contrast, at high resources, individuals moved upstream together as a wave, and body size differences largely disappeared. The model selection exercise indicated that population heterogeneity is best described by the advection component of movement for this species, because the top-ranked model included size dependency in advection, but not diffusion. Also, all probable models included resource dependency. Thus population and environmental heterogeneities both influence individual movement behaviors and the population-level distribution kernels, and their interaction may drive variation in movement behaviors in terms of both advection rates and diffusion rates. A behaviorally informed modeling framework will integrate the sentient response of individuals in terms of

  11. THE ROLES OF CONSUMER’S KNOWLEDGE AND EMOTION IN ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: An Empirical Study on Green Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shellyana Junaedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the causal effect of existing relationship amongst green purchasing, which are attitudinal and behavioral approaches, consumer values, ecological affect, ecological knowledge, and green purchase intention. The survey result provides a reasonable support for the validity of the proposed model. Specifically, the finding from structural equation model confirms the influence of consumer values orientation, ecological affect, and ecological knowledge on their attitudes towards green purchase intention. The implication of this research is relevant to Indonesian government and green marketers to fine-tune their environmental programs.

  12. Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not.This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position.The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.

  13. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  14. Understanding the physical and social contexts of children's nonschool sedentary behavior: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Wolch, Jennifer; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund

    2014-03-01

    Research on children's sedentary behavior has relied on recall-based self-report or accelerometer methods, which do not assess the context of such behavior. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine where and with whom children's sedentary behavior occurs during their nonschool time. Children (N = 120) ages 9-13 years (51% male, 33% Hispanic) wore mobile phones that prompted surveys (20 total) for 4 days. Surveys measured current activity (eg, exercise, watching TV), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), and social company (eg, family, friends). Children engaged in a greater percentage of leisure-oriented (eg, watching TV) than productive (eg, reading, doing homework) sedentary behavior (70% vs 30%, respectively). Most of children's sedentary activity occurred at home (85%). Children's sedentary activity took place most often with family members (58%). Differences in physical context of sedentary behavior were found for older vs. younger children (P Research demonstrates the potential for using EMA to capture real-time information about children's sedentary behavior during their nonschool time.

  15. Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    A major focus of current ecological research is to understand how global change makes species vulnerable to extirpation. To date, mechanistic ecophysiological analyses of global change vulnerability have focused primarily on the direct effects of changing abiotic conditions on whole-organism physiological traits, such as metabolic rate, locomotor performance, cardiac function, and critical thermal limits. However, species do not live in isolation within their physical environments, and direct effects of climate change are likely to be compounded by indirect effects that result from altered interactions with other species, such as competitors and predators. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Symposium "Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences" was designed to synthesize multiple approaches to investigating the indirect effects of global change by bringing together researchers that study the indirect effects of global change from multiple perspectives across habitat, type of anthropogenic change, and level of biological organization. Our goal in bringing together researchers from different backgrounds was to foster cross-disciplinary insights into the mechanistic bases and higher-order ecological consequences of indirect effects of global change, and to promote collaboration among fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  17. Using diel movement behavior to infer foraging strategies related to ecological and social factors in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Leo; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive movement behaviors allow individuals to respond to fluctuations in resource quality and distribution in order to maintain fitness. Classically, studies of the interaction between ecological conditions and movement behavior have focused on such metrics as travel distance, velocity, home range size or patch occupancy time as the salient metrics of behavior. Driven by the emergence of very regular high frequency data, more recently the importance of interpreting the autocorrelation structure of movement as a behavioral metric has become apparent. Studying movement of a free ranging African savannah elephant population, we evaluated how two movement metrics, diel displacement (DD) and movement predictability (MP - the degree of autocorrelated movement activity at diel time scales), changed in response to variation in resource availability as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We were able to capitalize on long term (multi-year) yet high resolution (hourly) global positioning system tracking datasets, the sample size of which allows robust analysis of complex models. We use optimal foraging theory predictions as a framework to interpret our results, in particular contrasting the behaviors across changes in social rank and resource availability to infer which movement behaviors at diel time scales may be optimal in this highly social species. Both DD and MP increased with increasing forage availability, irrespective of rank, reflecting increased energy expenditure and movement predictability during time periods of overall high resource availability. However, significant interactions between forage availability and social rank indicated a stronger response in DD, and a weaker response in MP, with increasing social status. Relative to high ranking individuals, low ranking individuals expended more energy and exhibited less behavioral movement autocorrelation during lower forage availability conditions, likely reflecting sub-optimal movement

  18. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  19. The Feasibility of Using Video Journaling to Collect Ecological Momentary Assessment Data: Application to Health Behavior Change Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Bland, Helen W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) technique in a health behavior change intervention offered within university general health courses. A six-week health behavior change project was used with two groups: video journaling and traditional (pencil and paper) group. Research…

  20. Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, Alistair N; Wittemyer, George; Starfield, Richard; Volrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Getz, Wayne M

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the environmental factors influencing animal movements is fundamental to theoretical and applied research in the field of movement ecology. Studies relating fine-scale movement paths to spatiotemporally structured landscape data, such as vegetation productivity or human activity, are particularly lacking despite the obvious importance of such information to understanding drivers of animal movement. In part, this may be because few approaches provide the sophistication to characterize the complexity of movement behavior and relate it to diverse, varying environmental stimuli. We overcame this hurdle by applying, for the first time to an ecological question, a finite impulse-response signal-filtering approach to identify human and natural environmental drivers of movements of 13 free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from distinct social groups collected over seven years. A minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimation criterion allowed comparison of the predictive power of landscape and ecological model inputs. We showed that a filter combining vegetation dynamics, human and physical landscape features, and previous movement outperformed simpler filter structures, indicating the importance of both dynamic and static landscape features, as well as habit, on movement decisions taken by elephants. Elephant responses to vegetation productivity indices were not uniform in time or space, indicating that elephant foraging strategies are more complex than simply gravitation toward areas of high productivity. Predictions were most frequently inaccurate outside protected area boundaries near human settlements, suggesting that human activity disrupts typical elephant movement behavior. Successful management strategies at the human-elephant interface, therefore, are likely to be context specific and dynamic. Signal processing provides a promising approach for elucidating environmental factors that drive animal movements over large time and spatial

  1. Quantifying Physiological, Behavioral and Ecological Consequences of Hypoxic Events in Kelp Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, S. Y.; Beers, J. M.; Woodson, C. B.; Leary, P.; Fringer, O. B.; Goldbogen, J. A.; Micheli, F.; Monismith, S. G.; Somero, G. N.

    2016-02-01

    Rocky reef kelp forests that extend along the coast of central California, like many habitats in upwelling systems, often experience inundations of low dissolved oxygen (DO) or hypoxic waters. These events have the potential to influence the structure and function of coastal ecosystems. The ecological consequences of hypoxia for these systems will be mediated by physiological thresholds and behavioral responses of resident organisms in the context of the spatial and temporal variability of DO, and other potential stressors. Our research focuses on Sebastes (i.e. rockfish) because of their commercial, recreational and ecological importance, high abundance across near shore habitats and the potentially severe impacts of physiological stress due to hypoxia. In the lab, to investigate how hypoxic events physiologically effect rockfish, we exposed young of the year (YOY) of 5 species and two life stages of blue rockfish, S. mystinus (YOY and 1+), to DO concentrations representative of upwelling conditions and measured a suite of whole organisms and tissue level responses including metabolic rate, ventilation, tissue-level metabolism, and blood biochemistry. Results demonstrate species and life stage specific differences in physiological stress under upwelling driven hypoxic conditions and suggest YOY rockfishes may currently be living near their physiological limits. In the laboratory we further explored if physiological impacts result in behavioral consequences by examining the startle response of YOY rockfish, a relative measure of predator avoidance ability, under a range of DO concentrations and exposure durations. To further explore behavioral responses of rockfish to low in DO within the kelp forest we are using two approaches, monitoring the vertical distribution of fish communities across the water column using an acoustic imaging camera (ARIS 3000, Soundmetrics Inc.) and acoustic tagging, with 3-D positioning ability (VPS, VEMCO Inc.), of larger blue rockfish

  2. Behavior and reproductive ecology of the Sicklefin Redhorse: An imperiled southern Appalachian Mountain fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Many nongame fishes are poorly understood but are essential to maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems globally. The undescribed Sicklefin Redhorse Moxostoma sp. is a rare, imperiled, nongame fish endemic to two southern Appalachian Mountain river basins. Little is known of its behavior and ecology, but this information is urgently needed for conservation planning. We assessed the spatial and temporal bounds of spawning migration, quantified seasonal weekly movement patterns, and characterized seasonal and spawning behavior using radiotelemetry and weir sampling in the Hiwassee River basin, North Carolina–Georgia, during 2006 and 2007. Hiwassee River tributaries were occupied predominantly during the fish's spawning season, lower reaches of the tributaries and the Hiwassee River were primarily occupied during the postspawning season (i.e., summer and fall), and lower lotic reaches of Hiwassee River (upstream from Hiwassee Lake) were occupied during winter. Adults occupied Hiwassee Lake only as a movement corridor during spawning migrations. Both sexes conducted upstream spawning migrations simultaneously, but males occupied spawning tributaries longer than females. Sicklefin Redhorse exhibited interannual spawning‐area and tributary fidelity. Cold water temperatures associated with hypolimnetic releases from reservoirs and meteorological conditions influenced spawning migration distance and timing. During 2007, decreased discharges during the spawning season were associated with decreases in migration distance and spawning tributary occupancy duration. Foraging was the dominant behavior observed annually, followed by reproductive behaviors (courting and spawning) during the spawning season. No agonistic reproductive behavior was observed, but females exhibited a repetitious postspawning digging behavior that may be unique in the family Catostomidae. Our findings suggest that protection and restoration of river continuity, natural flow regimes, seasonally

  3. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou/reindeer and muskoxen are the only two ungulate species that have successfully occupied arctic tundra habitats. Although confronted with similar environmental constraints, their morphological dissimilarities have enabled them to develop unique behavioral and ecological adaptations that under most circumstances result in minimal overlap in use of forage resources. The large body and gut capacity of muskoxen have enabled them to adopt a strategy maximizing rate of forage intake and energy conservation, whereas caribou/reindeer of substantially smaller body size must pursue selective feeding, requiring high mobility and high energy expenditure. Responses to predators and insects by the two species show similar contrasts in associated energy costs. When confronted with environmental extremes that limit forage availability, competition for food may occur and the resulting differential success is a reflection of their divergent evolutionary routes.

  4. An ecological momentary assessment of the effect of fasting during Ramadan on disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Jia Li Pauline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Chamari, Karim; Richardson, Ben; Krug, Isabel

    2018-04-23

    Dietary restriction contributes to disordered eating (DE) behaviors and associated cognitions. However, it is unclear how these outcomes are impacted by dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as fasting observed by Muslims during Ramadan. Using ecological momentary assessment, this study assessed the impact of Ramadan fasting on DE behaviors and correlates. Muslim participants fasting during Ramadan (n = 28) and a control group of non-fasting participants (n = 74) completed baseline measures assessing demographic characteristics and eating pathology. A mobile phone application then prompted participants six times per day for seven days to self-report on dietary restriction efforts, body satisfaction, temptation to eat unhealthily, feelings of guilt or shame following food, and DE behaviors including bingeing, vomiting, and other purging behaviors (use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills). After controlling for eating pathology, multilevel modeling indicated that, as expected, the Ramadan fasting group spent significantly more time restricting food intake than the non-fasting group. The Ramadan fasting group also experienced significantly greater temptation to eat unhealthily than their non-fasting counterparts. However, this difference disappeared once models were adjusted for differences in time spent restricting food intake. There were no other significant differences between the groups on any DE variables. These findings suggest that while dietary restriction for health or appearance-related reasons is a known contributor to DE, dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as that observed during the practice of Ramadan, may not confer increased risk of DE symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concepts of ecological construction. Seminar volume of the Central Information Bureau for Environmental Consulting in Bavaria. Vol. 6; Oekologisches Bauen. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohmanns, B. [comp.; Koller, U. [comp.; Klemmer, A. [comp.; Haury, H.J. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    On 11 May 1995 the Central Information Bureau for Environmental Consulting in Bavaria held its sixth seminar. The seminar was dedicated to the subject `Concepts of Ecological Construction`. It attracted some 80 representatives of environmental consulting offices and other authorities assigned to environmental consulting tasks. Leading scientists from research institutions and the administration presented the current state of research into the ecological aspects of construction and planning. The lecturers dealt with diverse topics ranging from building site selection over questions on energy to aspects of building materials and illustrated the new possibilities of environmentally adapted construction by reference to practical examples. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Am 11. Mai 1995 veranstaltete die Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern ihr sechstes Seminar. Thema der Seminarveranstaltung, an der rund 80 Vertreterinnen und Vertreter von Umweltberatungsstellen und anderen mit Umweltberatung beauftragten Behoerden teilnahmen, war `Oekologisches Bauen`. Fuehrende Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen aus Forschung und Behoerden stellten den aktuellen Stand der Forschung oekologischer Aspekte des Bauens und Planens dar. Beginnend mit Kriterien fuer die Standortsuche von Bauvorhaben ueber Energiefragen und Aspekte oekologischer Baustoffe fuehrten die Referentinnen und Referenten schliesslich auch an praktischen Beispielen neue Moeglichkeiten des umweltgerechten Bauens vor. (orig./HW)

  6. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  7. Book Reivew: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    “If we watch species going extinct in front of us, how useful is that we publish 100 or even 1,000 papers by studying them?” (p. 330). This quote from senior author Pan Wenshi captures an important essence of this book. A translation of a 2001 monograph originally published in Chinese, this volume details the findings of a 15-year research program in the Qinling Mountains by Wenshi and his students. Starting in 1984, this Chinese research team from Peking University was only the second to study free-ranging pandas. This is the remarkable journey of a devoted group of field researchers who helped changed the course of giant panda conservation, events that few conservationists outside of China have been aware of until now.Review info: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas. By Pan Wenshi, Lü Zhi, Zhu Xiaojian, Wang Dajun, Wang Hao, Long Yu, Fu Dali, and Zhou Xin; edited by, William J. McShea, Richard B. Harris, David L. Garshelis, and Wang Dajun, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-935623-17-5, 349pp.

  8. Behavioral ecology of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the breeding ecology and behavior of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) on its breeding ground in southeastern Washington. Seasonal movements and distribution of the buteo are also described. The birds were observed from blinds, or filmed by Super-8mm time-lapse cameras, during courtship, nest building, egg laying, incubation, and nestling and post-fledging development. Food habits were examined during the nestling and post-fledging periods. Snakes, especially the abundant Western Yellow-bellied racers, were a prey staple, and insects became an important food source during the post-fledging period. It was apparent that Swainson's Hawks feed on smaller and more diverse prey than sympatric buteos (Red-tailed and Ferruginous Hawks), thus reducing competition with neighboring congenerics. Interactions with buteos and other raptor genera were observed, and nearest neighbor distances measured. Organochlorine pesticides in prey species consumed by Swainson's Hawks are concentrated from prey to predator through the food chain. The hawk pellets (regurgitated castings) would contain those concentrations and could easily be monitored without sacrificing any part of the food chain.

  9. Book review: Behavioral ecology of the eastern red-backed salamander: 50 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan; Mitchell, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the British Ecological Society, Sutherland et al. (2013) identified 100 questions of fundamental significance in “pure” (i.e., not applied) ecology. A somewhat unexpected outcome of these authors’ exercise was the realization that, after 100 years of comprehensive, intensive scientific research, there remained “profound knowledge

  10. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Ecology of Exercise: Mechanisms Underlying Individual Variation in Behavior, Activity, and Performance: An Introduction to Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Calsbeek, Ryan; Williams, Tony D

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals often engage in intense physical activity while performing tasks vital for their survival and reproduction associated with foraging, avoiding predators, fighting, providing parental care, and migrating. In this theme issue we consider how viewing these tasks as "exercise"-analogous to that performed by human athletes-may help provide insight into the mechanisms underlying individual variation in these types of behaviors and the importance of physical activity in an ecological context. In this article and throughout this issue, we focus on four key questions relevant to the study of behavioral ecology that may be addressed by studying wild animal behavior from the perspective of exercise physiology: (1) How hard do individual animals work in response to ecological (or evolutionary) demands?; (2) Do lab-based studies of activity provide good models for understanding activity in free-living animals and individual variation in traits?; (3) Can animals work too hard during "routine" activities?; and (4) Can paradigms of "exercise" and "training" be applied to free-living animals? Attempts to address these issues are currently being facilitated by rapid technological developments associated with physiological measurements and the remote tracking of wild animals, to provide mechanistic insights into the behavior of free-ranging animals at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. We further suggest that viewing the behaviors of non-human animals in terms of the physical exercise performed will allow us to fully take advantage of these technological advances, draw from knowledge and conceptual frameworks already in use by human exercise physiologists, and identify key traits that constrain performance and generate variation in performance among individuals. It is our hope that, by highlighting mechanisms of behavior and performance, the articles in this issue will spur on further synergies between physiologists and ecologists, to take

  12. Winter behavior and ecology of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The winter ecology and behavior of Alder Flycatchers (Empidonax alnorum) were studied along the Manu, a white-water meander river in Manu National Park, Madre de Dios, Peru during October and November, 1993 to 1997. The birds occupied territories in primary-succession habitats on growing point bars. They were most common in mixed stands of Tessaria integrifolia (Asteraceae) and Gynerium sagittatum (Gramineaceae) interspersed with bare sand areas. The uneven height of the Tessaria canopy, which resulted in openings in the vegetation large enough for the birds to flycatch, was an important habitat feature. Birds obtained insects, which formed about 96% of the diet, by aerial hawking (91%), perch gleaning (6%), and hover gleaning (3%). They also fed on fruit. Territory sizes ranged from 0.04 to 0.25 ha. Of nine territories that we observed closely, six were occupied by two birds each, two by one bird each, and one by three birds. Every territory had one dominant individual who was primarily responsible for territory defense; the other birds were associates. Vocalizations given included the fee-bee-o song, a two-syllable song, and the pit note, which are also given on the breeding grounds. A series of pits given increasingly rapidly signaled a territorial interaction. In aggressive encounters, the birds (1) interacted vocally, remaining on their territories and counter calling or exchanging agitated calls; (2) moved toward a common territorial boundary and engaged in a vocal duel; or (3) the dominant chased intruders out of the territory. Chases were most common when a wave of new birds entered the area. Dominant birds, which sang the full song, were probably adult males. Immature males do not sing a full song, and females are not known to sing in nature. Associate individuals were likely females or young males.

  13. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  14. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: Implications of feeding behavior and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology. - The relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  15. Blown by the wind: the ecology of male courtship display behavior in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Tamara; Vogler, Ira; Losch, René; Schlütting, Patrick; Juarez, Pedro; Bissantz, Nicolai; Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Many insects rely on chemical signals to transmit precise information on the location, identity, and quality of potential mates. Chemical signals are often broadcasted at sites with physical properties that maximize signal propagation and signal transmission. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) perch and display on vertical branches and tree trunks in the forest to expose volatile blends (perfumes) that they previously collected from their environment. Previous studies have shown that the chemical composition of perfume blends is highly differentiated even between closely related species. However, variation in behavioral components of perfume exposure and male display remain poorly understood. We conducted a four-year study on orchid bee display sites (8 species) in pacific Costa Rica, using field observations along with chemical analysis and cage experiments to assess display niche partitioning among sympatric species. We evaluated the influence of physical factors (terrain, wind, light) on the distribution of perch sites and on display behavior, and tested a prediction of the sex pheromone-analogue hypothesis, i.e., that displaying males have above-average quantities or qualities of acquired perfumes. Males of different species displayed in the same general area and sometimes in close proximity to each other, but partitioned the display niche by selecting different perch diameters, display heights, and by displaying at different times of the day. Most perch sites were located inside the forest on elevated ground, especially along ridges, where stronger winds may help disperse perfume signals. Furthermore, the angular position of displaying males on perches was narrowly determined by wind direction, with males being positioned on the downwind side of the perch, where they would be most conspicuous to conspecifics approaching on an odor trail. Although our results generally support the hypothesis that perfumes serve as pheromone analogues, we did not find

  16. Assessing Sustainable Behavior and its Correlates: A Measure of Pro-Ecological, Frugal, Altruistic and Equitable Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Fraijo-Sing

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measures of sustainable behavior (SB usually include the self-report of activities aimed at the conservation of the natural environment. The sustainability notion explicitly incorporates both the satisfaction of human needs and the need of conserving the natural environment. Yet, the assessment of sustainable behaviors rarely considers the protection of the social environment as situation to investigate. In this paper, we propose the use of an instrument assessing SB, which includes the report of pro-ecological and frugal actions in addition to altruistic and equitable behaviors. The responses provided by 807 Mexican undergraduates to a questionnaire investigating those four instances of SB were processed within a structural equation model. Emotional (indignation due to environmental destruction, affinity towards diversity, happiness and rational (intention to act factors assumedly linked to sustainable behavior were also investigated. Significant interrelations among pro-ecological, frugal, altruistic and equitable behaviors resulted, suggesting the presence of a higher-order-factor that we identified as SB. This factor, in turn, significantly correlated with the rest of the investigated pro-environmental factors.

  17. Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-04-15

    Studies on the ecological conservation behavior of farmers usually focus on individual and socio-economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological constructs, such as farmers' intention and perceptions. This study uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a typical social psychology construct, to analyze the factors affecting the intention and behavior of farmers for conserving the ecological achievements from payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas. Questionnaires based on TPB were administered to 1004 farmers from the Grain to Green Program area in the Loess Plateau, China, with the resulting dataset used to identify the underlying factors determining farmers' intention and behavior based on the structural equation model. The results show that the farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements were explained well by TPB. The farmers'behavior was significantly positively affected by their intention toward conserving ecological achievements, and their intention was significantly influenced by their attitude (positive or negative value of performance), the subjective norm (social pressure in engaging behavior), and perceived behavioral control (perceptions of their ability). The farmers' degree of support for PES programs and their recognition of environmental effects were the factors that most influenced the farmers' attitude. Pressure from neighbors was the most potent driver of the subjective norm. Meanwhile, perceptions of their ability to perform the behavior were the most potent factors affecting intention and it was mostly driven by the farmers' feelings toward environmental improvement and perceived ability (time and labor) to participate in ecological conservation. The drivers of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control can be used by policy makers to direct farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements in fragile

  18. Sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools: an ecological examination of adolescent risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2012-09-01

    This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys' but not girls' sexual experiences. Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools.

  19. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  20. The Ecology of Volunteerism among College Women: Identifying Campus Environments That Inform Volunteering Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axlund McBride, RaeLyn; Lott, Joe L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between campus environments, female college student peer culture, and the tendency to volunteer while in college. The authors used Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development (1977, 2005) as a framework to (a) identify one multi-faceted campus environment that is linked to volunteerism among college…

  1. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features. Sloth hair is extremely specialized for a wet tropical environment and contains symbiotic algae. Activity shows circadian and seasonal variation. Nutrients derived from the food, particularly in Bradypus, only barely match the requirements for energy expenditure. Sloths are hosts to a fascinating array of commensal and parasitic arthropods and are carriers of various arthropod-borne viruses. Sloths are known reservoirs of the flagellate protozoan which causes leishmaniasis in humans, and may also carry trypanosomes and the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii.

  2. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-03-15

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals' current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study's infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system's functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants' response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of the 12-month study interval, adherence to

  3. The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alden H.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available La ecología de comportamiento y la biología de la reproducción de los Gorriones Andinos "copetones" (Zonotrichia capensis fueron estudiadas a lo largo de un año en una población ubicada a 2.000 metros de altura en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Se capturaron cerca de 170 individuos, y para hacer posible su identificación en el campo se marcaron convenientemente. En varias ocasiones se Iogró la recaptura de muchos de éstos con el objeto de estudiar los cambios de plumaje y ciclos reproductivos a lo largo del año. La condición reproductiva de muchos individuos fue evaluada gracias a repetidas laparotomías. Se describen nueve tipos diferentes de vocalizaciones y se discute sus funciones.  Se establece la existencia de comunicación entre estas aves por medio de variación del plumaje, posturas y movimientos.  Sólo las hembras construyen nidos, los cuales se colocan ya sea en el suelo o sobre arbustos, pero en ningún caso a más de un metro de altura sobre el suelo. La puesta usual es de dos huevos en dos días consecutivos y en las primeras horas de la mañana. La hembra efectúa la incubación que dura de once a doce días. Los polluelos están listos a abandonar el nido en 10 0 12 días más. Los machos y hembras jóvenes alcanzan madurez reproductiva entre los 12 y 11 meses de edad. Muchas hembras vuelven a anidar si han perdido el nido con huevos o los polluelos tiernos.  Algunas hembras anidan por segunda vez inmediatamente después de haber criado polluelos.  Los machos se establecen en territorios claramente definidos y los mantienen a través de nidadas sucesivas. Los lazos de union entre los miembros de una pareja duran de una nidada a la siguiente, aun a través de períodos sin reproducción. Los territorios observados tenían típicamente cerca de 30 x 20 metros. La mayor parte de la alimentación parecía provenir del área definida, aunque ocasionalmente pueden abandonarla.  Alguna vez una pareja fue vista a

  4. Using SMS Text Messaging to Assess Moderators of Smoking Reduction: Validating a New Tool for Ecological Measurement of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Dickenson, Janna; Falk, Emily B.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Understanding the psychological processes that contribute to smoking reduction will yield population health benefits. Negative mood may moderate smoking lapse during cessation, but this relationship has been difficult to measure in ongoing daily experience. We used a novel form of ecological momentary assessment to test a self-control model of negative mood and craving leading to smoking lapse. Design We validated short message service (SMS) text as a user-friendly and low-cost option for ecologically measuring real-time health behaviors. We sent text messages to cigarette smokers attempting to quit eight times daily for the first 21 days of cessation (N-obs = 3,811). Main outcome measures Approximately every two hours, we assessed cigarette count, mood, and cravings, and examined between- and within-day patterns and time-lagged relationships among these variables. Exhaled carbon monoxide was assessed pre- and posttreatment. Results Negative mood and craving predicted smoking two hours later, but craving mediated the mood–smoking relationship. Also, this mediation relationship predicted smoking over the next two, but not four, hours. Conclusion Results clarify conflicting previous findings on the relation between affect and smoking, validate a new low-cost and user-friendly method for collecting fine-grained health behavior assessments, and emphasize the importance of rapid, real-time measurement of smoking moderators. PMID:21401252

  5. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    , smallmouth bass parental care) energy stores may be more important. Interactions among environmental and ecological factors, fish behavior, and fish physiology offer important avenues of mechanistic inquiry to explain ecological dynamics and demonstrate how exercise is fundamental to the ecology of fish. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Equation-free modeling unravels the behavior of complex ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Ye et al. (1) address a critical problem confronting the management of natural ecosystems: How can we make forecasts of possible future changes in populations to help guide management actions? This problem is especially acute for marine and anadromous fisheries, where the large interannual fluctuations of populations, arising from complex nonlinear interactions among species and with varying environmental factors, have defied prediction over even short time scales. The empirical dynamic modeling (EDM) described in Ye et al.’s report, the latest in a series of papers by Sugihara and his colleagues, offers a promising quantitative approach to building models using time series to successfully project dynamics into the future. With the term “equation-free” in the article title, Ye et al. (1) are suggesting broader implications of their approach, considering the centrality of equations in modern science. From the 1700s on, nature has been increasingly described by mathematical equations, with differential or difference equations forming the basic framework for describing dynamics. The use of mathematical equations for ecological systems came much later, pioneered by Lotka and Volterra, who showed that population cycles might be described in terms of simple coupled nonlinear differential equations. It took decades for Lotka–Volterra-type models to become established, but the development of appropriate differential equations is now routine in modeling ecological dynamics. There is no question that the injection of mathematical equations, by forcing “clarity and precision into conjecture” (2), has led to increased understanding of population and community dynamics. As in science in general, in ecology equations are a key method of communication and of framing hypotheses. These equations serve as compact representations of an enormous amount of empirical data and can be analyzed by the powerful methods of mathematics.

  7. Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Schick, Robert S; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F; Kollins, Scott H; Beckham, Jean C; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

  8. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-04-02

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The next step in health behavior research: the need for ecological moderation analyses - an application to diet and physical activity at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave Hh; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2014-04-17

    The ecological perspective holds that human behavior depends on the interaction of different environmental factors and personal characteristics, but it lacks validation and operationalization. In the current paper, an ecological view was adopted to examine the interactive impact of several ecological systems on children's dietary intake and physical activity at childcare or similar facilities. The ecological view was operationalized into three types of interaction: 1) interaction between types of childcare environment (physical, social, political, economic); 2) interaction between micro-systems (the childcare and home environment) in meso-systems; and 3) interaction between childcare environment and child characteristics. The predictive value of each of these interactions was tested based on a systematic review of the literature. Several studies support the hypothesis that the influence of the childcare environment on children's physical activity and diet is moderated by child characteristics (age, gender), but interaction between environmental types as well as between micro-systems is hardly examined in the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. Qualitative studies and general child development research provide some valuable insights, but we advocate quantitative research adopting an ecological perspective on environmental influences. Empirical studies operationalizing a true ecological view on diet and physical activity are scarce. Theorizing and assessment of interaction is advocated to become common practice rather than an exception in behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, in order to move the field forward.

  10. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of SO 2 on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO 2 . Atmospheric SO 2 concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout 137 Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed

  11. [Individual differences in behavior and mechanisms of ecological differentiation with fishes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, S V; Mikheev, V N; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of individual differences in animal behavior exemplified by fishes. Main approaches to these differences investigation are outlined. Such terms as temperament can be used to describe consistent characteristics of individuality in animals. It should be emphasized that consistency over time and across situations is the main classification characteristic of the temperament trait. We also briefly review genetic and physiological mechanisms of individuality in fish, factors affecting their development in the ontogeny, and effects of the individual experience. Significant adaptive value of temperament is shown: in many cases the natural selection maintains alternative behavioral tactics. We also consider the main quantitative models accounting for the coexistence of individuals with different behavioral patterns. Finally, it is demonstrated that patterns of behavioral individuality may significantly affect population dynamics.

  12. The predator and prey behaviors of crabs: from ecology to neural adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Berón de Astrada, Martín; Oliva, Damián; Lanza, Estela

    2017-07-01

    Predator avoidance and prey capture are among the most vital of animal behaviors. They require fast reactions controlled by comparatively straightforward neural circuits often containing giant neurons, which facilitates their study with electrophysiological techniques. Naturally occurring avoidance behaviors, in particular, can be easily and reliably evoked in the laboratory, enabling their neurophysiological investigation. Studies in the laboratory alone, however, can lead to a biased interpretation of an animal's behavior in its natural environment. In this Review, we describe current knowledge - acquired through both laboratory and field studies - on the visually guided escape behavior of the crab Neohelice granulata Analyses of the behavioral responses to visual stimuli in the laboratory have revealed the main characteristics of the crab's performance, such as the continuous regulation of the speed and direction of the escape run, or the enduring changes in the strength of escape induced by learning and memory. This work, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies, has allowed the identification of various giant neurons, the activity of which reflects most essential aspects of the crabs' avoidance performance. In addition, behavioral analyses performed in the natural environment reveal a more complex picture: crabs make use of much more information than is usually available in laboratory studies. Moreover, field studies have led to the discovery of a robust visually guided chasing behavior in Neohelice Here, we describe similarities and differences in the results obtained between the field and the laboratory, discuss the sources of any differences and highlight the importance of combining the two approaches. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Water supplementation affects the behavioral and physiological ecology of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2009-01-01

    In desert species, seasonal peaks in animal activity often correspond with times of higher rainfall. However, the underlying reason for such seasonality can be hard to discern because the rainy season is often associated with shifts in temperature as well as water and food availability. We used a combination of the natural climate pattern of the Sonoran Desert and periodic water supplementation to determine the extent to which water intake influenced both the behavioral ecology and the physiological ecology of a long-lived desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) (Cope 1869). Water-supplemented lizards had lower plasma osmolality (i.e., were more hydrated) and maintained urinary bladder water reserves better during seasonal drought than did control lizards. During seasonal drought, water-supplemented lizards were surface active a significantly greater proportion of time than were controls. This increased surface activity can lead to greater food acquisition for supplemental Gila monsters because tail volume (an index of caudal lipid stores) was significantly greater in supplemented lizards compared with controls in one of the two study years.

  14. Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong; Xu, Wenbo; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhou, Jieping; Shao, Zhujun; Liu, Xiaobo; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Yanwen; Zheng, Han; Jin, Sun; Jiang, Hai; Cao, Wuchun; Xu, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.

  15. Foraging ecology and spatial behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a wet grassland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Katrine; Sunde, Peter; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated diet composition, habitat selection and spatial behaviour of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to the availability of wader nests in a coastal polder area in southwest Denmark. The predatory role of the red fox in wet grassland ecosystems has profound implications...... for conservation status of declining populations of grassland breeding waders. However, few studies have focussed on the foraging ecology and behaviour of the red fox in these landscapes. Faecal analyses revealed that fox diet consisted of birds (43 % of prey remains / 32 % of biomass), rodents (39 % / 21...... %), sheep (mainly as carrion, 14 % / 41 %) and lagomorphs (4 % / 7 %). Charadriiformes (including waders) comprised 3–12 % of prey remains throughout the year. Telemetry data and spotlight counts indicated that foxes did not select areas with high densities of breeding waders, suggesting that foxes did...

  16. Enhancing behavioral health treatment and crisis management through mobile ecological momentary assessment and SMS messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Harms, William D; Burres, Stephanie; Korda, Holly; Rosen, Howard; Davis, Jamie

    2012-12-01

    Many veterans returning from service in Afghanistan or Iraq suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder or mild traumatic brain injury. Treating these conditions can be challenging because of high rates of relapse and associated memory impairments. We report on a pilot study that assessed the utility of mobile health (mHealth) technologies, including personal digital assistant-based ecological momentary assessment and two-way interactive text (SMS) messaging, for providing treatment feedback to clinicians, encouraging and motivating veterans throughout treatment, and monitoring participants for relapse after treatment discharge. The results of the pilot suggest that mHealth technologies are feasible adjuncts to traditional mental treatment in the veteran population. Additional work is needed to establish the degree of clinical and economic value.

  17. Environmental concern and ecological responsible behavior in university students: A comparative analysis between Chilean and Spanish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Palavecinos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a pilot study aimed at the transcultural analysis of environmental concern and its relationship with ecological behavior, a questionnaire assessing these was developed in Spain, and tested in Spain and in Chile. Chilean (n=88 and Spanish (n=149 students filled out the questionnaire. The results were analysed according to the model of multidimensional conceptualisation of concern for the environment manifested in 4 types of attitude: apathetic, anthropocentric, connected and emotional affinity (Amérigo et al., 2012. Results differed between the two groups, and cultural and psychosocial variables appear to play a significant role in this. This suggest that it is important to have instruments that facilitate environmental studies in the Chilean context, and to take contextual factors (such as the exacerbation of the country's environmental crisis and citizens' concern about the situation into account in such studies. Transcultural studies are key to deepening our understanding of the subject at the worldwide level.

  18. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds. PMID:29492036

  19. Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca in Emas National Park, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thannya Nascimento Soares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed for domestic cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother's genotypes for some of the loci, 10000 values of W were derived by simulation procedures. The male that killed the two cubs was assigned as the true sire. Although the reasons for this behavior remain obscure, it shows, in principle, a low recognition of paternity and kinship in the species. Since the two cubs were not very young, one possibility is that the adult male did not recognize the cubs and killed them for simple territorial reasons. Thus, ecological stress in this local population becomes a very plausible explanation for this infanticide, without further sociobiological implications.

  20. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, Andrey; Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds.

  1. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior

  2. Behavior Ecology of the Javan Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus is a endangered bird species. They have big pressure to the population and the habitat. The fact that the birds are still exist on their local distribution. Behavior ecology of javan green peafowl is dealing with activities, mechanism and strategies of the birds in relation to their environment. The aimed of the study is to obtain data and information of ecological adaptation strategies through the behavior activities, mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl in-relation to their habitat types. Ad libitum sampling method was used on continuous recording every peafowl activities in relation with duration, frequencies mechanism and strategy were influenced by habitat type's condition. Chi-squre test was used for statistical analysis to know different behavior has influenced by habitat types. The result shown that the javan green peafowl habitat typse has significant influenced on duration of the activities but not at the activities pattern. The walking during the feeding. select shading places or luxuriant trees close to feeding site, choosing tall trees or emergent trees close to open area as roost site, open area also road as display or dancing area, open area which grow shrubs as nesting site are javan green peafowl ecological behavior strategies. The mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl behavior ecology are related to avoid from disturbance and to adapt their habitat type's conditions.

  3. Behavior Ecology of the Javan Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus is a endangered bird species. They have big pressure to the population and the habitat. The fact that the birds are still exist on their local distribution. Behavior ecology of javan green peafowl is dealing with activities, mechanism and strategies of the birds in relation to their environment. The aimed of the study is to obtain data and information of ecological adaptation strategies through the behavior activities, mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl in-relation to their habitat types. Ad libitum sampling method was used on continuous recording every peafowl activities in relation with duration, frequencies mechanism and strategy were influenced by habitat type’s condition. Chi-squre test was used for statistical analysis to know different behavior has influenced by habitat types. The result shown that the javan green peafowl habitat typse has significant influenced on duration of the activities but not at the activities pattern. The walking during the feeding, select shading places or luxuriant trees close to feeding site, choosing tall trees or emergent trees close to open area as roost site, open area also road as display or dancing area, open area which grow shrubs as nesting site are javan green peafowl ecological behavior strategies. The mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl behavior ecology are related to avoid from disturbance and to adapt their habitat type’s conditions.

  4. Mark-recapture and behavioral ecology: a case study of Cliff Swallows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark–recapture and the statistical analysis methods associated with it offer great potential for investigating fitness components associated with particular behavioral traits. However, few behavioral ecologists have used these techniques. We illustrate the insights that have come from a long–term mark–recapture study of social behavior in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. The number of transient swallows passing through a colony per hour increased with colony size and was responsible in part for increased rates of ectoparasite introduction from outside the group into the larger colonies. Annual survival probabilities of males engaging in extra–pair copulation attempts were lower than those of males not seen to commit extra–pair copulations, suggesting that males who engage in this behavior may be inferior individuals and that females do not benefit from copulating with them. Females engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism had higher annual survival probabilities than ones either parasitized by others or not known to be either hosts or parasites. This suggests that parasitic females are high–quality birds and that brood parasitism is an effective reproductive tactic for increasing their fitness. By estimating first–year survival of chicks, we found that a clutch size of 4 eggs is often the most productive, on average, as measured by recruitment of offspring as breeders, although birds laying the more uncommon clutch size of 5 fledge more young on average. This helps to explain the observed clutch–size distribution in which clutch size 4 is the most commonly produced.

  5. Does Availability of Mental Health Resources Prevent Recurrent Suicidal Behavior? An Ecological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…

  6. Odontocete Cetaceans: Quantifying Behavioral Ecology and Response to Predators Using a Multi-Species Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Behaviour 144(11): 1315–1332. http://doi.org/10.1163/156853907782418213 Madsen, P.T., M. Wahlberg, J. Tougaard, and K. Lucke. 2006. Wind turbine ...individual in small 14 group (Stanford 2002). Increased vigilance and diluted predation risk is often cited as a factor promoting sociality in birds ...also be used to recruit conspecifics to engage in mobbing behavior in both mammals and birds (Curio et al. 1978; Tamura 1989). Actual predation

  7. Ecological and hormonal correlates of antipredator behavior in adult Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi)

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Jill M.

    2007-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships provide an excellent opportunity to study coevolved adaptations. Decades of theoretical and empirical research have illuminated the various behavioral adaptations exhibited by prey animals to avoid detection and capture, and recent work has begun to characterize physiological adaptations, such as immune reactions, metabolic changes, and hormonal responses to predators or their cues. A 2-year study quantified the activity budgets and antipredator responses of adult ...

  8. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  9. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Mezrai, Nawel; O'Brien, Caitlin E; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e -vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  10. Respuesta de Anopheles albimanus a compuestos volátiles de casas del sur de Chiapas, México Behavioral response of Anopheles albimanus to volatile compounds collected inside houses from the south of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvany Mayoly Ríos-Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto de los compuestos volátiles en las casas sobre la respuesta conductual del vector del paludismo Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en enero de 2006 en el ejido Nueva Independencia, municipio de Suchiate, Chiapas. Se colectaron compuestos volátiles dentro de casas y los extractos se probaron sobre hembras sin alimentar en un olfatómetro en "Y". Los extractos se analizaron mediante cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 28 extractos, 12 presentaron respuesta de atracción y dos de repelencia. Los análisis por CG-EM indicaron variación en la presencia de compuestos volátiles y no se vincularon con compuestos específicos indicativos de algún efecto. CONCLUSIONES: Los volátiles en casas presentaron efecto de atracción y repelencia para An. albimanus. No se reconoció un patrón definido en cuanto a la presencia de compuestos químicos característicos y la respuesta obtenida.OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of volatile compounds in homes on the behavioral response of Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2006, in the village of Nueva Independencia village, Suchiate, Chiapas. Volatile compounds were collected inside homes and the extracts were tested on unfed females in a Y-olfactometer. Extracts were analyzed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system (GC-MS. RESULTS: Twenty eight extracts were obtained, twelve presented attraction and two repellency responses. GC-MS analyses of the extracts indicated variation in the volatile compound present in the extracts, but could not associated specific compounds with any particular effect. CONCLUSIONS: Within homes, volatiles presented attraction and repellency responses to An. albimanus. A definate pattern concerning the presence of a characteristic chemical compound and the observed response was not found.

  11. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  12. Ecological Factors in Social Skill Acquisition: High School Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in the United States and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) in "sister" cities located in the United States (Site One) and in Norway (Site Two). Theory…

  13. Analysis of the fields of vocation and qualification for experts in ecological questions within public/governmental administration. Final report. Vol. 1. Summary of the most important results. Berufsfeld- und Qualifikationsanalyse fuer Umweltfachleute. Abschlussbericht. Bd. 1. Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Ereignisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brater, M; Hemmer, C; Maurus, A; Munz, C; Schluchter,

    1991-06-01

    Based on 124 interviews with experts in national, state and communal departments of ecological relevance the tasks and fields of responsibility for ecological experts are examined as far as the field of public administration is concerned. Subsequently; these fields of responsibility are studied as to their specific tasks: air pollution abatement; protection of water, soil and nature; protection against noise and radiation; chemicals; waste management land use and regional planning. Furthermore, these fields of action are subject of research as to their qualificational demands. They are compared to the existing profiles within the educational system. Special consideration is given to the profile of disciplines/subjects like biology, chemistry, geology, geography, mechanical engineering process technology environmental engineering law and administration. Connections are established to the new profiles within ecology and ecological counseling. Center of the question: Vocational work and vocational education - what's their form/organization in order to create forms of ecological progression instead of destruction. (orig.).

  14. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, 1 July 1978--30 June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

    1979-07-01

    Efforts in engineering design and development this year emphasized improvement in the quality and versatility of radio transmitters, use of microprocessors in an automated fish tracking system, and construction of an automated system to monitor movements and activities of aquatic mammals in response to water temperature. Improved radio transmitters were used on a variety of species including sea otters, manatees, and wall-eyed pike. The fish tracking system, installed at Monticello, Minnesota, will next be modified for monitoring marine mammal movements. The temperature data logging system was tested on manatees in the St. John River near Blue Springs, Florida. The long-term goal in the subproject on evaluation of census methods is to utilize the extensive experience, technology, and equipment developed over the years in radio telemetry to resolve basic problems in animal census and population study methods. During the past year, efforts have resulted in information on activity patterns and the behavioral repertoire of sea otters and on the response of otters to contamination by Alaskan crude oil. Three preliminary manuscripts presented as part of this report describe these aspects in detail.

  15. Behavioral implications of mechanistic ecology II: the African rainbow lizard, Agama agama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.; James, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The daily and seasonal activity of the African rainbow lizard, Agama agama is predicted in terms of heat transfer models for the microenvironment and the lizard. The models, originally developed for the temperate Mohave Desert and for the desert iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis, have been refined and are applicable to a tropical area and a tropical species. Field microclimate measurements and observations of lizard activity and food consumption by different sizes of lizards are consistent with these models. Environmental constraints on activity times, sun vs shade locations, height above the ground and postures are described. The sensitivity of the metabolic predictions to different maximum temperature preferences and behavioral options are discussed. The balance between maintenance energy savings via lower thermoregulatory temperatures and time available in different parts of the microenvironment are examined. A simple predator-prey interaction illustrates the substantial effect of climate in modifying amount of time both prey and predator would be expected to be active simultaneously in the tropics vs a temperate desert. Comparisons are made between A. agama and the desert iguana, D. dorsalis for daily and seasonal maintenance requirements and their implications for seasonal changes in growth and reproductive potential.

  16. Phylogenetic ecology of leaf surface traits in the milkweeds (Asclepias spp.): chemistry, ecophysiology, and insect behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark; Jetter, Reinhard; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Goldstein, Jessica B; Freitag, Amy E; Sparks, Jed P

    2009-08-01

    The leaf surface is the contact point between plants and the environment and plays a crucial role in mediating biotic and abiotic interactions. Here, we took a phylogenetic approach to investigate the function, trade-offs, and evolution of leaf surface traits in the milkweeds (Asclepias). Across 47 species, we found trichome densities of up to 3000 trichomes cm(-2) and epicuticular wax crystals (glaucousness) on 10 species. Glaucous species had a characteristic wax composition dominated by very-long-chain aldehydes. The ancestor of the milkweeds was probably a glaucous species, from which there have been several independent origins of glabrous and pubescent types. Trichomes and wax crystals showed negatively correlated evolution, with both surface types showing an affinity for arid habitats. Pubescent and glaucous milkweeds had a higher maximum photosynthetic rate and lower stomatal density than glabrous species. Pubescent and glaucous leaf surfaces impeded settling behavior of monarch caterpillars and aphids compared with glabrous species, although surface types did not show consistent differentiation in secondary chemistry. We hypothesize that pubescence and glaucousness have evolved as alternative mechanisms with similar functions. The glaucous type, however, appears to be ancestral, lost repeatedly, and never regained; we propose that trichomes are a more evolutionarily titratable strategy.

  17. Ecology, behavior, and conservation of the Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountainspring, S.; Casey, T.L.C.; Kepler, C.B.; Scott, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the population density, habitat structure, foraging behavior, and activity budgets of the Poo-uli (Melamprosops phaeosoma) were conducted intermittently between 1973 and 1985 in a 50-ha study area in the upper Hanawi watershed, island of Maui, Hawaii. Poo-uli have apparently declined in density on this site by 80% from 1975 to 1981 and by 90% from 1975 to 1985. During this period, pig activity, as indexed by ground cover disturbance, increased 473%. Compared to values in the range of the Poo-uli, pig activity was 9-24 times greater in two adjacent out-of-range areas. Poo-uli most frequently foraged from 4-7 m height on ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), olapa (Cheirodendron trigynum), ohelo (Vaccinium calycinum), and kanawao (Broussaisia arguta) in decreasing frequency; feeding on kanawao was significantly more frequent than random expectation. Chief food items were land snails and insects. Most prey were captured on branches from under moss, lichen, and bark by gleaning, probing, and pecking. Birds spent 48% of their daylight hours foraging and 30% quietly perching. Poo-uli frequently formed small mixed-species flocks, usually with Maui Creepers (Puroreomyza montana), that probably facilitated predator avoidance and foraging efficiency. The major limiting factors at present appear to be habitat modification from feral pigs (Sus scrofa), predation, avian disease, interspecific competition from the introduced garlic snail (Oxychilus alliarius), and possibly gene pool impoverishment. Control of pigs is recommended.

  18. Feasibility of ecological momentary assessment to study mood and risk behavior among young people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E; Boodram, Basmattee

    2018-04-16

    To test the acceptability and feasibility of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of mood and injection risk behavior among young people who inject drugs (PWID), using mobile phones. Participants were 185 PWID age 18-35 recruited from two sites of a large syringe service program in Chicago. After completing a baseline interview, participants used a mobile phone app to respond to momentary surveys on mood, substance use, and injection risk behavior for 15 days. Participants were assigned to receive surveys 4, 5, or 6 times per day. Participants were 68% male, 61% non-Hispanic white, 24% Hispanic, and 5% non-Hispanic Black. Out of 185 participants, 8% (n = 15) failed to complete any EMA assessments. Among 170 EMA responders, the mean number of days reporting was 10 (SD 4.7), the mean proportion of assessments completed was 0.43 (SD 0.27), and 76% (n = 130) completed the follow-up interview. In analyses adjusted for age and race/ethnicity, women were more responsive than men to the EMA surveys in days reporting (IRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.56), and total number of surveys completed (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.93). Homeless participants responded on fewer days (IRR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) and completed fewer surveys (IRR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91), and were less likely to return for follow-up (p = 0.016). EMA responsiveness was not significantly affected by the number of assigned daily assessments. This study demonstrated high acceptability and feasibility of EMA among young PWID, with up to 6 survey prompts per day. However, homelessness significantly hampered successful participation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral, ecological and genetic differentiation in an open environment--a study of a mysid population in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ogonowski

    Full Text Available Diel vertical migration (DVM is often assumed to encompass an entire population. However, bimodal nighttime vertical distributions have been observed in various taxa. Mysid shrimp populations also display this pattern with one group concentrated in the pelagia and the other near the bottom. This may indicate alternative migratory strategies, resembling the seasonal partial migrations seen in birds, fishes and amphibians, where only a subset of the population migrates. To assess the persistence of these alternative strategies, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (as proxies for diet, biochemical indices (as proxies for growth condition, and genetic population divergence in the Baltic mysid Mysis salemaai collected at night in the pelagia and close to the bottom. Stable isotope signatures were significantly different between migrants (pelagic samples and residents (benthic samples, indicating persistent diet differences, with pelagic mysids having a more uniform and carnivorous diet. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups. Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones. Different migration strategies did not convey measurable growth benefits as pelagic and benthic mysids had similar growth condition indices. Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

  20. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  1. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-07-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  2. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  3. [Book review] The Eastern Screech Owl: Life History, Ecology and Behavior in the Suburbs and Countryside, by Frederick Gehlback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Eastern Screech Owl: Life History, Ecology, and Behavior in the Suburbs and Countryside. Frederick R. Gehlbach. Issue 16; Issue 2008 of W. L. Moody Jr. Natural History Series. Texas A&M University Press; 1st edition (November 1994). ISBN: 0890966095. For ornithologists and ecologists alike, Fred Gehlbach's book promises to hold both interest and information value as a comprehensive study of the eastern screech owl (Otus asio hasbroucki). Gehlbach was intrigued with screech owls as a boy and encouraged as an undergraduate by William Hamilton, who underscored that in-depth studies of familiar backyard species can be as fascinating as those in exotic sites. Correspondence with another owl-aficionado, the late H. N. Southern, inspired the author's long-term study of screech owls in a woodland landscape in central Texas and led him to provide nest boxes to enhance his access and sample size. This book is based on observations over a 25-year period-beginning in 1967, with intensive study during an 11-year period (1976-1987) in Texas south of Waco, where Gehlbach teaches at Baylor University. The study represents observations on 659 screech owls, covering several generations of birds and entire lives of many individuals. Gehlbach compares screech owl nesting behavior in a rural versus suburban setting and includes chapters on food supplies and predation tactics; egg-laying, incubation, and parental behavior; vocalizations; and population structure and flux. He discusses why screech owls are widespread across the eastern half of North America and why they succeed among people in suburban environments, where they adapt as easily to mailboxes and porch columns as to natural tree cavities. The book mixes two approaches: on the one hand the dense style of a technical book in which the professional biologist can find information on many aspects of screech owl behavior, life history, and population, including tables, figures, summary statistics, results of statistical

  4. Impact of mass media on public behavior and physicians: an ecological study of the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Lena; Dreiher, Jacob; Barski, Leonid; Jotkowitz, Alan; Zeller, Lior; Novack, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The mass media plays an important role in public health behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of mass media coverage of the H1N1 pandemic on the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission rates. An ecological study of ED visits to 8 general Israeli hospitals due to influenza-like illness during the period June-October 2009 was performed. Data on the number of visits per day for children and adults and daily hospitalization rates were analyzed. Associations with the estimated value of H1N1-related publications and weekly reports from nationwide sentinel clinics were assessed. The analysis was performed in 2012-2013. There were 55,070 ED visits due to influenza-like illness during the study period. The overall number of media reports was 1,812 (14.3% radio broadcasts, 9.8% television broadcasts, 27.5% newspaper articles, and 48.5% major website reports). The overall estimated value of advertising of publications was $16,399,000, excluding the Internet. While H1N1 incidence recorded by Israeli sentinel clinics showed no association with mass media publications, peaks of media reports were followed by an increase in the number of ED visits, usually with a delay of 3 days (P = .005). This association was noted in children (P .1), with a corresponding decrease in hospital admission rates. Publications' framing had no association with ED visits. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Israel, an increase in mass media coverage was associated with an increase in pediatric ED visits.

  5. Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Mesopelagic: Odontocete Foraging Ecology and Anti-predator Behavior of Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Bird, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    We explored the behavior of Risso's dolphins foraging in scattering layers off California using an integrated approach comprising echosounders deployed in a deep-diving autonomous underwater vehicle, ship based acoustics, visual observations, direct prey sampling, and animal-borne tags on deep-diving predators. We identified three distinct prey layers: a persistent layer around 425 m, a vertically migrating layer around 300 m, and a layer intermittently present near 50 m, all of which were used by individual tagged animals. Active acoustic measurements demonstrated that Risso's dolphins dove to discrete prey layers throughout the day and night with only slightly higher detection rates at night. Dolphins were detected in all three layers during the day with over half of detections in the middle layer, 20% of detections in the deepest layer, and 10% falling outside the main layers. Dolphins were found less frequently in areas where the shallow, intermittent layer was absent, suggesting that this layer, while containing the smallest prey and the lowest densities of squid, was an important component of their foraging strategy. The deepest layer was targeted equally both during the day and at night. Using acoustic data collected from the AUV, we found layers were made up of distinct, small patches of animals of similar size and taxonomy adjacent to contrasting patches. Squid made up over 70% of the patches in which dolphins were found and more than 95% of those in deep water. Squid targeted by dolphins in deep water were also relatively large, indicating significant benefit from these relatively rare, physically demanding dives. Within these patches, prey formed tighter aggregations when Risso's dolphins were present. Careful integration of a suite of traditional and novel tools is providing insight into the ecology and dynamics of predator and prey in the mesopelagic.

  6. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) > ... Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in a shallow lagoon of ...

  7. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  8. Vol 41 No 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    3 Centre for Primary Care Research. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 2: 59 - 64 (2014) ... pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health ..... To put the measured PM levels into perspective, a. 2.5. 5.

  9. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  10. Journal of NIRE, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1996. Special issue: Behavior in the environment and countermeasure technology of hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Contents: Technique for Management of Hazardous Chemical Substances --Risk Assessment; Behaviors of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment; Numerical Model of Chemical Fate in an Environment; Source Characterization and Chemical Processes of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere; Development of Sensor for Hazardous Substances; Removal of Chemical Substances from the Atmosphere by Photocatalysis; Microbial Degradation of Organic Xenobiotics in Environment.

  11. Ecological sustainability and personal behavior: relations demonstrated by the decision-making process of selecting a certain transportation mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priewasser, Reinhold [Linz Univ., Inst. for Environmental Management in Enterprises and Regions, Linz (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    Facing the aim of ecological sustainability only little emphasis has been placed on the fact that the extent of environmental stresses is not only a consequence of certain factual or structural conditions but also essentially determined by varying human behaviour patterns. Technologies and structures are not ecologically effective by themselves, their environmental relevance strongly depends on the persons' way of acting within the prevailing system. Recognising the importance of that perspective psychological and social theories about the generation of personal behaviour as well as the theoretical models of learning can offer useful indications concerning the interpersonal and extrapersonal preconditions of environmentally oriented acting. With reference to the decision-making process of selecting a certain transportation mean, the influences of rational and emotional factors and obstacles to an ecologically sustainable personal act should be exemplary demonstrated. At the same time very effective points of departure for behavioural change can be identified. (Author)

  12. Feral goats in the Hawaiian Islands: understanding the behavioral ecology of nonnative ungulates with GPS and remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Susan Cordell

    2010-01-01

    Nonnative feral ungulates have both direct and indirect impacts on native ecosystems. Hawai`i is particularly susceptible to biological invasions, as the islands have evolved in extreme geographic isolation. In this paper we explore the ecological impacts of nonnative feral goats (Capra hircus) in the Hawaiian Islands, including both the current...

  13. Contextualization and approaches in the study of pro-environmental or ecological behavior with a view to profiling the green consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Castañeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to changes in the global environment brought about largely by man, a greater awareness and changing attitudes and habits has been developing, in certain parts of the population that seeks to protect the environment, including the use of goods and services that reduce certain negative conditions for life, and developing practices and consumption that can be called sustainable. This article proposes to review the approaches that have been developed in the study of these variables, which influence pro-environmental and ecological behavior.

  14. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62

  16. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; Joe H. Scott; Anne Andreu; Susan Prichard; Laurie Kurth

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or...

  17. subratty vol 5

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    genistein significantly blocked both light adaptive processes. It is concluded ..... Mechanisms in the Ecology of Vision ( S.N. Archer, M.B.A. Djamgoz, E.R. Loew, ... between tyrosine kinase pathway and myosin light chain kinase pathway in.

  18. Radiation Studies, Vol.10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, K.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Chankseliani, Z.; Gelashvili, K.; Mtskhoetadze, A.; Oniani, T.; Todua, F.; Vepkhoadze, N.; Zaalishvili, T.

    2002-01-01

    'Radiation studies' - is a periodical edition of Scientific Research Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Ecology of Georgian Academy of Sciences, Problem Council of Radiobiology of Georgian Academy of Sciences and Georgian Academy of Ecological Sciences. The 10th volume of 'Radiation studies' reflects activities of above-mentioned institutions during previous two years and contains 26 articles, from which 17 are within the scope of INIS

  19. Polycrystal model of the mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC30vol.% metal–ceramic composite using a three-dimensional microstructure map obtained by dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cédat, D.; Fandeur, O.; Rey, C.; Raabe, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC 30vol.% ceramic–metal composite was investigated over a wide temperature range (25–700 °C). High-energy X-ray tomography was used to reveal percolation of the hard titanium carbide phase through the composite. Using a polycrystal approach for a two-phase material, finite-element simulations were performed on a real three-dimensional (3-D) aggregate of the material. The 3-D microstructure, used as the starting configuration for the predictions, was obtained by serial sectioning in a dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron backscattered diffraction system. The 3-D aggregate consists of a molybdenum matrix and a percolating TiC skeleton. As for most body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, the molybdenum matrix phase is characterized by a change in plasticity mechanism with temperature. We used a polycrystal model for bcc materials which was extended to two phases (TiC and Mo). The model parameters of the matrix were determined from experiments on pure molydenum. For all temperatures investigated the TiC particles were considered to be brittle. Gradual damage to the TiC particles was treated, based on an accumulative failure law that is approximated by evolution of the apparent particle elastic stiffness. The model enabled us to determine the evolution of the local mechanical fields with deformation and temperature. We showed that a 3-D aggregate representing the actual microstructure of the composite is required to understand the local and global mechanical properties of the composite studied.

  20. Tecnogénesis. La construcción técnica de las ecologías humanas (2 Volúmenes (Tomás Sánchez-Criado, Ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Santoro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available De ser necesaria una aproximación radicalmente reduccionista a un trabajo tan poliédrico, creo que podría resumirse parte del mensaje de Tecnogénesis. La construcción técnica de las ecologías humanas, la ambiciosa obra colectiva editada por Tomás Sánchez Criado, en dos de sus comienzos. El primero es el que abre el breve y hermoso preámbulo escrito por Florentino Blanco: una reflexión, al hilo de la asistencia del autor a un concierto de música vocal contemporánea, sobre la profunda modificación de la gramática musical clásica en la experimentación actual y sobre la confusión cognitiva y emocional a la que esta destrucción de los códigos acostumbrados arroja al espectador.

  1. A Social-Ecological Approach to Addressing Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Schools: Focusing on Group Processes and Social Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Jessica; Lee, Matthew; Hymel, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student's emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been…

  2. Ethnic variation in environmental belief and behavior: An examination of the new ecological paradigm in a social psychological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2004-01-01

    We use national-level data to test a modified version of Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano's causal model of environmental belief and behavior. We focus on ethnic variation for four environmental behaviors: environmental reading, household recycling, environmental group joining, and participation in nature-based outdoor recreation. Blacks and foreign-born Latinos were...

  3. Social Ecology of Asthma: Engaging Stakeholders in Integrating Health Behavior Theories and Practice-Based Evidence through Systems Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering…

  4. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  5. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  6. Ontogenic retinal changes in three ecologically distinct elopomorph fishes (Elopomorpha:Teleostei) correlate with light environment and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Scott M; Loew, Ellis R; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the mammalian retina, the teleost fish retina undergoes persistent neurogenesis from intrinsic stem cells. In marine teleosts, most cone photoreceptor genesis occurs early in the embryonic and larval stages, and rods are added primarily during and after metamorphosis. This study demonstrates a developmental paradigm in elopomorph fishes in which retinas are rod-dominated in larvae, but undergo periods of later cone genesis. Retinal characteristics were compared at different developmental stages among three ecologically distinct elopomorph fishes-ladyfish (Elops saurus), bonefish (Albula vulpes), and speckled worm eel (Myrophis punctatus). The objectives were to improve our understanding of (1) the developmental strategy in the elopomorph retina, (2) the functional architecture of the retina as it relates to ecology, and (3) how the light environment influences photoreceptor genesis. Photoreceptor morphologies, distributions, and spectral absorption were studied at larval, juvenile, and adult stages. Premetamorphic retinas in all three species are rod-dominated, but the retinas of these species undergo dramatic change over the course of development, resulting in juvenile and adult retinal characteristics that correlate closely with ecology. Adult E. saurus has high rod densities, grouped photoreceptors, a reflective tapetum, and longer-wavelength photopigments, supporting vision in turbid, low-light conditions. Adult A. vulpes has high cone densities, low rod densities, and shorter-wavelength photopigments, supporting diurnal vision in shallow, clear water. M. punctatus loses cones during metamorphosis, develops new cones after settlement, and maintains high rod but low cone densities, supporting primarily nocturnal vision. M. punctatus secondary cone genesis occurs rapidly throughout the retina, suggesting a novel mechanism of vertebrate photoreceptor genesis. Finally, in postsettlement M. punctatus, the continuous presence or absence of visible light

  7. California Least Tern Foraging Ecology in Southern California: A Review of Foraging Behavior Relative to Proposed Dredging Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    additional data are necessary to understand the relationship among turbidity plumes, behavior of CLT prey fish , and CLT foraging behavior. KBC...activities. Fish actively seek out or avoid turbid waters for a number of reasons, including predator avoidance and food resources, and this...Birds 14:57-72. Atwood, J. L., and P. R. Kelly. 1984. Fish dropped on breeding colonies as indicators of Least Tern food habits. Wilson Bulletin 96: 34

  8. Nr 257 - Opinion presented on the behalf of the Commission of sustainable development and land planning on the finance bill for 2013 (nr 235), Volumes 1-10, ecology, sustainable development and planning, regional policies, research and higher education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabal, Jacques; Sermier, Jean-Marie; Gaillard, Genevieve; Baupin, Denis; Pauvros, Remi; Benisti, Jacques Alain; Fromantin, Jean-Christophe; Calmette, Alain; Plisson, Philippe; Ginesy, Charles-Ange

    2012-01-01

    This huge document comprises ten volumes which present and discuss public programs (objectives, strategies, plans, and actions), public finances, economic activity data and evolutions, debates by commissions, and amendments on different issues. A first set of issues deals with ecology, sustainable development and planning: protection of the environment and risk prevention (volume 1), and then with sustainable development policies (vol. 2), landscapes, water, biodiversity, and geographic and cartographic information (vol. 3), ecological transition (vol. 4), road, railway and water transports (vol. 5), air transports (vol. 6), maritime affairs (vol. 7). The next volume addresses regional policies (vol. 8). The last parts concern research and higher education: research in the field of sustainable development (vol. 9) and in the fields of environments and resources (vol. 10)

  9. The influence of common method bias on the relationship of the socio-ecological model in predicting physical activity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Savanna; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent, if any, that the association between socio-ecological parameters and physical activity may be influenced by common method bias (CMB). Methods: This study took place between February and May of 2017 at a Southeastern University in the United States. A randomized controlled experiment was employed among 119 young adults.Participants were randomized into either group 1 (the group we attempted to minimize CMB)or group 2 (control group). In group 1, CMB was minimized via various procedural remedies,such as separating the measurement of predictor and criterion variables by introducing a time lag (temporal; 2 visits several days apart), creating a cover story (psychological), and approximating measures to have data collected in different media (computer-based vs. paper and pencil) and different locations to control method variance when collecting self-report measures from the same source. Socio-ecological parameters (self-efficacy; friend support; family support)and physical activity were self-reported. Results: Exercise self-efficacy was significantly associated with physical activity. This association (β = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.33-1.1; P = 0.001) was only observed in group 2 (control), but not in group 1 (experimental group) (β = 0.03; 95% CI: -0.57-0.63; P = 0.91). The difference in these coefficients (i.e., β = 0.74 vs. β = 0.03) was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Future research in this field, when feasible, may wish to consider employing procedural and statistical remedies to minimize CMB. PMID:29423361

  10. Vol 12, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) - Vol 12, No 1 (2014) ... The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene ... with diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Zede Journal - Vol 29 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Archives > Vol 29 (2012) ... Leakage aware hardware and stochastic power scheduling for smart mobile devices ... Energy efficient topology for Wireless Mesh Networks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Michał; Butovskaya, Marina; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Influence of Physico-Chemical and Ecological Factors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell-User

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. Vol. 18, 2013 ... 1Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. ... considered to affect the ecology of ... mapped with a handheld global positioning.

  15. Taking peer victimization research to the next level: complex interactions among genes, teacher attitudes/behaviors, peer ecologies, & classroom characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-01-01

    This commentary reviews research findings of the five papers in the special entitled "School-related Factors in the Development of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization", which represent critical areas that are often overlooked in the literature. First, one paper points to the complex interaction between a genetic disposition for aggression and classroom norms toward aggression. Second, an intervention paper unpacks the underlying mechanisms of an efficacious school-wide bully prevention program by opening the "black box" and testing for mediators. Third, the remaining studies employ a wide range of rigorous designs to identify how teachers' attitudes, behaviors, and classroom practices play a critical role in the prevalence of victimization and bullying in the classroom. Further, teachers' attitudes and behaviors are shown to be predictive of youth's willingness to intervene to assist a peer who is being victimized. Results are situated in what is known about bullying prevention, and how the findings from these studies could maximize the sensitivity of future prevention efforts.

  16. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Leonardo B.; Freire,Eliza M. X.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825), as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items) in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation...

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  18. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-07-01

    Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m(-2) in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6%; odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23-1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (-14.4% vs -26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (-14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs -4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least wealthy adolescents. Healthy PA-related behavior

  19. Ecological behavior and effects of radionuclides in southeastern ecosystems. Progress report: a three year review, June 1975--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Shure, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Four interrelated studies were conducted within the LTRC watershed: the LTRC-Donora Station study, which has examined transfer processes within a floodplain and a stream, and exchanges between floodplain and stream; a comparative LTRC study which focused on edaphic differences and soil-plant relations in order to examine upstream cycling vs downstream immobilization of 137 Cs; similar studies of Carolina Bays and of Turkey Oak-Sand Hill communities, which were within the LTRC watershed uplands. These studies and their integration are not yet complete. However, we have documented and quantified processes of material exchange in all four systems. Our initial hypotheses regarding LTRC are essentially intact. This stream, as representative of low gradient streams of the coastal plain, does laterally displace 137 Cs into floodplains. The upstream-downstream gradient of decreased 137 Cs cycling is apparently real and related to microtopography of floodplains, increased C.E.C. and clays downstream, and increased potassium concentrations downstream. The documentation of 15 nCi/m 2 , approximately 12 percent of the total system 137 Cs burden, in the biotic phase of the sandy low potassium content turkey oak, and measurement of a 3 percent root uptake of soil 134 Cs within forests suggest that unusually high bioaccumulation of 137 Cs can occur in terrestrial systems as well. The role of fungi in concentrating 137 Cs and in maintaining it in decomposing leaf litter suggests two mechanisms, food chains and elemental recycling, by which 137 Cs could remain mobile in these ecological systems. Although these conclusions must remain tentative, it seems certain that these coastal plain ecosystems are different from those of other land provinces in the extent of system bioaccumulation of 137 Cs and that these differences relate strongly to soils, nutrient concentrations, and processes of material transport within and through water sheds

  20. Behavioral response races, predator-prey shell games, ecology of fear, and patch use of pumas and their ungulate prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundré, John W

    2010-10-01

    The predator-prey shell game predicts random movement of prey across the landscape, whereas the behavioral response race and landscape of fear models predict that there should be a negative relationship between the spatial distribution of a predator and its behaviorally active prey. Additionally, prey have imperfect information on the whereabouts of their predator, which the predator should incorporate in its patch use strategy. I used a one-predator-one-prey system, puma (Puma concolor)-mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to test the following predictions regarding predator-prey distribution and patch use by the predator. (1) Pumas will spend more time in high prey risk/low prey use habitat types, while deer will spend their time in low-risk habitats. Pumas should (2) select large forage patches more often, (3) remain in large patches longer, and (4) revisit individual large patches more often than individual smaller ones. I tested these predictions with an extensive telemetry data set collected over 16 years in a study area of patchy forested habitat. When active, pumas spent significantly less time in open areas of low intrinsic predation risk than did deer. Pumas used large patches more than expected, revisited individual large patches significantly more often than smaller ones, and stayed significantly longer in larger patches than in smaller ones. The results supported the prediction of a negative relationship in the spatial distribution of a predator and its prey and indicated that the predator is incorporating the prey's imperfect information about its presence. These results indicate a behavioral complexity on the landscape scale that can have far-reaching impacts on predator-prey interactions.

  1. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  2. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  3. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Bruening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. Methods The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month. University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Discussion Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  4. Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brewis, Alexandra; Laska, Melissa; Todd, Michael; Hruschka, Daniel; Schaefer, David R; Whisner, Corrie M; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-08-30

    The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life. The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks. Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

  5. Replicating empirical research in behavioral ecology: how and why it should be done but rarely ever is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D

    2006-09-01

    That empirical evidence is replicable is the foundation of science. Ronald Fisher a founding father of biostatistics, recommended that a null hypothesis be rejected more than once because "no isolated experiment, however significant in itself can suffice for the experimental demonstration of any natural phenomenon" (Fisher 1974:14). Despite this demand, animal behaviorists and behavioral ecologists seldom replicate studies. This practice is not part of our scientific culture, as it is in chemistry or physics, due to a number of factors, including a general disdain by journal editors and thesis committees for unoriginal work. I outline why and how we should replicate empirical studies, which studies should be given priority, and then elaborate on why we do not engage in this necessary endeavor. I also explain how to employ various statistics to test the replicability of a series of studies and illustrate these using published studies from the literature.

  6. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    STECH VOL 5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016. Vol. 5 (1), S/No11, February, 2016: 1-13 ..... Knowledge produce is an act of discovery which involves exploring, analyzing .... Architectural Research, Elsevier: Higher Education Press Limited Company.

  7. Male circumcision and sexual risk behaviors may contribute to considerable ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence in Kenya: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.8 and 20.2% in Kenya's various ethnic groups. The reasons underlying these variations have not been evaluated before.We used data from seven national surveys spanning the period 1989 to 2008 to compare the prevalence of a range of risk factors in Kenya's ethnic groups. Spearman's and linear regression were used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable by ethnic group.The ethnic groups exhibited significant differences in a number of HIV related risk factors. Although the highest HIV prevalence group (the Luo had the highest rates of HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: 56.8%, 95% CI 51.0-62.5% and condom usage at last sex (Men 2008∶28.6%, 95% CI 19.6-37.6%, they had the lowest prevalence of circumcision (20.9%, 95% CI 15.9-26.0 the highest prevalence of sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (Men: 40.2%, 95% CI 33.2-47.1% and pre-marital sex (Men 2008∶73.9%, 95% CI 67.5-80.3% and the youngest mean age of debut for women (1989 SURVEY: 15.7 years old, 95% CI 15.2-16.2. At a provincial level there was an association between the prevalence of HIV and male concurrency (Spearman's rho = 0.79, P = 0.04. Ethnic groups with higher HIV prevalence were more likely to report condom use (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.62, P = 0.01 and having been for HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.47, P = 0.04.In addition to differences in male circumcision prevalence, variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence in Kenya's ethnic groups. To complement the prevention benefits of the medical male circumcision roll-out in several parts of Kenya, interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should continue to be promoted.

  8. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  9. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  10. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  11. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological momentary assessment of food perceptions and eating behavior using a novel phone application in adults with or without obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabduljader, Kholoud; Cliffe, Marion; Sartor, Francesco; Papini, Gabriele; Cox, W Miles; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-05-12

    We developed a smart phone application to measure participants' food-reward perceptions and eating behavior in their naturalistic environment. Intensity ratings (0 - not at all to 10 - very strongly) of perceived anticipation of food (wanting) and food enjoyment at endpoint of intake (liking) were recorded as they occurred over a period of 14 days. Moreover, food craving trait, implicit and explicit attitude towards healthy food, and body composition were assessed. 53 participants provided complete data. Participants were classified by percentage of body fat; 33 participants with lower body fat (L-group) and 20 with higher body fat (H-group; ≥25% body fat for males and ≥32% for females). L-group participants reported 6.34 (2.00) food wanting events per day, whereas H-group participants recorded significantly fewer food wanting events (5.07 (1.42)); both groups resisted about the same percentage of wanting events (L-group: 29.2 (15.5)%; H-group 27.3 (12.8)%). Perceived intensity ratings were significantly different within the L-group in the order liking (7.65 (0.81)) > un-resisted wanting (leading to eating) (7.00 (1.01)) > resisted wanting (not leading to eating) (6.02 (1.72)) but not in the H-group. Liking scores (L-group: 7.65 (0.81); H-group: 7.14 (1.04)) were significantly higher in L-group than in H-group after controlling for age. Our results show that individuals with higher percentage of body fat show less food enjoyment after intake and reveal no differentiation in intensity ratings of perceived anticipatory and consummatory food reward. These results are consistent with a hypothesized reward deficiency among individuals with higher percentage of body fat. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  14. Interaction between bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci species and strains and bovine mammary epithelial cells reflects differences in ecology and epidemiological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, F N; Piepers, S; Della Libera, A M M P; Heinemann, M B; Cerqueira, M M O P; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria adherence seems to be an essential first stage for the internalization of bacteria into the cytoplasm of the host cell, which is considered an important virulence strategy enabling bacteria to occupy a microenvironment separated from host defense mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to explore the difference in the capacity of 4 bovine-associated staphylococci species or strains to adhere to and internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Three different isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were used: one strain of Staphylococcus fleurettii isolated from sawdust and considered an environmental opportunistic bacterium, and 2 dissimilar Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates, one cultured from a heifer's teat apex (Staph. chromogenes TA) and the other originating from a chronic intramammary infection (Staph. chromogenes IM). Also, one well-characterized strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) was used for comparison with a major mastitis pathogen. The CNS species and strains adhered to and internalized into MEC slower than did Staph. aureus. Still, we observed high variation in adhesion and internalization capacity among the different CNS, with Staph. chromogenes IM showing a greater ability to adhere to and internalize into MEC than the 2 CNS strains isolated from extramammary habitats. In conclusion, the 3 well-characterized bovine-associated CNS species and strains originating from distinct habitats showed clear differences in their capacity to adhere to and internalize into MEC. The observed differences might be related to their diversity in ecology and epidemiological behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Information manager-2011-Vol 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Information Manager Vol. ... extent while carrying out their duties on a daily basis. ... It concluded by admonishing librarians to brace up and keep pace ... Proper training should be given to .... used to information and communication technologies .... proficiency Skills .... analysis of the workplace and implementation of.

  16. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  17. The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Allison Y; Field, Daniel J; Webster, Timothy H; Behlke, Adam D B; Davis, Matthew B; Racicot, Rachel A; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-20

    The highly derived morphology and astounding diversity of snakes has long inspired debate regarding the ecological and evolutionary origin of both the snake total-group (Pan-Serpentes) and crown snakes (Serpentes). Although speculation abounds on the ecology, behavior, and provenance of the earliest snakes, a rigorous, clade-wide analysis of snake origins has yet to be attempted, in part due to a dearth of adequate paleontological data on early stem snakes. Here, we present the first comprehensive analytical reconstruction of the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of the snake total-group, as inferred using multiple methods of ancestral state reconstruction. We use a combined-data approach that includes new information from the fossil record on extinct crown snakes, new data on the anatomy of the stem snakes Najash rionegrina, Dinilysia patagonica, and Coniophis precedens, and a deeper understanding of the distribution of phenotypic apomorphies among the major clades of fossil and Recent snakes. Additionally, we infer time-calibrated phylogenies using both new 'tip-dating' and traditional node-based approaches, providing new insights on temporal patterns in the early evolutionary history of snakes. Comprehensive ancestral state reconstructions reveal that both the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of total-group snakes were nocturnal, widely foraging, non-constricting stealth hunters. They likely consumed soft-bodied vertebrate and invertebrate prey that was subequal to head size, and occupied terrestrial settings in warm, well-watered, and well-vegetated environments. The snake total-group - approximated by the Coniophis node - is inferred to have originated on land during the middle Early Cretaceous (~128.5 Ma), with the crown-group following about 20 million years later, during the Albian stage. Our inferred divergence dates provide strong evidence for a major radiation of henophidian snake diversity in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K

  18. Integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and DNA barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-02-01

    Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica. Invertebrate availability was monitored using canopy traps and sweep netting. Fecal samples were collected from adult female, adult male, and juvenile white-faced capuchins (n = 225). COI mtDNA sequences were compared with known sequences in GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database. Frequencies of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera consumption were higher in juveniles than in adults. A significantly smaller proportion of juvenile fecal samples contained Gryllidae and Cercopidae sequences, compared with adults (0% and 4.2% vs. 4.6% and 12.5%), and a significantly larger proportion contained Tenthredinidae, Culicidae, and Crambidae (5.6%, 9.7%, and 5.6% vs. 1.3%, 0.7%, and 1.3%). Juveniles spent significantly more time feeding and foraging than adults, and focused their foraging efforts on prey that require different skills to capture or extract. Arthropod availability was not correlated with foraging efficiency, and the rate of consumption of specific orders of invertebrates was not correlated with the availability of those same taxa. Our data support the hypothesis that juveniles are concentrating their foraging efforts on different prey than adults, potentially focusing their foraging efforts on more easily acquired types of prey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  20. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  1. Ecological forestry in the Southeast: Understanding the ecology of fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Mitchell; J.K. Hiers; J. O’Brien; G. Starr

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a dominant disturbance within many forested ecosystems worldwide. Understanding the complex feedbacks among vegetation as a fuel for fire, the effects of fuels on fire behavior, and the impact of fire behavior on future vegetation are critical for sustaining biodiversity in fire-dependent forests. Nonetheless, understanding in fire ecology has been limited in...

  2. Development of an Ecological Momentary Assessment Mobile App for a Low-Literacy, Mexican American Population to Collect Disordered Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Kay; Stein, Karen F; Chaudry, Beenish; Trabold, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a popular method for understanding population health in which participants report their experiences while in naturally occurring contexts in order to increase the reliability and ecological validity of the collected data (as compared to retrospective recall). EMA studies, however, have relied primarily on text-based questionnaires, effectively eliminating low-literacy populations from the samples. Objective To provide a case study of design ...

  3. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  4. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  5. Rhodium. Suppl. Vol. B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.P.; Jehn, H.; McCleverty, J.A.; Raub, C.J.; Robinson, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present rhodium vol. B1 is concerned largely with linary compounds and coordination complexes of this important metal, which is used either alone or in alloy form for fabrication of other materials or for heterogeneous catalysis. In first two chapters are devoted for hydrides, oxides, ternary and quaternary oxorhodates. Third chapter is on different type of complexes with nitrogen. From chapter four to seven is on halogen complexes with this metal. Next chapters are on sulphides, sulphoxide and sulphito complexes, sulphates and sulphato complexes, selenides and tellurides, borides, borane complexes, carbides, carbonato, cyno, fulminato and thiocyanato complexes. Finally, silicide, phosphides, phosphito and arsenides are treated over here. (AB)

  6. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  7. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  8. Statistical Physics Approaches to Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    The unprecedented ability to quantitatively measure and probe complex microbial communities has renewed interest in identifying the fundamental ecological principles governing community ecology in microbial ecosystems. Here, we present work from our group and others showing how ideas from statistical physics can help us uncover these ecological principles. Two major lessons emerge from this work. First, large, ecosystems with many species often display new, emergent ecological behaviors that are absent in small ecosystems with just a few species. To paraphrase Nobel laureate Phil Anderson, ''More is Different'', especially in community ecology. Second, the lack of trophic layer separation in microbial ecology fundamentally distinguishes microbial ecology from classical paradigms of community ecology and leads to qualitative different rules for community assembly in microbes. I illustrate these ideas using both theoretical modeling and novel new experiments on large microbial ecosystems performed by our collaborators (Joshua Goldford and Alvaro Sanchez). Work supported by Simons Investigator in MMLS and NIH R35 R35 GM119461.

  9. Joyo progress report, vol. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Following Joyo Reactor Technology Progress Reports (Vol. 1 to Vol. 7), the name was changed to Joyo Progress Report from this volume, and the activities concerning the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo as a whole are to be reported as quarterly report. In the fast breeder experimental reactor Joyo, the change to the core for irradiation (MK-2) from the core for breeding (MK-1) was carried out since January, 1982, in order to utilize the reactor as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and materials. The main work was the construction of the core for irradiation by exchanging 290 fuel elements, and the exchange of upper and lower guide pipes for control rods, the reconstruction of the driving mechanism, the installation of standby neutron detector system, the acceptance and inspection of new fuel, and the transfer of spent fuel between pools were carried out. As scheduled, the core for irradiation attained the initial criticality on November 22, and the works of constructing the core were completed on December 23, 1982. Thereafter, the 100 MW performance test was begun. Various experience and valuable data were obtained in the regular inspection and the maintenance and repair works carried out at the same time, regarding the operation and maintenance of the Joyo facilities. (Kako, I.)

  10. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  11. Wasteland ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2018-01-01

    landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...

  12. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  13. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  14. Time-delay-induced dynamical behaviors for an ecological vegetation growth system driven by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Kang; Ye, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2018-05-14

    In this paper, the modified potential function, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF), the mean growth time and the mean degeneration time for a vegetation growth system with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation system is assumed to be disturbed by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises. The results reveal some fact that the multiplicative and additive noises can both reduce the stability and speed up the decline of the vegetation system, while the strength of the noise correlation and time delay can both enhance the stability of the vegetation and slow down the depression process of the ecological system. On the other hand, with regard to the impacts of noises and time delay on the mean development and degeneration processes of the ecological system, it is discovered that 1) in the development process of the vegetation population, the increase of the noise correlation strength and time delay will restrain the regime shift from the barren state to the boom one, while the increase of the additive noise can lead to the fast regime shift from the barren state to the boom one. 2) Conversely, in the depression process of the ecological system, the increase of the strength of the correlation noise and time delay will prevent the regime shift from the boom state to the barren one. Comparatively, the increase of the additive and multiplicative noises can accelerate the regime shift from the boom state to the barren state.

  15. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  16. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  17. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  18. samaru-main-vol 11 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    2004-07-11

    Jul 11, 2004 ... Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol. 11 (1 & 2)2011 ... It is therefore paramount that the library ... source of primary and up to date information, both students and ... entertainment, arts, fashion, law, economy, medicine,.

  19. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 8, 2010 ... environs, a mining area in Wassa West District of Ghana .... This finding is based on autopsy data and on reports showing that blood levels in.

  20. 12-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. .... To this end, a planning conference on environmental .... mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, agriculture, home economics and human and.

  1. NJB VOL.34 Original Lower.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important sources of renewable biological ... The plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana chemicals (Nowak et ... fermentable sugars available for bio-ethanol ..... peels. Afr. J. Biochem. Res. 9(9): 104 - 109. 70. Osho et al./ Nig. J. Biotech. Vol.

  2. Terrestrial Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on ecological effects of coal combustion included the following: episodic air pollution stress; interaction of gaseous pollutants and acid precipitation; and brimstone: preliminary results from SO 2 effects on forest growth. Studies on fate and transport of contaminants included deposition of aerosol-associated trace elements to a deciduous forest; hydrologic source areas; and environmental behavior of mercury. The environmental research park is described and forest resource management is discussed. Ecosystem analysis studies included hydrology of Walker branch; water budget of an oak-hickory forest; nutrient release from decaying wood; transpiration of the tulip poplar; and atmospheric CO 2 and its interaction with biospheric changes

  3. Civic Ecology: A Postmodern Approach to Ecological Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Human agency is transforming the planetary processes at unprecedented rates risking damaging essential life-support systems. Climate change, massive species extinction, land degradation, resources depletion, overpopulation, poverty and social injustice are all the result of human choices and non-sustainable ways of life. The survival of our modern economic systems depends upon insatiable consumption - a simple way of life no longer satisfies most people. Detached, instrumental rationality has created an ideal of liberalism based on individual pursuit of self-interest, leading the way into unprecedented material progress but bringing with it human alienation, social injustice, and ecological degradation. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce a community-based systems response to a growing sense that the interlocked social-ecological crisis is as much a problem of human thought and behavior as it is about identifying carrying capacities and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This approach, referred to here as civic ecology, presents a new and important paradigm shift in sustainability practice that attempts to bring together and integrate ecological ideas and postmodern thinking. As such, it is as much a holistic, dynamic, and synergistic approach to ecological sustainability, as it is a philosophy of life and ethical perspective born of ecological understanding and insight. Civic ecology starts with the proposition that the key factor determining the health of the ecosphere is the behavior of human beings, and therefore many of the most important issues related to sustainability lie in the areas of human thought and culture. Thus, the quest for sustainability must include as a central concern the transformation of psychological and behavioral patterns that have become an imminent danger to planetary health. At the core of this understanding is a fundamental paradigm shift from the basic commitments of modern Western culture to its model of mechanism

  4. The Amazing Ecology of Terrestrial Isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher; Postema, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with their environment, and the best place to see these interactions is outside in natural habitats. Pillbugs (roly-polies) provide an excellent opportunity for students to learn ecological concepts through inquiry. Because of their fascinating behaviors, pillbugs are ideal organisms to introduce…

  5. Rich dynamics of discrete delay ecological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2005-01-01

    We study multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior of a discrete delay ecological model. New form of chaos for the 2-D map is observed: the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling leads to cascading bubbles

  6. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  7. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  8. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  9. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  10. Clusters in Nuclei. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Christian (ed.) [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridiciplinaire Hubert Curien

    2012-07-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This second volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol.1), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics: - Microscopic cluster models - Neutron halo and break-up reactions - Break-up reaction models for two- and three-cluster projectiles - Clustering effects within the di-nuclear model - Nuclear alpha-particle condensates - Clusters in nuclei: experimental perspectives By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical style of presentation throughout, these lectures will serve as both a reference and an advanced teaching manual for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  11. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  12. Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E

    2000-04-01

    Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.

  13. Synthesis on the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel. Vol.1,2; Synthese sur l'evolution a long terme des colis de combustibles irradies. Tome 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Toulhoat, P.; Grouiller, J.P.; Pavageau, J.; Piron, J.P.; Pelletier, M.; Dehaudt, Ph.; Cappelaere, Ch.; Limon, R.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, Ch.; Corbel, C.; Maillard, S.; Faure, M.H.; Cicariello, J.C.; Masson, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DDIN/DPRGD, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this report is to present the major objectives, the key scientific issues, and the preliminary results of the research conducted in France in the framework of the third line of the 1991 Law, on the topic of the long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel in view of long term storage or geological disposal. Indeed, CEA launched in 1998 the Research Program on the Long Term Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel (abbreviated and referred to as PRECCI in French; Poinssot, 1998) the aim of which is to study and assess the ability of spent nuclear fuel packages to keep their initially allocated functions in interim storage and geological disposal: total containment and recovery functions for duration up to hundreds of years (long term or short-term interim storage and/or first reversible stages of geological disposal) and partial confinement function (controlled fluxes of RN) for thousands of years in geological disposal. This program has to allow to obtain relevant and reliable data concerning the long term behavior of the spent fuel packages so that feasibility of interim storage and/or geological disposal can be assessed and demonstrated as well as optimized. Within this framework, this report presents for every possible scenario of evolution (closed system, in Presence of water in presence of gases) what are estimated to be the most relevant evolution mechanism. For the most relevant scientific issues hence defined, a complete scientific review of the best state of knowledge is subsequently here given thus allowing to draw a clear guideline of the major R and D issues for the next years. (authors)

  14. Chemical Ecology of Stingless Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2017-04-01

    Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense. I list examples in which functions of specific compounds (or compound groups) have been demonstrated by behavioral experiments, and show that many aspects (e.g., queen-worker interactions, host-parasite interactions, neuronal processing etc.) remain little studied. This review further reveals that the vast majority of studies on the chemical ecology of stingless bees have been conducted in the New World, whereas studies on Old World stingless bees are still comparatively rare. Given the diversity of species, behaviors and, apparently, chemical compounds used, I suggest that stingless bees provide an ideal subject for studying how functional context and the need for species specificity may interact to shape pheromone diversification in social insects.

  15. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  16. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  17. JRHR Vol 8 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    effective teaching and learning of religious education in contemporary ... As human beings continue to live in groups, social problems become inevitable. ... development, hence Schofield (1972) regards moral as “behavior and adjective.

  18. Crisis Communication (Handbooks of Communication Science Vol. 23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni

    Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley......Vol. 23 - The Handbook of Communication Science General editors: Peter J. Schultz and Paul Cobley...

  19. Animal ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, F.B.; Strojan, C.L.; Ackerman, T.L.; Maza, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: dynamics of trace elements in desert environments; sterility of female Uta stansburiana exposed to gamma radiation; behavior and metabolism of jackrabbits, Lepus californicus, in the Mojave desert; determination of 18 O in water contained in biological samples by charged particle activation; temperature maintenance and CO 2 concentration in a swarm of honey bees; energy and nitrogen budgets and water balance in lizards; distribution and abundance of soil arthropods; and water balance of the cockroach, arenivaga investigata

  20. Dynamics of structures '89. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings, comprising 3 volumes published by the Plzen Centre of the Czechoslovak Society for Science and Technology (Vol. 1 and 2) and by Skoda Works in Plzen (Vol. 3), contain 107 papers, out of which 8 fall within the INIS Subject Scope; these deal with problems related to the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plants. Attention is paid to the evaluation of seismic characteristics of nuclear power plant equipment, to the equipment testing and to calculations of its dynamic characteristics under simulated seismic stress. (Z.M.)

  1. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Meal and snack-time eating disorder cognitions predict eating disorder behaviors and vice versa in a treatment seeking sample: A mobile technology based ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Sala, Margarita; Fewell, Laura; Brosof, Leigh C; Fournier, Lauren; Lenze, Eric J

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g., fears of gaining weight) may lead to engagement in eating disorder behaviors (e.g., weighing oneself). Participants (N = 66) recently treated at a residential eating disorder facility and diagnosed with an eating disorder (primarily anorexia nervosa; n = 40; 60.6%) utilized a mobile application to answer questions about mealtime cognitions, anxiety, and eating disorder behaviors four times a day for one week. Hierarchical linear models using cross-lag analyses identified that there were quasi-causal (and sometimes reciprocal) within-person relationships between specific eating disorder cognitions and subsequent eating disorder behaviors. These cognitions predicted higher anxiety during the next meal and eating disorder pathology at one-month follow-up. Interventions personalized to target these specific cognitions in real time might reduce eating disorder relapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marcação individual de triatomíneos para estudos comportamentais e ecologicos Individual marking of tiratominea for behavioral and ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Mac Cord

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Idealizou-se uma técnica de marcação de insetos adultos, visando principalmente à identificação individual de triatomineos, que consiste na elaboração de códigos correspondentes a números, através de cinco cores basicas (vermelho, branco, azul, verde e amarelo representadas por pintas coloridas feitas com tinta esmalte e depositadas do pronoto ao escutelo do inseto manualmente, com um fino pincel de seda. As pintas não devem se estender às asas sobrepostas, porque estas mudam constantemente de posição, encobrindo assim a marcação. A tinta é indelével e, por não apresentar toxicidade, não afeta a longevidade e o comportamento dos insetos. A técnica pode ser utilizada tanto para insetos no laboratório quanto no campo principalmente em trabalhos relacionados à Ecologia e ao Comportamento.A technique for marking adult insects was worked out, aiming at the individual identification of triatomine bugs. It consists on the development of codes corresponding to numbers (units, tens and hundreds by means of five basic colours (red, white, blue, green and yellow, represented by colored spots hand-made with enamel paint from the pronotum to the scutellum of the insect, with a fine silk paint-brush. The spots should not reach the overlapped wings, for these often change position, therefore covering the marks. Being the paint indelible and nontoxic, the life-span and the behaviour of the bugs is not affected. The technique may be applied to insects in the laboratory as well as in the field, specially in studies related to Ecology and Behaviour.

  4. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... girls from two Senior High Schools in Accra, the capital of Ghana in West Africa. .... On the face of it, the Brazilian and Swedish children might seem to have the ... The two profile dimensions that have been specified for teaching, ...

  5. Water SA - Vol 30, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of a residential end-use model for estimating cold and hot water demand ... of multistage filtration using different filter media against conventional water ... (Germs et al., 2004), published in the April 2004 (Vol 30 No 2) issue of Water ...

  6. EI: A Program for Ecological Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary King

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. It implements the statistical procedures, diagnostics, and graphics from the book A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data (King 1997. Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate (i.e., "ecological" data to infer discrete individual-level relationships of interest when individual-level data are not available. Ecological inferences are required in political science research when individual-level surveys are unavailable (e.g., local or comparative electoral politics, unreliable (racial politics, insufficient (political geography, or infeasible (political history. They are also required in numerous areas of ma jor significance in public policy (e.g., for applying the Voting Rights Act and other academic disciplines ranging from epidemiology and marketing to sociology and quantitative history.

  7. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  8. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  9. Behavior of oxygen impurities in tokamak. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharif, R N; Beket, A H [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Aurhority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Impurity transport in tokamak plasma is a subject of great importance in present day tokamak experiments. The transport of oxygen as an impurity element in small tokamak was studied theoretically. The viscosity coefficient of oxygen has been calculated in different approximation 13 and 21 moment approximation, taking into consideration {chi}>>1,{chi}{omega}{sub c} {tau}. It was found that in 21 moment approximation additional terms added to the perturbation from equilibrium leads to increase in viscosity coefficients than in 13 moments approximation. 9 figs.

  10. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  11. Information Assurance Cyber Ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Jane

    2003-01-01

    .... The goals of the Cyber Ecology project were to: (1) enable and demonstrate the discovery of noel IA technologies for the detection and mitigation of damage due to cyber attack through the application of ecological models, (2...

  12. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  13. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  14. Z Physics at LEP 1. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  15. Z physics at LEP 1. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Kleiss, R.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this final report from the Workshop on Z Physics at LEP can be divided into two parts. The first part, comprising Vols. 1 and 2, is a relatively concise but fairly complete handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation near the Z peak (with normal LEP luminosity and unpolarized beams, appropriate for the first phase of LEP operation). The second part (Vol. 3) is devoted to a review of the existing Monte Carlo event generators for LEP physics. A special effort has been made to co-ordinate the different parts of this report, with the aim of achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than having simply a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  16. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  17. Development of an ecological momentary assessment scale for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inada, Shuji; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of eating behaviors is an important element of health education and treatment in clinical populations. To understand the biopsychosocial profile of eating behaviors in an ecologically valid way, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is appropriate because its use is able to overcome the recall bias in patient-reported outcomes (PROs). As appetite is a key PRO associated with eating behaviors, this study was done to develop an EMA scale to evaluate the within-indivi...

  18. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  19. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  20. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  1. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  2. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  3. Rivers are social–ecological systems: Time to integrate human dimensions into riverscape ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Crausbay, Shelley D.; Cravens, Amanda; Gosnell, Hannah; McEvoy, Jamie; Moritz, Max A.; Raheem, Nejem; Sanford, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Incorporation of concepts from landscape ecology into understanding and managing riverine ecosystems has become widely known as riverscape ecology. Riverscape ecology emphasizes interactions among processes at different scales and their consequences for valued ecosystem components, such as riverine fishes. Past studies have focused strongly on understanding the ecological processes in riverscapes and how human actions modify those processes. It is increasingly clear, however, that an understanding of the drivers behind actions that lead to human modification also merit consideration, especially regarding how those drivers influence management efficacy. These indirect drivers of riverscape outcomes can be understood in the context of a diverse array of social processes, which we collectively refer to as human dimensions. Like ecological phenomena, social processes also exhibit complex interactions across spatiotemporal scales. Greater emphasis on feedbacks between social and ecological processes will lead scientists and managers to more completely understand riverscapes as complex, dynamic, interacting social–ecological systems. Emerging applications in riverscapes, as well as studies of other ecosystems, provide examples that can lead to stronger integration of social and ecological science. We argue that conservation successes within riverscapes may not come from better ecological science, improved ecosystem service analyses, or even economic incentives if the fundamental drivers of human behaviors are not understood and addressed in conservation planning and implementation.

  4. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  5. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  6. Continuous Recording and Interobserver Agreement Algorithms Reported in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (1995-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Taylor, Sarah Ann; Martin, Neil T.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed all research articles in 10 recent volumes of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA)": Vol. 28(3), 1995, through Vol. 38(2), 2005. Continuous recording was used in the majority (55%) of the 168 articles reporting data on free-operant human behaviors. Three methods for reporting interobserver agreement (exact agreement,…

  7. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 1: Case studies. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, D.C.; Havas, M. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume of the subseries Acidic precipitation emphasizes some of the classical interactions between acidic deposition and ecological effects. It covers the cycling, behavior, and effects of acidic components in nature. Included are the effects of acidic deposition on soil chemistry, soil solution chemistry, aquatic chemistry, forest productivity, and fish populations. Several major ecological consequences, such as a decline in forest productivity, soil and water acidification, depletion of fish populations, and slower litter decomposition are highlighted. A chapter is devoted to the comparative biogeochemistry of aluminum, encompassing several ecosystems in North America and Europe. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  9. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  10. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahjond S. Garmestani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a "balance of nature" that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011, focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.

  11. Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight). The mean daily growth (culmen, tarsometatarsus, ulna) was 6.8% (range = 4.0-9.8% daily). Dove productivity varied among and within study areas over the 10 years. Mean number of chicks hatched per nest that held eggs ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 for 3 study areas. Mean number fledged per nest ranged from 0.3 to 1.4. Productivity was lowest in the dry southwestern Puerto Rico study area (Susua and Guanica forests; x = 0.7 chicks fledged per nest) and was highest for the lower montane mixed agriculture/urban area (Cidra; 1.2). Populations nesting in scrub and mangrove forests (Roosevelt Roads Naval Station) fledged an average of 0.9 chicks/nest. Nest success followed a similar geographic pattern: southwestern Puerto Rico -40.9% of nests with eggs were successful, Cidra -62.6%, and Roosevelt Roads -52.0%. The most important sources of dove egg and chick loss were Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus -49% of losses) and roof rats (Rattus rattus -16%).

  12. African Zoology - Vol 50, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Nesting ecology of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca in north-eastern Algeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. African Zoology - Vol 46, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bee food: the chemistry and nutritional value of nectar, pollen and mixtures of the two ... Field evidence for colony size and aseasonality of breeding and in Ansell's ... geographically different regions in Africa: Implication for ecologically-based ...

  14. Agro Science Vol.10.1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    years in the past four decades in the derived savanna ecology. The bi-modal ... of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate .... homeless in Mozambique, Botswana and South. African ... Foundations (OSF) of the United States of.

  15. African Zoology - Vol 49, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dolomieu on native fish abundance in the Witte River, Cape Floristic Region, South ... Aspects of the ecology and morphology of the protea seedeater, Crithagra ... Meso-zooplankton movement through the newly constructed Mfolozi channel ...

  16. African Zoology - Vol 36, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection of hottentot Pachymetopon blochii by the fish louse Anilocra ... The holothuroid family Rhopalodinidae – its composition, distribution, phylogeny and ... Book Review: Ontogeny, functional ecology, and evolution of bats · EMAIL FULL ...

  17. Egyptian Journal of Biology - Vol 7 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology. ... Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, ...

  18. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  19. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  20. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza

    2007-01-01

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  1. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  2. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  3. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  4. Education and Environmentalism: Ecological World Views and Environmentally Responsible Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Examined a subsample of students from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology to determine the extent to which an Ecological World View (EWV) has been adapted, an EWV related to environmental behavior, and the role education plays in the type of EWV adapted. Includes the Ecological World View Scale. (Contains 21 references.) (MDH)

  5. International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies - Vol 3 (2004). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 3 (2004). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  6. Errata Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance, Vol.20, No.12, 2015. Rajaram Nityananda, Sun, Sky and Clouds: Where Light and Matter Meet. Page 1121: The correct Figure 5 is reproduced below: Resonance, Vol.20, No.11, 2015. Anil Kumar, Felix Bloch (1905–1983). Page 956: Para 1, Line 5, 'also from Zürich' should be read as 'from nearby Bern'.

  7. Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education - Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 27, No 1 (2009). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Addiction treatment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R Meyer ...

  8. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 28, No 2 (2018). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites and associated factors among HIV patients while receiving ART at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia: a ...

  9. Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review - Vol 13, No 3 (2007). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 13, No 3 ... Snagging the wheel of progress: Corruption, New anti-corruption drive and Nigeria\\'s quest for development. S B Kura ... Book Review: challenges of African growth opportunities, constraints and strategic directions. S I Owualah ...

  10. Complex dynamic in ecological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin; Andrew D. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Although the possibility of complex dynamical behaviors-limit cycles, quasiperiodic oscillations, and aperiodic chaos-has been recognized theoretically, most ecologists are skeptical of their importance in nature. In this paper we develop a methodology for reconstructing endogenous (or deterministic) dynamics from ecological time series. Our method consists of fitting...

  11. Urbanism from the Perspective of Ecological Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Paul V.; Adelgerg, Bettina

    1978-01-01

    A perception of ecological psychology on urbanism is presented, with emphasis on the following premises: (1) Urban milieu consists of complexes of behavior settings; and (2) Size of a city should be understood in relationship to the number and variety of its settings, rather than in terms of population size. (Author/MA)

  12. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  13. Cross sections for atomic processes, vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Otani, Shunsuke

    1977-09-01

    This data collection book contains the data on all processes involving hydrogen and helium isotopes, their ions, electrons and photons, collected systematically and comprehensively, and is compiled subsequently to Vol. 1 as one of the works of the data collection study group in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Japan. The items of the contents will include energy level, multiplicately excited state, radiation process, electron collision, ionic collision, recombination, collision of neutral atoms, colliding process involving molecules, and other processes. However, the first edition this time contains energy level, radiation process, electron collision and ionic collision, and the data on remaining items are now under collection. Though some criticisms have been heard about Vol. 1, the authors consider that such comprehensive collection based on systematic classification is the foundation of making a generalized data bank expected to become necessary in future. Thus the data collection book includes all relevant processes, and records the experimental data and theoretically calculated results in principle without modification by selecting them systematically. This year, investigation on data evaluation is taken up also as one of the tasks of the study group. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1995-01-01

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  15. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  16. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, G [ed.; Sjoestrand, T [ed.; Zwirner, F [ed.

    1995-02-19

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation above the WW threshold and up to {radical}s{approx}200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z`. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.).

  17. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: analysis of ecological impacts of construction and operation of nuclear power plants; fossil energy environmental project; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; HUD modular integrated utility systems; expansion of uranium enrichment facilities at Portsmouth; environmental standard review plans; environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs; and analysis of fish impingement at power plants in the southeastern United States

  18. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  19. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroodsma, R.L.; Craig, R.B.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: assessment of nuclear power plants; ecological analysis of uranium mining, milling, and fuel fabrication; environmental impact statements concerning uranium enrichment facilities; site evaluations for storage of radioactive wastes; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; enhanced oil recovery; environmental monitoring plan for modular integrated utility systems; and fossil energy environmental project

  20. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  1. Children's Ecology Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussenhop, Martha

    Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…

  2. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  3. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  4. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  5. Education in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is not enough to convey knowledge, insights and attitudes if education in ecology is to have fruitful effects. Space and opportunity for action and creativity must be provided in addition. This includes personal consumer habits (eating, transport, hygiene, leisure activities etc.); an individual workplace - in this case school - that can be shaped according to ecological needs. Beyond this, ecological maturation should not be confined to, but should transcend school, for instance in youth groups, citizens' committees, political parties. If school does not inspire action - including action outside school -then education in ecology could be smothered by the Midas effect, where all life is reduced to material, to the curriculum in this case. This book presents ecological projects that have been tried at schools. They aim at an education in ecology that is oriented to the pupil and open to experience. They could be an incentive for colleagues to conduct similar projects at their schools. The projects work from the pupils' own experience and aim at concrete action and activities in his or her own environment. They should encourage teachers to venture outside the classroom with the pupils and teach ecology where it takes place. (orig.) [de

  6. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 4 treats human error in plant operation. (BP)

  7. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justifi- cation or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appenix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 3 contains chapters on quantification of risk, failure and accident probability, risk analysis and design, and examles of risk analysis for process plant. (BP)

  8. A background to risk analysis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 2 treats generic methods of qualitative failure analysis. (BP)

  9. A background risk analysis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This 4-volumes report gives a background of ideas, principles, and examples which might be of use in developing practical methods for risk analysis. Some of the risk analysis techniques, described are somewhat experimental. The report is written in an introductory style, but where some point needs further justification or evaluation, this is given in the form of a chapter appendix. In this way, it is hoped that the report can serve two purposes, - as a basis for starting risk analysis work and as a basis for discussing effectiveness of risk analysis procedures. The report should be seen as a preliminary stage, prior to a program of industrial trials of risk analysis methods. Vol. 1 contains a short history of risk analysis, and chapters on risk, failures, errors and accidents, and general procedures for risk analysis. (BP)

  10. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  11. Advances in boundary elements. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brebbia, C.A.; Connor, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains some of the edited papers presented at the 11th Boundary Element Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during August 1989. The papers are arranged in three different books comprising the following topics: Vol. 1: Computations and Fundamentals - comprises sections on fundamentals, adaptive techniques, error and convergence, numerical methods and computational aspects. (283 p.). Vol. 2: Field and fluid flow solutions - includes the following topics: potential problems, thermal studies, electrical and electromagnetic problems, wave propagation, acoustics and fluid flow. (484 p.). Vol. 3: Stress analysis - deals with advances in linear problems, nonlinear problems, fracture mechanics, contact mechanics, optimization, geomechanics, plates and shells, vibrations and industrial applications. (450 p). (orig./HP)

  12. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  13. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  14. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Snisar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take

  15. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 25, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Clarias gariepinus Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila fed diets fortified with Curcuma longa leaf · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I. Adeshina, Y.A. Adewale, L.O. Tiamiyu, 87-99 ...

  16. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 25, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment transport of the Pra River · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J.M. Kusimi, 69-85 ...

  17. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 15, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Tourist Pressure on Beach Litter and Microbial Quality - Case Study of Two Beach Resorts in Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA Tsagbey, AM Mensah, FKE Nunoo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v15i1.49423 ...

  18. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 23, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing a National Shellfish Sanitation Program in The Gambia, West Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MA Rice, F Conteh, K Kent, B Crawford, B Banja, F Janha, I Bojang, 1-20 ...

  19. West African Journal of Applied Ecology - Vol 8, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential impact of large scale abstraction on the quality of shallow groundwater for irrigation in the Keta Strip, Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Aluminium release from acidic forest soil following deforestation and maize cultivation in Ghana, West Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... patterns, and extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and heat waves play a significant role ... Instrumental observation for the past 157 years indicated that surface ..... American Journal of Human Ecology, 4(4): 47-56. DOI: ... U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA. Federal ...

  1. African Zoology - Vol 42, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary observations on the diet of leopards (Panthera pardus) from a conservation area and adjacent rangelands in the Baviaanskloof region, South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. African Zoology - Vol 22, No 2 (1987)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diet on the gastric papiDae and microflora of the rodents Mystro'!'ys albicaudatus and Cricetomys gambiluuls · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... The foraging ecology of two Namib Desert harvester ant species · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  3. African Zoology - Vol 38, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fences and lions on the ecology of African wild dogs reintroduced to Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Trial by fire: Social spider colony demographics in periodically burned grassland · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  4. African Zoology - Vol 45, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology of metazoan parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) from the Nwanedi-Luphephe Dams of the Limpopo River System, South Africa · EMAIL ... Towards a standardized and optimized protocol for rapid biodiversity assessments: spider species richness and assemblage composition in two savanna ...

  5. Water SA - Vol 36, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam Dam · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C.A Brown, E van der Berg, A Sparks, R.N Magoba. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v36i4.58404 ...

  6. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 29, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    The volume contains 20 scholarly essays on current research in representative areas of the field of psychology. Most of the authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, representing departments of psychology, management, social ecology, human development, education, psychiatry, and medicine. A few private research…

  7. African Zoology - Vol 38, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundance of earthworms in Nigerian ecological zones: implications for sustaining fertilizer-free soil fertility · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Picking a tree: habitat use by the tree agama, Acanthocercus atricollis atricollis, in South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  8. 1-EEASA-Vol 22.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jenny

    2006-02-22

    Feb 22, 2006 ... The International Invitational Research and Development Seminars are 'special ... More specifically, this edition of the EEASA Journal profiles some of the insights ... Rhodes University Environmental Education and Sustainability Unit, South ... health education message and the complex social ecology of ...

  9. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  10. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  11. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  12. Ecological risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartell, S.M.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment, the process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors, is being developed by the US EPA as a tool for decision making. This book presents one approach to risk assessment-that of applying laboratory toxicity data within an ecosystem model to predict the potential ecological consequences of toxic chemicals. Both Standard Water Column Model (SWACOM), using zooplankton and fish, and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed in detail, along with quantitative explanations for many responses. Simplifying assumptions are explicitly presented. The final chapter discusses strengths, weaknesses, and future directions of the approach. The book is appropriate for anyone who does or uses ecological risk assessment methodologies

  13. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  14. Ecological Sections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  15. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  16. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  17. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2001-01-01

    of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...... of meaningful monitoring systems. It is also contended that a biosemiotic approach may also serve to better integrate our understanding and monitoring of ecosystems into the cultural process of searching for (human) sustainability....

  18. Sraffa and ecological economics

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  19. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 4 December 2010. 353. Effect of ... Key words: Rumex steudelii, Antifertility, Folliculogenesis, Endometrium, uterus, ovary, ovarian follicles, corpus luteum,. Rats. ..... first cycle in intrauterine growth-related and.

  1. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 3 (2004) ... In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With ... A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile - Ife, Southwestern ...

  2. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education - Vol 8 (1988) ... An interaction of archaeology with school history in a museum education context ... The child in the outdoor classroom · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour. ... Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Home Type, Age and Gender on The Antisocial Behaviour of Secondary School Students. ... Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction.

  4. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No 1 (2006) .... Locating oppressive use of language: a study of linguistic violence on nigerian ... trafficking - poverty link based on urban development and planning process ...

  5. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 16, No 1 (2014) .... Cancer incidence in Morocco: report from Casablanca registry 2005-2007 · EMAIL FREE FULL .... Maladie de Leo-Buerger faisant suite à une intoxication au cannabis · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  6. International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Health Research - Vol 2, No 4 (2009) ... Psychosocial characteristics of patients admitted to a drug rehabilitation unit in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia acidissima linn ...

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 18 (2015). Journal Home ... Isolation of microalgae species from arid environments and evaluation of their potentials for biodiesel production · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  9. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 21, No 3 (2015) ... Factors Influencing the Health of Men in Polygynous Relationship · EMAIL FULL ... Views of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Accessibility of the Prevention of ...

  10. Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Africa - Vol 2 (2008) ... I don't love my husband” Advice Columns as Teaching Resource for Gender and Sexuality: Experiences from the University of Cape Coast, Ghana ... Current Issue Atom logo

  11. African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Chemical Education - Vol 7, No 1 (2017). Journal Home ... Hybridization and molecular geometry: A number game · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  12. African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010) .... Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X-Ray of Problems and Solutions in the .... Tradition and Art Appreciation: A Boost to Cultural Tourism in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE ...

  13. South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education - Vol 19 (2005) ... The 'idea of engagement' and 'the African University in the 21st Century': Some ... The challenges of knowledge production by researchers in Public Administration, a South African ...

  14. African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. ... African Health Sciences - Vol 13, No 2 (2013) ... S Musisi, D Akena, E Nakimuli-Mpungu, C Abbo, J Okello, 205-218 .... Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among brothelbased female sex workers in ...

  15. African Health Sciences - Vol 15, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. ... African Health Sciences - Vol 15, No 4 (2015) .... H Madubedube, Andre P Kengne, Rajiv T Erasmus, Tahir S Pillay, Tandi E ... on lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness in both cigarette and hookah smokers.

  16. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 4, No 1 (2012) ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... on Gas Turbine Engine Data · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research - Vol 17, No 1 (2017) ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... The effect of electricity and gas losses on Nigeria`s Gross Domestic Product · EMAIL ...

  18. Research in Hospitality Management - Vol 5, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management - Vol 5, No 2 (2015) ... Hotel quality in the European Capital of Culture: Leeuwarden 2018 · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of restaurant attributes: A ...

  19. Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2 / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Jolivet: Complete Flute Music, Vol. 2. Kroumata Percussion Ensemble, Tapiola Sinfonietta, Paavo Järvi". BIS CD 739 (64 minutes: DDD). Item marked from CD630 (6/94), CD272, remainder new to UK

  20. Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017) ... Pre-packaged applications in business reorganisations: International principles · EMAIL ... Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  1. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care - Vol 23, No 1-2 (2011) ... The Nigerian National Health Bill 2011: Delay of Presidential Assent to an Act: ... Knowledge And Practice of Occupational Safety Among Quarry Workers in A ...

  3. African Heath Sciences Vol 8 No 1.p65

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harriet

    African Health Sciences Vol 8 No 1 March 2008. 36 ... Objective:To highlight difficulties in the diagnosis and management of non-traumatic perforation of small bowel. Material and ..... of three operations for typhoid perforation. Br J Surg. 1997;.

  4. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 8, NO. ... media. From the over fifty tertiary institutions in the country graduates are churned .... few were collected at the contact addresses, ... acquisition is paramount for successful job hunting.

  5. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 20, 2015 39 Seasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr M Waziri

    Vol. 20, 2015. 39. Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical Properties of Water, Sediment and Fish of ... The levels of some physicochemical parameters in the dam water were determined in wet and dry seasons .... Water, Waste and Health in ...

  6. African Research Review - Vol 5, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review - Vol 5, No 1 (2011) .... Gender and Occupational Preferences among Senior High School Students in Cross River State ... Academic Achievement in Physics · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological

  8. Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group engaged in litter cleanup in Iran, and village grove restoration in South Korea. Our analysis suggests that in applying practice theory to the civic ecology context, consideration should be given to social and communication competencies, how meanings can motivate volunteers and sustain practice, and the nature of the resource that is being stewarded. Future studies may want to focus on how practice elements interact within and vary across practices and may be used to more systematically analyze and share ideas among diverse civic ecology practices.

  9. Molecular ecological network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-05-30

    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  10. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto

    1994-01-01

    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  11. Ecological suicide in microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzke, Christoph; Denk, Jonas; Gore, Jeff

    2018-05-01

    The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts. Here we find an extreme type of negative interactions, in which Paenibacillus sp. bacteria modify the environmental pH to such a degree that it leads to a rapid extinction of the whole population, a phenomenon that we call ecological suicide. Modification of the pH is more pronounced at higher population densities, and thus ecological suicide is more likely to occur with increasing bacterial density. Correspondingly, promoting bacterial growth can drive populations extinct whereas inhibiting bacterial growth by the addition of harmful substances-such as antibiotics-can rescue them. Moreover, ecological suicide can cause oscillatory dynamics, even in single-species populations. We found ecological suicide in a wide variety of microbes, suggesting that it could have an important role in microbial ecology and evolution.

  12. Marx, Engels and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief survey of Marx and Engels’ views on ecology, from the viewpoint of their relevance for 21th Century ecosocialism. While there are some serious limitations in the way both consider the “development of productive forces”, there are powerfull insights in their discussion of the destructive consequences of capitalist expansion for the environment - an expansion that generates a disastrous metabolic rift in the exchanges between human societies and nature. Some ecological Marxists distinguish between “first stage ecosocialists” - who believe that Marx analyses on ecological issues are too incomplete and dated to be of real relevance today - and “second stage ecosocialists” that emphasize the contemporary methodological significance of Marx’s ecological critique of capitalism. This paper tries to argue for a third position (which probably could be accepted by several people of the two groups above: Marx and Engels discussion on ecological issues is incomplete and dated, but inspite these shortcomings, it has real relevance and methodological significance today.

  13. Interim balance: Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de

  14. Making ecological models adequate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David

    2018-01-01

    Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.

  15. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.

  16. Ecology and Ethics: Some Relationships for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Sarvestani, Ahmad; Shahvali, Mansoor

    These days, the reality of environmental crises creates grave doubts about the future of the natural environment. Many believe that if present human behavior toward the natural environment continues, there will be no hope for a sustainable life. Therefore, it is vital that human behavior toward nature be modified and corrected. Although, ethic is traditionally concerned about relations between individuals, but it is getting more attention for modifying human behavior in order to correct human-nature interaction and establish a well-intentioned one. In this respect, we need science of ecology and ethics together. Ecology helps us to understand natural ecosystems and respective regulations and laws, whereas ethics teach us how to define right and wrong behaviors toward the natural environment. This research discusses some possible relationships that might exist between ecology and ethics toward nature conservation.

  17. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  18. Workshop Arboretum Volčji potok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kučan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From its constitution onwards, the Volčji Potok Arboretum has been caught between various conflicting orientations. It is both a scientific, research and educational institution, and a cultural monument with exquisite garden and landscape design features and areas of great natural value and built cultural heritage, as well as commercial venue. At the same time, it functions as a park and an area for mass events, a garden centre and nursery. This variety of functions has helped Arboretum to survive the pressures of time; however, partial and uncoordinated interventions have threatened its original mission and its image and generated a number of conflicting situations. The workshop, organised on the initiative of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, which involved students from the Faculty of Architecture and students from the Department of Landscape Architecture of the Biotechnical Faculty in mixed groups, generated eight proposals to solve some of the most urgent problems by introducing optimised development with clearly defined goals and priorities.

  19. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking behavior among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial factors associated with smoking behavior among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis. AO Taiwo, PO Olapegba, GA Adejuwon. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol. 8(2) 2005: 264-279. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  1. Numerical ecology with R

    CERN Document Server

    Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...

  2. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...

  3. Application of ecological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the p...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts......The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...

  5. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  6. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  7. Ecology of gelatious plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes...

  8. Beyond positivist ecology: toward an integrated ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Bryan G

    2008-12-01

    A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change.

  9. The ecological mandala of M. K. Gandhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Priscilla Kamala

    Industrialization and urbanization have brought about environmental disassociation. The works of Orr, Naess, College of the Atlantic, conservation groups, communities such as Findhorn indicate that responsible personal behavior to the earth is an evident necessity, and growing requirement. This study is a philosophical analysis of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's ecological education. Gandhi's role in the political emancipation India was inseparable from the groundwork he laid environmentally, to light a path in creating a new India through a new human consciousness. Gandhi sought to transform his own life and mind radically along with many dimensions of the social, physical and ideational environment around him with his experiments with Truth. This study accepts as ecological Reality, the Truth that Gandhi claimed to be the purpose and source of his life. The study builds a literary Ecological Mandala, through the theoretical background of Gandhi's ecological education. Using inherently universal human ethics, which I have called universal Simples consisting of three groups, the framework of the Ecological Mandala is built (chapters 2 and 3). The Simples assist the observances, which I have also called the root tools, as they act upon the core of the individual. These are; fearlessness, control of the palate, tolerance, equality, non-possession and non-stealing which found its ideal in Trusteeship, bread labor and brahmacharya. The goal of these observances was Ahimsa, or Truth. Satyagraha is explained as a comprehensive methodology for ecological education which utilizes all aspects of the universal Simples. The fast is a weapon in its arsenal. The applications of Gandhi's ecological education are examined as seen in the eco-communities he established in South Africa, Phoenix and Tolstoy, and in the Ashrams in India (chapters 4 and 5). The eco-communities served as prototypes for the national education that Gandhi sought to implement through the constructive program

  10. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  11. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Clive Russell

    1976-01-01

    ... of these habitats that enable them to cope with and overcome these difficulties. The third section is concerned with population ecology, and emphasises that although individual parasites have to face and overcome particular problems, parasitism is essentially a dynamic relationship between two species populations.

  12. Complexity and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Giraldo, Luis Jair

    2002-01-01

    The present article examines the transformation that the construction of the theoretical body of ecology as a science has been going through since it first appeared in the XIX century within the logic of classical science until recent developments comprised within complex systemic. Mainly departing from the analysis from thermodynamics of irreversible phenomena

  13. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  14. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  15. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...

  16. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  17. Ecology and Human Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  18. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  19. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  20. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  1. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  2. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  3. African Health Sciences - Vol 8 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resilience research and policy/practice discourse in health, social, behavioral, and environmental sciences over the last ten years. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AM Almedom ...

  4. Ujah (Vol. 8 No. 2).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    assumption of cultural plurality is likely to appeal is cultural relativism. ... there are cultural traits that are just hard to change. Many ordinary men ... For fear of sounding vague and illusive .... where a particular occupation or behavior is not often.

  5. AJDAS vol 9 No 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stigation and continuation of deviant behaviors, and asserted that deviance is the result .... practices among a group of people within the larger society. ..... ican Academy of Business 7(2): 258–64. Chew, M. (2009). ... Glocalization: the Human.

  6. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    Accountants and Marketing Directors of the selected companies, was the instrument used for data .... using activity-based costing, these authors analyse the value chain for strategic cost drivers. ..... "A Behavioral Model for. 1mplementing Cost.

  7. Ethno-ecological Observation of Magar of Bukini, Baglung, Western, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prasad Sapkota

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to explore the socio-cultural condition, knowledge and changing pattern for their environmental adaptation of Magar inhabitant at Bukini Tityang V.D.C. of western Nepal. There are 73 households of 450 population. The major subsistence activity of the local people is agriculture and animal husbandry. The economic condition of the majority of families is medium. Expenditure of the families has been increasing in high rate which raised question about cohesive bond of social structure. Out of total population, 76.67% are literate that is greater than national level. Young literate people do not have their applied knowledge in agricultural production and are also not attracted as well as interested about it. Most of the people are aware of the health and sanitation. Due to migration from different places co-dominance has occurred between different clans. This phenomenon is not only in cultural activity but also in physical structure of the children. There are 86 plant species used to heal the human and domestic animal diseases, 17 species for fodder, 14 species for making agricultural equipment, 25 species as wild fruits and 23 species for different rituals and ceremonies. The elder Magars are rich in indigenous knowledge while the younger are not. If older generation dies their knowledge will be vanished. The effect of modernization and acculturation leads towards the increasing rate of dependency about fooding, clothing and recreation activity which directly change the behavior of the local people.Key Words: Ethnic group, Indigenous knowledge, ethno-ecology; Magar, Baglung, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1366Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.227-252

  8. Ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of tungsten-copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Y.; Inoue, T.; Akiyoshi, N.; Yoo, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A series of W-Cu composites were fabricated alternatively by infiltration method (19-48 vol% Cu) or by pressing and sintering method (20-80 vol% Cu), and three-point bend tests were carried out at temperatures between 77 and 363 K. Ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of the composite was investigated and also effects of Cu content as well as fabrication method on the strength and ductility of the composite were discussed. Results were summarized as follows. (1) Composite containing 19-40 vol% of copper demonstrated ductile-to-brittle transition behavior. Transition temperature tended to decrease substantially with increasing Cu content, though ductility of the composite by infiltration method was much better than that by pressing and sintering method. (2) Composite containing 48-80 vol% of copper did not demonstrate transition behavior regardless of fabrication method. (3) These results were well interpreted in terms of microstructure and fractography. (author)

  9. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  10. Proceedings of the 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications (Chemia 2). Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The conference of chemical application was held on 1-5 Nov 1997 in Cairo, This vol.2 contains of chemical application on nuclear materials. Studies on these vol.This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects

  11. Young Children’s Developmental Ecologies and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Children enter the crucial transition to school with sociodemographic disparities firmly established. Domain-specific research (e.g., on poverty and family structure) has shed light on these disparities, but we need broader operationalizations of children’s environments to explain them. Building on existing theory, this study articulates the concept of developmental ecology—those interrelated features of a child’s proximal environment that shape development and health. Developmental ecology links structural and demographic factors with interactional, psychological, and genetic factors. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study conducts latent class analyses to identify how 41 factors from three domains—namely, household resources, health risks, and ecological changes—cluster within children as four overarching developmental ecologies. Because it documents how numerous factors co-occur within children, this method allows an approximation of their lived environments. Findings illuminate powerful relationships between race/ethnicity, parental age, socioeconomic background, and nativity and a child’s developmental ecology, as well as associations between developmental ecology and kindergarten cognition, behavior, and health. Developmental ecology represents a major pathway through which demographic characteristics shape school readiness. Because specific factors have different implications depending on the ecologies in which they are embedded, findings support the usefulness of a broad ecological approach. PMID:27873222

  12. A non–extensive thermodynamic theory of ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan, Le Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Khac; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2017-01-01

    After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so–called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non–additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q –entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon–Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non–extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy U q and temperature T q based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature T q provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well–known in 0th law of thermodynamics. (paper)

  13. A non-extensive thermodynamic theory of ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Xuan, Le; Khac Ngoc, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2017-06-01

    After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so-called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non-additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q-entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non-extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy Uq and temperature Tq based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature Tq provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well-known in 0th law of thermodynamics.

  14. Some problems of human ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davitashvili, M.

    2009-01-01

    The problems of the ecology of human are considered. The notion of ''the ecology of human'' is discussed from the viewpoint of human rights and responsibilities in reference to the environment. The ecological factors affecting the men and the ecosystems as a whole are considered. It is emphasized that the ecological problems should be solved not only globally, but also for concrete ecosystems with consideration for their specific features. (author)

  15. Values: the dynamic nexus between biology, ecology and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Values are motivational goals that influence attitudes, behaviors and evaluations. Cross-cultural evidence suggests that values show a systematic structure. Personal and cultural variations in the value structure, value priorities and value links to attitudes, behavior and well-being reflect contextual constraints and affordances in the environment, suggesting that values function as broadly adaptive psychological structures. The internal structure of values (the descriptive value system) becomes more clearly differentiated in more economically developed contexts. Value priorities shift toward more autonomous, self-expressive and individualistic orientations with greater economic resources and less ecological stress. In addition to systematic changes in internal structure, value links to attitudes, behaviors and well-being are influenced by economic, ecological and institutional contexts. Values are more likely to be expressed in attitudes and behavior if individuals have greater access to economic resources, experience less institutional and ecological stress or when the values reinforce culturally normative behavior. Frontiers for further value research include a greater examination of the neural underpinnings of values in specific ecological contexts and across the lifespan; and an examination of how values are behaviorally instantiated in different environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  17. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  18. Dynamics of structures '89. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings, comprising 3 volumes published by the Plzen Centre of the Czechoslovak Society for Science and Technology (Vol. 1 and 2) and by Skoda Works in Plzen (Vol. 3), contain 107 papers, out of which 8 fall within the INIS Subject Scope; these deal with problems related to the earthquake resistance of nuclear power plants. Attention is paid to the evaluation of seismic characteristics of nuclear power plant equipment, to the equipment testing and to calculations of its dynamic characteristics under simulated seismic stress. (Z.M.)

  19. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  20. Agent-based modeling in ecological economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckbert, Scott; Baynes, Tim; Reeson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Interconnected social and environmental systems are the domain of ecological economics, and models can be used to explore feedbacks and adaptations inherent in these systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) represents autonomous entities, each with dynamic behavior and heterogeneous characteristics. Agents interact with each other and their environment, resulting in emergent outcomes at the macroscale that can be used to quantitatively analyze complex systems. ABM is contributing to research questions in ecological economics in the areas of natural resource management and land-use change, urban systems modeling, market dynamics, changes in consumer attitudes, innovation, and diffusion of technology and management practices, commons dilemmas and self-governance, and psychological aspects to human decision making and behavior change. Frontiers for ABM research in ecological economics involve advancing the empirical calibration and validation of models through mixed methods, including surveys, interviews, participatory modeling, and, notably, experimental economics to test specific decision-making hypotheses. Linking ABM with other modeling techniques at the level of emergent properties will further advance efforts to understand dynamics of social-environmental systems.

  1. Chasing Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.

  2. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  3. US ecology data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crase, A.

    1987-01-01

    The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures

  4. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  6. Social Ecology, Deep Ecology and the Future of Green Political Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Describes the differences which divide the social ecology movement and the Deep Ecology Movement. Discusses how each views population ecology, politics, natural resources, and ecological living. Calls for a unified ecological movement. (CW)

  7. 2030 the ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferone, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological crisis will happen on 2030. A combination of climatic change, energy problems, increase in population, will mix up. The author debates about true questions on the economy: how to get quickly towards renewable energies use, how much will it cost, must we generalize the carbon tax, what about economic giant as India and China, what about the technology development to solve the crisis? (A.L.B.)

  8. Towards the ecological dredger

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Lago, Alberto; Villodas, Aritz; Picón, Artzai

    2010-01-01

    The dredging is a process that intrinsically damages the aquatic environment. Suctioning part of the aquatic bottom surface suppose not only change the ecosystem but it endanger the life of the animal and plant species. Nowadays, there is doing a lot of efforts to improve the ecological aspect of the dredging process. In this work, we propose the introduction of machine vision techniques to obtain this improvement, using hyperspectral imaging. The performed tests show that is p...

  9. Toward an Agathocentric Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erazim Kohák

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I should like to submit to you a simple, basic thesis--that what we are accustomed to calling the "ecological crisis" is not a product of a conflict between human needs and the needs of nature but of a flawed perception of what our needs in truth are. It is, I believe, a crisis of our humanity rather than one of nature or technology, and so requires not only technological but also humanistic answers.

  10. GNP - an ecological catastrophe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the ecological aspects of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) as well as other projects on the European rivers. Ground water levels profiles are presented. Effects of the GNP on the forests, flora, and fauna are discussed. The conditions for delta region protection are presented. Chemical and radioactive contamination, as well as their synergistic effects are discussed

  11. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  12. Ecological Econophysics for Degrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pueyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.

  13. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    2004-01-01

    renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks......In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  14. Ecology for a changing earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.H.; Roughgarden, J.

    1990-01-01

    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal

  15. Statistical ecology comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  16. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  17. Microfluidics expanding the frontiers of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics has significantly contributed to the expansion of the frontiers of microbial ecology over the past decade by allowing researchers to observe the behaviors of microbes in highly controlled microenvironments, across scales from a single cell to mixed communities. Spatially and temporally varying distributions of organisms and chemical cues that mimic natural microbial habitats can now be established by exploiting physics at the micrometer scale and by incorporating structures with specific geometries and materials. In this article, we review applications of microfluidics that have resulted in insightful discoveries on fundamental aspects of microbial life, ranging from growth and sensing to cell-cell interactions and population dynamics. We anticipate that this flexible multidisciplinary technology will continue to facilitate discoveries regarding the ecology of microorganisms and help uncover strategies to control microbial processes such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

  18. Ecological communities with Lotka-Volterra dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Ecological communities in heterogeneous environments assemble through the combined effect of species interaction and migration. Understanding the effect of these processes on the community properties is central to ecology. Here we study these processes for a single community subject to migration from a pool of species, with population dynamics described by the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. We derive exact results for the phase diagram describing the dynamical behaviors, and for the diversity and species abundance distributions. A phase transition is found from a phase where a unique globally attractive fixed point exists to a phase where multiple dynamical attractors exist, leading to history-dependent community properties. The model is shown to possess a symmetry that also establishes a connection with other well-known models.

  19. Ecological Citizenship and Social Representation of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biagi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the social representations of water in urban cultures of Argentina, placing the subject as a matter of academic and practical interest. Some questions have guided this investigation—What is water for the urban dweller? What are the actions that a citizen is willing to exercise?—A qualitative research was conducted (according to Yin’s case analysis methodology in Gualeguaychú and Buenos Aires. Following the collected data, the authors reconstructed the dominant paradigm in both cities, which was the ecocentric model. However, the acceptance of ecological values and beliefs is not an indicator of the exercise of proecological behavior concerning water. Empirical findings have guided the authors to inquire the degree of relationship between social representations and attributes of Andrew Dobson’s model of ecological citizenship.

  20. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  1. A knowledge-based system for discovering ecological interactions in biodiversity data-stores of heterogeneous specimen-records: a case-study of flower-visiting ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, W

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We modeled expert knowledge of arthropod flower-visiting behavioral ecology and represented this in an event-centric domain ontology, which we describe along with the ontology construction process. Two smaller domain ontologies were created...

  2. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.3 (1) January, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-01-09

    Jan 9, 2014 ... are characterized by isolation from ideas and information, illiteracy, poverty, lack of social ... road and small scale industries, increase their political consciousness ... designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group .... in getting people to change their attitudes and behaviors and are quite.

  3. [Regional ecological construction and mission of landscape ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Duning; Xie, Fuju; Wei, Jianbing

    2004-10-01

    The eco-construction on regional and landscape scale is the one which can be used to specific landscape and intercrossing ecosystem in specific region including performing scientific administration of ecosystem and optimizing environmental function. Recently, the government has taken a series of significant projects into action, such as national forest protection item, partly forest restoration, and adjustment of water, etc. Enforcing regional eco-construction and maintaining the ecology security of the nation have become the strategic requisition. In various regions, different eco-construction should be applied, for example, performing ecological safeguard measure in ecological sensitive zone, accommodating the ecological load in ecological fragile zone, etc., which can control the activities of human being, so that, sustainable development can be reached. Facing opportunity and challenge in the development of landscape ecology, we have some key topics: landscape pattern of ecological security, land use and ecological process, landscape changes under human activity stress, quantitative evaluation of the influence on human being activities, evaluation of zonal ecological security and advance warning of ecological risk, and planning and optimizing of model in landscape eco-construction.

  4. South African Journal of Education - Vol 28, No 4 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education - Vol 28, No 4 (2008) ... in Italian high-school prospective mathematics and physics teachers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE?

  5. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  6. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2 June 2009 ... Background:The under five mortality rate (U5MR) is measure of wellbeing and decreasing the U5MR by two .... under three scenarios 1-3. ... Negative indicates increase in childhood mortalities.

  7. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 No 1 March 2009. 41 compounds isolated from the extracts can be applied as weed killers and have been tested on the water hyacinth .... dispensing serial dilutions of the test extract, concentrations ranging from 5.0 mg/ml to 50.0 mg/ ml. McFarland No.1 standard was used in the preparation ...

  8. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 47, No 2 (2013). Journal Home > Archives ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AB Olokoba, W Gashau, S Bwala, A Adamu, FK Salawu, 79-81 ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EY Bonney, NA Addo, NAA Ntim, F Addo-Yobo, P Bondzie, KE Aryee, J Barnor, J brandful, V Bekoe, SA Ohene, W Ampofo, 82-86 ...

  9. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 21 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 21 (2013) ... Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust resistance in bread wheat · EMAIL FREE .... Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as thickener in the formulation of ...

  10. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 5 (2018) .... Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as Influenced by Organic ...

  11. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 4 (2018) ... Evaluating the effect of mobility speed on the performance of three handover algorithms in ...

  12. South African Medical Journal - Vol 88, No 3 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis and anorexia nervosa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Christopher Paul Szabo, 275-276. Books Advances in Pediatric Pulmonology. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Vol. 7 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Perception and acceptance of technological risks. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-01-01

    Vol. 3 discusses the problem of attitudes towards nuclear power. Data are compiled for five communities in North-Rhine Westphalia with nuclear facilities and the control community of Kerpen, which has no nuclear power plant. At the same time, the empirical and theoretical investigations are comprehensively evaluated.

  14. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research 29 Vol. 15, 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. 29. Vol. 15, 2010. Antibacterial & Antifungal Studies On Some Coordination Compound Of Metals. With Ampicillin. Pranay Guru. Department of Engineering Chemistry, People's College of Research & Technology, Bhopal. (M. P.) India, email:pranayguru@rediffmail.com. ABSTRACT.

  15. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 3(1) February, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. AFRREV STECH. An International Journal of Science and Technology. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (1), S/No 6, February, 2014: 1-11. ISSN 2225-8612 (Print) ISSN 2227-5444 (Online). EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ON NATURAL. BIO-DIVERSITY IN DELTA NORTH ...

  16. AJESMS Vol 9 2011 October 23 2012 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2011-10-23

    Oct 23, 2011 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... alveolar re-circulation and gravity orientation are key factors in determining the ..... Comp. Biomed. Res. 3, pp 675-689. Pich, J. (1972). Theory of ...

  17. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 SIEVE TRAY EFFICIENCY USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013. SIEVE TRAY EFFICIENCY USING CFD MODELING AND SIMULATION ... ABSTRACT. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) .... per unit volume, MG is the molecular weight of the gas/vapor, kL and kG ...

  18. 59 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 16 (2013). There is a misconception that traditional medicine is unique to developing countries of Africa, Asia and. South America. This is certainly not true. Traditional medicine, often referred to as "alternative medicine", is widely used in developed countries ...

  19. (JASR) Vol. 12, No. 2, 2012 DEPLETING FOREST RESOURCES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    deteriorating forest resources of Nigeria and its impact on climate change. Key words: Forest Resources, ... Mangrove Forest. Sub Total. 905,930 .... South America” Global Biogeographical Cycle vol 9, pp 329-350. Miller, K. R., Reid, W. V., ...

  20. Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2 / Michael Tanner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanner, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2: Six Romances on texts by Japanese poets, Op. 21. Six Poems on Marina Tsvetayeva, Op. 143. Suite on Verses of Michelangelo, Op. 145. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". DG 447 085-2GH (71 minutes:DDD)

  1. Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review - Vol 5, No 2 (2011) ... Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Comment: Overview of the Core Changes in the New Ethiopian Urban Land Leasehold Proclamation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1 March 2010. 89. Rethinking ... There is a worsening scarcity of Human Resource for ... This is not in any way lowering standards of oncologic diagnosis but filling the otherwise ... for health ratios stand at 0.8 health workers per 1000 ... cancer occurs 10-15years earlier in black women.

  3. South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education - Vol 31, No 1 (2011) ... How an analysis of reviewers' reports can enhance the quality of submissions to a journal of education ... Doctoral learning: a case for a cohort model of supervision and support ...

  4. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  5. Ecological alarm system for Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehser, L.

    1984-05-01

    At Itaipu, on the Rio Parana, Brazil and Paraguay are constructing the world's largest hydro-electric power plant with a capacity seven times as high as that of Assuan. An information system is intended to give fair warning in case of threatening ecological conditions. The computer-supported alarm system had four objectives: 1. presentation of the present ecological situation; 2. evaluation of the ecological risks; 3. warning about ecological deficits; 4. suggestions for establishing ecological stability. In a first step the available inventory data concerning soil, topography, vegetation and water were evaluated by expert groups according to their risk grade (0-4) and ecological weight (1-10). The product of these evaluations indicates the ecological deficit (0-40). At a threshold value of 30, the information system automatically signals ecological alarm and locates the centre of danger via computer-plotted maps and tables. The necessary data are supplied periodically by selected measurement stations. Quantification of ecological facts enables the persons who are responsible for decisions at Itaipu to recognize, avoid, or diminish elements of danger even if they have little or no ecological knowledge. The file of data that has been compiled so far should be extended parallel with the development in the Itaipu area. With the help of factor analysis connections of cause and effect can be detected in this extremely complex reservoir system which has hardly been explored yet.

  6. Integrating Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, and GIS for Ecological Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Juárez, Lourdes; Cruz-Bello, Gustavo

    2002-09-01

    Appraisal of ecological impacts has been problematic because of the behavior of ecological system and the responses of these systems to human intervention are far from fully understood. While it has been relatively easy to itemize the potential ecological impacts, it has been difficult to arrive at accurate predictions of how these impacts affect populations, communities, or ecosystems. Furthermore, the spatial heterogeneity of ecological systems has been overlooked because its examination is practically impossible through matrix techniques, the most commonly used impact assessment approach. Besides, the public has become increasingly aware of the importance of the EIA in decision-making and thus the interpretation of impact significance is complicated further by the different value judgments of stakeholders. Moreover, impact assessments are carried out with a minimum of data, high uncertainty, and poor conceptual understanding. Hence, the evaluation of ecological impacts entails the integration of subjective and often conflicting judgments from a variety of experts and stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to present an environmental impact assessment approach based on the integration fuzzy logic, geographical information systems and optimization techniques. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with the judgments of experts and stakeholders, the description of ecological systems, and the prediction of ecological impacts. The application of this approach is illustrated through an example, which shows how consensus about impact mitigation can be attained within a conflict resolution framework.

  7. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Veronneau, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle…

  8. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing From Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishion, T.J.; Ha, P.T.; Veronneau, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early

  9. Report on ONR Conference on ’Dolphin Behavior and Cognition: Comparative and Ecological Aspects’, Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, San Diego, California, 92109, July 6-9, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, IL 60513 Robert Buhr Animal communication and cognition; Department of Linguistics neurolinguistics and neuropsychology Brown...Rockefeller University 1230 York Avenue New York, NY 10021 Henry Halff (observer) Personnel and Training Research Program .,,; Code 442 PT Arlington, VA 22212...observer) Physiology and Neurobiology Research Program Code 441 NP e., Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 Bernd Wursig Cetacean behavior

  10. An ecological treatise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1984-01-01

    The discussion on the different development paths towards a future energy supply is conducted not only with technical, economic, and ecological arguments but also with political, socio-cultural and philosophical ones. It is also concerned with the construction of social reality, a reorganisation of the relationship between nature and society. This descriptive and analytical study carefully contemplates the contents of the different positions and arguments in the energy controversy. It thereby closes a gap which has continued to exist until now in spite of the numerous publications in point. (orig.) [de

  11. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  12. Building doctoral ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....

  13. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  14. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.

    1994-01-01

    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  15. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...

  16. The role of ecological theory in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, James I; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Curtis, Tom P; Ellis, Richard J; Firestone, Mary K; Freckleton, Rob P; Green, Jessica L; Green, Laura E; Killham, Ken; Lennon, Jack J; Osborn, A Mark; Solan, Martin; van der Gast, Christopher J; Young, J Peter W

    2007-05-01

    Microbial ecology is currently undergoing a revolution, with repercussions spreading throughout microbiology, ecology and ecosystem science. The rapid accumulation of molecular data is uncovering vast diversity, abundant uncultivated microbial groups and novel microbial functions. This accumulation of data requires the application of theory to provide organization, structure, mechanistic insight and, ultimately, predictive power that is of practical value, but the application of theory in microbial ecology is currently very limited. Here we argue that the full potential of the ongoing revolution will not be realized if research is not directed and driven by theory, and that the generality of established ecological theory must be tested using microbial systems.

  17. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  18. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  20. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  1. Energy and Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin

    1996-01-01

    With the increase of standard of living of the people, the criteria for a comfortable, secure and foremost a healthy manner of living also increase. Thus arise the stressed importance and necessity of more attention for the issues of protection of the environment, for a better life of future generations, as well as for global problems which do not recognize borders. Republic of Macedonia also contributes in this direction within the frame of its possibilities. The creation of the National Ecological Action Plan /NEAP/, is currently being carried out by the Ministry of Construction, Urbanism and Ecology of Republic Macedonia, financed by the World Bank. The most significant part of the material prepared by the author in this project has been presented, also discussed in detail and worked through with the representatives of the World Bank because of the importance of the energy sector for the development of a state. An energy balance of Macedonia until the end of 1995 is presented here, as well as quantities of harmful effluents emitted through these transformations of energy. (author). 24 tabs., 2 ills

  2. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  3. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  4. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  5. IJIMAI Editor's Note - Vol. 2 Issue 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Herrera-Viedma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence provides an interdisciplinary forum in which scientists and professionals can share their research results and report new advances on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Multimedia techniques. The research works presented in this issue are based on various topics of interest, among which are included: 3D image reconstruction, Persian texts, usability evaluation methods, user experience, oriented matroids, flexible job-shop scheduling, business and social behavior, mobile computing and mobile devices, intelligent tutoring systems and geography optimization.

  6. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Automated experimentation in ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurgi, Miguel; Robertson, David

    2011-05-09

    In ecological networks, natural communities are studied from a complex systems perspective by representing interactions among species within them in the form of a graph, which is in turn analysed using mathematical tools. Topological features encountered in complex networks have been proved to provide the systems they represent with interesting attributes such as robustness and stability, which in ecological systems translates into the ability of communities to resist perturbations of different kinds. A focus of research in community ecology is on understanding the mechanisms by which these complex networks of interactions among species in a community arise. We employ an agent-based approach to model ecological processes operating at the species' interaction level for the study of the emergence of organisation in ecological networks. We have designed protocols of interaction among agents in a multi-agent system based on ecological processes occurring at the interaction level between species in plant-animal mutualistic communities. Interaction models for agents coordination thus engineered facilitate the emergence of network features such as those found in ecological networks of interacting species, in our artificial societies of agents. Agent based models developed in this way facilitate the automation of the design an execution of simulation experiments that allow for the exploration of diverse behavioural mechanisms believed to be responsible for community organisation in ecological communities. This automated way of conducting experiments empowers the study of ecological networks by exploiting the expressive power of interaction models specification in agent systems.

  8. Framework for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, D.; Norton, S.

    1992-02-01

    Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical and chemical stressors on the environment. The framework offers starting principles and a simple structure as guidance for current ecological risk assessments and as a foundation for future EPA proposals for risk assessment guidelines

  9. Investigating General and Specific Links from Adolescents' Perceptions of Ecological Assets to Their Civic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Sloper, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Civic engagement is an important marker of thriving among adolescents, and more research is needed that clarifies the ecological assets (positive supports across settings) that foster youth civic engagement. Simultaneously modeling associations between multiple ecological assets and civic behaviors can provide a nuanced view of the way…

  10. Ecology-Centered Experiences among Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The present research involved two studies that considered "ecology-centered experiences" (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the…

  11. Evolving Approaches and Technologies to Enhance the Role of Ecological Modeling in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Gustafson; John Nestler; Louis Gross; Keith M. Reynolds; Daniel Yaussy; Thomas P. Maxwell; Virginia H. Dale

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the effects of management activities is difficult for natural resource managers and decision makers because ecological systems are highly complex and their behavior is difficult to predict. Furthermore, the empirical studies necessary to illuminate all management questions quickly become logistically complicated and cost prohibitive. Ecological models...

  12. The Effect of Environmental Education on the Ecological Literacy of First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2008-01-01

    This article assesses the viability of a value-attitude-behavior hierarchy within the context of four environmentally responsible behavior types of first-year college students. The research also studies the effect of knowledge on attitude and behavior, and discusses the implications of the results for understanding the ecological literacy of…

  13. Clay Caterpillars: A Tool for Ecology & Evolution Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    I present a framework for ecology and evolution laboratory exercises using artificial caterpillars made from modeling clay. Students generate and test hypotheses about predation rates on caterpillars that differ in appearance or "behavior" to understand how natural selection by predators shapes distribution and physical characteristics of…

  14. Questionnaire of Executive Function for Dancers: An Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alina; Rodriguez, Mabel; Quevedo, Liliana; de Cossio, Lourdes Fernandez; Borges, Ariel; Reyes, Alicia; Corral, Roberto; Blanco, Florentino; Alvarez, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There is a current debate about the ecological validity of executive function (EF) tests. Consistent with the verisimilitude approach, this research proposes the Ballet Executive Scale (BES), a self-rating questionnaire that assimilates idiosyncratic executive behaviors of classical dance community. The BES was administrated to 149 adolescents,…

  15. The Integration of Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing recognition of the inherent uncertainty associated with the dynamics of ecological systems and their often non-linear and surprising behavior, however, presents a set of problems outside the scope of classic environmental law, and has lead to a fundamental understanding a...

  16. Ecological Understanding 2: Transformation--A Key to Ecological Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Describes the structure and general features of the phenomenon of ecological understanding. Presents qualitatively different ways of experiencing cycling of matter and the flow of energy in the context of ecosystems. The idea of transformation is key to the development of ecological understanding. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  18. Ecology and ecological quality of fish in lakes and reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečka, Jan; Boukal S., David; Čech, Martin; Hickley, P.; Kitchell, J. F.; Ricard, Daniel; Rudstam, L.; Soukalová, Kateřina; Welcomme, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 173, January (2016), s. 1-3 ISSN 0165-7836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish ecological quality * ecological potential * distribution * migration * bioindicators * management monitoring * food webs Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  19. Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Hanebury, L.R.; Miller, B.J.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecologically equivalent species serve similar functions in different communities, and an ecological surrogate species can be used as a substitute for an equivalent species in a community. Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanii) and black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes) have long been considered ecological equivalents. Polecats also have been used as investigational surrogates for black-footed ferrets, yet the similarities and differences between the 2 species are poorly understood. We contrasted activity patterns of radiotagged polecats and ferrets released onto ferret habitat. Ferrets tended to be nocturnal and most active after midnight. Polecats were not highly selective for any period of the day or night. Ferrets and polecats moved most during brightly moonlit nights. The diel activity pattern of ferrets was consistent with avoidance of coyotes (Canis latrans) and diurnal birds of prey. Similarly, polecat activity was consistent with avoidance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in their natural range. Intraguild predation (including interference competition) is inferred as a selective force influencing behaviors of these mustelines. Examination of our data suggests that black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats might be ecological equivalents but are not perfect surrogates. Nonetheless, polecats as surrogates for black-footed ferrets have provided critical insight needed, especially related to predation, to improve the success of ferret reintroductions. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1 through Vol. 15, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1975-04-01

    This issue of the Index to Nuclear Safety covers only articles included in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1, through Vol. 15, No. 6. This index is presented in three sections as follows: Chronological List of Articles by Volume; Permuted Title (KWIC) Index; and Author Index. (U.S.)

  1. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Socio‐Ecological Innovation or SEI is innovation resulting from strategic integration of sustainable innovation and innovation for sustainability. In particular SEI is regarded as critical to organizations intent on progressing toward Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (SEE) and, indeed, progressing......, how developed or mature it is, and how future SEI strategy and results can be improved. As an aid to these efforts, non‐prescriptive approaches to SEI are discussed, maturity scale assessment for SEI is developed and discussed, and a simple assessment report that combines graphic and narrative...... feedback is presented. The assessment report is referred to as a SEI News Report and is intended not only to provide feedback to the organization concerning its present SEI performance, but also to deliver significant foresight that will inform future SEI efforts, strengthening the likelihood...

  2. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  3. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137 Cs and 60 Co to fish; 137 Cs and 60 Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  4. Ecological disaster in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Six million barrels of oil are going up in smoke each day in Kuwait, dumping 3.7 million pounds of toxic gases, soot, and smoke - including cancer-causing compounds - into the air each hour. This paper reports that the prognosis for the situation is dim. Even as specialized firefighting companies from the United States and Canada began arriving in Kuwait in March, oil officials there predicted dousing the fires would take at least two years and pumping up oil production to pre-war levels would take between five and 10 years. An oil well fire is a disaster. The effect on the ozone, the ecology, the marine life is massive. We aren't even breathing air here, we're just breathing smog

  5. Ecological Diesel Now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1999-01-01

    An ACPM (Diesel) lighter and of low contained of sulfur it will begin to elaborate the refinery of Ecopetrol in Barrancabermeja (Colombia); it will be the next product of the refinery that it receives the international certification of insurance of quality ISO-9002. The new ecological product will be dedicated initially to assist the demand in Bogota. Their characteristics understand 340 degrade Celsius of final point of boil and 0, 1% in weight of sulfur, what will contribute to reduce the levels of contamination of the air in the capital. It is the result of several years of the technical personnel's of the refinery investigation, where the distillation units adapted and the advantages that they offer took advantage raw light, of low contained of sulfur and paraffin

  6. Ecology of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennish, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects represents the most definitive and comprehensive source of reference information available on the human impact on estuarine ecosystems. The book discusses both acute and insidious pollution problems plaguing these coastal ecotones. It also provides a detailed examination of the deleterious and pervasive effects of human activities on biotic communities and sensitive habitat areas in estuaries. Specific areas covered include organic loading, oil pollution, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dredging and dredge-spoil disposal, radionuclides, as well as other contaminants and processes. The diverse components of these anthropogenic influences are assembled in an organized framework and presented in a clear and concise style that will facilitate their understanding

  7. The role of fuels for understanding fire behavior and fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Louise Loudermilk; J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2018-01-01

    Fire ecology, which has emerged as a critical discipline, links the complex interactions that occur between fire regimes and ecosystems. The ecology of fuels, a first principle in fire ecology, identifies feedbacks between vegetation and fire behavior-a cyclic process that starts with fuels influencing fire behavior, which in turn governs patterns of postfire...

  8. Radiotracers in medical applications, vols 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayudu, G.V.S.

    1983-01-01

    These volumes will serve as a basis for instruction and reference for professionals such as radiopharmaceutical chemists, radiopharmacologists, radiopharmacists, radiobiochemists, and others involved in the medical applications of radiotracers. Vol. I: Topics include radiohalogenated compounds, including radioiodine; Tc-labeled compounds; and in-house prepared radiopharmaceuticals. The charge particle range vs. energy in every element is tabulated for protons for cyclotrons users. Discussions are also provided on nonimaging radiotracer methods; 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 67 Ga. 111 In, 75 Se, /SUP 123m/ Te compounds; radioactive noble gases; and miscellaneous radiotracers for imaging. Vol. II: Pertinent nuclear science data such as radiation dosimetry, radionuclide production modes, radionuclides for therapy, human experimentation regulations and consent forms, and radiotracer laboratory designs are presented

  9. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.

  10. Testing the ecological site group concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2016 “Ecological Sites for Landscape Management” special issue of Rangelands recommended an update to our thinking of Ecological Sites, suggesting that in our desire to make Ecological Sites more quantitative, we abandoned consideration of Ecological Sites’ spatial context. In response, Ecologic...

  11. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  12. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  13. Education and Our Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, John

    1970-01-01

    Discusses causes of our ecological crisis and suggests that in order to overcome the crisis we have to sprinkle our teaching with a sense of wonder, impress upon the youth that there is nothing difficult or mysterious about the ecological viewpoint, give youth an awareness of the diversity of things in our environment, stress interrelationships…

  14. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  15. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  16. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  17. Ecological Applications of Qualitative Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.; Recknagel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Representing qualitative ecological knowledge is of great interest for ecological modelling. QR provides means to build conceptual models and to make qualitative knowledge explicit, organized and manageable by means of symbolic computing. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of QR using

  18. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  19. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  20. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives: A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. Series Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 368-375. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: