WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral couple therapy

  1. Cognitive-behavioral couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Norman B; Zheng, Le

    2017-02-01

    This article describes how cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) provides a good fit for intervening with a range of stressors that couples experience from within and outside their relationship. It takes an ecological perspective in which a couple is influenced by multiple systemic levels. We provide an overview of assessment and intervention strategies used to modify negative behavioral interaction patterns, inappropriate or distorted cognitions, and problems with the experience and regulation of emotions. Next, we describe how CBCT can assist couples in coping with stressors involving (a) a partner's psychological disorder (e.g. depression), (b) physical health problems (e.g. cancer), (c) external stressors (e.g. financial strain), and (d) severe relational problems (e.g. partner aggression). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical processes in behavioral couples therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Daniel J; Fink, Brandi C

    2014-03-01

    Behavioral couples therapy is a broad term for couples therapies that use behavioral techniques based on principles of operant conditioning, such as reinforcement. Behavioral shaping and rehearsal and acceptance are clinical processes found across contemporary behavioral couples therapies. These clinical processes are useful for assessment and case formulation, as well as teaching couples new methods of conflict resolution. Although these clinical processes assist therapists in achieving efficient and effective therapeutic change with distressed couples by rapidly stemming couples' corrosive affective exchanges, they also address the thoughts, emotions, and issues of trust and intimacy that are important aspects of the human experience in the context of a couple. Vignettes are provided to illustrate the clinical processes described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effect of Group Cognitive Behavioral Couples Therapy on Couple Burnout and Divorce Tendency in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Couple burnout is one of the phenomena which involve many couples, it is among the main causes of emotional divorce, and without proper management and treatment, and it can lay the ground for formal divorce among couples. Cognitive behavioral couple therapy is one of the existing approaches in the couple therapy field, the efficiency of which has been established for resolving many marital problems. The present study was designed by the aim of investigating the effect of group cognitive behavioral couple therapy on couple burnout and divorce tendency in couples.   Methods: The present research was of applied research type. The research method was semi-empirical with a pretest-posttest with control group design. The research population included all the couples with marital conflict and problems who, after a recall announcement of the researcher, visited the counseling and psychological services center located in Gorgan city in 2014. By using the available sampling method, 20 couples were selected among the volunteer and qualified couples for the research, and they were assigned into experiment and control groups (10 couples per group by random assignment. In the present research, the Pines burnout questionnaire (1996 and divorce tendency scale of Rouswelt, Johnson, and Mouro (1986 were used for gathering the data. After taking the pretest, the group cognitive behavioral couple therapy based on the couple therapy model of Baucom  and colleagues (2008 was held in 10 2-hour weekly sessions for the experiment group couples, while the control group couples received no intervention. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics method and multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA in SPSS v.20. Results: The multivariate covariance analysis results for couple burnout (F= 28.80 and divorce tendency (F= 51.25 suggested that there was a significant difference between the couples of experiment and control groups (P< 0

  4. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Benjamin O; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled avoider, validator, hostile, and ambivalent-detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and

  6. Changes in dyadic communication during and after integrative and traditional behavioral couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Katherine J W; Baucom, Brian R; Christensen, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    To examine changes in dyadic communication, as well as links between communication and long-term relationship outcomes, 134 distressed couples randomly assigned to either Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT; Jacobson & Christensen, 1998) were observed in video-recorded interactions. Observers rated discussions of relationship problems at 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, 2-year follow-up) and relationship outcomes (i.e., treatment response and relationship stability) were measured at a 5-year follow-up. Consistent with previous examinations of individual partner communication (K.J.W. Baucom et al., 2011; Sevier et al., 2008), TBCT produced greater improvements from pre-therapy to post-therapy (d = 0.27-0.43) and superior communication at post-therapy (d = 0.30-0.37). However, IBCT produced greater improvements from post-therapy to 2-year follow-up (d = 0.32-0.39). Both levels of, and changes in, dyadic communication were associated with relationship outcomes, even when controlling for individual communication. Our findings lend additional support for theoretical and practical differences between these two therapies and the utility of assessment at the level of the couple. Furthermore, they contribute to a broader pattern of findings in which relationship outcomes are more consistently linked with constructive communication than with destructive communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Up and down or down and up? The process of change in constructive couple behavior during Traditional and Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Mia; Atkins, David C; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Observed positive and negative spouse behavior during sessions of Traditional (TBCT) and Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy (IBCT) were compared for couples with successful outcomes and their unsuccessful counterparts. One hundred and thirty-four married chronically and seriously distressed couples (on average in their forties and 80% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to TBCT or IBCT. Trained observers made ratings of 1224 segments from approximately 956 sessions sampled from the course of up to 26 sessions. Multilevel modeling was used to examine change over time. TBCT treatment responders demonstrated a boost-drop pattern, increasing in constructive behaviors early (more positive behaviors and less negative behaviors) but decreasing later. IBCT responders demonstrated an opposite, drop-boost pattern, decreasing in constructive behaviors early and increasing later. Patterns were significant for positive behaviors (p behaviors (p = .05). In both treatments, nonresponders showed a significant pattern of decline in positive and increase in negative behaviors over time, although a trend (p = .05) indicates that TBCT nonresponders initially declined in negative behaviors. This study helps clarify the different process of change in two behavioral couple therapies, which may assist in treatment development and provide a guide for therapists in considering behavioral markers of change during treatment. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  9. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: A comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  10. Infidelity and Behavioral Couple Therapy: Optimism in the Face of Betrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Baucom, Donald H.; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Infidelity is a common issue with which distressed couples and their therapists grapple. However, there are no data on the efficacy of commonly used therapies to treat couples in which there has been an affair. In the present exploratory study, the authors examined the therapy outcomes of a sample of infidelity couples (n=19) who had participated…

  11. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Schippers, Gerard M

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption and enhancing marital functioning, but no study has directly tested the comparative effectiveness of stand-alone BCT versus an individually focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical community sample. The present study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of stand-alone BCT (n = 30) compared to individual CBT (n = 34) in the treatment of alcohol use disorders in community treatment centers in Dutch male and female alcoholics and their partners. Results show both BCT and CBT to be effective in changing drinking behavior after treatment. BCT was not found to be superior to CBT. Marital satisfaction of the spouse increased significantly in the BCT condition but not in the CBT condition, the differences being significant at the post-test. Patients' self-efficacy to withstand alcohol-related high-risk situations increased significantly in both treatment conditions, but more so in CBT than in BCT after treatment. Treatment involvement of the spouse did not increase retention. Regular practitioners in community treatment centers can effectively deliver both treatments. Stand-alone BCT is as effective as CBT in terms of reduced drinking and to some extent more effective in terms of enhancing relationship satisfaction. However, BCT is a more costly intervention, given that treatment sessions lasted almost twice as long as individual CBT sessions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Costs of a motivational enhancement therapy coupled with cognitive behavioral therapy versus brief advice for pregnant substance users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    Full Text Available To determine and compare costs of a nurse-administered behavioral intervention for pregnant substance users that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT to brief advice (BA administered by an obstetrical provider. Both interventions were provided concurrent with prenatal care.We conducted a micro-costing study that prospectively collected detailed resource utilization and unit cost data for each of the two intervention arms (MET-CBT and BA within the context of a randomized controlled trial. A three-step approach for identifying, measuring and valuing resource utilization was used. All cost estimates were inflation adjusted to 2011 U.S. dollars.A total of 82 participants received the MET-CBT intervention and 86 participants received BA. From the societal perspective, the total cost (including participants' time cost of the MET-CBT intervention was $120,483 or $1,469 per participant. In contrast, the total cost of the BA intervention was $27,199 or $316 per participant. Personnel costs (nurse therapists and obstetric providers for delivering the intervention sessions and supervising the program composed the largest share of the MET-CBT intervention costs. Program set up costs, especially intervention material design and training costs, also contributed substantially to the overall cost.Implementation of an MET-CBT program to promote drug abstinence in pregnant women is associated with modest costs. Future cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses integrating costs with outcomes and benefits data will enable a more comprehensive understanding of the intervention in improving the care of substance abusing pregnant women.

  14. [Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction, Marital Adjustment, and Levels of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Couples with Vaginismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şafak Öztürk, Cennet; Arkar, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on sexual functions of women with vaginismus and their husbands, their marital adjustment, and their levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Twenty-six couples diagnosed as vaginismus according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria in gynecology outpatient clinics of Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital and Gynecological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The couples were treated with CBT through 50-minute sessions once a week. Pre- and post-treatment, all couples were assessed using a Personal Information Form, Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. There were significant differences in the total and all subscales' scores of sexual functions, significant increase in the marital adjustment, and a significant decrease in anxiety and depression symptom levels after CBT in women who completed the therapy (n = 20). In the husbands, significant recoveries were observed after the therapy in sexual functions total scores and subscales of satisfaction, avoidance, and impotence. However, there was no change in frequency, communication, sensuality, and in the premature ejaculation domains. Also, the marital adjustment scores increased, and significant decreases were observed in depression and anxiety symptom levels. It was observed that CBT is an appropriate therapy approach for vaginismus, and beneficial effects were observed in both women and their husbands in sexual functions, marital adjustment, and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms decreased.

  15. Couples Therapy: An Adlerian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roy M.; And Others

    This book provides therapists with a theoretical base from which to view the dynamics of couples' relationships and the therapeutic process. The book's eight chapters are organized into three parts: "Adlerian Theory and Process"; "Therapeutic Interventions"; and "Special Issues in Marital Therapy." Chapter 1, Adlerian…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  17. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  18. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  19. Surrogate versus couple therapy in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Rothschild, Shelly; Chudakov, Bella; Aloni, Ronit

    2007-05-01

    Women who do not have a cooperative partner cannot complete the usual therapeutic process in the treatment of vaginismus, because they cannot progress to the stage of practicing the insertion of the man partner's fingers and the insertion of a penis. To compare traditional couple therapy with therapy utilizing a surrogate partner. The study was controlled and retrospective. Data were obtained from the treatment charts of patients who had come to the clinic for treatment of vaginismus. Sixteen vaginismus patients who were treated with a man surrogate partner were compared with 16 vaginismus patients who were treated with their own partners. Successful pain-free intercourse upon completion of therapy. One hundred percent of the surrogate patients succeeded in penile-vaginal intercourse compared with 75% in the couples group (P = 0.1). All surrogate patients ended the therapy because it was fully successful, compared with 69% in the couples group. Twelve percent of the couples group ended the therapy because it failed, and 19% because the couples decided to separate. Treating vaginismus with a man surrogate partner was at least as effective as couple therapy. Surrogate therapy may be considered for vaginismus patients who have no cooperative partner.

  20. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  1. Equine Assisted Couples Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Taylor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Equine assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an emerging experiential methodologythat has recently gained recognition as a method for addressing a range of presentingproblems for a wide variety of client populations. Couples therapy is one area that thepractice of equine assisted psychotherapy has recently gained traction. This studydescribes the practice of equine assisted couples therapy in terms of practitionercharacteristics, approach to treatment, therapeutic goals and outcomes. Mental healthp...

  2. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Traders' behavioral coupling and market phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Zhang, Yin; Li, Honggang

    2017-11-01

    Traditional economic theory is based on the assumption that traders are completely independent and rational; however, trading behavior in the real market is often coupled by various factors. This paper discusses behavioral coupling based on the stock index in the stock market, focusing on the convergence of traders' behavior, its effect on the correlation of stock returns and market volatility. We find that the behavioral consensus in the stock market, the correlation degree of stock returns, and the market volatility all exhibit significant phase transitions with stronger coupling.

  4. Bicritical behaviors observed in coupled diode resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngtae

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated bicritical behaviors of unidirectionally coupled diode resonators having a period doubling route to chaos. Depending on the dynamical states of the drive subsystem, the response subsystem showed a dynamical behavior other than that of the uncoupled system. The experimental results agreed well with the results obtained from the simulation of unidirectionally coupled logistic maps and oscillators. A new type of scaling behavior and a power spectrum of the hyperchaotic attractor appearing near a bicritical point were also observed.

  5. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  6. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  7. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  8. Money: a therapeutic tool for couples therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Margaret

    2007-09-01

    This article addresses the therapeutic importance of discussing money at every stage of a couple's relationship, both as a concrete reality and as a metaphor for security, adequacy, competence, commitment, acceptance, and acknowledgment in a relationship. I will present a developmental schema looking at financial issues that couples confront at various stages in the adult life cycle and how these affect and reflect relationship problems. The article also presents a money questionnaire as a useful tool for exploring family-of-origin financial history, affect, and behavior.

  9. The Experience of Couples in the Process of Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Couple vs. Individual Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Joël; Dufour, Magali; Bertrand, Karine; Blanchette-Martin, Nadine; Ferland, Francine; Savard, Annie-Claude; Saint-Jacques, Marianne; Côté, Mélissa

    2018-01-01

    Context: Couple treatment for pathological gambling is an innovative strategy. There are some results supporting its potential effectiveness, but little is known about the subjective experiences of the participants. Objective: The aim of this article is to document the experiences of gamblers and their partners participating in one of two treatments, namely individual or couple. Method: In a study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the Integrative Couple Treatment for Pathological Gambling (ICT-PG), couples who were entering specialized treatment for the addiction of one member who was a pathological gambler were randomly assigned to individual or ICT-PG. Nine months after their admission to treatment, gamblers and partners (n = 21 couples; n = 13 ICT-PG; n = 8 individual treatment) were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. A sequenced thematization method was used to extract the major themes. Results: This study highlighted five major themes in the therapeutic process noted by the gamblers and their partners mainly after the couple treatment but also partly through the individual therapy. These were: (1) the gamblers' anxiety about having to reveal their gambling problems in couple therapy; (2) the wish to develop a mutually beneficial understanding of gambling and its effects on the partners in the two types of treatments; (3) the transformation of negative attributions through a more effective intra-couple communication fostered by the couple therapy; (4) the partners' contribution to changes in gambling behavior and prevention of relapses, which were both better supported in couple therapy; and (5) the interpersonal nature of gambling and its connections with the couples' relationship. However, gamblers who were in individual treatment were more likely to mention that their partners' involvement was not necessary. Participants likewise made a few recommendations about the conditions underlying the choice of one treatment method or the other. Discussion

  10. The Experience of Couples in the Process of Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Couple vs. Individual Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Tremblay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Couple treatment for pathological gambling is an innovative strategy. There are some results supporting its potential effectiveness, but little is known about the subjective experiences of the participants.Objective: The aim of this article is to document the experiences of gamblers and their partners participating in one of two treatments, namely individual or couple.Method: In a study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the Integrative Couple Treatment for Pathological Gambling (ICT-PG, couples who were entering specialized treatment for the addiction of one member who was a pathological gambler were randomly assigned to individual or ICT-PG. Nine months after their admission to treatment, gamblers and partners (n = 21 couples; n = 13 ICT-PG; n = 8 individual treatment were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. A sequenced thematization method was used to extract the major themes.Results: This study highlighted five major themes in the therapeutic process noted by the gamblers and their partners mainly after the couple treatment but also partly through the individual therapy. These were: (1 the gamblers' anxiety about having to reveal their gambling problems in couple therapy; (2 the wish to develop a mutually beneficial understanding of gambling and its effects on the partners in the two types of treatments; (3 the transformation of negative attributions through a more effective intra-couple communication fostered by the couple therapy; (4 the partners' contribution to changes in gambling behavior and prevention of relapses, which were both better supported in couple therapy; and (5 the interpersonal nature of gambling and its connections with the couples' relationship. However, gamblers who were in individual treatment were more likely to mention that their partners' involvement was not necessary. Participants likewise made a few recommendations about the conditions underlying the choice of one treatment method or the other

  11. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  13. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  14. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  15. Synchronous behavior of two coupled electronic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, R. D.; Varona, P.; Volkovskii, A. R.; Szuecs, A.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    2000-01-01

    We report on experimental studies of synchronization phenomena in a pair of analog electronic neurons (ENs). The ENs were designed to reproduce the observed membrane voltage oscillations of isolated biological neurons from the stomatogastric ganglion of the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. The ENs are simple analog circuits which integrate four-dimensional differential equations representing fast and slow subcellular mechanisms that produce the characteristic regular/chaotic spiking-bursting behavior of these cells. In this paper we study their dynamical behavior as we couple them in the same configurations as we have done for their counterpart biological neurons. The interconnections we use for these neural oscillators are both direct electrical connections and excitatory and inhibitory chemical connections: each realized by analog circuitry and suggested by biological examples. We provide here quantitative evidence that the ENs and the biological neurons behave similarly when coupled in the same manner. They each display well defined bifurcations in their mutual synchronization and regularization. We report briefly on an experiment on coupled biological neurons and four-dimensional ENs, which provides further ground for testing the validity of our numerical and electronic models of individual neural behavior. Our experiments as a whole present interesting new examples of regularization and synchronization in coupled nonlinear oscillators. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Dissociative identity disorder and the process of couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Heather B

    2013-01-01

    Couple therapy in the context of dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been neglected as an area of exploration and development in the couple therapy and trauma literature. What little discussion exists focuses primarily on couple therapy as an adjunct to individual therapy rather than as a primary treatment for couple distress and trauma. Couple therapy researchers have begun to develop adaptations to provide effective support to couples dealing with the impact of childhood trauma in their relationships, but little attention has been paid to the specific and complex needs of DID patients in couple therapy (H. B. MacIntosh & S. Johnson, 2008 ). This review and case presentation explores the case of "Lisa," a woman diagnosed with DID, and "Don," her partner, and illustrates the themes of learning to communicate, handling conflicting needs, responding to child alters, and addressing sexuality and education through their therapy process. It is the hope of the author that this discussion will renew interest in the field of couple therapy in the context of DID, with the eventual goal of developing an empirically testable model of treatment for couples.

  17. Vortex jump behavior in coupled nanomagnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Heinonen, O.

    2014-01-01

    The spin configuration and magnetic behavior in patterned nanostructures can be controlled by manipulating the interplay between the competing energy terms. This in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the magnetic interactions at the local nanometer scale. Here, we report on the spin structure and magnetization behavior of patterned discs containing exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers with additional exchange bias to an antiferromagnetic layer. The magnetization reversal was explored by direct local visualization of the domain behavior using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, from which quantitative magnetic induction maps were reconstructed. The roles of the main competing energy terms were elucidated and the reversal mechanism was identified as a coupled phenomenon of incoherent rotation in the exchange-biased layer and localized vortex nucleation and discontinuous propagation in the free layer, including an anomalous jump in the trajectory. The observations were supported by micromagnetic simulations and modeled phase shift simulations. The work presented here provides fundamental insights into opportunities for macroscopic control of the energy landscape of magnetic heterostructures for functional applications

  18. Vortex jump behavior in coupled nanomagnetic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Phatak, C., E-mail: cd@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Petford-Long, A. K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Heinonen, O. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3112 (United States)

    2014-11-24

    The spin configuration and magnetic behavior in patterned nanostructures can be controlled by manipulating the interplay between the competing energy terms. This in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the magnetic interactions at the local nanometer scale. Here, we report on the spin structure and magnetization behavior of patterned discs containing exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers with additional exchange bias to an antiferromagnetic layer. The magnetization reversal was explored by direct local visualization of the domain behavior using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, from which quantitative magnetic induction maps were reconstructed. The roles of the main competing energy terms were elucidated and the reversal mechanism was identified as a coupled phenomenon of incoherent rotation in the exchange-biased layer and localized vortex nucleation and discontinuous propagation in the free layer, including an anomalous jump in the trajectory. The observations were supported by micromagnetic simulations and modeled phase shift simulations. The work presented here provides fundamental insights into opportunities for macroscopic control of the energy landscape of magnetic heterostructures for functional applications.

  19. Third Wave of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevginar Vatan

    Full Text Available The psychological functioning of an individual includes well-being, cognitions, emotions and behaviors as a whole. In the current models of psychopathologies, as similar to well-being, reciprocal interaction between emotions, behaviors and cognitions is emphasized. Notwithstanding that the effects of these three components on cognitive behavior therapies can be mentioned too, it can be claimed that emotions were remained in the background by the behaviors and cognitions until the third wave of cognitive behavior therapies. Emotions have became prominent with the third wave approaches in the field of cognitive behavior therapy. In this review article, similarities and differences of third wave of cognitive behavior therapy with other waves, the constructs of emotion and emotion regulation in the third wave and the impacts of these on treatment were included. Additionally, throughout this perspective, treatment processes focusing on emotion regulation skills were discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(3.000: 190-203

  20. Couple characteristics and outcome of therapy in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Thiloma; Goonaratna, Colvin; de Silva, Padmal

    2004-06-01

    To describe couple characteristics and outcome of therapy in vaginismus. A prospective before-after intervention descriptive study. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Fifty six couples with vaginismus, mostly self referrals and referrals from gynaecologists and general practitioners, were treated with a standard cognitive behaviour therapy protocol with before-after assessments of the degree of vaginismus and individual partner self-ratings of the relationship and psychological status (GHQ-30). Success at the end of the therapy was equated to the absence of or only mild vaginismus and, improvement in the couple relationship and psychological status scores. Twenty seven (48%) of the 52 (93%) couples with non-consummation reported failure of coitus following previous non-surgical and surgical interventions. Love marriages (70%), frequent attempts at sex (75%, 3 or 4 times/week) and sexual arousal (women = 86%, men = 89%) characterised couples. Ten men developed sexual problems, mostly erectile failure and premature ejaculation secondarily. Couple therapy enabled penetrative sex in 45 (80.3%). The single prognostic indicator of outcome was the degree of vaginismus at first visit, those with mild and moderate vaginismus (77%) being significantly more likely to establish coitus (p0.01) but the psychological status remained unchanged. Dropouts and referrals for psychiatric and marital counselling failed to complete therapy. Couple sex therapy is effective in the management of vaginismus. Health professionals, especially gynaecologists and general practitioners, need to be aware of the problem and the satisfactory outcome of sex therapy.

  1. Outcomes of couples with infidelity in a community-based sample of couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Marín, Rebeca A; Lo, Tracy T Y; Klann, Notker; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2010-04-01

    Infidelity is an often cited problem for couples seeking therapy, but the research literature to date is very limited on couple therapy outcomes when infidelity is a problem. The current study is a secondary analysis of a community-based sample of couple therapy in Germany and Austria. Outcomes for 145 couples who reported infidelity as a problem in their relationship were compared with 385 couples who sought therapy for other reasons. Analyses based on hierarchical linear modeling revealed that infidelity couples were significantly more distressed and reported more depressive symptoms at the start of therapy but continued improving through the end of therapy and to 6 months posttherapy. At the follow-up assessment, infidelity couples were not statistically distinguishable from non-infidelity couples, replicating previous research. Sexual dissatisfaction did not depend on infidelity status. Although there was substantial missing data, sensitivity analyses suggested that the primary findings were not due to missing data. The current findings based on a large community sample replicated previous work from an efficacy trial and show generally optimistic results for couples in which there has been an affair. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P framing the future of weight management. Long-term follow-up of Small Changes is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dyadic Coping in Couple Therapy Process: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margola, Davide; Donato, Silvia; Accordini, Monica; Emery, Robert E; Snyder, Douglas K

    2017-07-10

    This study aimed at moving beyond previous research on couple therapy efficacy by examining moment-by-moment proximal couple and therapist interactions as well as final treatment outcomes and their reciprocal association. Seven hundred four episodes of dyadic coping within 56 early therapy sessions, taken from 28 married couples in treatment, were intensively analyzed and processed using a mixed-methods software (T-LAB). Results showed that negative dyadic coping was self-perpetuating, and therapists tended to passively observe the negative couple interaction; on the contrary, positive dyadic coping appeared to require a therapist's intervention to be maintained, and successful interventions mainly included information gathering as well as interpreting. Couples who dropped out of treatment were not actively engaged from the outset of therapy, and they used more negative dyadic coping, whereas couples who successfully completed treatment showed more positive dyadic coping very early in therapy. Results highlight the role of therapist action and control as critical to establishing rapport and credibility in couple therapy and suggest that dyadic coping patterns early in therapy may contribute to variable treatment response. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  4. Behavior of orbits of two coupled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    There has been very considerable progress in the past few years on the theory of two conservative, coupled, nonlinear oscillators. This is a very general theory, and applies to many equivalent systems. A typical problem of this class has a solution that is so complicated that it is impossible to find an expression for the state of the system that is valid for all time. However, recent results are making it possible to determine the next most useful type of information. This is the asymptotic behavior of individual orbits in the limit of very long times. It is just the information that is desired in many situations. For example, it determines the stability of the motion. The key to our present understanding is renormalization. The present state of the art has been described in Robert MacKay's thesis, for which this is an advertisement

  5. Mediators and treatment matching in behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Dong, Lu; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M

    2017-10-01

    To examine the mediators and the potential of treatment matching to improve outcome for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia. Participants were 188 adults (117 women; Mage = 47.4 years, SD = 12.6) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia (Mduration: 14.5 years, SD: 12.8). Participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT; n = 63), cognitive therapy (CT; n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). The outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Hypothesized BT mediators were sleep-incompatible behaviors, bedtime variability (BTv), risetime variability (RTv) and time in bed (TIB). Hypothesized CT mediators were worry, unhelpful beliefs, and monitoring for sleep-related threat. The behavioral processes mediated outcome for BT but not CT. The cognitive processes mediated outcome in both BT and CT. The subgroup scoring high on both behavioral and cognitive processes had a marginally significant better outcome if they received CBT relative to BT or CT. The subgroup scoring relatively high on behavioral but low on cognitive processes and received BT or CBT did not differ from those who received CT. The subgroup scoring relatively high on cognitive but low on behavioral processes and received CT or CBT did not differ from those who received BT. The behavioral mediators were specific to BT relative to CT. The cognitive mediators were significant for both BT and CT outcomes. Patients exhibiting high levels of both behavioral and cognitive processes achieve better outcome if they receive CBT relative to BT or CT alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance: Family, Couple and Individual Therapy Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M.; Catherall, Donald R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an integrative definition of the therapeutic alliance that conceptualizes individual, couple and family therapy as occurring within the same systemic framework. The implications of this concept for therapy reserach are examined. Three new systematically oriented scales to measure the alliance are presented along with some preliminary data…

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  8. Using Metaphor in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim PİSTOF; Esat SANLI

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides employing cogn...

  9. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  10. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    achieve specific goals. They focus on the present moment rather than on historical causes. However, they also present significant differences: control vs acceptance of thoughts, focus on cognition vs behavior, focus on the relationship between the individual and his thoughts vs cognitive content, goal of modifying dysfunctional beliefs vs metacognitive processes, use of experiential vs didactic methods, focus on symptoms vs quality of life, strategies used before vs after the unfolding of full emotional response. The main interventions based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance are: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Functional Analytic Therapy, the expanded model of Behavioral Activation, Metacognitive Therapy, Mindfulness based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectic Behavior Therapy, Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy and Compassionate Mind Training. These are described in this article. They offer concepts and techniques which might enhance therapeutic efficacy. They teach a new way to deploy attention and to enter into a relationship with current experience (for example, defusion) in order to diminish cognitive reactivity, a maintenance factor for psychopathology, and to enhance psychological flexibility. The focus on cognitive process, metacognition as well as cognitive content might yield additional benefits in therapy. It is possible to combine traditional CBT with third wave approaches by using psychoeducation and cognitive restructuring in the beginning phases of therapy in order to establish thought bias and to then encourage acceptance of internal experiences as well as exposure to feared stimuli rather than to continue to use cognitive restructuring techniques. Traditional CBT and third wave approaches seem to impact different processes: the former enhance the capacity to observe and describe experiences and the latter diminish experiential avoidance and increase conscious action as well as acceptance. The identification of personal values helps to motivate the

  11. The feminist/emotionally focused therapy practice model: an integrated approach for couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcher, C A; Bogo, M

    2001-01-01

    Emotionally focused therapy (EFT) is a well-developed, empirically tested practice model for couple therapy that integrates systems, experiential, and attachment theories. Feminist family therapy theory has provided a critique of biased assumptions about gender at play in traditional family therapy practice and the historical absence of discussions of power in family therapy theory. This article presents an integrated feminist/EFT practice model for use in couple therapy, using a case from practice to illustrate key concepts. Broadly, the integrated model addresses gender roles and individual emotional experience using a systemic framework for understanding couple interaction. The model provides practitioners with a sophisticated, comprehensive, and relevant practice approach for working with the issues and challenges emerging for contemporary heterosexual couples.

  12. Behavior of orbits of two coupled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in the past few years on the theory of two conservative, coupled, nonlinear oscillators. This work also applies to many equivalent systems, so it has applications to particle containment and heating, for example, and wherever else in plasma physics that the validity of adiabatic invariants is a matter of concern. A general problem of this class has a solution that is so complicated that it is impossible to find an expression for the state of the system that is valid for all time. However, recent results are making it possible to determine the next most useful type of information. This is the asymptotic behavior of individual orbits in the limit of very long times. This is just the information that is desired in many situations. For example, it determines the stability of the motion. The key to our present understanding is renormalization. The present state of the art has been described in Robert Mackay's thesis, for which this is an advertisement

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  14. Applicability Evaluation of Simplified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhipei; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yuan; Liu, Na; Li, Chunbo

    2018-04-25

    We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals. The participants were divided into 3 groups: SCBT group, SCBT with medication group and medication group. The drop-out rates of these three groups, the therapy satisfaction of patients who received SCBT and the evaluation of SCBT from therapists were compared. (1) There was no significant difference among the drop-out rates in the three groups. (2) Only the duration and times of therapy were significantly different between the two groups of patients who received the SCBT, and the therapy satisfaction of the SCBT group was higher than that of the SCBT with medication group. (3) Eighteen therapists who conducted the SCBT indicated that the manual was easy to comprehend and operate, and this therapy could achieve the therapy goals. The applicability of SCBT for patients with GAD is relatively high, and it is hopeful that SCBT can become a psychological treatment which can be applied in medical institutions of various levels.

  15. Therapy of a couple with a bipolar spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witusik, Andrzej; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-10-23

    Qualitative analysis of therapy of a couple with a partner who has bipolar disorder is an important research paradigm in contemporary psychotherapy of mental disorders.The qualitative method of the study is important both from the cognitive point of view and for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy in the individual, idiographical aspect. The aim of the study is a qualitative analysis of the therapeutic process of a couple in which one partner suffers from bipolar affective disorder. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The study of the couple therapy process utilized the qualitative research methodology using variouspsychotherapeutic paradigms indicating the interrelationships that exist between relapses of the disease and functioning of the couple. The importance of triangulation processes, inheritance of transgenerational myths and dysfunctional cognitive patterns in the functional destabilization of a couple with one partner suffering from bipolar affective disorder was indicated. The dysfunctionality of the discussed couple is largely due to the effects of bipolar disorder and related disturbances on marital functioning. The spectrum of autism in the child is probably related both to the genetic strain of predisposition to psychiatric disorders and to the dysfunctionality of the parental dyad. The presence of bipolar affective disorder in the partner's family is also a genetic burden. The wife's aggression represents probably a syndrome of adaptation to disease in the family. Aggression plays a morphostatic role in the couple

  16. Effect of cognitive-behavior therapy for betrayed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Infidelity is the most frequently cited cause of divorce and is described by couple therapists as among the most difficult problems to treat.im of this study was effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for betrayed women in Tehran city Method was pre experimental. Sampling was purposeful in which 15 wives (20-35 years old were selected. They had experienced betrayals that were participating in cognitive- behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy sessions at three stages sessions after preliminary interview they were assessed by the spouse betrayal examination questionnaire and general health questionnaire-28 in pre-training. Then they had every week 1 session of 90 minutes. After the end of session again assessed by post-test. Mean and standard deviation of mental health showed significantly difference after sessions at post-test stage. There was significant effect in cognitive -behavioral therapy of sessions for improving mental health of betrayed women. We recommend behavioral technique in similar situations for betrayed women.

  17. Effect of Couple Therapy Based on the Choice Theory on Social Commitment of Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abbasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Commitment to spouse, marriage, and family is one of the most important factors ensuring the continuity of marriage and strength of family bonds that has attracted considerable attention in the contemporary family and marriage studies. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of couple therapy based on the choice theory on the social commitment of couples. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design and a control group that was performed among volunteer couples visiting Isfahan Counseling and Psychology Centers in Isfahan, Iran, during 2015. The subjects consisted of 32 incompatible couples who were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental (16 couples and control (16 couples groups. Then, the experimental group received nine sessions of group couple therapy during three months on family life skills based on choice theory. It is worth mentioning that the dependent variable was the social commitment of couples evaluated by the dimensions of commitment inventory of Adams and Jones (1997. The collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance in SPSS, version 20. Results: At the post-test stage, couple therapy based on choice theory significantly enhanced social commitment in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, couple therapy based on the choice theory is an effective strategy in promoting commitment and loyalty to spouse, marriage, and family and can decrease and prevent family-related problems and threats such as divorce and marital infidelity.

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Soylu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270

  19. A Study On the Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy and Integrated Systemic Couple Therapy on reducing Intimacy Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هاجر فلاح زاده

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT and integrated systemic couple therapy (IST on resolving intimacy anxiety. For this purpose, 30 couples were randomly selected and based on their pretests were assigned into two experimental and one control groups. Research instruments were Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS (Descutner & Thelen, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS (Spanier, 1976. A Nine-session of EFT was conducted for one experiment group and eight sessions of IST for the other. The control group did not receive any treatment. These three groups completed post test at the end of the experiment, and follow-up test 3 months later. Results indicated that EFT and IST significantly decreased intimacy anxiety in couples, and the treatment effect was consistent after 3 months follow-up.

  20. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Zamani; Mehran Farhadi; Hosein Jenaabadi

    2017-01-01

    Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A):262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD) showing a t...

  1. Attachment Versus Differentiation: The Contemporary Couple Therapy Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Nathan R; Fisher, Adam R

    2018-01-24

    This paper reviews the current debate between differentiation and attachment in treating couples through exploring the tenets of crucible therapy (Schnarch, 1991) and emotionally focused couple therapy (Johnson, 2004). We provide a review of the two theories-as well as the two "pure form" example models-and explore the debate in light of the integrative movement in couple and family therapy (Lebow, 2014). We also examine points of convergence of the two theories and models, and provide clinicians and researchers with an enhanced understanding of their divergent positions. Both differentiation and attachment are developmental theories that highlight the human experience of balancing individuality and connection in adulthood. The two models converge in terms of metaconcepts that pervade their respective theories and approach. Both models capitalize on the depth and importance of the therapeutic relationship, and provide rich case conceptualization and processes of therapy. However, they substantially differ in terms of how they view the fundamental aspects of adult development, have vastly divergent approaches to how a therapist intervenes in the room, and different ideas of how a healthy couple should function. In light of the deep polarization of the two models, points of integration-particularly between the broader theories of attachment and differentiation-are offered for therapists to consider. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  2. Characteristics and allowed behaviors of gay male couples' sexual agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.

  3. Perturbative Critical Behavior from Spacetime Dependent Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    We find novel perturbative fixed points by introducing mildly spacetime-dependent couplings into otherwise marginal terms. In four-dimensional QFT, these are physical analogues of the small-ε Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Rather than considering 4-ε dimensions, we stay in four dimensions but introduce couplings whose leading spacetime dependence is of the form λx κ μ κ , with a small parameter κ playing a role analogous to ε. We show, in φ 4 theory and in QED and QCD with massless flavors, that this leads to a critical theory under perturbative control over an exponentially wide window of spacetime positions x. The exact fixed point coupling λ * (x) in our theory is identical to the running coupling of the translationally invariant theory, with the scale replaced by 1/x. Similar statements hold for three-dimensional φ 6 theories and two-dimensional sigma models with curved target spaces. We also describe strongly coupled examples using conformal perturbation theory.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  5. Clinical Perspective Cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interventions are available for treating adolescent depression. This paper attempts to present a summary of cognitive behavioral therapies/techniques that might be useful for treating depression in Asian immigrant adolescents. Articles were selected by conducting a literature search on Psyc-Info. Prevalence ...

  6. Treatment Failure in Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Malkinson, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...

  9. [Attempt at scientific theoretical classification of behavior therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecker, H

    1976-01-01

    Following the discussion about the position of behavior therapy there are mentioned some problems of behaviorism, the connection between behavior therapy and learning theory and problems of etiology and treatment. The usefulness of known criteria (formal as well as non-formal) should be demonstrated. There are discussed three different positions of behavior therapy within the scientific disciplines.

  10. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton,1 Gavin Andrews2 1National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Mental Health and Substance Use, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression (CRUfAD, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. Keywords: suicidal behaviors, suicidal cognitions, CBT

  12. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone

    . One of the most common and successfully used treatments for phobic conditions has been Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which helps people learn to detect thinking patterns that trigger the irrational fear and to replace them with more realistic ideas. The health and financial impacts in society...... presented here is being designed in a modular and scalable fashion. The web-based module can be accessed anywhere any time from a PC connected to the internet and can be used alone or as supplement for a location-based module for in situ gradual exposure therapy....

  13. Improvements in closeness, communication, and psychological distress mediate effects of couple therapy for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Brian D; Mitchell, Alexandra; Georgia, Emily J; Biesen, Judith N; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson

    2015-04-01

    Empirically based couple therapy results in significant improvements in relationship satisfaction for the average couple; however, further research is needed to identify mediators that lead to change and to ensure that improvements in mediators predict subsequent-not just concurrent-relationship satisfaction. In addition, given that much of the current literature on couple therapy examines outcomes in a research environment, it is important to examine mediators in a treatment-as-usual setting. To address these questions, 161 heterosexual couples (322 individuals) received treatment-as-usual couple therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers (M = 5.0 and 13.0 sessions at the two sites) and were assessed before every session. The majority of couples were married (85%) and had been together for a median of 7.8 years (SD = 13). Participants were primarily White, non-Hispanic (69%), African American (21%), and White, Hispanic/Latino (8%). Individuals' own self-reported improvements in communication, emotional closeness, and psychological distress (but not frequency of behaviors targeted in treatment) mediated the effect of treatment on their subsequent relationship satisfaction. When all significant mediators were examined simultaneously, improvements in men's and women's emotional closeness and men's psychological distress independently mediated subsequent relationship satisfaction. In contrast, improvements in earlier relationship satisfaction mediated the effect of treatment only on subsequent psychological distress. This study identifies unique mediators of treatment effects and shows that gains in mechanisms predict subsequent relationship satisfaction. Future investigations should focus on the role of emotional closeness and psychological distress-constructs that have often been neglected-in couple therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Casual Effects of Emotion on Couples' Cognition and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Frazier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 translational studies that assessed the causal effects of emotion on maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in couples. Specifically, the authors examined whether negative emotions increased and positive emotions decreased partner attributions and demand-withdraw behaviors. Study 1 (N=164) used video clips to assess the…

  15. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...

  16. New Sexism in Couple Therapy: A Discursive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Olga; LaMarre, Andrea; Rice, Carla; Hardt, Laura; Le Couteur, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    The persistence of gender inequality in postindustrial societies is puzzling in light of a plethora of changes that destabilize it, including shifts in economy, legislation, and the proliferation of feminist politics. In family relations, such persistence manifests as a disconnect between couples aspiring to be more egalitarian yet continuing to enact traditional gender roles and hierarchies. There is an emerging consensus that gender inequality persists because of people's continued reliance on sexist ideology or gendered assumptions that constitute women as innately distinct from and inferior to men. Sexist ideology changes its form to accommodate to changing socio-economic conditions. Contemporary forms of sexism are old ways of legitimizing male power articulated in new and creative ways, often by incorporating feminist arguments. To effectively recognize and address "new sexism," scholars and practitioners require new, innovative research frameworks. Our objective in writing this article is two-fold. First, we seek to advance discursive (i.e., focused on language in use) approaches to the study of sexism. Second, we present the results of a discursive analysis of "new" sexist discourse in the context of couple therapy. The study provides preliminary evidence that, despite endorsing egalitarian norms, couples studied continue to rely on gender binaries and remain entrenched in old-fashioned patterns of gender inequality. Implications of these results for the practice of couple therapy and for future research are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  17. Internet-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2017-12-01

    Internet-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a way to deliver cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been found to generate similar effects as face-to-face CBT in some studies. Results have been replicated by different research groups. This article presents the treatment format and reviews evidence for mood and anxiety disorders. Future developments are discussed, including the lack of theories specific for the treatment format and ways to handle comorbidity. Although some programs have been implemented there is a need for further studies in clinical settings. Overall, clinician-assisted ICBT is becoming one of the most evidence-based forms of psychological treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Third generation cognitive behavioral therapy (TGT: Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moreno Coutiño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review mindfulness, which is a so-called third generation cognitive behavioral therapy (TGT. Contributions of these specific therapies are appreciated in their techniques, which have as therapeutic principle abandoning the battle against the symptoms and redirecting life instead. TGT have recently begun to be studied in major universities around the world, and have been successfully used in various clinical settings, as well as in various Western countries. This kind of therapy has also been evaluated in Latin America, but its introduction in the clinical and academic fields has been slower, perhaps because the general principles of mindfulness have not yet been sufficiently widespread. This paper summarizes the basis of TGT, describes its therapeutic approach, exposes the links between the main Buddhist precepts and mindfulness, and summarizes the current status of its research in the world.

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...

  20. Vaginismus treatment. Hypnotherapy versus behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sughayir, Mohammed A

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of vaginismus compared to behavior therapy. A consecutive sample of 36 women with vaginismus (DSM-IV criteria) referred to the out-patient psychiatry clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Riyadh between 1999-2003 were divided into 2 groups for either treatment on a random basis. A female psychologist independently and carefully assessed patients before and after treatment. Patients were treated until they achieved satisfactory sexual intercourse. Although both behavior therapy and hypnotherapy were successful in treating vaginismus, hypnotherapy performed better than behavior therapy in reducing the level of the wife`s sex-related anxiety and in improving the husband`s sexual satisfaction score. Success tended to occur faster in women treated with hypnotherapy as they received fewer treatment sessions. Women with vaginismus can be successfully treated by hypnotherapy without simultaneous treatment of their husbands. Hypnotherapy can provide an acceptable time and cost effective therapeutic tool that helps resolve vaginismus and improves sexual satisfaction in both spouses.

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Nature and Relation to Non-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Group and Individual Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others

    The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2006-12-01

    To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.

  4. The Case for Insurance Reimbursement of Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Robb E; Davis, Stephanie Y; Miller, Richard B; Webster, Tabitha N

    2017-08-22

    A case is made for why it may now be in the best interest of insurance companies to reimburse for marital therapy to treat marital distress. Relevant literature is reviewed with a considerable focus on the reasons that insurance companies would benefit from reimbursing marital therapy - the high costs of marital distress, the growing link between marital distress and a host of related physical and mental health problems, as well as the availability of empirically supported treatments for marital distress. This is followed by a focus on the major reasons insurance companies cite for not reimbursing marital therapy, along with a discussion of advances in several growing bodies of research to address these concerns. Main arguments include the direct medical offset costs of couple and family therapy (including for high utilizers of health insurance), and the fact that insurance companies already find it cost effective to reimburse for prevention of other health and psychological problems. This is followed by implications for practitioners and researchers. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. [Dialectical behavior therapy approaches with disruptive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Manetsch, Madleina; Vriends, Noortje

    2016-11-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise the diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) and in adults the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder (APD). CD is seen as a difficult-to-treat disorder with a high risk for persistent behavioral problems. In addition, CD is seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder (Kretschmer et al., 2014). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed by Marsha Linehan (1991) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but because of the core deficits in emotion regulation in disruptive behavior disorders, DBT is also increasingly being recommended for the treatment of CD and APD. This review presents DBT adaptions for the forensic setting and for the treatment of CD/APD. Clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2013-07-05

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.

  7. Comparison effectiveness of Dialectic Behavioral Therapy and Behavior Cognitive Therapy on Depression in the Multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Balsimelli S, Mendes MF, Bertolucci PH, Tilbery CP. Attention impairment associated with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with mild incapacity. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65(2A:262-7. Zamani N, Ahmadi V, Ataie Moghanloo V, Mirshekar S. Comparing the effectiveness of two therapeutic methods of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on the improvement of impulsive behavior in the patients suffering  from major depressive disorder (MDD showing a tendency to suicide. J Ilam Univ Med Sci 2014;22(5:45-54. [Full Text in Persian] Sadovnick AD. European charcot foundation lecture: The natural history of multiple sclerosis and gender. J Neurol Sci 2009;286(1-2:1-5. Robins LN. Psychiatric epidemiology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41(10:931-33. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S. Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2001;58(10:1602-6.  Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, Michel Clanet M, Cohen JA, Filippi M, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: Revisions to the McDonald Criteria. Ann Neurol 2011;69(2:292–302. Zamani N, Farhadi M, Jamilian HR, Habibi M. Effectiveness of dialectical behavior group therapy on expulsive anger. J Arak Univ Med Sci 2015;8(101:35-44. [Full Text in Persian] Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema therapy: A Practitioner’s guide. Translated by: Hamidpoor H. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. Linehan M. Dialectical Behavior therapy frequently Asked Questions. Avalaible From: http://behavioraltech.org/downloads/dbtFaq_Cons.pdf. Accessed Sep, 2008. Zamani N, Habibi M, Darvishi M. To compare the effectiveness dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities. Arak Med Univ J 2015;18(94:32-42. [Full Text in Persian] Hawton K, Salkous K, Clarck. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychiatric problems, a practical guide. Translated by: Ghasemzadeh H. Tehran: Arjomand Pub; 2002

  8. Quenching oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Xiao, Rui; Yang, Xiaoli; Xu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Oscillation quenching has been widely studied during the past several decades in fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering, but investigations have so far been restricted to oscillators with an integer-order derivative. Here, we report the first study of amplitude death (AD) in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with partial and/or complete conjugate couplings to explore oscillation quenching patterns and dynamics. It has been found that the fractional-order derivative impacts the AD state crucially. The area of the AD state increases along with the decrease of the fractional-order derivative. Furthermore, by introducing and adjusting a limiting feedback factor in coupling links, the AD state can be well tamed in fractional coupled oscillators. Hence, it provides one an effective approach to analyze and control the oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled oscillators.

  9. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very non-smooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs

  10. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very nonsmooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.

  12. Emotion regulation in schema therapy and dialectical behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fassbinder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.

  13. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  14. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljić, Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  16. Comparing Brain Behavioral Systems in Couples Engaged in Infidelity and Normal Couples in Tabriz, Tehran and Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karimpour Vazifehkhorani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study aimed to compare Gary Behavioral Systems (behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system in normal couples and those engaged in marital infidelity. Material and Methods: The research was descriptive and causal-comparative. Study population consisted of normal couples and couples who were betrayed in the cities of Tehran, Karaj and Tabriz that were referred to counseling clinics. Study sample consisted of 100 clients; 50 normal couples and 50 couples who were involved in marital infidelity. Sampling was targeted. To collect data, Grey-Wilson's and wife infidelity questionnaires were used. Results: Inhibition of behavior in normal couples was higher than couples involved in marital infidelity which was significant at P Conclusion: Couples who have activation system of high sensitivity are more involved in the phenomenon of marital infidelity compared to the couples who are at high behavioral inhibition system.

  17. Convergence analysis of neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling behavior of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Cai, Jiejin

    2013-01-01

    The neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling (N–T coupling) calculations play an important role in core design and stability analysis. The traditional iterative method is not applicable for some new reactors (such as supercritical water-cooled reactor) which have intense N–T coupling behavior. In this paper, the mathematical model of N–T coupling based on fixed point theory is established firstly, with the convergent criterion, which can show the real-time convergence situation of iteration. Secondly, the self-adaptive relaxation factor and corresponding algorithm are proposed. Thirdly, the convergence analysis of the method of self-adaptive relaxation factor and common relaxation iteration has been performed, based on three calculation examples of SCWR fuel assembly. The results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reduce the calculation time and be adapted to different coupling cases and different initial distribution. It is easy to program, providing convenience for reactor design and analysis. This research also provides the theoretical basis for further study of N–T coupling behavior of new reactors such as SCWR

  18. Harsh parenting, child behavior problems, and the dynamic coupling of parents' and children's positive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Ram, Nilam; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Yin, Peifeng

    2017-09-01

    We examined self-reported maternal and paternal harsh parenting (HP) and its effect on the moment-to-moment dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's positive, autonomous behavior. This positive behavior coupling was measured via hidden Markov models as the likelihood of transitions into specific positive dyadic states in real time. We also examined whether positive behavior coupling, in turn, predicted later HP and child behavior problems. Children (N = 96; age = 3.5 years at Time 1) and mothers completed structured clean-up and puzzle tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' and fathers' HP was associated with children's being less likely to respond positively to maternal autonomy support; mothers' HP was also associated with mothers' being less likely to respond positively to children's autonomous behavior. When mothers responded to children's autonomous behavior with greater autonomy support, children showed fewer externalizing and internalizing problems over time and mothers showed less HP over time. These results were unique to the dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's autonomous behavior: The overall amount of these positive behaviors did not similarly predict reduced problems. Findings suggest that HP in the family system compromises the coregulation of positive behavior between mother and child and that improving mothers' and children's abilities to respond optimally to one another's autonomy-supportive behaviors may reduce HP and child behavior problems over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Second Edition. Theories of Psychotherapy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    In this revised edition of "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy," Michelle G. Craske discusses the history, theory, and practice of this commonly practiced therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in the science and theory of classical and instrumental conditioning when cognitive principles were adopted following dissatisfaction…

  20. Valuable, but not maximal: it's time behavior therapy attend to its behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1999-04-01

    The field of behavior therapy is not in touch with itself in terms of its overarching behaviorism. Many erroneously consider its basic behaviorism to have been radical behaviorism and continue to look to develop behavior therapy (including behavior analysis and behavioral assessment) within that framework. But that approach turns out to be much less than maximal because there is a more advanced, better developed behaviorism within which to conduct and project the field. There is much that behavior therapy is not doing in practice and research because it is not making full use of that behaviorism foundation.

  1. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  2. Breaking the mold: sculpting impasses in couples' therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Peggy; Scheinkman, Michele; Malpas, Jean

    2013-03-01

    In the fall of 2009, we the authors started a project at the Ackerman Institute for the Family in New York City that focuses on understanding and transforming impasses in couples' therapy. In experimenting with various interventions, we discovered the power of sculpting to capture and transform stalemates in couples relationships. In this article, we describe the ways in which sculpting brings forward the gestalt of a couple's impasse, highlights nuances of emotions and feelings, and reveals elements of both present and past. We also discuss the ways in which sculpting illuminates the partners' sense of self in the relationship as they feel constrained within their reciprocal dynamics. Through three different cases, we outline a protocol for sculpting. We demonstrate how the therapist invites the partners to create a visual/sensory narrative of their impasse, guides staging of their metaphors and images, and utilizes their enactments to unpack emotions, beliefs, and patterns that are typically on the periphery of awareness. We also articulate how sculpting offers a platform for the process of change. © FPI, Inc.

  3. Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Andrews, Michael A.; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Lin; Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that a key component of successful infection control efforts is understanding the complex, two-way interaction between disease dynamics and human behavioral and social dynamics. Human behavior such as contact precautions and social distancing clearly influence disease prevalence, but disease prevalence can in turn alter human behavior, forming a coupled, nonlinear system. Moreover, in many cases, the spatial structure of the population cannot be ignored, such that social and behavioral processes and/or transmission of infection must be represented with complex networks. Research on studying coupled disease-behavior dynamics in complex networks in particular is growing rapidly, and frequently makes use of analysis methods and concepts from statistical physics. Here, we review some of the growing literature in this area. We contrast network-based approaches to homogeneous-mixing approaches, point out how their predictions differ, and describe the rich and often surprising behavior of disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks, and compare them to processes in statistical physics. We discuss how these models can capture the dynamics that characterize many real-world scenarios, thereby suggesting ways that policy makers can better design effective prevention strategies. We also describe the growing sources of digital data that are facilitating research in this area. Finally, we suggest pitfalls which might be faced by researchers in the field, and we suggest several ways in which the field could move forward in the coming years.

  4. Enhancing the Relationship Adjustment of South Asian Canadian Couples Using a Systemic-Constructivist Approach to Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saunia; Reid, David W

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) in improving the relationship adjustment of South Asian Canadian couples in ways that attend to their culture was evaluated. The SCCT interventions engage partners in reflexive processing of both their own and their partner's ways of construing, and the reciprocity between these two. A core change mechanism of SCCT, couple identity ("we-ness"), that connotes the ability for thinking and experiencing relationally, was coded from verbatim transcripts of partners' within-session dialogue. As predicted, South Asian partners' relationship adjustment improved significantly from the first to final session of SCCT, and concurrent increases in each partner's couple identity mediated such improvements. The implications for considering culture and couple identity in couple therapy are discussed. Video Abstract is found in the online version of the article. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. Personalized multistep cognitive behavioral therapy for obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave, Massimiliano Sartirana, Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Verona, Italy Abstract: Multistep cognitive behavioral therapy for obesity (CBT-OB is a treatment that may be delivered at three levels of care (outpatient, day hospital, and residential. In a stepped-care approach, CBT-OB associates the traditional procedures of weight-loss lifestyle modification, ie, physical activity and dietary recommendations, with specific cognitive behavioral strategies that have been indicated by recent research to influence weight loss and maintenance by addressing specific cognitive processes. The treatment program as a whole is delivered in six modules. These are introduced according to the individual patient’s needs in a flexible and personalized fashion. A recent randomized controlled trial has found that 88 patients suffering from morbid obesity treated with multistep residential CBT-OB achieved a mean weight loss of 15% after 12 months, with no tendency to regain weight between months 6 and 12. The treatment has also shown promising long-term results in the management of obesity associated with binge-eating disorder. If these encouraging findings are confirmed by the two ongoing outpatient studies (one delivered individually and one in a group setting, this will provide evidence-based support for the potential of multistep CBT-OB to provide a more effective alternative to standard weight-loss lifestyle-modification programs. Keywords: obesity, cognitive behavioral therapy, lifestyle modification, weight loss, weight maintenance, outcome

  6. Partner Accommodation Moderates Treatment Outcomes for Couple Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J.; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Wagner, Anne C.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Partner accommodation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (i.e., altering one’s own behaviors to minimize patient distress and/or relationship conflict due to patients’ PTSD symptoms) has been shown to be positively associated with patient and partner psychopathology and negatively associated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction cross-sectionally. However, the prognostic value of partner accommodation in treatment outcomes is unknown. The goals of the present study were to determine if partner accommodation decreases as a function of couple therapy for PTSD and if pretreatment partner accommodation moderates the efficacy of couple therapy for PTSD. Method Thirty-nine patients with PTSD and their intimate partners (n = 39) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012) and received CBCT for PTSD immediately or after three months of waiting. Blinded assessors determined clinician-rated PTSD symptoms and patient-rated PTSD and depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction at baseline, mid-treatment/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting. Results Contrary to expectation, partner accommodation levels did not change over time for either treatment condition. However, baseline partner accommodation significantly moderated treatment outcomes. Higher levels of partner accommodation were associated with greater improvements in PTSD, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction among patients receiving CBCT for PTSD compared with waiting list. At lower levels of partner accommodation, patients in both groups improved or remained at low levels of these outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD who have more accommodating partners may be particularly well-suited for couple therapy for PTSD. PMID:26501498

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  8. A Review of the Research in Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Stephanie A; Johnson, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is a brief evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Since the development of EFT, efficacy and effectiveness research has accumulated to address a range of couple concerns. EFT meets or exceeds the guidelines for classification as an evidence-based couple therapy outlined for couple and family research. Furthermore, EFT researchers have examined the process of change and predictors of outcome in EFT. Future research in EFT will continue to examine the process of change in EFT and test the efficacy and effectiveness of EFT in new applications and for couples of diverse backgrounds and concerns. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Multimodal Behavior Therapy: Case Study of a High School Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1981-01-01

    A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)

  10. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties

  11. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene Wilhelmstrasse 3a, Freiburg 79098 (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties.

  12. Investigating Confusion Between Perceptions of Relationship Education and Couples Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K. Burr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although relationship education (RE and couples therapy (CT have similar goals in helping build and sustain healthy couple and family relationships, there remains confusion between the focus and structure of the two services. Literature on the marketing of family programs indicates that the awareness level of the target audience should dictate marketing and recruitment messages. Lack of awareness regarding RE and confusion over the difference between RE and CT most likely affects the decision to attend. In order to inform RE recruitment and marketing approaches, this study investigated overall perceptions of RE, RE awareness, and confusion regarding the difference between RE and CT in a sample of 1,977 individuals. Differences in perceptions were also explored by relationship satisfaction and gender. Results showed a fairly high lack of awareness of RE and confusion between RE and CT. Results also showed that respondents in more satisfying relationships see RE less positively, and men see RE less positively than women. Implications for practitioners and researchers are presented.

  13. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  14. Non-statistical behavior of coupled optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pando Lambruschini, C.; Sinha, S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1991-10-01

    We study globally coupled chaotic maps modeling an optical system, and find clear evidence of non-statistical behavior: the mean square deviation (MSD) of the mean field saturates with respect to increase in the number of elements coupled, after a critical value, and its distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We also find that the power spectrum of the mean field displays well defined peaks, indicating a subtle coherence among different elements, even in the ''turbulent'' phase. This system is a physically realistic model that may be experimentally realizable. It is also a higher dimensional example (as each individual element is given by a complex map). Its study confirms that the phenomena observed in a wide class of coupled one-dimensional maps are present here as well. This gives more evidence to believe that such non-statistical behavior is probably generic in globally coupled systems. We also investigate the influence of parametric fluctuations on the MSD. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  15. Teaching Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…

  16. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenhao; Ma, Lulin; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Yuqing; Chen, Zhenwen

    2004-05-01

    To study the efficacy of Viagra combined with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation (PE). Sixty PE patients were divided into two groups randomly: control group (behavior therapy alone) and the group of Viagra combined with behavior therapy. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the coitus satisfaction of the patient and the partner were recorded before and after treatment. The IELTs of the two groups were 0.80 +/- 0.20 and 0.73 +/- 0.24 minutes respectively before treatment, and 1.82 +/- 0.54 and 3.63 +/- 0.55 minutes respectively after treatment. As for IELT and satisfaction degree, Viagra produced better result than behavior therapy. During this clinical trial, Viagra combined with behavior therapy prolonged IELT, which suggests that Viagra may be helpful for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  17. Neutron therapy coupling brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Iara Ferreira.

    1994-12-01

    In the present dissertation, neutron radiation techniques applied into organs of the human body are investigated as oncologic radiation therapy. The proposal treatment consists on connecting two distinct techniques: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and irradiation by discrete sources of neutrons, through the brachytherapy conception. Biological and radio-dosimetrical aspects of the two techniques are considered. Nuclear aspects are discussed, presenting the nuclear reactions occurred in tumoral region, and describing the forms of evaluating the dose curves. Methods for estimating radiation transmission are reviewed through the solution of the neutron transport equation, Monte Carlo methodology, and simplified analytical calculation based on diffusion equation and numerical integration. The last is computational developed and presented as a quickly way to neutron transport evaluation in homogeneous medium. The computational evaluation of the doses for distinct hypothetical situations is presented, applying the coupled techniques BNTC and brachytherapy as an possible oncologic treatment. (author). 78 refs., 61 figs., 21 tabs

  18. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  19. Behavioral Disorders, Learning Disabilities and Megavitamin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPerchia, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…

  20. Dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dena A; Miller, Alec L

    2011-04-01

    Although research to date on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for adolescents has its limitations, growing evidence suggests that DBT is a promising treatment for adolescents with a range of problematic behaviors, including but not limited to suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. This article introduces dialectical behavior therapy's theoretical underpinnings, describes its adaptation for suicidal adolescents, and provides a brief review of the empirical literature evaluating DBT with adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Cooper, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: There is limited evidence that physical behavioral techniques for PE improve IELT and other outcomes over waitlist and that behavioral therapies combined with drug treatments give better outcomes than drug treatments alone. Further RCTs are required to assess psychotherapeutic approaches to PE. Cooper K, Martyn‐St James M, Kaltenthaler E, Dickinson K, Cantrell A, Wylie K, Frodsham L, and Hood C. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: A systematic review. Sex Med 2015;3:174–188.

  2. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.

  3. An adaptive randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for binge-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E Y; Cacioppo, J; Fettich, K; Gallop, R; McCloskey, M S; Olino, T; Zeffiro, T A

    2017-03-01

    Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = -0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.

  4. Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…

  5. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  6. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  7. Insecure attachment behavior and partner violence: incorporating couple perceptions of insecure attachment and relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence and insecure attachment are therapeutically relevant concepts when working with couples. The link between attachment and intimate partner violence has been examined in the literature, but an area of aggression that often goes unexamined is relational aggression, or using third parties as a means of being aggressive toward a partner. We asked how participants' attachment behaviors were related to their own and partners' relational and physical aggression. We used structural equation modeling to estimate actor-partner interdependence among these relationships in 644 heterosexual couples. Results indicated significant partner paths from attachment to relational aggression, as well as significant actor paths between relational aggression and physical aggression. Implications were discussed. Data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  9. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. We-ness and the Cultivation of Wisdom in Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Wisdom has played a key role in the attempt to understand the positive nature of human behavior since the time of Aristotle. In the past decade, psychology and related fields have experienced an expanding interest in the empirical and theoretical pursuit of wisdom. The relational dimension of wisdom has received less attention, although it may be viewed as embedded in the practice of all couple therapists. This article integrates previous work on resilience and positive functioning in committed partnerships and proposes relational wisdom to be a master virtue of relationship development, one that can be cultivated across the lifespan of the partnership. The aspects of relational wisdom such as self-reflection, attunement to self and other, balancing conflicting partner aims, the interpretation of rules and principles in light of the uniqueness of each situation and the capacity to learn from experience point to couples therapy as an ideal context for such skill building. Wisdom is built through dialog and the resulting individual and couple stories can serve as touchstones to what is most precious and vital in the relationship as well as guides for action through challenges and conflict. A clinical case is described to illustrate selected aspects of relational wisdom and implications for therapeutic practice. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  11. The effect of Gestalt therapy and cognitive- behavioral therapy on assertiveness in male guidance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Aryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of gestalt therapy and cognitive -behavioral therapy on assertiveness in middle school students. This study was a pre-post test experimental design. By cluster sampling between schools in Sharyar two schools were selected randomly. After conducting Gambrel and Rigy Questionnaire, 30 students were selected and assigned to three groups randomly. 8 sessions of gestalt therapy were implemented for one group and 8 sessions of cognitive- behavioral therapy were implemented for another group. The control group received no intervention. ANCOVA and Post hoc LSD Test were applied to analyze data. ANCOVA showed significant differences between groups. Post hoc LSD Test showed significant difference between the control group and the gestalt therapy and between the control group and cognitive -behavioral therapy group(P≤0/01, but there was no significant difference between the gestalt therapy and the cognitive- behavioral therapy group. Both gestalt therapy and cognitive- behavioral therapy had increased the assertiveness.

  12. Improving Mealtime Behaviors of a Multihandicapped Child Using Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, L. A.; Dixon, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Inappropriate mealtime behaviors of a blind, mentally retarded, behaviorally disordered 10-year-old were modified via behavior therapy techniques, including audiotape of favorite stories turned off during inappropriate behavior and praise (plus access to food) for appropriate napkin and utensil use, once desired sitting posture had been…

  13. A Behaviorally-Oriented Activities Therapy Program for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasanoff, Enid; Schrader, Carl

    1979-01-01

    A behaviorally-oriented activities therapy program was designed and implemented with adolescents who manifested problems at school, at home, and with peers. Techniques employed included: contingency contracting, assertiveness training, relaxation training, and cognitive restructuring. (Author/KC)

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  15. Gamblers anonymous and cognitive-behavioral therapies for pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia: An Initial Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  18. Battling on the Home Front: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Conflict Behavior among Military Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M.; Caska-Wallace, Catherine; Smith, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated interpersonal behavior differences among male military service members with and without PTSD and their female partners. Couples (N = 64) completed a 17-minute videotaped conflict discussion, and their interaction behavior was coded using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979; 1987; 2000). Within couples, the behavior of partners was very similar. Compared to military couples without PTSD, couples with PTSD displayed more interpersonal hostility and control. Couples with PTSD also exhibited more sulking, blaming, and controlling behavior, and less affirming and connecting behavior, than couples without PTSD. Results advance our understanding of the relational impacts of PTSD on military service members and their partners, and underscore the value of couple-based interventions for PTSD in the context of relationship distress. PMID:28270334

  19. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Couple Therapy on Communication Patterns and Intimacy of Couples Referring to Counseling Centers of Behbahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sodani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Intimacy is a key characteristic of marital relationships and is one of the most prominent characteristics of a successful marriage. Communication patterns can also determine marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of coupled collaborative therapy on communication patterns and intimacy of couples referring to Behbahan counseling centers. Methods: In this research, a single-trial experimental design, which was also called a single-trial trial, was used as a clinical trial. This design has different types. In the present study, several asynchronous base lines were used. Contrary to large-scale group comparison schemes, this design focuses on individual levels, not on average differences in pre-test and post-test. Another point of this plan is that fewer subjects are needed and couples completed the intimate questionnaire and communication patterns on the baseline, treatment and follow-up. Purposeful sampling was voluntary. The population of the study consisted of all disturbed couples referring to Behbahan psychological clinics. From these couples, 3 couples were selected based on entry and exit criteria. For analyzing the data, visual analysis (chart drawing, clinical significance (the changeover index and normative comparison, as well as the percentage of recovery, have been used. Results: The results indicated that couples experience improvement in intimacy (30.95% and interactive constructive communication model (47.05%, and in the communication model, the expected return (29.55% and communication pattern Interactive avoidance (33.64% showed a decrease. Likewise, data analysis using normative comparison showed that the couples after the treatment did not differ from the couples to the norm. Conclusion: Participatory couples’s therapy may increase the intimacy and constructive communication patterns and decrease the communication patterns of waiting and withdrawal

  20. Polarization-coupled tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruverman, Alexei [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Tsymbal, Evgeny Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Eom, Chang-Beom [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-03

    This research focuses on investigation of the physical mechanism of the electrically and mechanically tunable resistive behavior in oxide ferroelectric heterostructures with engineered interfaces realized via a strong coupling of ferroelectric polarization with tunneling electroresistance and metal-insulator (M-I) transitions. This report describes observation of electrically conductive domain walls in semiconducting ferroelectrics, voltage-free control of resistive switching and demonstration of a new mechanism of electrical control of 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. The research goals are achieved by creating strong synergy between cutting-edge fabrication of epitaxial single-crystalline complex oxides, nanoscale electrical characterization by scanning probe microscopy and theoretical modeling of the observed phenomena. The concept of the ferroelectric devices with electrically and mechanically tunable nonvolatile resistance represents a new paradigm shift in realization of the next-generation of non-volatile memory devices and low-power logic switches.

  1. The construction of a model of the process of couples' forgiveness in emotion-focused therapy for couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Catalina Woldarsky; Greenberg, Leslie S

    2011-10-01

    This study explored how forgiveness unfolds in the context of emotion-focused couples therapy (EFT-C) in eight cases of women betrayed by their partners. Forgiveness was defined as a process involving the reduction in negative feelings and the giving out of undeserved compassion. This was measured by changes in the pre- and posttreatment scores on the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the Unfinished Business Resolution Scale, and a single item directly asking respondents to indicate their degree of forgiveness. A task analysis was performed to rigorously track the steps leading to forgiveness using videotapes of therapy sessions for eight couples. The performance of the four couples who forgave were compared with each other and then contrasted with the performance of another four couples who did not reach forgiveness at the end of therapy. Based on these observations, a model of the process of forgiveness in EFT-C and a process rating system were developed. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  2. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  3. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  4. The global popularity of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Dattilio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the efficacy of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and the increasing global popularity of the approach among various cultures with a broad range of emotional and behavioral disorders. The article specifically discusses future direction in the field and implications for practitioners in various cultures.

  5. Thermorheological behavior and coupling problem of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychawski, Z.

    1975-01-01

    The rheological behavior of structural materials is considerably stimulated in the presence of a temperature field. This influence is manifested by the changes in their thermodynamic characteristics. Two alternatives of substantial behavior are investigated. One is concerned with comparatively small influence of dissipative properties on the amount of internal energy while the other one related to the deformation state characterized by almost total dissipation process. The above problems mentioned are discussed in connection with the meaning of thermomechanical coupling. A double significance may be prescribed to the latter. One follows from the appearence of heat fluxes due to deformation changes and the other is concerned with total or specified responses of the material. The corresponding constitutive equation for the body considered is derived by using the generalized superposition principle. On the basis of the functional obtained the form of dissipative function is obtained. It follows directly from superposing energetic phenomena of dissipative character. As both the procedures are effected at the differential level, the resulting integral forms are obtained by assuming the integrability conditions to be valid. The results are discussed on the basis of premises which follow from the law of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. It is concluded that dissipative ability of the material may constitute a certain measure of its actual stability. In particular, the amount of dissipated energy may indicate the attainment of certain state of the material in question which should be considered as critical

  6. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  7. Cognitive behavioral group therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardelli, Isabella; Bloise, Maria Carmela; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lamis, Dorian A; Pasquini, Massimo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cognitive behavioral group therapy has a positive impact on psychiatric, and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assigned 20 PD patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder to either a 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group or a psychoeducational protocol. For the neurological examination, we administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the non-motor symptoms scale. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions. Cognitive behavioral group therapy was effective in treating depression and anxiety symptoms as well as reducing the severity of non-motor symptoms in PD patients; whereas, no changes were observed in PD patients treated with the psychoeducational protocol. CBT offered in a group format should be considered in addition to standard drug therapy in PD patients.

  8. Group rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A

    1992-01-01

    The theory of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is briefly explained and is applied to group therapy. It is shown how RET and CBT therapy groups deal with transference, countertransference, levels of group intervention, process versus content orientation, identifying underlying group process themes, here-and-now activation, working with difficult group members, activity levels of therapist and group members, and other group problems. Although they particularly concentrate on people's tendencies to construct and create their own "emotional" difficulties, RET and CBT group procedures fully acknowledge the interactions of human thoughts, feelings, and actions and active-directively employ a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral group therapy techniques.

  9. Behavioral therapy for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.

  10. The Effects of a Couples-Based Health Behavior Intervention During Pregnancy on Latino Couples' Dyadic Satisfaction Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop Gordon, Kristina; Roberson, Patricia N E; Hughes, Jessica A; Khaddouma, Alexander M; Swamy, Geeta K; Noonan, Devon; Gonzalez, Alicia M; Fish, Laura; Pollak, Kathryn I

    2018-03-30

    Many couples tend to report steadily decreasing relationship quality following the birth of a child. However, little is known about the postpartum period for Latino couples, a rapidly growing ethnic group who are notably underserved by mental and physical health caregivers in the United States. Thus, this study investigated whether a brief couples' intervention focused on helping couples support each other while increasing healthy behaviors might improve dyadic functioning postpartum. This study presents secondary analyses of data regarding couple functioning from a larger randomized controlled trial with 348 Latino couples to promote smoking cessation. Portions of the intervention taught the couple communication and problem-solving skills to increase healthy behavior. Couples participated in four face-to-face assessments across 1 year starting at the end of the first trimester. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that the treatment group reported an increase in relationship satisfaction and constructive communication after the intervention, which diminished by 1-year follow-up, returning couples to their baseline levels of satisfaction. Results suggest that incorporating a brief couple intervention as part of a larger health intervention for Latinos may prevent postpartum decreases in relationship satisfaction. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  11. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  12. Transactional Analysis and Gestalt Therapy Used in Conjunction with Group Counseling for Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, P. Joe; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of combining Transactional Analysis and Gestalt therapy with group counseling for married couples. Six treatment couples and 12 control group members were pre/post administered the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale to assess changes in the level of their self-esteem. There were some significant results. (Author/JEL)

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief, Problem-Focused Couple Therapy for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Shiri; O’Leary, K. Daniel; Foran, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a brief couple therapy for depression targeted for mildly discordant or nondiscordant couples struggling with the negative impact of depression. Subjects included women with major depression or dysthymia who had husbands without clinical depression. Thirty-five couples were randomly assigned to the 5-week intervention (n = 18) or a waitlist control group (n = 17), and followed up 1 and 3 months later. Results showed a significant effect of treatment in re...

  14. A description of heterosexual couples' sexual adjustment to androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lauren M; Robinson, John W

    2011-08-01

    It is estimated that 600,000 men are currently living in North America with castrate levels of testosterone as a result of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to explore how patients and their partners adjust to changes associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eighteen couples were interviewed regarding their adjustment to ADT side effects. Three distinct patterns of adjustment were observed. One group of couples had assumed sex to be impossible after commencing ADT, and quickly accepted the loss of sex in exchange for a life extending treatment (four couples). Another group was found to be struggling to either maintain satisfying sex or adapt to the loss of their sexual relationship (five couples). The third group had struggled, but found that they were satisfied with their sexual outcome (nine couples). A subset of these couples successfully adjusted to changes in the man's sexual function and found satisfying ways to be sexually active (five couples). The finding that some couples are able to enjoy satisfying sex, despite castrate levels of testosterone, raised questions about how patients are prepared to undergo ADT and how they are managed. It is possible that both the couples who gave up on sex because they believed that satisfying sex was impossible, and the couples who continued to struggle to adjust, may have faired better if they had known how other couples are able to maintain satisfying sex while the man is androgen-deprived. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influence of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on derelict children’s aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Khazaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.

  16. A randomized trial of emotion-focused therapy for couples in a training clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, W H; Burleson, B R; Clark, T E; Rodriguez, C P; Hobbs, B V

    2000-01-01

    Forty married couples participated in a randomized trial comparing 8 weekly sessions of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for couples to a group of couples who were placed on an 8-week waiting list. A composite marital satisfaction score was created from scores on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Positive Feelings Questionnaire, and Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships scale. Controlling for pretest scores, participants in the treatment group had significantly higher levels of marital satisfaction after 8 weeks than wait-list participants. Supplementary analyses identified variables associated with gains in therapy and with dropping out of the study.

  17. Essential Palatal Tremor Managed by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Kitamura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Essential palatal tremor is a disorder of unknown etiology involving involuntary movement of the uvula and soft palate. Treatment attempts including drugs or surgery have been conducted to cease the rhythmical movement. Case Report. A 55-year-old female visited our department complaining of a sudden, noticeable, intermittent, and rhythmical clicking noise in her throat for five years. Oral examination revealed rhythmical contractions of the soft palate with clicking at the frequency of 120 per min. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain performed after consulting with the department of neuropathic internal medicine showed no abnormalities. Thus, essential palatal tremor was diagnosed. The symptoms improved with cognitive behavioral therapy without drugs or surgical treatments. The patient is now able to stop the rhythmical movement voluntarily. Discussion. Cognitive behavioral therapy might be suitable as first-line therapy for essential palatal tremor because the therapy is noninvasive.

  18. Group treatment for trichotillomania: cognitive-behavioral therapy versus supportive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Treatment of post-stroke dysphagia by vitalstim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Lei, Qingtao; Tang, Zhouping; Hua, Qiang; Zhang, Yangpu; Zhu, Suiqiang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training on recovery of post-stroke dysphagia, a total of 120 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: conventional swallowing therapy group, VitalStim therapy group, and VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing therapy group. Prior to and after the treatment, signals of surface electromyography (sEMG) of swallowing muscles were detected, swallowing function was evaluated by using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) tests, and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QOL) was evaluated using the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA, VFSS, and SWAL-QOL scores in each group between prior to and after treatment. After 4-week treatment, sEMG value, SSA, VFSS and SWAL-QOL scores were significantly greater in the VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing training group than in the conventional swallowing training group and VitalStim therapy group, but no significant difference existed between conventional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim therapy group. It was concluded that VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training was conducive to recovery of post-stroke dysphagia.

  20. Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224

  1. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments.

  2. Cognitive and behavioral predictors of light therapy use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Roecklein

    Full Text Available Although light therapy is effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD and other mood disorders, only 53-79% of individuals with SAD meet remission criteria after light therapy. Perhaps more importantly, only 12-41% of individuals with SAD continue to use the treatment even after a previous winter of successful treatment.Participants completed surveys regarding (1 social, cognitive, and behavioral variables used to evaluate treatment adherence for other health-related issues, expectations and credibility of light therapy, (2 a depression symptoms scale, and (3 self-reported light therapy use.Individuals age 18 or older responded (n = 40, all reporting having been diagnosed with a mood disorder for which light therapy is indicated. Social support and self-efficacy scores were predictive of light therapy use (p's<.05.The findings suggest that testing social support and self-efficacy in a diagnosed patient population may identify factors related to the decision to use light therapy. Treatments that impact social support and self-efficacy may improve treatment response to light therapy in SAD.

  3. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy: A Couples Skills Group for Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jennifer S.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2007-01-01

    Given the reciprocal influences of emotion dysregulation and relationship functioning, it is important to target such emotional difficulties within an interpersonal context. Treating emotion dysregulation within intimate relationships can offer valuable opportunities for both emotional and relationship difficulties to be addressed. This paper…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  5. Helping Individuals with Sleep Disturbances: Some Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Patricia M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a range of behavior therapy techniques for treating sleep disturbances, including physical activity, relaxation training, biofeedback, autogenic training, and cognitive techniques. The importance of understanding the client's background is emphasized. Restoring the client's self-control and positive psychological growth are stressed.…

  6. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  8. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

  9. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…

  10. Patient Characteristics and Outcome in Psychotherapy and Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, R. Bruce; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Psychoneurotic or personality disordered patients (N=94) received four months of analytically oriented psychotherapy, behavior therapy, or waiting list treatment. Neither active treatment was more effective than the other with any type of symptom (including affective ones), although both were more consistently effective than the waiting list.…

  11. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  12. Effect of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ranjbar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most prevalent psychotic disorder. In order to cure and prevent the recurrence of this disease, it is necessary to gain more information about remedial methods like Group Cognitive- Behavior Therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the amount of depression on the patients. Methods: This study was experimental and it included both experimental and control group with a pre test. The subjects were selected from patients with mild depression. Their Beck inventory score ranged between 17-20. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. The subjects of experimental group received eight sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. The Beck depression test was completed by the subjects in three phases before the intervention, after the intervention and one month after that. The data was transferred to SPSS program and analyzed. Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the intervention at Beck tests (P=0.043. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the experimental group between the depression score in patients before and after the intervention (p=0.033 and the score of patients before and one month after the intervention (p=0.492. Conclusion: Group Cognitive-Behavioral therapy decreases depression in patients who suffer from mild depression.

  13. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  14. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  15. Coding "We-ness" in couple's relationship stories: A method for assessing mutuality in couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Sara; Singer, Jefferson A; Skerrett, Karen; Wein, Shelter

    2017-05-01

    "We-ness," a couple's mutual investment in their relationship and in each other, has been found to be a potent dimension of couple resilience. This study examined the development of a method to capture We-ness in psychotherapy through the coding of relationship narratives co-constructed by couples ("We-Stories"). It used a coding system to identify the core thematic elements that make up these narratives. Couples that self-identified as "happy" (N = 53) generated We-Stories and completed measures of relationship satisfaction and mutuality. These stories were then coded using the We-Stories coding manual. Findings indicated that security, an element that involves aspects of safety, support, and commitment, was most common, appearing in 58.5% of all narratives. This element was followed by the elements of pleasure (49.1%) and shared meaning/vision (37.7%). The number of "We-ness" elements was also correlated with and predictive of discrepancy scores on measures of relationship mutuality, indicating the validity of the We-Stories coding manual. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  16. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT): Description of approach, theoretical advances, and published longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David W; Doell, Faye K; Dalton, E Jane; Ahmad, Saunia

    2008-12-01

    The systemic-constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social-environmental context of the couple. The theory that underlies SCCT is explained, including concepts such as we-ness and interpersonal processing. The primary components of the therapy are described. Findings described previously in an inaugural monograph containing extensive research demonstrating the long-term utility of SCCT are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Compare to Campaign Advertisement Programs in Reducing Aggressive Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Saraswati; Dyah T Indirasari; Dewi Maulina; Guritnaningsih A Santoso

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three intervention programs, i.e. CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy), humor appeal advertisements (positive ads), and fear appeal advertisements (negative ads) in reducing aggressive driving behavior. 196 young adults age between 18–35 years old, who are considered to be at risk in performing aggressive driving behavior had completed four self report inventories. The four inventories measures perception on traffic conditions, degree of fr...

  18. Evaluation and diagnosis in cognitive-behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Figueiredo Araújo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of cognitive-behavior therapy is that it is based on a specific clinical formulation of the case. This means that the therapist, using interviews and inventories, in a particular way, needs to understand and integrate the history of his/her client and his/her current problems. Clinical strategies can be then tailored to deal with the client’s difficulties. The establishment of adequate and warm interpersonal and therapeutical relationship depends greatly on this empathic and accurate understanding of the client’s problems. The present article intends to present this approach to case formulation based on a cognitive behavior perspective. It also includes a brief review of theoretic-clinical aspects, assessment tools and suggested procedures. The conclusion is that an adequate  formulation is essential to success in psychotherapy. Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy; case formulation; psychodiagnosis.

  19. Acceptance-based behavior therapy to promote HIV medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2011-12-01

    A significant number of adults with HIV in the USA do not maintain adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at adequate levels. Although traditional cognitive behavioral interventions have shown promise in promoting HAART adherence, acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) may be particularly useful in this population. ABBT has the potential to overcome common avoidance-based barriers associated with poor adherence, including denial of various illness-related factors and avoidance of stigmatization. We describe the rationale for promoting psychological and behavioral acceptance in HIV-positive populations; outline an ABBT to promote HAART adherence targeting primary care patients from urban, minority, low socioeconomic backgrounds; and report preliminary qualitative observations of treatment feasibility and acceptability.

  20. Sex and couples therapy: a method of treatment to enhance physical and emotional intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been well documented that couples presenting for sex therapy frequently have difficulties in resolving conflict and in expressing emotional as well as physical intimacy. Recent studies have shown that intimacy is an important variable in determining the health or pathology in the dyadic system. Furthermore, the level of intimacy is influenced by a capacity for self disclosure and an ability to consider the partner's opinion. This paper describes a method of treatment that combines well-known strategies to treat sexual problems with a new approach to couples therapy, which encourages self-disclosure to facilitate mutual understanding, decrease conflict, and increase intimacy.

  1. Acceptance and commitment therapy: the new wave of cognitive behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is one of the major counseling theories today. However, reliability of this theory has received criticism from other theories, which claim to cognitive interventions do not provide added value on behavioral interventions. The theory criticized and showed dissatisfaction with the practice of CBT is the theory of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT. Furthermore, ACT is known to a new generation of CBT.ACT is one of the new counseling approach that can be applied to school counselors to deal with the issues of students in the school.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  3. Predicting Behavioral Problems in Craniopharyngioma Survivors after Conformal Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, Eugenia P.; Conklin, Heather M.; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although radiation therapy is a primary treatment for craniopharyngioma, it can exacerbate existing problems related to the tumor and pre-irradiation management. Survival is often marked by neurologic deficits, panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, cognitive deficiencies and behavioral and social problems. Procedure The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to evaluate behavioral and social problems during the first five years of follow-up in 27 patients with craniopharyngioma treated with conformal radiation therapy. Results All group averages for the CBCL scales were within the age-typical range at pre-irradiation baseline. Extent of surgical resection was implicated in baseline differences for the Internalizing, Externalizing, Behavior Problem and Social scores. Significant longitudinal changes were found in Internalizing, Externalizing, Behavior Problem and School scores that correlated with tumor and treatment related factors. Conclusions The most common variables implicated in post-irradiation behavioral and social problems were CSF shunting, presence of an Ommaya reservoir, diabetes insipidus, and low pre-irradiation growth hormone levels. PMID:19191345

  4. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders versus normalization of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M

    2017-05-15

    We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY (ACT): BEHAVIORISM, MINDFULNESS AND VALUES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Juan Pablo; Teti, Germán Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled have been developed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third generation therapy that essentially seeks to promote the acceptance of private events in opposition to their modification or change, with the aim of promoting cognitive flexibility. Thus, it is intended that the subject be permitted to choose their behavior consistent with personal values. The current work aims to provide overview specific to the contextual conditions that promoted the emergence of ACT, the underlying philosophy and theory, and the particularities of the intervention model.

  6. The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in Music Therapy: A Sequential Explanatory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalek, Carolyn M; McKinney, Cathy H

    2015-01-01

    There are published examples of how dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and music therapy are effectively being used as separate therapies in the treatment of individuals with a variety of mental health disorders. However, research examining DBT-informed music therapy is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether music therapists working in mental health settings are implementing components of DBT in their work, and if so, how and why; and if not, why not and what is their level of interest in such work. We used a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design implemented in two phases. Phase 1 was a quantitative survey of board-certified music therapists (n=260). Due to a low survey response rate (18%), and to enhance the validity of the findings, Phase 2, an embedded qualitative procedure in the form of interviews with clinicians experienced in the DBT approach, was added to the study. Both survey and interviews inquired about DBT training, use of DBT-informed music therapy, music therapy experiences used to address DBT skills, and experiences of implementing DBT-informed music therapy. Respondents indicating they implement DBT-informed music therapy (38.3%) are using components and adaptations of the standard DBT protocol. Advantages of implementing DBT-informed music therapy were identified, and more than half of the respondents who do not implement DBT in their music therapy practice also perceived this work as at least somewhat important. Disadvantages were also identified and support the need for further research. Components of DBT are used in music therapy and are valued, but there is a lack of empirical evidence to inform, refine, and guide practice. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Polarized Couples in Therapy: Recognizing Indifference as the Opposite of Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G

    2017-01-02

    How can a couple "fall in love" and then subsequently "stumble out of love"? For centuries, this question has perplexed partners, researchers, and therapists alike. Unlike falling out of love, which may be a long-term gradual decline in love, falling in love may occur without much deliberation like the famous "love at first sight." During a developing love relationship, couples are more susceptible to ignoring a myriad of factors that will eventually influence their relationship. These ignored personal and general factors become increasingly conspicuous after the relationship is established. When facing relationship difficulties, the presence or absence of mutual love and intimacy steers the couple's relationship toward continuity or termination. Emotional indifference (which is the opposite of love) diminishes love and care; the terms marital disaffection and romantic disengagement are used synonymously to represent emotional indifference in couples. Marital disaffection is one of the central concerns of couples entering therapy. Nevertheless, spouses may enter therapy with divergent goals that may be polar opposites. Therefore, treatment of polarized or different agenda couples is challenging because disaffected spouses may be seeking counseling to break the bond at a safe venue, while their partners may still be obliviously hoping for the rebirth of their lost love. This article reviews marital disaffection/romantic disengagement and discusses counseling options for polarized couples.

  8. Incorporating Internet-based Interventions into Couple Therapy: Available Resources and Recommended Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicila, Larisa N; Georgia, Emily J; Doss, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    Although there are a number of highly efficacious in-person treatments designed to ameliorate relationship distress, only a small proportion of distressed couples seek out in-person treatment. Recently developed internet-based interventions based on these in-person treatments are a promising way to circumvent common barriers to in-person treatment and give more distressed couples access to these efficacious interventions. The overarching aims of this review are to provide couple and family therapists with a broad overview of the available internet-based interventions and provide suggestions about how these interventions might be utilized before, during, or after in-person treatment. First, we review internet-based interventions targeting individual psychopathology (e.g. anxiety and depression). These interventions would be particularly useful as an adjunctive resource for in-person couple or family therapy when referrals for a concurrent in-person individual therapist are not feasible (because of time, financial, or geographic constraints). The majority of the review centers on internet-based interventions for distressed couples and covers four distinct types of resources: relationship advice websites, assessment/feedback interventions, enrichment interventions for satisfied couples, and interventions targeting at-risk or distressed couples. We close with a case study of one couple's journey through a newly developed intervention targeting at-risk couples, OurRelationship.com, and provide two appendices with information on currently available internet-based interventions.

  9. A Horneyan analytic perspective on couple therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, N M

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes the study, diagnosis, and course of treatment of a marital couple incorporating Horney theory as a basis for understanding. The case illustrates how fundamental features of Horney theory--character structure, pride positions, attacks on the idealized image, alienated aspects of self, externalization and counter-externalization-can be illuminated in the expanded context of a specific other, the spouse, as background. In a marriage characterized by conflict, omnipresent struggles for authority, and malignantly destructive communication, the wife adopts a position of self-effacement externalizing expansiveness to her husband while the husband adopts an expansive-detached position externalizing both expansiveness and self-effacement to the wife. Externalizations from the wife include a form that has not been described in the psychoanalytic literature of the Horney school: indirect active externalization. As shown, the wife attributes an idealization of her husband to third parties. We observe, too, that the husband's reasonableness and the wife's emotional stridency have the effect of attacking the idealized image of the other. Defenses are mobilized in order to repair hurt pride reactions: for the husband, the wife's stridency is an assault on his sense of himself as a principled, virtous man. For the wife, the husband's reasonableness is experienced as an assault on her sense of herself as a caring wife and mother. In order to block their pride responses and attacks on each other's idealized image, which made conjoint sessions antagonistic and unproductive for a time, a "glass wall" technique was employed for some months that enabled each to speak to the other through me. I struggled against the temptation of siding with the husband's rationality and seeing the wife as secondary. I came to understand that the husband's reasonableness was oppressive for the wife. In order for the wife to feel understood empathically, I needed to fill the role of

  10. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adlerian Marital Therapy Strategies with Middle Income Couples Facing Financial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Criswell; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the impact of economic stressors on marriage. Discusses how Adlerian marital therapy strategies can be tailored to help middle-income couples deal with such stressors. Identifies problems facing middle income families experiencing financial hardship, describes Adlerian counseling for financial conflict in marriage, and delineates…

  12. The Association between Emotion Work Balance and Relationship Satisfaction of Couples Seeking Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristen E.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald J.; Cook, Alicia S.; Berger, Peggy S.

    2001-01-01

    Emotion work refers to efforts made to enhance emotional well being and provide emotional support in a relationship. Data were collected from 63 couples seeking therapy to determine the relation between emotion work balance and relationship satisfaction. Results indicate both men and women are most satisfied with their relationship when levels of…

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, Richa; Kumari, Sapna; Prakash, Jai; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is probably the most well-known and the most practiced form of modern psychotherapy and has been integrated into highly structured package for the treatment of patients suffering from social phobia. The present case study is an attempt to provide therapeutic intervention program to a 27-year-old, unmarried Christian man suffering from social phobia. The patient was treated by using cognitive behavioral techniques. After 17 sessions of therapeutic intervention program, significant improvement was found. He was under follow-up for a period of 6 months and recovered to the premorbid level of functioning. PMID:21234166

  14. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Hand and Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Safren, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment that emphasizes the interrelation among thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and sensations. CBT has been proved effective not only for treatment of psychological illness but also for teaching adaptive coping strategies in the context of chronic illnesses, including chronic pain. The present article provides general information on CBT, specific information on CBT for pain, as well as guidelines and strategies for using CBT for hand and arm pain patients, as part of multidisciplinary care models. PMID:21051204

  15. Borderline personality disorder: nursing interventions using dialectical behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Unda L; McComish, Judith Fry

    2006-06-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the greatest challenges confronting mental health professionals today. Clients with BPD are often difficult for nurses to work with, perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the underlying dynamics of the disorder. This article describes effective treatment strategies for BPD with a central focus on dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). In typical mental health settings, nurses can effectively implement interventions using the concepts of DBT to help people with BPD build effective coping strategies and skillful behavioral responses for improved quality of life.

  16. Atypical and Typical Winter Depressive Symptoms and Responsiveness to Light Therapy, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, or Combination Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Leigh G; Rohan, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    ...), group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or combination therapy (CBT+LT). Atypical and typical symptoms were assessed using subscales of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - SAD Version (SIGH-SAD...

  17. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  18. Asymmetry in electrical coupling between neurons alters multistable firing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; García-Vellisca, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The role of asymmetry in electrical synaptic connection between two neuronal oscillators is studied in the Hindmarsh-Rose model. We demonstrate that the asymmetry induces multistability in spiking dynamics of the coupled neuronal oscillators. The coexistence of at least three attractors, one chaotic and two periodic orbits, for certain coupling strengths is demonstrated with time series, phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, basins of attraction of the coexisting states, Lyapunov exponents, and standard deviations of peak amplitudes and interspike intervals. The experimental results with analog electronic circuits are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  19. Magnetic behavior of partially exchange-coupled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, M.I.; Bercoff, P.G.; Bertorello, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A system of particle pairs with partial exchange coupling is studied, considering identical particles and a fixed angle between their anisotropy axes. The energy of each pair is calculated in terms of the extent of interaction, β, as a function of the applied demagnetizing field. Using the probability per unit time for the inversion of magnetization, the coercive field H c and the viscosity S of the system are calculated. An unexpected result is that fully coupled particles are more stable against temperature than the uncoupled particles

  20. An Overview of Spiritually Oriented Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Summermatter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While spirituality/religion has a healing effect for some individuals, for others it may have the opposite effect of enhancing psychological symptoms. For this reason, efforts are being made to address spirituality as a therapeutic or accelerating factor and reduce the potential negative effects of spirituality in the therapy process. The effectiveness of these applications is investigated in various studies. A comprehensive literature is being formed out of the studies conducted worldwide. Newly started studies in Turkey and similar countries are promising, but there are few coherent examples of how to address spirituality in therapy. In this article, the techniques and applications used in spiritually oriented cognitive behavioral therapy have been compiled and therapeutic applications are proposed. Ethical practices and applications specific to Muslim clients are also discussed.

  1. Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Current Indications and Unique Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). The patient populations for which DBT has the most empirical support include parasuicidal women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but there have been promising findings for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (SUDs), persons who meet criteria for binge-eating disorder, and depressed elderly patients. Although DBT has many similarities with other cognit...

  2. Adherence to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Ellyn E.; Arnedt, J. Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S.; Cuddihy, Leisha J.; Aloia, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role o...

  3. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.; Johns, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh's equation and is coupled to phase behavior

  4. A Comparison of Pharmacological (Amitriptyline HCL) and Nonpharmacological (Cognitive-Behavioral) Therapies for Chronic Tension Headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 recurrent tension headache sufferers to either cognitive-behavioral therapy or to amitriptyline therapy. Both therapies yielded clinically significant improvements in headache activity. In instances where differences in treatment effectiveness were observed, cognitive-behavioral therapy yielded somewhat more positive outcomes…

  5. individual vs. collective behavior: an experimental. investigation of risk and time preferences in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Mohammed; l'Haridon, Olivier; Paraschiv, Corina

    2010-01-01

    Author's abstract. This paper study decision-making under risk and decision-making over time made by couples. We performed a joint experimental elicitation of risk and time preferences both for couples and for their individual members. We used general behavioral models of decision under risk and over time and measured utility, probability weighting, and discounting. Under risk, our main result is that probabilistic risk attitude for couples lay within the boundaries of individual attitudes: c...

  6. Compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Reducing Depression in Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depression is on the top list of mental disorders which account for about 25 percent of patients referred to health centers in your world. So, is presented in different ways to treat it. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities Materials and Methods: This study is quasi-experimental and consists of experimental and control groups. This study population was mothers referred to mobility, occupational therapy and physiotherapy centers who had depressive symptoms. 8 patients in each group were selected by convenience sampling. The research instrument were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and the revised Beck Depression Inventory form (1996. Dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy groups were instructured for 2 months (8 sessions of 2 to 2.5 hours. But the control group did not receive intervention. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group with control group (p<0.001. Also, there is a significant difference between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy with cognitive therapy (p<0.001. Conclusion: In the area of treatment and working with depressed people and those who are in crisis mode, it seems that dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group in view of its nature is very efficient and promising.

  7. Randomized trial of behavior therapy for adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Chang, Susanna; Liu, Haibei; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T; Scahill, Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome begin in childhood, peak in early adolescence, and often decrease by early adulthood. However, some adult patients continue to have impairing tics. Medications for tics are often effective but can cause adverse effects. Behavior therapy may offer an alternative but has not been examined in a large-scale controlled trial in adults. To test the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics in adults with Tourette syndrome of at least moderate severity. A randomized controlled trial with posttreatment evaluations at 3 and 6 months for positive responders. Three outpatient research clinics. Patients (N = 122; 78 males; age range, 16-69 years) with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder were recruited between December 27, 2005, and May 21, 2009. Patients received 8 sessions of comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics or 8 sessions of supportive treatment for 10 weeks. Patients with a positive response were given 3 monthly booster sessions. Total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale rated by a clinician masked to treatment assignment. Behavior therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean (SD) decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.0 [6.47] to 17.8 [7.32]) from baseline to end point compared with the control treatment (21.8 [6.59] to 19.3 [7.40]) (P Tourette syndrome. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00231985.

  8. Using Emotionally Focused Therapy to Treat Sexual Desire Discrepancy in Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Abby; Woolley, Scott R

    2017-11-17

    Couples in committed relationships encounter a multitude of issues. According to Metz and McCarthy (2010), when couples report high sexual satisfaction, it accounts for 15% to 20% of their overall relationship satisfaction. However, when couples report low sexual satisfaction, it contributes 50% to 70% of their overall satisfaction with their partner. Issues of sexual desire, currently referred to as sexual desire discrepancy, are among the most difficult to treat. Although there are many factors contributing to the issue of sexual desire discrepancy, current literature highlights the importance of emotional intimacy as an outcome and predictor of increased sexual desire. Given the complex nature of sexual desire, clinicians often lack the understanding and treatment options that are systemic. By viewing sexual desire discrepancy as a relational problem that can be treated using emotionally focused therapy, clinicians are better equipped to work with emotional and sexual factors that impact desire and couple distress.

  9. Randomized Controlled Comparison of Two Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Obese Children: Mother versus Mother-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Munsch, Simone; Roth, Binia; Michael, Tanja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Biedert, Esther; Roth, Sandra; Speck, Vanessa; Zumsteg, Urs; Isler, Emanuel; Margraf, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parent-child treatments have been shown to be superior to child-focused treatments of childhood obesity. Yet until now, the comparative effectiveness of parent-only and parent-child approaches has been little studied. METHOD: Fifty-six obese children and their families were randomly assigned to a 16-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the parents only or for a combined treatment of parents and children. Children's percent overweight, the body mass index of their mothers...

  10. Behavior Therapy for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wile, Daryl J; Pringsheim, Tamara M

    2013-08-01

    When tics caused by Tourette Syndrome cause meaningful impairment for patients, a comprehensive treatment approach includes education of patients, peers, and family, treatment of comorbid behavioral disorders if present, and consideration of behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for tics themselves. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that behavior therapies based on Habit Reversal Therapy, including the Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics are effective in reducing tic severity when compared with supportive psychotherapy. When these behavior therapies are unavailable, Exposure with Response Prevention may also be effective. Both face-to-face and telehealth delivery methods for behavior therapy improve tic severity, and broader distribution of behavior therapy through increased training or telehealth methods is encouraged. High-quality randomized trials comparing behavior therapies for tics with pharmacotherapy are needed.

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood repetitive behavior disorders: tic disorders and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A

    2011-04-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article focuses on the efficacy of CBT for these 2 conditions. An overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns is provided. This review focuses particularly on habit reversal training, which is at the core of most CBT-based interventions. Two recent empirical studies on the immense potential of CBT in treating childhood repetitive behavior disorders and future areas of research are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive-behavioral and operant-behavioral therapy for people with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Turk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current article reviews the cognitive-behavioral (CB and operant-behavioral perspectives on chronic pain and suggests an answer to the question why changes in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions are associated with decreases in pain severity and impact discussing potential psychobiological mechanisms that may underlie cognitive and behavioral techniques. The impact of learning such as classical and operant conditioning in behaviors and physical responses including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, as well as the influence of cognitions on pain perception and impact will be presented to explain general efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT and operant-behavioral therapy (OBT in the treatment of people with fibromyalgia (FM describing some of the limitations of published outcome studies. We discuss advances in moderation and mediation of treatment outcomes. Lastly, we will discuss the need for research that takes into account evidence-based medicine, methods that address treatment responders and non-responders, individual trajectories, how we might advance and refine CBT and OBT, and strategies related to relapse prevention, maintenance, and adherence-enhancement taking advantage of evolving, technological methods of service delivery. We provide recommendations of how to move forward in approaching studies of CBT and OBT efficacy as a function of better understanding of patient characteristics and contextual factors. We advocate for the potential of the CB perspective and principle of learning for all health care providers regardless of discipline or training and will give examples for making more effective the patient-rheumatologist-relationship by using the principles discussed.

  13. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Simulation on the shock attenuation behavior of coupled RHA and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the shock attenuation behavior of engineering materials namely Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) and sandwich composite when subject to blast loadings. Blast loading on sandwich composite structure and monolithic material are investigated using LSDYNA 3D with Arbitrary LagrangianEulerian ...

  15. The cognitive treatment components and therapies of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Norell-Clarke, Annika

    2018-06-07

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been an increased focus on developing and testing cognitive components and therapies for insomnia disorder. The aim of the current review was thus to describe and review the efficacy of cognitive components and therapies for insomnia. A systematic review was conducted on 32 studies (N = 1455 subjects) identified through database searches. Criteria for inclusion required that each study constituted a report of outcome from a cognitive component or therapy, that the study had a group protocol, adult participants with diagnosed insomnia or undiagnosed insomnia symptoms or reported poor sleep, and that the study was published until and including 2016 in English. Each study was systematically reviewed with a standard coding sheet. Several cognitive components, a multi-component cognitive program, and cognitive therapy were identified. It is concluded that there is support for paradoxical intention and cognitive therapy. There are also other cognitive interventions that appears promising, such as cognitive refocusing and behavioral experiments. For most interventions, the study quality was rated as low to moderate. We conclude that several cognitive treatment components and therapies can be viewed as efficacious or promising interventions for patients with insomnia disorder. Methodologically stronger studies are, however, warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  17. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions.

  18. Finer Distinctions: Variability in Satisfied Older Couples' Problem-Solving Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy; Williams, Leah; Jensen, Jakob

    2017-06-01

    This study utilized observational and self-report data from 64 maritally satisfied and stable older couples to explore if there were meaningful differences in how couples approached marital disagreements. Using a typology approach to classify couples based on their behaviors in a 15-minute problem-solving interaction, findings revealed four types of couples: (1) problem solvers (characterized by both spouses' higher problem-solving skills and warmth), (2) supporters (characterized by both spouses' notable warmth), (3) even couples (characterized by both spouses' moderate problem-solving skills and warmth), and (4) cool couples (characterized by both spouses' greater negativity and lower problem-solving skills and warmth). Despite the differences in these behaviors, all couples had relatively high marital satisfaction and functioning. However, across nearly all indices, spouses in the cool couple cluster reported poorer marital functioning, particularly when compared to the problem solvers and supporters. These findings suggest that even modest doses of negativity (e.g., eye roll) may be problematic for some satisfied couples later in life. The implications of these typologies are discussed as they pertain to practitioners' efforts to tailor their approaches to a wider swath of the population. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  19. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...

  20. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich; Nicole M. Stettler; Kristen A. Stouder; Chelsea Harrington

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM) (Simpson, 1990) and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) (Schaefer & Olson, 1981). Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for posit...

  1. Constructing Unfinalizability: A Subject Positioning Analysis of a Couple's Therapy Session Hosted by Tom Andersen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Michael

    2018-03-08

    The notion of subject positions is a useful tool in thinking through therapeutic interactions. In this article, I discuss positioning as an everyday phenomenon, and highlight the relational and social power dynamics that shape the subject positions persons may inhabit. Analysis is presented of the positional dynamics that play out in the couple's therapy session facilitated by Tom Andersen. Analysis suggests that Andersen adopts a not-knowing, uncertain, and curious position, while constructing the couple as competent, unfinalizable persons able to negotiate the choice-points that arise in front of them. However, if subject positions are grounded in social power dynamics, the session leaves a particular question unanswered: How will these emergent positions take hold outside of the consulting room? © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  2. Male emotional intimacy: how therapeutic men's groups can enhance couples therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Men's difficulty with emotional intimacy is a problem that therapists regularly encounter in working with heterosexual couples in therapy. The first part of this article describes historical and cultural factors that contribute to this dilemma in men's marriages and same-sex friendships. Therapeutic men's groups can provide a corrective experience for men, helping them to develop emotional intimacy skills while augmenting their work in couples therapy. A model for such groups is presented, including guidelines for referral, screening, and collaboration with other therapists. Our therapeutic approach encourages relationship-based learning through direct emotional expression and supportive feedback. We emphasize the development of friendship skills, core attributes of friendship (connection, communication, commitment, and cooperation) that contribute to emotional intimacy in men's relationships. Case examples are included to illustrate how this model works in clinical practice, as well as specific suggestions for further study that could lead to a more evidence-based practice.

  3. Competencies for addressing gender and power in couple therapy: a socio emotional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Huenergardt, Douglas; Lafontant, Ketsia; Bishop, Les; Schaepper, Johannes; Wells, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    Power imbalances between partners are intrinsic to relationship distress and intricately connected to emotional experience, couple communication processes, and socio cultural contexts such as gender. The ability to work with the power dynamics between partners is thus critical to the practice of couple therapy. However, few practical guidelines for dealing with this issue are available. The authors present seven clinical competencies regarding gender and power issues that they identified by examining their own work: (a) identify enactments of cultural discourse, (b) attune to underlying socio cultural emotion, (c) name underlying power processes, (d) facilitate relational safety, (e) foster mutual attunement, (f) create a model of equality, and (g) facilitate shared relationship responsibility. Each competency is illustrated through a case example. The competencies represent an over-arching guide to practice that may be integrated with other clinical approaches and is particularly useful for training and supervision. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  5. How wilderness therapy works: an examination of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioral problems and addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith C. Russell; John C. Hendee; Dianne Phillips-Miller

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and treatment process (Russell, 1999). Wilderness therapy is an emerging...

  6. Multisurface Interpersonal Assessment in a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention.

  7. Affirmative Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L; Alessi, Edward J

    2017-03-01

    Although there is growing awareness in contemporary society regarding transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) identities, transgender people continue to be highly marginalized and subject to transphobic discrimination and victimization. As a result, authentically expressing and navigating a TGNC identity can be difficult. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals can play a key role in supporting TGNC client health and well-being through the use of trans-affirmative approaches. Trans-affirmative practice recognizes all experiences of gender as equally healthy and valuable This article focuses on transgender affirmative cognitive behavior therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adapting Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Insomnia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia disorder is common in patients undergoing cancer treatment. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I should be the initial treatment, but there has been insufficient research has been conducted among cancer patients. This population presents with unique physical and psychosocial health issues that may interfere with standard CBT-I and addressing these issues can play a role in improving treatment adherence and efficacy. We explore potential adaptations that can be made to standard CBT-I for cancer patients. Further research for this growing population is essential.

  9. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol and drug use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangé, Bernard P; Marlatt, G Alan

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been successfully used to treat addiction. This article is in part a review on addiction models such as relapse prevention by Marlatt & Gordon, stages of change by Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, deriving from motivational interview, developed by Miller & Rollnick, as well as the cognitive models by Beck et al. Based on literature evidence for the development of effective treatment programs, we report on a group treatment model used in a group of alcoholics referred by the Department of Worker's Health Surveillance at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to the Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Research Center. Results are presented indicating that this type of treatment could be one alternative to others treatments in use. New research is needed to better validate cognitive-behavioral approach to alcohol and drug problems.

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying behavior: Predictors of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, R; Fernández-Aranda, F; Mestre-Bach, G; Steward, T; Baño, M; Agüera, Z; Mallorquí-Bagué, N; Aymamí, N; Gómez-Peña, M; Sancho, M; Sánchez, I; Menchón, J M; Martín-Romera, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) is receiving increasing consideration in both consumer and psychiatric-epidemiological research, yet empirical evidence on treatment interventions is scarce and mostly from small homogeneous clinical samples. To estimate the short-term effectiveness of a standardized, individual cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (CBT) in a sample of n=97 treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with CBB, and to identify the most relevant predictors of therapy outcome. The intervention consisted of 12 individual CBT weekly sessions, lasting approximately 45minutes each. Data on patients' personality traits, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, and compulsive buying behavior were used in our analysis. The risk (cumulative incidence) of poor adherence to the CBT program was 27.8%. The presence of relapses during the CBT program was 47.4% and the dropout rate was 46.4%. Significant predictors of poor therapy adherence were being male, high levels of depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, low anxiety levels, high persistence, high harm avoidance and low self-transcendence. Cognitive behavioral models show promise in treating CBB, however future interventions for CBB should be designed via a multidimensional approach in which patients' sex, comorbid symptom levels and the personality-trait profiles play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlates of and couples' concordance in reports of recent sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Alain K; Adjiwanou, Visseho D; Becker, Stan; Olaolorun, Funmilola; Tsui, Amy O

    2012-03-01

    This study uses couple-level data to measure couples' concordance of self-reported time since last coitus and of condom and other contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse among monogamous couples in Liberia (N = 1,673), Madagascar (N = 4,138), and Namibia (N = 588). The study also examines the characteristics associated with sexual behavior and contraceptive use occurring in the 28 days prior to the interviews among couples whose reports are concordant. Overall, our study finds less than 75 percent concordance in reporting of time since last coitus. Use of condoms and other contraceptives yielded fair (0.27) to substantial (0.67) agreement on the kappa index. Factors predicting a shorter time since last coitus among concordant couples in at least two of the countries included wealth, spousal age difference, education, and both partners wanting another child. The discordant reports of recent sexual behavior and contraceptive use suggest that caution should be exercised when inferring couples' behavior from the report of one spouse, that concordant reports should be examined when possible, that methodological changes to improve the validity of spousal reports should be pursued, and that family planning and HIV-prevention programs should target those groups found to be using condoms and other contraceptives less frequently, particularly poorer couples.

  12. Couple Therapy with Veterans: Early Improvements and Predictors of Early Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Bhatia, Vickie; Baddeley, Jenna L; Al-Jabari, Rawya; Libet, Julian

    2017-07-28

    Family services within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers fulfill an important role in addressing relationship distress among Veterans, which is highly prevalent and comorbid with psychopathology. However, even for evidence-based couple therapies, effectiveness is weaker compared to controlled studies, maybe because many Veteran couples drop out early and do not reach the "active" treatment stage after the 3-4 session assessment. In order to improve outcomes, it is critical to identify couples at high risk for early dropout, and understand whether couples may benefit from the assessment as an intervention. The current study examined (a) demographics, treatment delivery mode, relationship satisfaction, and psychological symptoms as predictors of dropout during and immediately following the assessment phase, and (b) changes in relationship satisfaction during assessment. 174 couples completed questionnaires during routine intake procedures. The main analyses focused on 140 male Veterans and their female civilian partners; 36.43% dropped out during the assessment phase and 24.74% of the remaining couples immediately following the first treatment session. More severe depressive symptoms in non-Veteran partners were associated with dropout during assessment. Relationship satisfaction improved significantly during the assessment phase for couples who did not drop out, with larger gains for non-Veteran partners. No demographics or treatment delivery mode were associated with dropout. Although more research is needed on engaging couples at risk for early dropout and maximizing early benefits, the findings suggest that clinicians should attend to the civilian partner's and Veteran's depressive symptoms at intake and consider the assessment part of active treatment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  13. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  15. The effect of cognitive behavior therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaimaat, F. W.; Brons, M. R.; Geenen, R.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three patients groups were studied: a cognitive behavioral therapy group (CBT), an occupational therapy group (OT), and a waiting-list control group. The CBT received a comprehensive,

  16. System supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jȩdrzejewska-Szczerska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system supporting behavioral therapy for autistic children is presented. The system consists of sensors network, base station and a brooch indicating person's emotional states. The system can be used to measure values of physiological parameters that are associated with changes in the emotional state. In the future, it can be useful to inform the autistic child and the therapist about the emotional state of the interlocutor objectively, on the basis of performed measurements. The selected physiological parameters were chosen during the experiment which was designed and conducted by authors. In this experiment, a group of volunteers under controlled conditions was exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound. For each of the volunteers, a set of physiological parameters, was recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design electronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism.

  17. Distinguishing integrative from eclectic practice in cognitive behavioral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Alexandra M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-09-01

    In psychotherapy research, practice, and training, there remains marked controversy about the merits of theoretical purism (i.e., model specific), versus integration, as well as how such principles may be represented in practice. Adding to the confusion is that many attributes of the therapeutic relationship, processes in therapy, and techniques have been popularized in the context of one or two theoretical approaches, but are incorporated into the practice of many approaches. This article demonstrates the various ways in which three core interventions (i.e., activity scheduling, self-monitoring, and identification, evaluation, and modification of thoughts) can be applied within the context of different cognitive and behavioral therapeutic models. It also demonstrates the role of in-session therapist language in describing the theoretical basis and processes underpinning therapeutic interventions. Case examples are presented to illustrate therapy provided by two hypothetical clinicians, Therapist A and Therapist B. Whether or not a practitioner elects to practice integrative psychotherapy, we advocate for consistency in the theoretical approach through the course of a service for a particular patient. Implications are outlined and discussed within the context of the current state of cognitive and behaviorally focused psychotherapies and integrative psychotherapy. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel KARAKAYA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However, use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effective method for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhood and adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders of the children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Priority goal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here” fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, which cause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills during therapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training, cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scales specific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should be particularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 10-24

  19. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly-coupled complex (dusty) plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Oxtoby, Neil P.; Griffith, Elias J.; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F.; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly-coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.

  20. The Numerical Simulation of Coupling Behavior of Soil with Chemical Pollutant Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Li, X. K.; Tang, L. Q.

    2010-05-01

    The coupling behavior of clay plays a role in the integrity of clay barriers used in landfills. The clay barriers are subjected to mechanical and thermal effects coupled with hydraulic behavior, also, if the leachates become in contact with the clay liner, chemical effects may lead to some drastic changes in the properties of the clay. A numerical method to simulate the coupling behavior of soil with chemical pollutant effects is presented. Within the framework of Gens-Alonso model describing the constitutive behavior of unsaturated clay presented in reference[1], basing on the work of Wu[2] and Hueckel[3], a constitutive model describing the chemo-thermo-hydro-mechanical(CTHM) coupling behavior of clays in contact with a single organic contaminant is presented. The thermical softening and chemical softening is considered in the presented model. The strain arising in the material due to chemical and thermical effects can be decomposed into two parts: elastic expansion and plastic compaction. The chemical effects are described in terms of the mass concentration of the contaminant. The increases in temperature and contaminant concentration cause decreases of the pre-consolidation pressure and the cohesion. The mechanisms are called thermical softening and chemical softening. The presented coupled CTHM constitutive model has been integrated into the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical mathematical model including contaminant transport in porous media. To solve the equilibrium equations, the grogram of finite element methods is developed with a stagger algorithm. The mechanisms taking place due to the coupling behaviour of the clay with a single contaminant solute are analysed with the presented numerical method.

  1. Use of cognitive behavior therapy for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L

    2006-12-01

    address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health.

  2. Breaking the Rhythm of Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Relapse Prevention for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudi L.H. Bockting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.

  3. Treating infidelity in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Christopher R; Prince, Stacey E

    2005-11-01

    Psychotherapy with same-sex couples does not differ markedly from standard couple therapies; this is also true for treating couples facing infidelity. However, same-sex couples often design their relationships differently, without tradition and formal marital contracts to prescribe behavior. Based on clinical experience and the empirical research, this article addresses the differing norms involved in affirmatively treating infidelity in gay and lesbian couples within the framework of integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). Two cases illustrate the process and outcome of IBCT with same-sex couples.

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Neuroscience: Towards Closer Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroimaging technologies of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The neuroscientific investigations of basic CBT hypotheses have shown that (i functional and non-functional behavior and experiences may be learned through lifelong learning, due to brain neuroplasticity that continues across the entire lifespan; (ii cognitive activity contributes to dysfunctional behavior and emotional experience through focusing, selective perception, memory and recall, and characteristic cognitive distortion; on a neurobiological level, there is a relationship between top-down and bottom-up regulation of unpleasant emotional states; and (iii cognitive activity may be changed, as shown by therapeutic success achieved by metacognitive and mindfulness techniques, which also have their neurobiological correlates in the changes occurring in the cortical and subcortical structures and endocrine and immune systems. The empirical research also shows that neurobiological changes occur after CBT in patients with arachnophobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  6. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L.H.; Chalder, T.; Chigwedere, C.; Khondoker, M.R.; Moriarty, J.; Toone, B.K.; Mellers, J.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical care (SMC) as treatments for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Methods: Our randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared CBT with SMC in an outpatient neuropsychiatric setting. Sixty-six PNES patients were randomized to either CBT (plus SMC) or SMC alone, scheduled to occur over 4 months. PNES diagnosis was established by video-EEG telemetry for most patients. Exclusion criteria included comorbid history of epilepsy, <2 PNES/month, and IQ <70. The primary outcome was seizure frequency at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included 3 months of seizure freedom at 6-month follow-up, measures of psychosocial functioning, health service use, and employment. Results: In an intention-to-treat analysis, seizure reduction following CBT was superior at treatment end (group × time interaction p < 0.0001; large to medium effect sizes). At follow-up, the CBT group tended to be more likely to have experienced 3 months of seizure freedom (odds ratio 3.125, p = 0.086). Both groups improved in some health service use measures and on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Mood and employment status showed no change. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than standard medical care alone in reducing seizure frequency in PNES patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT in addition to SMC, as compared to SMC alone, significantly reduces seizure frequency in patients with PNES (change in median monthly seizure frequency: baseline to 6 months follow-up, CBT group, 12 to 1.5; SMC alone group, 8 to 5). GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IQR = interquartile range; ITT = intention-to-treat; OR = odds ratio; PNES

  8. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  9. [Undesired treatment effects in behavior group therapy: Frequency and spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Walter, M; Fritz, K; Muschalla, B

    2015-11-01

    Psychotherapy not only has positive but also negative effects, which is especially true for group psychotherapy due to psychodynamic and interactional processes. Using the UE-G questionnaire 71 patients who participated in cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy reported on negative experiences in the context of the group therapy. The answers were then validated in a qualitative interview. Of the patients 98.6% reported about at least one negative experience and 43.7% about severe or extremely severe negative experiences. Most prominent was the induction of hopelessness and demoralization by what patients saw and heard from other patients in the group. Burdensome and therefore undesired treatment effects are regularly seen in group psychotherapy, because of treatment or patient related factors. In any case they must be taken into account during treatment, in the training of group psychotherapists and in quality control.

  10. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  11. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Group Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Lori; Eddie, David; Harley, Rebecca; Jacobo, Michelle; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2017-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the capacity for emotion regulation is compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment that specifically targets emotion dysregulation, may be an effective adjunct treatment for improving emotion regulation and residual mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. In this open, proof-of-concept pilot study, 37 participants engaged in a 12-week DBT group skills training program, learning mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. Repeated measures mixed models revealed skill acquisition in the areas of mindfulness, emotion regulation and distress tolerance, as well as improved psychological well-being and decreased emotion reactivity. The results of this study support a burgeoning literature that DBT is a feasible adjunct intervention for patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analytical study of index-coupled herd behavior in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Shapira, Yoash; Schwartz, Moshe

    2016-12-01

    Herd behavior in financial markets had been investigated extensively in the past few decades. Scholars have argued that the behavioral tendency of traders and investors to follow the market trend, notably reflected in indices both on short and long time scales, is substantially affecting the overall market behavior. Research has also been devoted to revealing these behaviors and characterizing the market herd behavior. In this paper we present a simple herd behavior model for the dynamics of financial variables by introducing a simple coupling mechanism of stock returns to the index return, deriving analytic expressions for statistical properties of the returns. We found that several important phenomena in the stock market, namely the correlations between stock market returns and the exponential decay of short-term autocorrelations, are derived from our model. These phenomena have been given various explanations and theories, with herd market behavior being one of the leading. We conclude that the coupling mechanism, which essentially encapsulates the herd behavior, indeed creates correlation and autocorrelation. We also show that this introduces a time scale to the system, which is the characteristic time lag between a change in the index and its effect on the return of a stock.

  13. Addressing Culture, Gender, and Power with Asian American Couples: Application of Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChenFeng, Jessica; Kim, Lana; Wu, Yuwei; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2017-09-01

    Asian Americans juggle the intersections of multiple social identities and societal discourses as they respond to experiences of immigration, marginalization, and patriarchy, integrate collectivist and individualistic family values, and form families and intimate relationships. In this study we examine what we have learned as we apply Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT) with heterosexual couples of Asian heritage. SERT begins with sociocultural attunement and the assumption that relationships should mutually support each partner. Drawing on case examples, we illustrate how we practice sociocultural attunement as couples respond to the relational processes that comprise the Circle of Care (mutual influence, vulnerability, attunement, and shared relational responsibility). We emphasize three key socioemotional themes that intersect with gender: (1) intangible loss; (2) quiet fortitude/not burdening others; and (3) duty to the family. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayanti Chattopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.

  17. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Play Therapy on Externalizing Behavior Problems Among Street and Working Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghodousi

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: It seems that one of the effective ways to lessen externalizing behavior problems among street and working children is cognitive-behavioral play therapy; therefore, coaches and teachers of such children are recommended to make use of this method to lower their behavioral problems. 

  18. A Systematic Review of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Research Samples in Couple and Family Therapy Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Erica E; Serovich, Julianne M; Reed, Sandra J; Boisvert, Danielle; Falbo, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to review samples from research on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues and to evaluate the suitability of this body of research to support affirmative and evidence-based practice with GLB clients. The authors systematically reviewed the sampling methodology and sample composition of GLB-related research. All original, quantitative articles focusing on GLB issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals since 1975 were coded (n = 153). Results suggest that within the GLB literature base there is some evidence of heterocentrism as well as neglect of issues of class, race, and gender. Suggestions to improve the diversity and representativeness of samples-and, thus, clinical implications-of GLB-related research in CFT literature are provided. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  20. Prediction of Response to Treatment in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Couple Therapy: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R.; Atkins, David C.; Simpson, Lorelei E.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have examined pretreatment predictors of immediate posttreatment outcome, but few studies have examined prediction of long-term treatment response to couple therapies. Four groups of predictors (demographic, intrapersonal, communication, and other interpersonal) and 2 moderators (pretreatment severity and type of therapy) were…

  1. Thermal behavior and transformation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanocrystallites prepared by coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.C.; Wang, Y.T.; Shih, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coupling agents have been widely used to retard the sintering of silver paste and minimize co-firing defects due to densification mismatch between silver and dielectrics. The thermal-decomposition and crystallization behavior of the coupling agent is a subject of great concern. To elucidate what is responsible for the oxidation, Ti organometallic compounds were calcined at different temperatures (350, 400, 500, 600 o C) for 2 h and the crystallization behavior was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activation energy for crystallization of coupling agents was studied by using isothermal methods. According to the quantitative XRD method, the values calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami equation are 134.9 kJ mol -1 . The growth morphology parameters are 1.061, 0.915, 1.016 respectively. Combining the results of DTA, XRD and TEM, it is found that formation of nanocrystallized titania accompanies the combustion of organometallic compounds.

  2. Thermal behavior and transformation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanocrystallites prepared by coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.C. [School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.T. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Chen Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng-Hsin Street, Pai-Tou, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.t [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-04

    Coupling agents have been widely used to retard the sintering of silver paste and minimize co-firing defects due to densification mismatch between silver and dielectrics. The thermal-decomposition and crystallization behavior of the coupling agent is a subject of great concern. To elucidate what is responsible for the oxidation, Ti organometallic compounds were calcined at different temperatures (350, 400, 500, 600 {sup o}C) for 2 h and the crystallization behavior was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activation energy for crystallization of coupling agents was studied by using isothermal methods. According to the quantitative XRD method, the values calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami equation are 134.9 kJ mol{sup -1}. The growth morphology parameters are 1.061, 0.915, 1.016 respectively. Combining the results of DTA, XRD and TEM, it is found that formation of nanocrystallized titania accompanies the combustion of organometallic compounds.

  3. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2018-07-01

    Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed. Pooled mean effect sizes were calculated using the random-effects model. The literature search identified 55 studies with 6763 Chinese participants. The overall short-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Effect sizes were medium for anxiety, depression/well-being and caregiving stress and small for psychotic symptoms and addictive behaviors. The effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on process variables, dysfunctional thoughts and coping, were in the small range. The overall longer-term effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the primary outcome was medium in size. Moderator analyses showed that the short-term effect was stronger for culturally adapted cognitive behavioral therapy than for unadapted cognitive behavioral therapy. Type of primary outcome, type of control group, recruitment method, study design, the format of delivery and region were found to moderate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy. The findings of this study provide evidence for the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people and the benefit of cultural adaptation of cognitive behavioral therapy to Chinese culture.

  4. Safety in numbers? Tackling domestic abuse in couples and network therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, Sarah A

    2007-03-01

    Family, network or couples-based therapies have been helping to support people with substance problems for decades. Their value in supporting a person to change their alcohol or drug use is clear. However, as links between substance use and domestic abuse are increasingly recognised, these approaches need to reflect on the potential safety risks they present to people taking part. The prevalence of domestic abuse among people receiving drug and alcohol services is considerably higher than general population estimates, yet this does not appear to have been adequately addressed in network therapies. This article suggests that this needs to change and that safety of service users needs to be at least as important as the intervention itself. It offers for debate a number of potential safety issues raised by network therapies where there is evidence of domestic abuse; it provides examples of three approaches used to marshal social and network support in substance interventions; and offers a number of suggestions for how network therapies can ensure their use remains safe and supportive where there is domestic abuse.

  5. Virtual reality therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social phobia: a preliminary controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, E; Bouchard, S; Légeron, P; Roy, S; Lauer, F; Chemin, I; Nugues, P

    2005-02-01

    Social phobia is one of the most frequent mental disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive behavior therapies (CBT). In this last case, graded exposure to feared social situations is one of the fundamental therapeutic ingredients. Virtual reality technologies are an interesting alternative to the standard exposure in social phobia, especially since studies have shown its usefulness for the fear of public speaking. This paper reports a preliminary study in which a virtual reality therapy (VRT), based on exposure to virtual environments, was used to treat social phobia. The sample consisted of 36 participants diagnosed with social phobia assigned to either VRT or a group-CBT (control condition). The virtual environments used in the treatment recreate four situations dealing with social anxiety: performance, intimacy, scrutiny, and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors in order to reduce anxiety in the corresponding real situations. Both treatments lasted 12 weeks, and sessions were delivered according to a treatment manual. Results showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in both conditions. The effect-sizes comparing the efficacy of VRT to the control traditional group-CBT revealed that the differences between the two treatments are trivial.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  7. Adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Arnedt, J Todd; McCarthy, Michaela S; Cuddihy, Leisha J; Aloia, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Chronic insomnia is a significant public health problem worldwide, and insomnia has considerable personal and social costs associated with serious health conditions, greater healthcare utilization, work absenteeism, and motor-vehicle accidents. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is an efficacious treatment, yet attrition and suboptimal adherence may diminish its impact. Despite the increasing use of CBTI, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to understanding the role of adherence. This review describes a comprehensive literature search of adherence to CBTI. The search revealed 15 studies that evaluated adherence to CBTI in adults using valid and reliable measures of sleep, and measure of adherence other than study withdrawals. The primary purposes of this review were to 1) synthesize current study characteristics, methodology, adherence rates, contributing factors, and impact on outcomes, 2) discuss measurement issues, and 3) identify future practice and research directions that may lead to improved outcomes. Strong patterns and inconsistencies were identified among the studies, which complicate an evaluation of the role of adherence as a factor and outcome of CBTI success. The importance of standardized adherence and outcome measures is discussed. In light of the importance of adherence to behavior change, this systematic review may better inform future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Nonlinear Behavior of the Piezoelectric Coupling on Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectric elements has an increasing importance nowadays being related to numerous potential applications. A wide range of nonlinear effects is observed in energy harvesting devices and the analysis of the power generated suggests that they have considerable influence on the results. Linear constitutive models for piezoelectric materials can provide inconsistencies on the prediction of the power output of the energy harvester, mainly close to resonant conditions. This paper investigates the effect of the nonlinear behavior of the piezoelectric coupling. A one-degree of freedom mechanical system is coupled to an electrical circuit by a piezoelectric element and different coupling models are investigated. Experimental tests available in the literature are employed as a reference establishing the best matches of the models. Subsequently, numerical simulations are carried out showing different responses of the system indicating that nonlinear piezoelectric couplings can strongly modify the system dynamics.

  9. Treating acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive behavioral therapy or structured writing therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Writing assignments have shown promising results in treating traumatic symptomatology. Yet no studies have compared their efficacy to the current treatment of choice, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present study evaluated the efficacy of structured writing therapy (SWT) and CBT as

  10. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  11. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  13. Demand and withdraw behaviors in couples with a history of infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Durbin, Christina M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena K

    2012-02-01

    Although relationship distress and dissolution are common consequences of sexual involvement outside a committed relationship, there is little empirical information regarding communication behaviors of couples who have experienced extradyadic involvement (EDI). This study examined male and female demand and withdraw behaviors in videotaped conflict discussions among 170 married or seriously dating couples categorized into 3 groups: those without a history of sexual EDI, those with a history of sexual EDI that was known to the other partner, and those with a history of "unknown" (undisclosed or undiscovered) sexual EDI. Both men and women in a relationship where there was at least one unknown EDI demonstrated the highest levels of demand behaviors. Furthermore, demand behaviors were higher for participating partners (those engaging in an outside sexual relationship) in relationships with an unknown EDI compared with participating partners in relationships with a known EDI. Conversely, demand behaviors were higher among nonparticipating partners in relationships with known EDI, compared to with nonparticipating partners in relationships with unknown EDI. Withdraw behaviors demonstrated a less pronounced and less consistent pattern of elevation by EDI group, and role within EDI, compared with demand behaviors. Clinical and relational implications for these findings are discussed.

  14. How many bytes does it take? A content analysis of cyber issues in couple and family therapy journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Markie L C; Hertlein, Katherine M; Smith, Justin M; Allen, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the explosion of the Internet, using cyber technology for work and social functions has exponentially increased. Yet, questions around how to manage such changes remain elusive in family therapy literature. In this investigation, we conducted a content analysis to determine to what extent marriage/couple and family therapy (M/CFT) journals have responded to the integration of the Internet in couple and family life. We found 79 of 13,274 articles across seventeen journals focused on the Internet in some capacity. Implications for clinical practice, training, and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  16. Factorial and construct validity of the revised short form integrative psychotherapy alliance scales for family, couple, and individual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M; Zinbarg, Richard; Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M

    2008-09-01

    The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance model brought an interpersonal and systemic perspective to bear on theory, research, and practice on the psychotherapeutic alliance. Questions have been raised about the independence of the theoretical factors in the model and their operationalization in the Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy Alliance Scales. This paper presents results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the scales that delineated at least three distinct interpersonal factors as well as shorter versions of the three scales to facilitate their use in research and practice. The paper also presents the results of a study testing each factor's association with client retention and progress over the first eight sessions in individual and couple therapy. At least two of the interpersonal factors were uniquely associated with progress in individual and couple functioning. Implications of the results for theory, research, practice, and training in individual, couple, and family therapy are elaborated.

  17. Environment-behavior relations, behavior therapy and the process of persuasion and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, S L; Chase, P N; Hawkins, R P

    1997-03-01

    The phenomena described by the cognitive dissonance literature, especially to explain attitude change, have important relevance to understanding certain aspects of therapy. Contrary to popular beliefs, these phenomena can be described in behavior-analytic terms. To do so requires an analysis of learning histories that select and maintain consistency in what individuals say and do. An understanding of the environmental variables that produce consistency can then be applied to the kinds of attitude change and stability found in the cognitive dissonance literature that have therapeutic importance.

  18. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van der Bruggen, Corine O; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L; Thissen, Michèl A P; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivered exclusively to parents of 26 children with anxiety symptoms ages 4-7 years. The intervention consisted of four 2-hour group sessions of four to six parents (couples). These group sessions were followed by four individual telephone sessions, once per week across a 4-week period. The pre- and postintervention assessment involved measures of multiple constructs of child anxiety (anxiety symptoms, children's fears, behavioral inhibition, and internalizing symptoms) from multiple informants (parents, children, and teachers). Parents also reported parenting strategies they were likely to use to manage their children's anxiety pre- and postintervention. Results indicated a significant decrease in child anxiety and behavioral inhibition as reported by parents and teachers. Furthermore, mothers reported significant increases in their use of positive reinforcement, and modeling and reassurance, and a significant decrease in their use of reinforcement of dependency directly after treatment. Taken together, parent-directed CBT appears to be an effective approach for treating children ages 4-7 years with anxiety symptoms. Limitations of the current research are discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ke; Li Zhiyuan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength λ. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and λ. In the large hopping limit where g >λ, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.

  20. Perceived and Actual Behavior in Female Sexual Assertiveness: A Within-Couple Analysis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S F

    2018-01-02

    Studies in female sexual assertiveness have generally focused on individuals rather than couples, and little research has been conducted in the Chinese context. This study examined perceived and actual female sexual assertiveness at the couple level, and also explored its impact on marital and sexual satisfaction with a representative sample of 770 couples in Hong Kong. The results showed that husbands reported a higher level of acceptance of female sexual assertiveness in both perception and actual behavior; furthermore, couples reported greater congruence in their perception of female sexual initiation than actual behavior. Multiple logistic regressions showed that actual female sexual assertiveness, not the perception of it, affects both spouses' marital and sexual satisfaction. Compared with couples in which neither accepted female sexual initiation in practice, husbands where both spouses accepted this were more likely to be satisfied with the marriage. Husbands who accepted female sexual refusal whilst their wives did not were also more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship. Similarly, wives who did accept female sexual assertiveness but whose husbands did not were more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship.

  1. The Perceived Effectiveness of Supervision In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Kuru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy is a general name for the problem solving techniques to address mental disorders or struggles through verbal interaction. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is one of the leading approaches in psychotherapy field. The first aim of this study; to evaluate the contribution of theoretical and supervision trainings perceived by mental health professionals to their CBT skills and personal development. The second one was to evaluate the CBT training process in psychotherapy training. To this end, 54 mental health professionals who agree to participate the study were given questionnaires each consisting of 18 items. This questionnaire was created by three supervisors who have been certified by the Academy of Cognitive Therapy (ACT. Mean duration of work as a mental health professional were 7.6 years. Mean duration of using psychotherapy in their clinical practice were 4,8 years. Mean duration of application of CBT as a psychotherapy modality were 3,2 years. Mean durations of theoretical and supervision trainings the participants had participated were 55,4 hours and 69,1 respectively. Seventy-nine point six of the participants reported that the theoretical training had contributed to their CBT practice at “quite” to “too much” levels. Fifty-nine point two of the participants reported that the same training contributed to their personal development at “quiet” to “too much” levels. For the supervision traning these perceived contributions were 92,6 % and 70,4% respectively. That the therapists reported high degree of satisfaction with the theoretical and supervision trainings they need to accomplish is promising about the psychotherapy training in Turkey. Besides, results of this study suggests that although theoretical training is of perceived value, supervision has been perceived as had given extra contribution. [JCBPR 2016; 5(3.000: 119-124

  2. Randomized Evaluation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Graded Exercise Therapy for Post-Cancer Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Carolina X; Goldstein, David; Horsfield, Sarah; Bennett, Barbara K; Friedlander, Michael; Bastick, Patricia A; Lewis, Craig R; Segelov, Eva; Boyle, Frances M; Chin, Melvin T M; Webber, Kate; Barry, Benjamin K; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2017-07-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is prevalent and disabling. When persistent and unexplained, it is termed post-cancer fatigue (PCF). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) may improve symptoms and functional outcomes. To evaluate the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial, which assigned patients with post-cancer fatigue to education, or 12 weeks of integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET). Three months after treatment for breast or colon cancer, eligible patients had clinically significant fatigue, no comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions that explained the fatigue, and no evidence of recurrence. The CBT/GET arm included individually tailored consultations at approximately two weekly intervals. The education arm included a single visit with clinicians describing the principles of CBT/GET and a booklet. The primary outcome was clinically significant improvement in self-reported fatigue (Somatic and Psychological HEalth REport 0-12), designated a priori as greater than one SD of improvement in fatigue score. The secondary outcome was associated improvement in function (role limitation due to physical health problems-36-Item Short Form Health Survey 0-100) comparing baseline, end treatment (12 weeks), and follow-up (24 weeks). There were 46 patients enrolled, including 43 women (94%), with a mean age of 51 years. Fatigue severity improved in all subjects from a mean of 5.2 (±3.1) at baseline to 3.9 (±2.8) at 12 weeks, suggesting a natural history of improvement. Clinically significant improvement was observed in 7 of 22 subjects in the intervention group compared with 2 of 24 in the education group (P < 0.05, χ 2 ). These subjects also had improvement in functional status compared with nonresponders (P < 0.01, t-test). Combined CBT/GET improves fatigue and functional outcomes for a subset of patients with post-cancer fatigue. Further studies to improve the response rate and the magnitude of

  3. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM (Simpson, 1990 and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR (Schaefer & Olson, 1981. Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for positive and negative dimensions of conflict. Path analyses indicated numerous actor and partner effects in the links between attachment, intimacy, and conflict. For men, both avoidant and anxious attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For women though, both secure and avoidant attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For men, all domains of intimacy were predictive of their own or their partner’s conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy was predictive of conflict behaviors. All domains of men’s intimacy emerged as significant mediators of associations between attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy mediated these associations. Implications for the treatment of relationally-discordant couples are discussed.

  4. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  5. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders is here to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D

    Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials

  6. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  7. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  8. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  9. Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on a Student with an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Val Rae M.

    2008-01-01

    This single-subject action research project examines the effects of animal-assisted therapy on the self-esteem and classroom behaviors of a student with an emotional/behavioral disorder. An 18- year-old male attending a special education school in northeastern St. Paul participated in animal-assisted therapy research for four weeks. Quantitative…

  10. Chimera Type Behavior in Nonlocal Coupling System with Two Different Inherent Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Larry; Li, Ping-Cheng; Tseng, Hseng-Che

    2014-03-01

    From the research of Kuramoto and Strogatz, arrays of identical oscillators can display a remarkable pattern, named chimera state, in which phase-locked oscillators coexist with drifting ones in nonlocal coupling oscillator system. We consider further in this study, two groups of oscillators with different inherent frequencies and arrange them in a ring. When the difference of the inherent frequencies is within some specific parameter range, oscillators of nonlocal coupling system show two distinct chimera states. When the parameter value exceeds some threshold value, two chimera states disappear. They show different features. The statistical dynamic behavior of the system can be described by Kuramoto theory.

  11. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  12. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  13. Facilitating Behavioral Change in Voice Therapy: The Relevance of Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an exploration of some of the issues surrounding adherence to vocal behavioral change in voice therapy within the context of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and to explore MI's potential for integration into voice therapy (MI-adapted voice therapy). MI is a style of interpersonal communication in…

  14. The Use of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Working with Complex Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa among Adolescents: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…

  16. [Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel

    2017-04-28

    Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support

  17. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice.

  18. [Dialectical-behavioral outpatient therapy for adolescents with impulsive and self-harming behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoni, Marco; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-11-01

    A slightly modified version of the Dialectical-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) for impulsive and self-injurious adolescents has been implemented in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Service in Zurich, Switzerland, since 2005. This DBT-A comprises individual therapy, skills training, and a single parent meeting over a 6-month period. This article reports on the translation of this approach into clinical practice and presents an evaluation based on the clinical quality of control assessments. Participants of the treatment program were 43 female adolescents aged 14 to 19 living in the Zurich area and showing impulsive and self-injurious behavior and problems regulating their emotions and relationships. Each skill group contained 4-6 adolescents. Our mostly positive experiences with this approach were supplemented by evaluation data from a quality control group based on self- and parent-report of a total of 19 participants. There is convincing evidence that DBT-A leads to reductions in both general and specific psychopathology.

  19. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: A multilevel latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, JA; Nyamathi, A; Ullman, JB; Bentler, PM

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance us...

  20. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher...Welding- Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  1. Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline

    Basic principles of calorimetry coupled with other techniques are introduced. These methods are used in heterogeneous catalysis for characterization of acidic, basic and red-ox properties of solid catalysts. Estimation of these features is achieved by monitoring the interaction of various probe molecules with the surface of such materials. Overview of gas phase, as well as liquid phase techniques is given. Special attention is devoted to coupled calorimetry-volumetry method. Furthermore, the influence of different experimental parameters on the results of these techniques is discussed, since it is known that they can significantly influence the evaluation of catalytic properties of investigated materials.

  2. Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBT) in Childhood and Adolescent Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Öngider

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to review efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on childhood and adolescence in mood and anxiety disorders. Many researches have shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent depression and anxiety are frequent disorders which may have a recurring and chronic course. PsycINFO, Medline and the Turkish P...

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy Reduces HIV Transmission in Discordant Couples in Rural Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Duan, Song; Ding, Yingying; Rou, Keming; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Jia, Manhong; Yang, Yuecheng; Wang, Jibao; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wu, Zunyou

    2013-01-01

    Background Although HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) via early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven to reduce transmissions among HIV-serodiscordant couples, its full implementation in developing countries remains a challenge. In this study, we determine whether China's current HIV treatment program prevents new HIV infections among discordant couples in rural China. Methods A prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted from June 2009 to March 2011, in rural Yunnan. A total of 1,618 HIV-discordant couples were eligible, 1,101 were enrolled, and 813 were followed for an average of 1.4 person-years (PY). Routine ART was prescribed to HIV-positive spouses according to eligibility (CD4HIV incidence. Results A total of 17 seroconversions were documented within 1,127 PY of follow-up, for an overall incidence of 1.5 per 100 PY. Epidemiological and genetic evidence confirmed that all 17 seroconverters were infected via marital secondary sexual transmission. Having an ART-experienced HIV-positive partner was associated with a lower rate of seroconvertion compared with having an ART-naïve HIV-positive partner (0.8 per 100 PY vs. 2.4 per 100 PY, HR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.12–0.97, p = 0.0436). While we found that ART successfully suppressed plasma viral load to HIV incidence among discordant couples in our sample, demonstrating the effectiveness of China's HIV treatment program at preventing new infections, and providing support for earlier ART initiation and TasP implementation in this region. PMID:24236010

  4. Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C; Nunes, Edward V; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilcoxon Exact Test was used to compare cognitive functioning test scores between completers and dropouts, and the Fisher Exact Test was used to compare proportion of negative urines between those with higher and lower scores on the cognitive tests. Marijuana abstinence was unrelated to cognitive functioning. However, dropouts scored significantly lower than completers on measures of abstract reasoning and processing accuracy, providing initial evidence that cognitive functioning plays a role in treatment retention of adult marijuana dependent patients. If supported by further studies, the findings may help inform the development of interventions tailored for cognitively impaired marijuana dependent patients. PMID:18329188

  5. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder by Proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yoshinaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system.

  8. Dialectical behavior therapy and domains of functioning over two years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Chelsey R.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Harned, Melanie; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have a significant degree of functional impairment across a range of social and occupational spheres including difficulty finding and maintaining satisfying employment, housing, or relationships. Understanding what factors are associated with functional impairment will enable treatment providers to move those diagnosed with BPD beyond symptomatic recovery and toward a life worth living. This paper investigated the trajectories and predictors of functional outcomes for suicidal women with BPD (N=99) during a treatment outcome study of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Results revealed that participants had statistical and clinical improvements in functioning. Individuals with high emotion dysregulation displayed poorer psychosocial functioning at the subsequent assessment period and slower rates of change, which was also seen in reverse for one psychosocial functioning variable. Skills use was not related to individual trajectories in functioning. This study highlights the relationship of emotion dysregulation to functioning within a sample of suicidal women with BPD as well as the importance researching multiple domains in functioning. PMID:26764586

  9. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Tørmoen, Anita J; Ramberg, Maria; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Laberg, Stine; Larsson, Bo S; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether a shortened form of dialectical behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is more effective than enhanced usual care (EUC) to reduce self-harm in adolescents. This was a randomized study of 77 adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm treated at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics who were randomly allocated to either DBT-A or EUC. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder were made at baseline and after 9, 15, and 19 weeks (end of trial period), and frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department visits over the trial period were recorded. Treatment retention was generally good in both treatment conditions, and the use of emergency services was low. DBT-A was superior to EUC in reducing self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were large for treatment outcomes in patients who received DBT-A, whereas effect sizes were small for outcomes in patients receiving EUC. Total number of treatment contacts was found to be a partial mediator of the association between treatment and changes in the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas no mediation effects were found on the other outcomes or for total treatment time. DBT-A may be an effective intervention to reduce self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.

    2017-11-08

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh\\'s equation and is coupled to phase behavior so that simultaneous tuning of both interfacial tension (IFT) and phase behavior is possible. The oil-water interfacial tension and characteristic length are shown to be related to each other through the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD). The phase behavior is tied to the micelle curvatures, without the need for using the net average curvature (NAC). The interfacial tension model is related to solubilization ratios in order to introduce a coupled interfacial tension-phase behavior model for all phase environments. The approach predicts two- and three-phase interfacial tensions and phase behavior (i.e., tie lines and tie triangles) for changes in composition and HLD input parameters, such as temperature, pressure, surfactant structure, and oil equivalent alkane carbon number. Comparisons to experimental data show excellent fits and predictive capability.

  12. Peculiarities of MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled Co(II) dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovsky, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase can take place. The origin of this peculiarity is explained by the strong orbital contribution. Highlights: → MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled cobalt dimer. → Strong orbital contribution to the magneto-optical behavior. → Change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase. - Abstract: The MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled octahedrally coordinated cobalt dimers is studied for different types of distortion of the local surrounding of each interacting ion. It was found that in the case of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction the change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase can take place. This signal behavior is not the result of overlapping of different electronic transitions and it is characteristic of an individual MCD line. The origin of this magneto-optical behavior is explained by the strong contribution coming from the unquenched orbital angular momenta of interacting cobalt ions. The found peculiarity is inherent to complexes composed of nonequivalent cobalt ions as well as to the dimeric complexes with the equivalent Co ions with nonparallel local axes.

  13. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  14. Behavior Therapy for Tic Disorders: An Evidenced-based Review and New Directions for Treatment Research

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette’s Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges...

  15. Rational emotive behavior therapy: applications for working with parents and teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...

  16. Reducing sexual risk behavior among high-risk couples in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (knowledge, and women increased their use of positive coping tactics. The results highlight the potential to successfully utilize a group intervention to discuss sensitive issues such as sexual risk behavior among both men and women. Strategies to improve condom use and communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.

  17. Emergent behavior in a coupled economic and coastline model for beach nourishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lazarus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed coastal areas often exhibit a strong systemic coupling between shoreline dynamics and economic dynamics. "Beach nourishment", a common erosion-control practice, involves mechanically depositing sediment from outside the local littoral system onto an actively eroding shoreline to alter shoreline morphology. Natural sediment-transport processes quickly rework the newly engineered beach, causing further changes to the shoreline that in turn affect subsequent beach-nourishment decisions. To the limited extent that this landscape/economic coupling has been considered, evidence suggests that towns tend to employ spatially myopic economic strategies under which individual towns make isolated decisions that do not account for their neighbors. What happens when an optimization strategy that explicitly ignores spatial interactions is incorporated into a physical model that is spatially dynamic? The long-term attractor that develops for the coupled system (the state and behavior to which the system evolves over time is unclear. We link an economic model, in which town-manager agents choose economically optimal beach-nourishment intervals according to past observations of their immediate shoreline, to a simplified coastal-dynamics model that includes alongshore sediment transport and background erosion (e.g. from sea-level rise. Simulations suggest that feedbacks between these human and natural coastal processes can generate emergent behaviors. When alongshore sediment transport and spatially myopic nourishment decisions are coupled, increases in the rate of sea-level rise can destabilize economically optimal nourishment practices into a regime characterized by the emergence of chaotic shoreline evolution.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of SA508 Coupled with and without Magnetite in Chemical Cleaning Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Yeong-Ho; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Song, Geun Dong; Hur, Do Haeng; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate these problems, chemical cleaning process has been widely used. However, the chemical cleaning solution can affect the corrosion of SG structural materials as well as the magnetite dissolution. During the chemical cleaning process, the galvanic corrosion between SG materials and magnetite is also anticipated because they are in electrical connection. However, the corrosion measurement or monitoring for the materials has been performed without consideration of galvanic effect coupled with magnetite during the chemical cleaning process. In this study, the effect of temperature and EDTA concentration on the corrosion behavior of SA508 tubesheet material with and without magnetite was studied in chemical cleaning solutions. The galvanic corrosion behavior between SA508 and magnetite is predicted by using the mixed potential theory and its effect on the corrosion rate of SA508 is also discussed. By newly designed immersion test, it was confirmed that the extent of galvanic corrosion effect between SA508 and magnetite increased with increasing temperature and EDTA concentration. The galvanic corrosion behavior of SA508 coupled with magnetite in chemical cleaning environments was predicted by the mixed potential theory and verified by ZRA and LP technique. Galvanic coupling increased the corrosion rate of SA508 due to the shift in its potential to the anodic direction. Therefore, the galvanic corrosion effect between SA508 and magnetite should be considered when the corrosion measurement is performed during the chemical cleaning process in steam generators.

  19. Gold glyconanoparticles coupled to listeriolysin O 91-99 peptide serve as adjuvant therapy against melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Gonzalez, R; Terán-Navarro, H; García, I; Marradi, M; Salcines-Cuevas, D; Yañez-Diaz, S; Solis-Angulo, A; Frande-Cabanes, E; Fariñas, M C; Garcia-Castaño, A; Gomez-Roman, J; Penades, S; Rivera, F; Freire, J; Álvarez-Domínguez, C

    2017-08-03

    Dendritic cell-based (DC-based) vaccines are promising immunotherapies for cancer. However, several factors, such as the lack of efficient targeted delivery and the sources and types of DCs, have limited the efficacy of DCs and their clinical potential. We propose an alternative nanotechnology-based vaccine platform with antibacterial prophylactic abilities that uses gold glyconanoparticles coupled to listeriolysin O 91-99 peptide (GNP-LLO 91-99 ), which acts as a novel adjuvant for cancer therapy. GNP-LLO 91-99 , when used to vaccinate mice, exhibited dual antitumour activities, namely, the inhibition of tumour migration and growth and adjuvant activity for recruiting and activating DCs, including those from melanoma patients. GNP-LLO 91-99 nanoparticles caused tumour apoptosis and induced antigen- and melanoma-specific cytotoxic Th1 responses (P ≤ 0.5). We propose this adjuvant nanotherapy for preventing the progression of the first stages of melanoma.

  20. Patient Characteristics and Patient Behavior as Predictors of Outcome in Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Therapy for Hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Psychotherapy for hypochondriasis has greatly improved over the last decades and cognitive-behavioral treatments are most promising. However, research on predictors of treatment outcome for hypochondriasis is rare. Possible predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive therapy (CT) and exposure therapy (ET) for hypochondriasis were investigated. Characteristics and behaviors of 75 patients were considered as possible predictors: sociodemographic variables (sex, age, and cohabitation); psychopathology (pretreatment hypochondriacal symptoms, comorbid mental disorders, and levels of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms); and patient in-session interpersonal behavior. Severity of pretreatment hypochondriacal symptoms, comorbid mental disorders, and patient in-session interpersonal behavior were significant predictors in multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Interactions between the predictors and the treatment (CT or ET) were not found. In-session interpersonal behavior is an important predictor of outcome. Furthermore, there are no specific contraindications to treating hypochondriasis with CT or ET. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Is Pelvic-Floor Muscle Training a Physical Therapy or a Behavioral Therapy? A Call to Name and Report the Physical, Cognitive, and Behavioral Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Helena C; Dean, Sarah G; Slade, Susan C; Hay-Smith, E Jean C

    2017-04-01

    This perspective article explores whether pelvic-floor muscle training (PFMT) for the management of female urinary incontinence and prolapse is a physical therapy or a behavioral therapy. The primary aim is to demonstrate that it is both. A secondary aim is to show that the plethora of terms used for PFMT is potentially confusing and that current terminology inadequately represents the full intent, content, and delivery of this complex intervention. While physical therapists may be familiar with exercise terms, the details are often incompletely reported; furthermore, physical therapists are less familiar with the terminology used in accurately representing cognitive and behavioral therapy interventions, which results in these elements being even less well reported. Thus, an additional aim is to provide greater clarity in the terminology used in the reporting of PFMT interventions, specifically, descriptions of the exercise and behavioral elements. First, PFMT is described as a physical therapy and as an exercise therapy informed predominantly by the discipline of physical therapy. However, effective implementation requires use of the cognitive and behavioral perspectives of the discipline of psychology. Second, the theoretical underpinning of the psychology-informed elements of PFMT is summarized. Third, to address some identified limitations and confusion in current terminology and reporting, recommendations for ways in which physical therapists can incorporate the psychology-informed elements of PFMT alongside the more familiar exercise therapy-informed elements are made. Fourth, an example of how both elements can be described and reported in a PFMT intervention is provided. In summary, this perspective explores the underlying concepts of PFMT to demonstrate that it is both a physical intervention and a behavioral intervention and that it can and should be described as such, and an example of the integration of these elements into clinical practice is provided

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  3. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  4. Applying Dialectical Behavior Therapy to Self-Harm in College-Age Men: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jennifer L.; Umstead, Lindsey K.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers suggest an increase in self-harm among men. Specifically, college-age men appear to be at risk for self-harming behaviors, and counselors often overlook these behaviors in treatment. In this article, the authors describe the issue of self-harm and illustrate the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 2014) with male college…

  5. Effect of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing couples’ tendency to divorce among divorce-applicant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Berdi Ozouni-Davaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to survey the effect of couple’s schema therapy in reducing the tendency to divorce among divorce applicant couples. An experimental study was carried out in the form of single-subject design. The population study consisted of self-referential or referring couples to counseling centers as well as the counseling center of justice department. Three couples (wife and husband were selected using purposive sampling method. Couple’s schema therapy was conducted during 20 sessions with two-month follow-up. To collect data, demographic checklist and Rusbult tendency to divorce questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using visual analysis, improvement percentage, reliable change index, and Cohen index. The findings showed that couple’s schema therapy decreased tendency to divorce among divorcing couples and this reduction was clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (Reliable Change Index, RCI>1.96, The reduction in the tendency to divorce remained after two months and changes were clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (RCI>1.96, indicating the efficacy of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing the tendency to divorce among couples

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis for Distress During Breast Radiotherapy: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Dillon, Matthew J; Schnur, Julie B

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to either the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis (n = 50) or Attention Control (n = 50) group. Results revealed significant benefits of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress at the mid-point (d = 0.54), the conclusion (d = 0.64), and 4 weeks following the conclusion (d = 0.65) of radiotherapy (all ps Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis as an evidence-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in women with breast cancer. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis has the benefits of being brief, noninvasive, lacking side-effects, and producing beneficial effects which last beyond the conclusion of radiotherapy. Given these strengths, we propose that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis is a strong candidate for greater dissemination and implementation in cancer populations.

  7. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effectiveness of an online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friðgeirsdóttir, Guðlaug; Jóhannsson, Gunnar; Ellertsson, Steindór; Björnsdóttir, Erla

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is a common health problem with serious mental and physical consequences as well as increased economical costs. The use of hypnotics in Iceland is immense in spite of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being recommended as the first choice treatment of chronic insomnia. To meet the needs of more individuals suffering from insomnia, online CBT-I was established at betrisvefn.is. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of this internet-based CBT-I. One hundred seventy-five users (mean age 46 y (18-79 y)) started a 6 week online intervention for insomnia. The drop-out rate was 29%, leaving a final sample of 125 users. The intervention is based on well-established face-to-face CBT-I. Sleep diaries were used to determine changes in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. Treatment effects were assesed after 6 weeks of treatment and at the 6 week follow-up. Significant improvement was found in all main sleep variables except for 5% decrease in total sleep time (TST). Effects were sustained at 6 week follow-up and TST increased. The use of hypnotics decreased significantly. This form of treatment seems to suit its users very well and over 94% would recommend the treatment. Internet interventions for insomnia seem to have good potential. CBT-I will hopefully be offered as the first line treatment for chronic insomnia in Iceland instead of hypnotics as the availability of the CBT-I is growing. Thus, the burden on health care clinics might reduce along with the hypnotics use and the considerable costs of insomnia.

  9. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  10. What Did They Learn? Effects of a Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Workshop on Community Therapists' Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kelli; Klech, David; Lewis, Cara C; Simons, Anne D

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge gain has been identified as necessary but not sufficient for therapist behavior change. Declarative knowledge, or factual knowledge, is thought to serve as a prerequisite for procedural knowledge, the how to knowledge system, and reflective knowledge, the skill refinement system. The study aimed to examine how a 1-day workshop affected therapist cognitive behavioral therapy declarative knowledge. Participating community therapists completed a test before and after training that assessed cognitive behavioral therapy knowledge. Results suggest that the workshop significantly increased declarative knowledge. However, post-training total scores remained moderately low, with several questions answered incorrectly despite content coverage in the workshop. These findings may have important implications for structuring effective cognitive behavioral therapy training efforts and for the successful implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings.

  11. Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Mitnick, Danielle M; Lorber, Michael F; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2018-02-01

    This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. They share overlapping medical regimens, are driven by overlapping proximal health behaviors, and affect a wide developmental span, from early childhood to late adulthood. Coercive couple and parent-child conflict constitute potent and destructive influences on a wide range of adult and child health outcomes. Such interaction patterns give rise to disturbed environmental stress reactivity (e.g., disrupted sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic nervous systems) and a wide range of adverse health outcomes in children and adults, including dental caries, obesity, and diabetes-related metabolic markers. In this work, we seek to identify/develop/validate assays assessing coercion, identify/develop and test brief interventions to reduce coercion, and test whether changes in coercion trigger changes in health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating Habituation to Premonitory Urges in Behavior Therapy for Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, David C; Capriotti, Matthew R; Scahill, Lawrence D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Walkup, John T; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W

    2017-11-01

    Behavior therapy is effective for Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs), but behavioral processes facilitating tic reduction are not well understood. One process, habituation, is thought to create tic reduction through decreases in premonitory urge severity. The current study tested whether premonitory urges decreased in youth with PTDs (N = 126) and adults with PTDs (N = 122) who participated in parallel randomized clinical trials comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). Trends in premonitory urges, tic severity, and treatment outcome were analyzed according to the predictions of a habituation model, whereby urge severity would be expected to decrease in those who responded to behavior therapy. Although adults who responded to behavior therapy showed a significant trend of declining premonitory urge severity across treatment, results failed to demonstrate that behavior therapy specifically caused changes in premonitory urge severity. In addition, reductions in premonitory urge severity in those who responded to behavior therapy were significant greater than those who did not respond to behavior therapy but no different than those who responded or did not respond to PST. Children with PTDs failed to show any significant changes in premonitory urges. Reductions in premonitory urge severity did not mediate the relationship between treatment and outcome in either adults or children. These results cast doubt on the notion that habituation is the therapeutic process underlying the effectiveness of behavior therapy, which has immediate implications for the psychoeducation and therapeutic rationale presented in clinical practice. Moreover, there may be important developmental changes in premonitory urges in PTDs, and alternative models of therapeutic change warrant investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Circuit-Host Coupling Induces Multifaceted Behavioral Modulations of a Gene Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrew E; Liao, Chen; Lu, Ting

    2018-02-06

    Quantitative modeling of gene circuits is fundamentally important to synthetic biology, as it offers the potential to transform circuit engineering from trial-and-error construction to rational design and, hence, facilitates the advance of the field. Currently, typical models regard gene circuits as isolated entities and focus only on the biochemical processes within the circuits. However, such a standard paradigm is getting challenged by increasing experimental evidence suggesting that circuits and their host are intimately connected, and their interactions can potentially impact circuit behaviors. Here we systematically examined the roles of circuit-host coupling in shaping circuit dynamics by using a self-activating gene switch as a model circuit. Through a combination of deterministic modeling, stochastic simulation, and Fokker-Planck equation formalism, we found that circuit-host coupling alters switch behaviors across multiple scales. At the single-cell level, it slows the switch dynamics in the high protein production regime and enlarges the difference between stable steady-state values. At the population level, it favors cells with low protein production through differential growth amplification. Together, the two-level coupling effects induce both quantitative and qualitative modulations of the switch, with the primary component of the effects determined by the circuit's architectural parameters. This study illustrates the complexity and importance of circuit-host coupling in modulating circuit behaviors, demonstrating the need for a new paradigm-integrated modeling of the circuit-host system-for quantitative understanding of engineered gene networks. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extension-torsion coupling behavior of advanced composite tilt-rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    An analytic model was developed to study the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of an advanced composite helicopter or tilt-rotor blade. The outer surface of the blade is defined by rotating an arbitrary cross section about an initial twist axis. The cross section can be nonhomogeneous and composed of generally anisotropic materials. The model is developed based upon a three dimensional elasticity approach that is recast as a coupled two-dimensional boundary value problem defined in a curvilinear coordinate system. Displacement solutions are written in terms of known functions that represent extension, bending, and twisting and unknown functions for local cross section deformations. The unknown local deformation functions are determined by applying the principle of minimum potential energy to the discretized two-dimensional cross section. This is an application of the Ritz method, where the trial function family is the displacement field associated with a finite element (8-node isoparametric quadrilaterals) representation of the section. A computer program was written where the cross section is discretized into 8-node quadrilateral subregions. Initially the program was verified using previously published results (both three-dimensional elasticity and technical beam theory) for pretwisted isotropic bars with an elliptical cross section. In addition, solid and thin-wall multi-cell NACA-0012 airfoil sections were analyzed to illustrate the pronounced effects that pretwist, initial twist axis location, and spar location has on coupled behavior. Currently, a series of advanced composite airfoils are being modeled in order to assess how the use of laminated composite materials interacts with pretwist to alter the coupling behavior of the blade. These studies will investigate the use of different ply angle orientations and the use of symmetric versus unsymmetric laminates.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje

    2006-01-01

    Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…

  16. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  19. Mean-field behavior in coupled oscillators with attractive and repulsive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk; Strogatz, Steven H

    2012-05-01

    We consider a variant of the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators in which both attractive and repulsive pairwise interactions are allowed. The sign of the coupling is assumed to be a characteristic of a given oscillator. Specifically, some oscillators repel all the others, thus favoring an antiphase relationship with them. Other oscillators attract all the others, thus favoring an in-phase relationship. The Ott-Antonsen ansatz is used to derive the exact low-dimensional dynamics governing the system's long-term macroscopic behavior. The resulting analytical predictions agree with simulations of the full system. We explore the effects of changing various parameters, such as the width of the distribution of natural frequencies and the relative strengths and proportions of the positive and negative interactions. For the particular model studied here we find, unexpectedly, that the mixed interactions produce no new effects. The system exhibits conventional mean-field behavior and displays a second-order phase transition like that found in the original Kuramoto model. In contrast to our recent study of a different model with mixed interactions [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 054102 (2011)], the π state and traveling-wave state do not appear for the coupling type considered here.

  20. The Application of Family Therapy Concepts to Influencing Organizational Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Larry; Gilmore, Tom

    1980-01-01

    Explores, through an action research project, the possible contributions--in theory, diagnosis, and intervention--of structural family therapy to organizational change. Reports that successful transfer of family therapy techniques to organizations is contingent on understanding four differences between organizations and families. (Author/IRT)

  1. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AntolIn, P; Goicolea, J M; Astiz, M A; Alonso, A

    2010-01-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  2. A methodology for analysing lateral coupled behavior of high speed railway vehicles and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, P.; Goicolea, J. M.; Astiz, M. A.; Alonso, A.

    2010-06-01

    Continuous increment of the speed of high speed trains entails the increment of kinetic energy of the trains. The main goal of this article is to study the coupled lateral behavior of vehicle-structure systems for high speed trains. Non linear finite element methods are used for structures whereas multibody dynamics methods are employed for vehicles. Special attention must be paid when dealing with contact rolling constraints for coupling bridge decks and train wheels. The dynamic models must include mixed variables (displacements and creepages). Additionally special attention must be paid to the contact algorithms adequate to wheel-rail contact. The coupled vehicle-structure system is studied in a implicit dynamic framework. Due to the presence of very different systems (trains and bridges), different frequencies are involved in the problem leading to stiff systems. Regarding to contact methods, a main branch is studied in normal contact between train wheels and bridge decks: penalty method. According to tangential contact FastSim algorithm solves the tangential contact at each time step solving a differential equation involving relative displacements and creepage variables. Integration for computing the total forces in the contact ellipse domain is performed for each train wheel and each solver iteration. Coupling between trains and bridges requires a special treatment according to the kinetic constraints imposed in the wheel-rail pair and the load transmission. A numerical example is performed.

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  4. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  5. Simulation of Iodine Behavior by Coupling of a Standalone Model with MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Chul; Cho, Song Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    During a severe accident, a large fraction of iodine in the core can be released into the containment. Iodine is important in terms of its high activity in the early phase after a core-melt accident due to its short half-life isotopes and its serious effect on the public health, especially on the thyroid. Therefore, iodine behavior has been extensively studied through the international research programs. Major research areas are iodine chemistry, surface reactions, mass transfer, modeling of iodine chemistry and its applications to severe accident assessment, and accident management. Advanced tools for modeling these phenomena have been developed and validated by several experiments such as ISTP-EPICUR (International Source Term Program - Experimental Program on Iodine Chemistry under Radiation) and PARIS, and OECD-BIP (Behavior of Iodine Project) in which Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been participating. As a result, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) was developed, based on the IMOD methodology in order to deal with organic iodides conveniently. RAIM has been also coupled with MELCOR, replacing the pool chemistry model (PCM). This coupling model, MELCOR-RAIM, will be used for an integrated severe accident assessment that takes into account the organic iodine behavior. This model is described herein, and representative simulation results of the model are presented

  6. [Therapist self-disclosure in cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I

    2014-01-01

    Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing

  7. Analysis of the Coupling Behavior of PEM Fuel Cells and DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Kienle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connection between PEM fuel cells and common DC-DC converters is examined. The analysis is model-based and done for boost, buck and buck-boost converters. In a first step, the effect of the converter ripples upon the PEM fuel cell is shown. They introduce oscillations in the fuel cell. Their appearance is explained, discussed and possibilities for their suppression are given. After that, the overall behaviors of the coupled fuel cell-converter systems are analyzed. It is shown, that neither stationary multiplicities nor oscillations can be introduced by the couplings and therefore separate control approaches for both the PEMFC and the DC-DC converters are applicable.

  8. Transient thermal-mechanical coupling behavior analysis of mechanical seals during start-up operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. C.; Meng, X. K.; Shen, M. X.; Peng, X. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transient thermal-mechanical coupling model for a contacting mechanical seal during start-up has been developed. It takes into consideration the coupling relationship among thermal-mechanical deformation, film thickness, temperature and heat generation. The finite element method and multi-iteration technology are applied to solve the temperature distribution and thermal-mechanical deformation as well as their evolution behavior. Results show that the seal gap transforms from negative coning to positive coning and the contact area of the mechanical seal gradually decreases during start-up. The location of the maximum temperature and maximum contact pressure move from the outer diameter to inside diameter. The heat generation and the friction torque increase sharply at first and then decrease. Meanwhile, the contact force decreases and the fluid film force and leakage rate increase.

  9. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  10. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  11. Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with substance use disorder and comorbid ADHD: two case presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option

  12. Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with Substance Use Disorder and Comorbid ADHD : Two case presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wir; Schoevers, Robert A.

    Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  14. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  15. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of non-linearity of material properties on the coupled mechanical-hydraulic-thermal behavior in rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Ohnishi, Yuzo

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinearity of material properties used in the coupled mechanical-hydraulic-thermal analysis is investigated from the past literatures. Some nonlinearity that is respectively effective for the system is introduced into our computer code for analysis such a coupling problem by using finite element method. And the effects of nonlinearity of each material property on the coupled behavior in rock mass are examined for simple model and Stripa project model with the computer code. (author)

  17. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  18. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) among children with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ongider-Gregory; Burak Baykara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It was aimed to investigate efficacy of Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in childhood anxiety disorders by pre and post therapy. Method: Trial sample was obtained from an university outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Therapy group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was diagnosed as DSM-IV childhood anxiety disorder. And comparation group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was in the waiting list. The total sample includes...

  20. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  1. Theoretical foundations and workable assumptions For cognitive behavioral music therapy in forensic psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical foundation for cognitive behavioral music therapy in forensic psychiatry. First, two cases are presented to give an insight into music therapy in forensic psychiatry. Secondly some background information on forensic psychiatry is provided. The Risk-Need-Responsivity

  2. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  3. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Sandulescu, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, F-91505 (France)

    2007-01-15

    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed.

  4. Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, N.; Sandulescu, N.; Schuck, P.

    2007-01-01

    With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed

  5. An Explicit Approach Toward Modeling Thermo-Coupled Deformation Behaviors of SMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new elastoplastic J 2 -flow models with thermal effects is proposed toward simulating thermo-coupled finite deformation behaviors of shape memory polymers. In this new model, an elastic potential evolving with development of plastic flow is incorporated to characterize the stress-softening effect at unloading and, moreover, thermo-induced plastic flow is introduced to represent the strain recovery effect at heating. It is shown that any given test data for both effects may be accurately simulated by means of direct and explicit procedures. Numerical examples for model predictions compare well with test data in literature.

  6. Dynamic viscous behavior of magneto-rheological fluid in coupled mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Park, JinHyuk; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    A new method of measuring the coupled mode viscosity behavior of magneto-rheological (MR) fluid using the resonance concept is proposed. The coupled mode viscosity measurement device is designed as a resonant system using a cantilever beam probing with the rotating shaft mechanism. The ‘C’ shaped iron core of an electromagnetic coil, mounted in a resonating cantilever beam is used as a probing tip. The MR fluid between the probing tip and the rotating shaft mechanism experiences both squeeze and shear force. The vibration induced by the resonating cantilever beam creates only squeeze force on the MR fluid when the shaft is stationary. When the cantilever beam is vibrating at resonance and the shaft is rotating, the MR fluid experiences coupled (shear and squeeze) force. The cantilever beam is vibrated at its resonant frequency using the piezoelectric actuation technique and the resonance is maintained using simple closed loop resonator electronics. The input current to the probing coil is varied to produce a variable magnetic field which causes the viscosity change of the MR fluid. The viscosity change of the MR fluid produces a coupled force, which induces an additional stiffness on the resonating cantilever beam and alters its initial resonant frequency. The shift in resonant frequency due to the change in viscosity of the MR fluid is measured with the help of a resonator electronics circuit and its viscosity is related to the field dependent coupled mode yield stress of the MR fluid. The proposed measurement device is analytically derived and experimentally evaluated. (technical note)

  7. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seyffert

    Full Text Available Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings.We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials.Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis.We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001 with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017 compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004. The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013 in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post

  8. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; pinternet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to

  9. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Conte, Marisa L; Rogers, Mary A M

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; pcognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were maintained from 4 to 48 weeks after post-treatment assessment. There were no statistically

  10. O sonho na clínica de casal The dream in couple therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vilhena Lisboa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata a questão do sonho na clínica de casal como recurso técnico de análise, para a elaboração de um material traumático. O sonho é compreendido por Freud como uma atividade intrapsíquica e representante de um conteúdo recalcado sobre um desejo inconsciente. No entanto, sob a teoria de René Kaës acerca da polifonia do sonho, este ganha função compartilhada, cujo processo está presente na dimensão intersubjetiva de um grupo, de uma família e, no caso deste estudo, de um casal. Não só o conteúdo do sonho, mas a atividade realizada pelo pré-consciente do casal aponta dados relevantes numa investigação clínica. O vínculo conjugal compreende um campo fértil em que atividades psíquicas, como projeções e identificações, aparecem com mais intensidade e são compartilhadas no ato de sonhar. Fragmentos de um caso clínico de casal mostram como o sonho pode ser uma maneira de compreender a intersubjetividade presa ao material recalcado.This paper deals with the question of the dream in couple therapy, taken as a technical resource for analysis, in the elaboration of a traumatic material. The dream is understood by Freud as an individualized work, representative of repressed content related to a forbidden wish. However, the dream, under the theory of René Kaës about its polyphony, gains a shared function when present in the intersubjective dimension of a group, family and, in the case of this study, of a couple. Not only the dream content, but the work carried out by the pre-conscious as well, reveals relevant data for clinical investigation. The marital link comprises a fertile ground in which psychological activities, such as projections and identifications, appear with more intensity, and are shared in dreaming. Fragments of a couple clinical case show how the dream can be a way of understanding intersubjectivity that is bound to repressed material.

  11. Wetting and motion behaviors of water droplet on graphene under thermal-electric coupling field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Qiang; Dong, Xin; Ye, Hong-Fei; Cheng, Guang-Gui; Ding, Jian-Ning; Ling, Zhi-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Wetting dynamics and motion behaviors of a water droplet on graphene are characterized under the electric-thermal coupling field using classical molecular dynamics simulation method. The water droplet on graphene can be driven by the temperature gradient, while the moving direction is dependent on the electric field intensity. Concretely, the water droplet on graphene moves from the low temperature region to the high temperature region for the relatively weak electric field intensity. The motion acceleration increases with the electric field intensity on graphene, whereas the moving direction switches when the electric field intensity increases up to a threshold. The essence is the change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic for the water droplet on graphene at a threshold of the electric field intensity. Moreover, the driven force of the water droplet caused by the overall oscillation of graphene has important influence on the motion behaviors. The results are helpful to control the wettability of graphene and further develop the graphene-based fluidic nanodevices.

  12. Brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy for emotional disorders: A person-centered event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-06-23

    Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia, A.; Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Colli, V.; Gambarini, G. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rosi, G. [ENEA-FIS-ION, Casaccia RC, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Scolari, L. [Dept. of Physics of the Univ., INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF{sub 2}:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT. (authors)

  14. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  15. Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBT in Childhood and Adolescent Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Öngider

    2014-08-01

    Currently, there are different treatment options like computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy, computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy and also, internet-based CBT. However, preliminary evidence suggests that computerised cognitive behaviour therapies (cCBT, are acceptable and effective interventions for children and adolescents. In this study is to review not only the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour treatments of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents but also the tecniques which have been used and their effects on the course and the treatments. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 99-108

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as continuation treatment to sustain response after electroconvulsive therapy in depression: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Merkl, Angela; Wilbertz, Gregor; Quante, Arnim; Regen, Francesca; Bührsch, Nicole; van Hall, Franziska; Kischkel, Eva; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Anghelescu, Ion; Heuser, Isabella; Kathmann, Norbert; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-08-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective acute antidepressant intervention, sustained response rates are low. It has never been systematically assessed whether psychotherapy, continuation ECT, or antidepressant medication is the most efficacious intervention to maintain initial treatment response. In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 90 inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated with right unilateral ultra-brief acute ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy responders received 6 months guideline-based antidepressant medication (MED) and were randomly assigned to add-on therapy with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT-arm), add-on therapy with ultra-brief pulse continuation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT-arm), or no add-on therapy (MED-arm). After the 6 months of continuation treatment, patients were followed-up for another 6 months. The primary outcome parameter was the proportion of patients who remained well after 12 months. Of 90 MDD patients starting the acute phase, 70% responded and 47% remitted to acute ECT. After 6 months of continuation treatment, significant differences were observed in the three treatment arms with sustained response rates of 77% in the CBT-arm, 40% in the ECT-arm, and 44% in the MED-arm. After 12 months, these differences remained stable with sustained response rates of 65% in the CBT-arm, 28% in the ECT-arm, and 33% in the MED-arm. These results suggest that ultra-brief pulse ECT as a continuation treatment correlates with low sustained response rates. However, the main finding implicates cognitive-behavioral group therapy in combination with antidepressants might be an effective continuation treatment to sustain response after successful ECT in MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy changes functional connectivity between medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Matsunaga, Miki; Onoda, Keiichi; Okada, Go; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Yoshino, Atsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shin-Ichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-15

    Depression is characterized by negative self-cognition. Our previous study (Yoshimura et al. 2014) revealed changes in brain activity after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression, but changes in functional connectivity were not assessed. This study included 29 depressive patients and 15 healthy control participants. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to investigate possible CBT-related functional connectivity changes associated with negative emotional self-referential processing. Depressed and healthy participants (overlapping with our previous study, Yoshimura et al. 2014) were included. We defined a seed region (medial prefrontal cortex) and coupled region (ACC) based on our previous study, and we examined changes in MPFC-ACC functional connectivity from pretreatment to posttreatment. CBT was associated with reduced functional connectivity between the MPFC and ACC. Symptom change with CBT was positively correlated with change in MPFC-ACC functional connectivity. Patients received pharmacotherapy including antidepressant. The present sample size was quite small and more study is needed. Statistical threshold in fMRI analysis was relatively liberal. CBT for depression may disrupt MPFC-ACC connectivity, with associated improvements in depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Infrared behavior of the effective coupling in quantum chromodynamics: A non-perturbative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Gadda, U.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we examine a different viewpoint, based on a self-consistent approach. This means that rather than attempting to identify any particular physical mechanism as dominating the QCD vacuum state we use the non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations and Slavnov-Taylor identities of QCD as well as the renormalization group equation to obtain the self-consistent behavior of the effective coupling in the infrared region. We show that the infrared effective coupling behavior anti g(q 2 /μ 2 , gsub(R)(μ)) = (μ 2 /q 2 )sup(lambda/2)gsub(R)(μ) in the infrared limit q 2 /μ 2 → 0, where μ 2 is the euclidean subtraction point; lambda = 1/2(d - 2), where d is the space-time dimension, is the preferred solution if a sufficient self-consistency condition is satisfied. Finally we briefly discuss the nature of the dynamical mass Λ and the 1/N expansion as well as an effective bound state equation. (orig.)

  20. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  1. Improvements in Behavioral Symptoms following Antibiotic Therapy in a 14-Year-Old Male with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lucas Ramirez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.

  2. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  3. Predictors of the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia Comorbid with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…

  4. Intimacy Is a Transdiagnostic Problem for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Is a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…

  5. Improvements in Behavioral Symptoms following Antibiotic Therapy in a 14-Year-Old Male with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, P. Lucas; Barnhill, Kelly; Gutierrez, Alan; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the benefits of antibiotic and antifungal therapy on behavior in a child with autism undergoing treatment for encopresis. Over the course of treatment, the child exhibited a reduction in aberrant behaviors, increased gastrointestinal function, and improved quality of life.

  6. The Evolution of "Enhanced" Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning from Treatment Nonresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…

  7. Breaking the rhythm of depression : Cognitive Behavior Therapy and relapse prevention for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockting, Claudi L.H.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior

  8. Brief Report: Improvements in the Behavior of Children with Autism Following Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Angelica; Field, Tiffany; Singer-Strunck, Ruth; Cullen, Christy; Hartshorn, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, received either massage therapy or reading attention by their parents for 15 minutes daily for one month. Evaluation suggested that children in the massage group exhibited less stereotypic behavior and showed more on-task and social relatedness behavior during play observations at school, and they…

  9. The Use of Massage Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Christopher; And Others

    The report documents the theoretical basis and application of massage therapy, with six students who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (SIB), in two studies. The first study investigated the relationship between physical and/or emotional stress and self-abusive behavior in five severely mentally impaired students. Subjects received two to three…

  10. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  12. The Role of the Team in Managing Telephone Consultation in Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Three Case Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, Cedar R.

    2011-01-01

    Standard, outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) includes the provision of intersession telephone contact between the therapist and the client to reduce suicidal crisis behaviors, enhance skills generalization, and reduce alienation and conflict in the therapeutic relationship. Therapists providing telephone consultation need the help of…

  13. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  14. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎.

  15. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  16. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  17. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: a multilevel latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Ullman, Jodie B; Bentler, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance use problems, HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived HIV/AIDS risk, needle-sharing, condom use, multiple sex partners, and HIV/AIDS testing. More variance was explained in the protective and risk variables by couple-level latent variable predictors than by individual latent variable predictors, although some gender effects were found (e.g., more alcohol problems among men). The couple-level variable of marriage predicted lower perceived risk, less deviant social support, and fewer sex partners but predicted more needle-sharing.

  18. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Müller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a widespread condition, that affects near 20% of individuals, exposed to traumatic event. Moreover, recent studies suggest, that it has a tendency for chronic course and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. According to clinical guidelines as first line therapy for PTSD trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy must be used. In this educational course are presented highlights of 2-day trauma-focused cognitive therapy training, including PTSD symptoms, overall CBT methods overview, theoretical and practical implications.

  19. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…

  20. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  1. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  2. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  3. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin James Turner

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...

  6. Behavior Therapy for Fears Brought On By War Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.

    1977-01-01

    Desensitization therapy was offered to Israeli soldiers suffering from fears developed as a result of their participation in the Yom Kippur War. Two kinds of in vivo desensitization procedures used were: (a) an individual self-administered in vivo desensitization and (b) in vivo desensitization in dyads. Advantages of these procedures discussed.…

  7. Behaviors of providers of traditional korean medicine therapy and complementary and alternative medicine therapy for the treatment of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Sang; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Ki-Kyong; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Min-Young

    2015-03-01

    In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide background knowledge for establishing a new policy with the management and quality control of CAM. Structured and well organized questionnaires were made, and 350 persons were surveyed concerning the providers of CAM or Korean oriental medicine. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The questionnaires (182) were collected. The questionnaires identified a total of 73 known providers, such as medicinal professionals or other providers of CAM suppliers, 35.6% of whom had had experience with treating cancer patients (52.6% vs. 29.6%). The treatment methods were a little different: alternative therapy and nutritional therapy being preferred by medicinal professionals and mind body modulation therapy and alternative therapy being preferred by other CAM providers. Four patients (7.4%) experienced side effects, and 6 patients (12.5%) experienced legal problems. As the method for managing the therapy, CAM providers, medicinal professionals, and other CAM providers had different viewpoints. For example, some CAM providers stated that both legislation and an official education on CAM or a national examination were needed as a first step to establish the provider's qualifications and that as a second step, a license test was needed for quality control. To the contrary, medicinal professionals stated that a license test was needed before legislation. Adequate management and quality control of CAM providers is thought to involve both education and legislation.

  8. Physiological and behavioral indices of emotion dysregulation as predictors of outcome from cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carolyn D; Niles, Andrea N; Pittig, Andre; Arch, Joanna J; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-03-01

    Identifying for whom and under what conditions a treatment is most effective is an essential step toward personalized medicine. The current study examined pre-treatment physiological and behavioral variables as predictors and moderators of outcome in a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for anxiety disorders. Sixty individuals with a DSM-IV defined principal anxiety disorder completed 12 sessions of either CBT or ACT. Baseline physiological and behavioral variables were measured prior to entering treatment. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up from baseline. Higher pre-treatment heart rate variability was associated with worse outcome across ACT and CBT. ACT outperformed CBT for individuals with high behavioral avoidance. Subjective anxiety levels during laboratory tasks did not predict or moderate treatment outcome. Due to small sample sizes of each disorder, disorder-specific predictors were not tested. Future research should examine these predictors in larger samples and across other outcome variables. Lower heart rate variability was identified as a prognostic indicator of overall outcome, whereas high behavioral avoidance was identified as a prescriptive indicator of superior outcome from ACT versus CBT. Investigation of pre-treatment physiological and behavioral variables as predictors and moderators of outcome may help guide future treatment-matching efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up of dialectical behavior therapy vs therapy by experts for suicidal behaviors and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray, Angela M; Brown, Milton Z; Gallop, Robert J; Heard, Heidi L; Korslund, Kathryn E; Tutek, Darren A; Reynolds, Sarah K; Lindenboim, Noam

    2006-07-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a treatment for suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder with well-documented efficacy. To evaluate the hypothesis that unique aspects of DBT are more efficacious compared with treatment offered by non-behavioral psychotherapy experts. One-year randomized controlled trial, plus 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. University outpatient clinic and community practice. One hundred one clinically referred women with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting DSM-IV criteria, matched to condition on age, suicide attempt history, negative prognostic indication, and number of lifetime intentional self-injuries and psychiatric hospitalizations. One year of DBT or 1 year of community treatment by experts (developed to maximize internal validity by controlling for therapist sex, availability, expertise, allegiance, training and experience, consultation availability, and institutional prestige). Trimester assessments of suicidal behaviors, emergency services use, and general psychological functioning. Measures were selected based on previous outcome studies of DBT. Outcome variables were evaluated by blinded assessors. Dialectical behavior therapy was associated with better outcomes in the intent-to-treat analysis than community treatment by experts in most target areas during the 2-year treatment and follow-up period. Subjects receiving DBT were half as likely to make a suicide attempt (hazard ratio, 2.66; P = .005), required less hospitalization for suicide ideation (F(1,92) = 7.3; P = .004), and had lower medical risk (F(1,50) = 3.2; P = .04) across all suicide attempts and self-injurious acts combined. Subjects receiving DBT were less likely to drop out of treatment (hazard ratio, 3.2; P Dialectical behavior therapy appears to be uniquely effective in reducing suicide attempts.

  10. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 105-112

  11. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression.

  12. Randomized controlled trial of false safety behavior elimination therapy: a unified cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Buckner, Julia D; Pusser, Andrea; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Preston, Jennifer L; Norr, Aaron

    2012-09-01

    We tested the efficacy of a unified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for anxiety disorders. This group treatment protocol, termed false safety behavior elimination therapy (F-SET), is a cognitive-behavioral approach designed for use across various anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). F-SET simplifies, as well as broadens, key therapeutic elements of empirically validated treatments for anxiety disorders to allow for easier delivery to heterogeneous groups of patients with anxiety psychopathology. Patients with a primary anxiety disorder diagnosis (N=96) were randomly assigned to F-SET or a wait-list control. Data indicate that F-SET shows good efficacy and durability when delivered to mixed groups of patients with anxieties (i.e., PD, SAD, GAD) by relatively inexperienced clinicians. Findings are discussed in the context of balancing treatment efficacy and clinical utility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Internet Use and Preventive Health Behaviors Among Couples in Later Life: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sangbo; Han, Sae Hwang; Gilligan, Megan

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between internet use and preventive health behaviors. We focused on couples to examine whether there were cross-partner associations between internet use and preventive health behaviors. The data for this study came from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the sample consisted of 5,143 pairs of coupled-individuals. Preventive health behaviors included cancer screenings (mammogram and prostate tests), cholesterol tests, and flu shots. Logistic multilevel actor-partner interdependence models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving prostate exams and cholesterol tests for husbands, net of demographic and health characteristics, and insurance status. We found that wives' internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving flu shots and prostate exams for husbands, but husbands' internet use was not associated with wives' preventive health behaviors. Research linking internet use and preventive health behaviors is important because such behaviors are associated not only with health of the older population but also with substantial reductions in health care expenditures. Our findings suggested that internet use of older adults is associated with their own preventive health behaviors, as well as their spouses' preventive health behaviors. Interventions and programs to facilitate older adults' preventive health behaviors should consider couple-based approaches.

  14. Superelastic stress-strain behavior in ferrogels with different types of magneto-elastic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut; Menzel, Andreas M.

    Colloidal magnetic particles embedded in an elastic polymer matrix constitute a smart material called ferrogel. It responds to an applied external magnetic field by changes in elastic properties, which can be exploited for various applications like dampers, vibration absorbers, or actuators. Under appropriate conditions, the stress-strain behavior of a ferrogel can display a fascinating feature: superelasticity, the capability to reversibly deform by a huge amount while barely altering the applied load. In a previous work, using numerical simulations, we investigated this behavior assuming that the magnetic moments carried by the embedded particles can freely reorient to minimize their magnetic interaction energy. Here, we extend the analysis to ferrogels where restoring torques by the surrounding matrix hinder rotations towards a magnetically favored configuration. For example, the particles can be chemically cross-linked into the polymer matrix and the magnetic moments can be fixed to the particle axes. We demonstrate that these systems still feature a superelastic regime. As before, the nonlinear stress-strain behavior can be reversibly tailored during operation by external magnetic fields. Yet, the different coupling of the magnetic moments causes different types of response to external stimuli. For instance, an external magnetic field applied parallel to the stretching axis hardly affects the superelastic regime but stiffens the system beyond it. Other smart materials featuring superelasticity, e.g. metallic shape-memory alloys, have already found widespread applications. Our soft polymer systems offer many additional advantages like a typically higher deformability and enhanced biocompatibility combined with high tunability.

  15. The Desire of Parenthood: Intuitive Co-parental Behaviors and Quality of Couple Relationship among Italian and Belgian Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscioscia, Marina; Blavier, Adelaide; Pagone, Paolo R.; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspects related to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’ satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnected and contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality of family interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors and the quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention and desire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects in a cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gay couples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affects co-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors have been evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted to become parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existent literature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to better parental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggest also that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on the capability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in further longitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmission of psychopathology. PMID:28261120

  16. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252 Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252 Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252 Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Public health impact of disease-behavior dynamics. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Chad R.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-12-01

    In a loop of dynamic feedback, behavior such as the decision to vaccinate, hand washing, or avoidance influences the progression of the epidemic, yet behavior is driven by the individual's and population's perceived risk of infection during an outbreak. In what we believe will become a seminal paper that stimulates future research as well as an informative teaching aid, Wang et. al. comprehensively review methodological advances that have been used to incorporate human behavior into epidemiological models on the effects of coupling disease transmission and behavior on complex social networks [1]. As illustrated by the recent outbreaks of measles and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), here we highlight the importance of coupling behavior and disease transmission that Wang et al. address.

  18. The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rojo, Nuria; Amengual, Julià L; Ripollés, Pablo; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) has been developed recently to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. MST uses musical instruments, an electronic piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. In this paper, we first describe the rationale underlying MST, and we review the previous studies conducted on acute and chronic stroke patients using this new neurorehabilitation approach. Second, we address the neural mechanisms involved in the motor movement improvements observed in acute and chronic stroke patients. Third, we provide some recent studies on the involvement of auditory-motor coupling in the MST in chronic stroke patients using functional neuroimaging. Finally, these ideas are discussed and focused on understanding the dynamics involved in the neural circuit underlying audio-motor coupling and how functional connectivity could help to explain the neuroplastic changes observed after therapy in stroke patients. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711

  20. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β = −0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline. PMID:29721499

  1. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Ogawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.15, P<0.01, depression (β=-0.13, P<0.05, phobic anxiety (β=-0.15, P<0.05, and Global Severity Index (β=-0.13, P<0.05. Conclusion. Conscientiousness at baseline may predict several dimensions of psychopathology in patients with panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.

  2. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sei; Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive ( β = -0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.

  3. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  4. Applying the Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale to Rate Therapist Adherence in Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Interpersonal Therapy, and Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studied adherence of therapists to behaviors specified in cognitive-behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, and clinical management manuals. Rated therapist adherence in each of 4 sessions from 180 patients in treatment phase of National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Therapists exhibited more…

  5. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  6. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Late-Life Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Charles M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…

  7. Maintaining Nursing Staff Performance on an Intensive Behavior Therapy Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B. D., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The authors suggest ways to establish quality behavioral programs within a hospital for the mentally ill. They emphasize the importance of staff morale, consistency of effort, teamwork, staff training and reinforcement. Procedures said to be responsible for successful maintenance include a flexible credit economy system. (Author/CL)

  8. Eye Color as a Predictor of Outcomes in Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Allan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between outcomes of behaviorally oriented treatment for children (N=366) and eye color. Findings were consistent with theoretical expectations: Dark-eyed children and teenagers responded better to reactive treatment programs than their light-eyed counterparts, while the reverse was true for self-paced treatment programs.…

  9. Coupled thermomechanical behavior of graphene using the spring-based finite element approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgantzinos, S. K., E-mail: sgeor@mech.upatras.gr; Anifantis, N. K., E-mail: nanif@mech.upatras.gr [Machine Design Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, University of Patras, Rio, 26500 Patras (Greece); Giannopoulos, G. I., E-mail: ggiannopoulos@teiwest.gr [Materials Science Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, 1 Megalou Alexandrou Street, 26334 Patras (Greece)

    2016-07-07

    The prediction of the thermomechanical behavior of graphene using a new coupled thermomechanical spring-based finite element approach is the aim of this work. Graphene sheets are modeled in nanoscale according to their atomistic structure. Based on molecular theory, the potential energy is defined as a function of temperature, describing the interatomic interactions in different temperature environments. The force field is approached by suitable straight spring finite elements. Springs simulate the interatomic interactions and interconnect nodes located at the atomic positions. Their stiffness matrix is expressed as a function of temperature. By using appropriate boundary conditions, various different graphene configurations are analyzed and their thermo-mechanical response is approached using conventional finite element procedures. A complete parametric study with respect to the geometric characteristics of graphene is performed, and the temperature dependency of the elastic material properties is finally predicted. Comparisons with available published works found in the literature demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Boundary-layer theory, strong-coupling series, and large-order behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Pelster, Axel; Weissbach, Florian

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of a lattice converts a singular boundary-layer problem in the continuum into a regular perturbation problem. However, the continuum limit of the discrete problem is extremely nontrivial and is not completely understood. This article examines two singular boundary-layer problems taken from mathematical physics, the instanton problem and the Blasius equation, and in each case examines two strategies, Pade resummation and variational perturbation theory, to recover the solution to the continuum problem from the solution to the associated discrete problem. Both resummation procedures produce good and interesting results for the two cases, but the results still deviate from the exact solutions. To understand the discrepancy a comprehensive large-order behavior analysis of the strong-coupling lattice expansions for each of the two problems is done

  11. Coupled behavior of shape memory alloy-based morphing spacecraft radiators: experimental assessment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagne, C.; Walgren, P.; Erickson, L.; Sheth, R.; Whitcomb, J.; Hartl, D.

    2018-06-01

    Thermal control is an important aspect of spacecraft design, particularly in the case of crewed vehicles, which must maintain a precise internal temperature at all times in spite of significant variations in the external thermal environment and internal heat loads. Future missions beyond low Earth orbit will require radiator systems with high turndown ratios, defined as the ratio between the maximum and minimum heat rejection rates achievable by the radiator system. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios of 3:1, far less than the 12:1 turndown ratio requirement expected for future missions. An innovative morphing radiator concept uses the temperature-induced phase transformation of shape memory alloy (SMA) materials to achieve turndown ratios that are predicted to exceed 12:1 via substantial geometric reconfiguration. Developing mathematical and computational models of these morphing radiators is challenging due to the strong two-way thermomechanical coupling not present in traditional fixed-geometry radiators and not widely considered in the literature. Although existing simulation tools are capable of analyzing the behavior of some thermomechanically coupled structures, general problems involving radiation and deformation cannot be modeled using publicly available codes due to the complexity of modeling spatially evolving boundary fields. This paper provides important insight into the operational response of SMA-based morphing radiators by employing computational tools developed to overcome previous shortcomings. Several example problems are used to demonstrate the novel radiator concept. Additionally, a prototype morphing radiator was designed, fabricated, and tested in a thermal environment compatible with mission operations. An associated finite element model of the prototype was developed and executed. Model predictions of radiator performance generally agree with the experimental data, giving confidence that the tools developed are able

  12. Application of fluid-structure coupling to predict the dynamic behavior of turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, B; Seidel, U [Voith Hydro Holding GmbH and Co. KG, Alexanderstr. 11, 89522 Heidenheim (Germany); Roth, S, E-mail: bjoern.huebner@voith.co [Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, EPFL, Avenue de Cour 33 Bis, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    In hydro turbine design, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) may play an important role. Examples are flow induced inertia and damping effects, vortex induced vibrations in the lock-in vicinity, or hydroelastic instabilities of flows in deforming gaps (e.g. labyrinth seals). In contrast to aeroelasticity, hydroelastic systems require strongly (iteratively) coupled or even monolithic solution procedures, since the fluid mass which is moving with the structure (added-mass effect) is much higher and changes the dynamic behavior of submerged structures considerably. Depending on the mode shape, natural frequencies of a turbine runner in water may be reduced to less than 50% of the corresponding frequencies in air, and flow induced damping effects may become one or two orders of magnitude higher than structural damping. In order to reduce modeling effort and calculation time, the solution strategy has to be adapted precisely to a given application. Hence, depending on the problem to solve, different approximations may apply. Examples are the calculation of natural frequencies and response spectra in water using an acoustic fluid formulation, the determination of flow induced damping effects by means of partitioned FSI including complex turbulent flows, and the identification of hydroelastic instabilities using monolithic coupling of non-linear structural dynamics and water flow.

  13. Difficulties in the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy. M. Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy in work with borderline personality disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Romanowska

    2015-01-01

    According to popular opinions therapeutic relationship doesn't play a significant role in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore it is frequently assumed that cognitive therapist doesn't pay attention to processes taking place during the session, focuses solely on a realization of an earlier planned protocol and convinces patient to rational thinking minimizing the role of emotions. Contrary to this beliefs CBT therapists often focus on a therapeutic relationship and use it in a process of...

  14. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Bereaved University Students' Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Nahid Hosseininezhad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to study the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT on bereaved students' hope. This is an applied research of quasi-experimental type and pretest and posttest design with control group. We selected 30 bereaved university students using stratified sampling method. We used Schneider Hope Questionnaire as the pretest-posttest in the research and analyzed using the statistical method of covariance analysis. The data analysis results indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapy increases bereaved students' hope and there is a significant difference between the two groups. The results of this study show that cognitive-behavioral group therapy influences hope and increases bereaved students' hope by helping them in their emotional discharge and acceptance of death.

  15. Effect of Play Therapy Applications on Shyness Behaviors of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Kockaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of play therapy on a child who have shyness behavior through parent and teacher evaluations in preschool. The research was carried out with the participation of one shy student from six age groups who has been registered at 2014-2015 academic year in Saraykoy Central Mukerrem Tokat Kindergarten in Saraykoy, Denizli. AB experimental design was used from single subject design in the study. When results of the research examined, according to child's mother and teacher, play therapy intervention reduced emotional problems and peer relation problems and caused increase in prosocial behaviors. It could be said that play therapy program might have effective and significant impact on preschool children who have shyness behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 31-44

  16. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...

  17. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...

  18. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousa Kafi; Rahim Mollazadeh Esfanaji; Morteza Nori; Ertaj Salehi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to t...

  19. Sleep spindles may predict response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Hatch, Benjamin; Salimi, Ali; Mograss, Melodee; Boucetta, Soufiane; O'Byrne, Jordan; Brandewinder, Marie; Berthomier, Christian; Gouin, Jean-Philippe

    2017-11-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia constitutes the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia, only few reports have investigated how sleep architecture relates to response to this treatment. In this pilot study, we aimed to determine whether pre-treatment sleep spindle density predicts treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia. Twenty-four participants with chronic primary insomnia participated in a 6-week cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia performed in groups of 4-6 participants. Treatment response was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3- and 12-months' follow-up assessments. Secondary outcome measures were extracted from sleep diaries over 7 days and overnight polysomnography, obtained at pre- and post-treatment. Spindle density during stage N2-N3 sleep was extracted from polysomnography at pre-treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis assessed whether sleep spindle density predicted response to cognitive-behavioral therapy. After adjusting for age, sex, and education level, lower spindle density at pre-treatment predicted poorer response over the 12-month follow-up, as reflected by a smaller reduction in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index over time. Reduced spindle density also predicted lower improvements in sleep diary sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset immediately after treatment. There were no significant associations between spindle density and changes in the Insomnia Severity Index or polysomnography variables over time. These preliminary results suggest that inter-individual differences in sleep spindle density in insomnia may represent an endogenous biomarker predicting responsiveness to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Insomnia with altered spindle activity might constitute an insomnia subtype characterized by a neurophysiological vulnerability to sleep disruption associated with impaired responsiveness to

  20. Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens

    1973-01-01

    We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbance decreases inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Cheng, I-Chih; Pan, Yi-Ju; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Sen; Tsai, Tun-Jun; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2011-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in dialysis patients and is associated with the development of enhanced inflammatory responses. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for sleep disturbance and reduces inflammation experienced by peritoneal dialysis patients; however, this has not been studied in hemodialysis patients. To determine whether alleviation of sleep disturbance in hemodialysis patients also leads to less inflammation, we conducted a randomized controlled interventional study of 72 sleep-disturbed hemodialysis patients. Within this patient cohort, 37 received tri-weekly cognitive-behavioral therapy lasting 6 weeks and the remaining 35, who received sleep hygiene education, served as controls. The adjusted post-trial primary outcome scores of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were all significantly improved from baseline by therapy compared with the control group. The post-trial secondary outcomes of high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-18, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels significantly declined with cognitive-behavioral therapy in comparison with the control group. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for correcting disorganized sleep patterns, and for reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients.

  2. Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South African men and women with their partners in a primary care program: implications for couples-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; de Bruyn, Guy; Lurie, Mark N; Modisenyane, Tebogo; Triche, Elizabeth W; Gray, Glenda E; Welte, Alex; Martinson, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    We studied 1163 sexually-active HIV-infected South African men and women in an urban primary care program to understand patterns of sexual behaviors and whether these behaviors differed by partner HIV status. Overall, 40% reported a HIV-positive partner and 60% a HIV-negative or status unknown partner; and 17.5% reported >2 sex acts in the last 2 weeks, 16.4% unprotected sex in the last 6 months, and 3.7% >1 sex partner in the last 6 months. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was consistently associated with decreased sexual risk behaviors, as well as with reporting a HIV-negative or status unknown partner. The odds of sexual risk behaviors differed by sex; and were generally higher among participants reporting a HIV-positive partner, but continued among those with a HIV-negative or status unknown partner. These data support ART as a means of HIV prevention. Engaging in sexual risk behaviors primarily with HIV-positive partners was not widely practiced in this setting, emphasizing the need for couples-based prevention.

  3. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  4. Evidence of exchange-coupled behavior in chromium-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbir, Kamar; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Aakash; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Mukherjee, Samrat

    2018-06-01

    Cr doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized with the generic formula Co1-xCrxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25) through standard chemical co-precipitation method. XRD studies confirmed the pure spinel cubic structure belonging to Fd 3 bar m space group. From the Williamson-Hall plots, crystallite sizes were found to lie within the range (42 ± 1) nm for the different doped samples. The lattice parameter was found to decrease linearly with increase in the concentration of Cr3+ ion. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined by M-H studies at 300 K, field cooled (5 T) at 5 K and temperature dependent studies. The M-H at 300 K show soft magnetic behavior whereas the M-H plots at 5 K predict the existence of in-homogeneity of the exchange interactions due to strong exchange coupling between the spins at the core and the surface of the nanoparticles.

  5. Exciton behavior in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled double quantum wells with interface disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, E.M., E-mail: eldermantovani@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, CP 6001, CEP 86051-970 Londrina, Parana (Brazil); Duarte, J.L.; Pocas, L.C.; Dias, I.F.L.; Laureto, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, CP 6001, CEP 86051-970 Londrina, Parana (Brazil); Quivy, A.A.; Lamas, T.E. [Laboratorio de Novos Materiais Semicondutores, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, we present a detailed study on the optical properties of two GaAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As coupled double quantum wells (CDQWs) with inter-well barriers of different thicknesses, by using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The two CDQWs were grown in a single sample, assuring very similar experimental conditions for measurements of both. The PL spectrum of each CDQW exhibits two recombination channels which can be accurately identified as the excitonic e{sub 1}-hh{sub 1} transitions originated from CDQWs of different effective dimensions. The PL spectra characteristics and the behavior of the emissions as a function of temperature and excitation power are interpreted in the scenario of the bimodal interface roughness model, taking into account the exciton migration between the two regions considered in this model and the difference in the potential fluctuation levels between those two regions. The details of the PL spectra behavior as a function of excitation power are explained in terms of the competition between the band gap renormalization (BGR) and the potential fluctuation effects. The results obtained for the two CDQWs, which have different degrees of potential fluctuation, are also compared and discussed.

  6. Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2018-01-01

    During the last two decades, Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in hundreds of randomized controlled trials, often with promising results. However, the control groups were often waitlisted, care-as-usual or attention control. Hence, little is known about...... the relative efficacy of ICBT as compared to face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 1418 participants, guided ICBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions were directly compared to face-to-face CBT within the same trial. Out of the 2078...

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  9. Study on effects of coupled phenomenon on long-term behavior for crystalline rock (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Kazushi; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. On the other hand, it was revealed that chemical reaction of groundwater in rock has an influence on the long-term behavior. Therefore, an evaluation of the microcracks influencing on rock mechanical and chemical coupled phenomena is the issue to understand the past long-term behavior of rock mass. In view of above points, this study has been started as joint research with Okayama University from Fiscal Year 2016. In Fiscal Year 2016, several kinds of elastic wave velocity were measured using ultra sonic sensors and laser Doppler vibrometer to evaluate the anisotropy of different elastic wave in granite. The velocity measurements were carried out focused on transmitted wave and surface wave. The results showed that strong anisotropy was observed in transmitted P-wave velocity while weak anisotropy was observed in transmitted S-wave and group velocity estimated by surface velocity measurement. In addition, data obtained from surface velocity measurement was partitioned into transmitted and reflected waves and analyzed them in detail. It resulted that elastic wave due to mineral particles to compose granite was dispersed; however, significant dispersion was only observed at specific location. For the future study, understanding of the relationship between density and anisotropy of micro cracks also anisotropy and strong dispersion of group velocity is important subject to estimate the geometrical distribution of micro cracks in granitic rock. (author)

  10. [Significance of emotion-focused concepts to cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H

    2006-09-01

    Emotions are the central process of motivation and play a key role in adaptive behavior in humans. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy stresses the importance of changing both cognition and behavior, there is growing emphasis on direct therapeutic work on emotions and emotional processing, as problematic emotional processes are at the core of nearly all psychic disorders. This type of work is the goal of emotion-focused psychotherapy, which centers on direct change of problematic emotions, especially those which are usually suppressed resp. overregulated by the patient. This paper examines the basic phobic/emotional conflict, the problematic emotional processes arising from this conflict, and the importance to cognitive-behavioral therapy of their potentially integrative role.

  11. 'I told her this is your life': relationship dynamics, partner support and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among South African couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy; Leddy, Anna; Johnson, Mallory; Ngubane, Thulani; van Rooyen, Heidi; Darbes, Lynae

    2017-11-01

    Despite the important role of social relationships for health and wellbeing, little is known about how primary partners affect adherence to HIV care and treatment. We qualitatively explored how relationship dynamics and partner support influence adherence among couples from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Twenty-four heterosexual couples with at least one HIV-positive partner completed semi-structured interviews on topics including relationship dynamics (intimacy or emotional closeness, communication, violence), experiences with HIV care and treatment and HIV-related social support. The majority of couples were seroconcordant HIV-positive (92%) and both on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (63%). Participants described how primary partners both interfered with and supported adherence. Negative forms of influence included relationship conflict, which resulted in forgetfulness to take pills, and men's attempt to control use of ART. However, participants were more likely to highlight positive forms of influence on adherence, which included social support (instrumental, informational and emotional), intimacy and commitment. The findings also suggest a reciprocal relationship between ART and relationships such that couple ART use may enhance relationship quality. Primary partners are important pillars of support for ART adherence, especially in contexts of high unemployment and poverty. Future interventions that encourage and leverage these supportive relationships could improve ART adherence among heterosexual couples in similar settings.

  12. Family Mode Deactivation Therapy as a Manualized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Houston, Marsha-Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Family Therapy (MDT) in an outpatient setting as compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU). MDT is an evidence-based psychotherapy and has been shown to be effective treating adolescents with a variety of problems involving emotional disorder, physical and sexual aggression, as well as…

  13. New developments in cognitive behavioral therapy as the first-line treatment of insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Siebern, Allison T; Manber, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Allison T Siebern, Rachel ManberSleep Medicine Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Psychological, behavioral, and biological factors are implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia as a disorder, although the etiology of insomnia remains under investigation, as it is still not fully understood. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is a treatment for insomnia that is grounde...

  14. Dynamic psychotherapy or dialectical behavioral therapy-- which is better for borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, O; Har-Even, A; Dahan, E; Babokshin, Y; Reuveni, I; Ponarovsky, B; Rosman, V; Gluzman, L

    2011-01-01

    Clinical dilemma: A 20-year-old female patient, diagnosed as suffering from borderline personality disorder, is referred to your clinic. Her disorder is characterized by unstable personal relationships, impulsivity, suicidal behavior, emotional instability and pan-anxiety. After initiation of pharmacological treatment which you have chosen, you meet with her parents who ask you which is better for their daughter dynamic-analytic psychotherapy or dialectical behavioral therapy.

  15. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy: Theoretical and Practical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Balán, Iván C.; Lejuez, C. W.; Hoffer, Marcela; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral Activation and specifically the Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy for Depression (BATD) has a strong record of empirical support but its focus on practical out of session activation-based assignments can lead to poor levels of adherence if efforts to enhance motivation are not prioritized. Towards this end, this manuscript describes the assimilative integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and BATD to improve clinical outcomes by integrating MI's focus on building and mainta...

  16. BIMBINGAN DAN KONSELING DENGAN PENDEKATAN RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY UNTUK PENERIMA MANFAAT

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Abdul Kohar; Imam Mujahid

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the concept of guidance and counseling rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) Islamic to increase the resilience of prostitutes. REBT is an approach that directive, the approach to reeducation counselees to understand the cognitive input that causes emotional disturbance, trying to change the thought patterns counselee to let the irrational thoughts or study anticipates the benefits or consequences of behavior. Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt, so as ...

  17. Cognitive–behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment for major depression in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). in a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral grou...

  18. Inpatient Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.

  19. Feasibility and effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in a context of ongoing violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsberger, Martina; Holtzhausen, Leon; Sommer, Jessica; Kaminer, Debra; Elbert, Thomas; Seedat, Soraya; Wilker, Sarah; Crombach, Anselm; Weierstall, Roland

    2017-05-01

    In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment. The primary efficacy endpoints were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I) severity score, the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) score, and the number of perpetrated violent event types 8 months (on average) after treatment. Only in the sample receiving FORNET were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores significantly reduced at the first follow-up (Cohen's d = -0.97) and significantly different from those of the control group (Cohen's d = -1.03). The changes in scores for appetitive aggression and perpetrated events were not significant for any of the treatment conditions. The study shows that trauma-focused treatment can reduce the psychological symptoms of posttraumatic stress even for individuals living under unsafe conditions in low-income urban communities. However, achieving changes in violent behavior within a context of ongoing violence may require more than the treatment of trauma-related suffering, confrontation with one's offenses, or cognitive-behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  1. Quantifying human behavior uncertainties in a coupled agent-based model for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, J. Y.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling human behaviors and decisions in water resources management is a challenging issue due to its complexity and uncertain characteristics that affected by both internal (such as stakeholder's beliefs on any external information) and external factors (such as future policies and weather/climate forecast). Stakeholders' decision regarding how much water they need is usually not entirely rational in the real-world cases, so it is not quite suitable to model their decisions with a centralized (top-down) approach that assume everyone in a watershed follow the same order or pursue the same objective. Agent-based modeling (ABM) uses a decentralized approach (bottom-up) that allow each stakeholder to make his/her own decision based on his/her own objective and the belief of information acquired. In this study, we develop an ABM which incorporates the psychological human decision process by the theory of risk perception. The theory of risk perception quantifies human behaviors and decisions uncertainties using two sequential methodologies: the Bayesian Inference and the Cost-Loss Problem. The developed ABM is coupled with a regulation-based water system model: Riverware (RW) to evaluate different human decision uncertainties in water resources management. The San Juan River Basin in New Mexico (Figure 1) is chosen as a case study area, while we define 19 major irrigation districts as water use agents and their primary decision is to decide the irrigated area on an annual basis. This decision will be affected by three external factors: 1) upstream precipitation forecast (potential amount of water availability), 2) violation of the downstream minimum flow (required to support ecosystems), and 3) enforcement of a shortage sharing plan (a policy that is currently undertaken in the region for drought years). Three beliefs (as internal factors) that correspond to these three external factors will also be considered in the modeling framework. The objective of this study is

  2. Behavior therapy for children with Tourette disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Chang, Susanna; Ginsburg, Golda S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Dziura, James; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T

    2010-05-19

    Tourette disorder is a chronic and typically impairing childhood-onset neurologic condition. Antipsychotic medications, the first-line treatments for moderate to severe tics, are often associated with adverse effects. Behavioral interventions, although promising, have not been evaluated in large-scale controlled trials. To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for reducing tic severity in children and adolescents. Randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of 126 children recruited from December 2004 through May 2007 and aged 9 through 17 years, with impairing Tourette or chronic tic disorder as a primary diagnosis, randomly assigned to 8 sessions during 10 weeks of behavior therapy (n = 61) or a control treatment consisting of supportive therapy and education (n = 65). Responders received 3 monthly booster treatment sessions and were reassessed at 3 and 6 months following treatment. Comprehensive behavioral intervention. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (range 0-50, score >15 indicating clinically significant tics) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (range 1 [very much improved] to 8 [very much worse]). Behavioral intervention led to a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.7 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 23.1-26.3] to 17.1 [95% CI, 15.1-19.1]) from baseline to end point compared with the control treatment (24.6 [95% CI, 23.2-26.0] to 21.1 [95% CI, 19.2-23.0]) (P tic worsening was reported by 4% of children (5/126). Treatment gains were durable, with 87% of available responders to behavior therapy exhibiting continued benefit 6 months following treatment. A comprehensive behavioral intervention, compared with supportive therapy and education, resulted in greater improvement in symptom severity among children with Tourette and chronic tic disorder. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00218777.

  3. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  4. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.

  5. Treating internet addiction with cognitive-behavioral therapy: a thematic analysis of the experiences of therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Zinn, M.F.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program (‘Lifestyle Training’) to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates

  6. Collaborating with Parents to Establish Behavioral Goals in Child-Centered Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…

  7. Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a Community Mental Health Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Elwood, Lynn; Holdcraft, Laura C.; Smith, Wayne R.; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials with women with borderline personality disorder and histories of chronic self-inflicted injury including suicide attempts. The present study is a pre-post replication of a comprehensive DBT program in a community mental health center for individuals…

  8. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders : Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2008-01-01

    No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…

  11. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in a VA Mental Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…

  12. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Mixed-Diagnosis Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Across Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…

  13. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  14. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  15. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van der Bruggen, C.O.; Brechman-Toussaint, M.L.; Thissen, M.A.P.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was

  16. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Clinical Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogels, Susan M.; Siqueland, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A family cognitive-behavioral therapy for children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 years with clinical anxiety disorders was developed and evaluated. Method: Seventeen families were measured before and after waitlist, after treatment, and at 3-month and 1-year follow-up. Results: No children changed their diagnostic status during waitlist,…

  17. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  18. Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Adolescents and Their Families in a Community Outpatient Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…

  19. It's about Me Solving My Problems: Clients' Assessments of Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kiran; Wolbert, Randall; Lillie, Becky

    2004-01-01

    While the existing research consistently points to the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder, little qualitative research has been conducted to ascertain the reasons for its success, especially from the perspective of those undergoing the treatment. Our qualitative investigation was…

  20. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: An efficacy and partial effectiveness trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Wijts, P.; Oort, F.J.; Sallaerts, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted

  1. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  2. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  3. Mobile Phone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia : A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, R.J.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have

  4. Mobile Phone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia : A Randomized Waitlist Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Lancee, J; Griffioen-Both, Fiemke; Spruit, Sandor; Fitrianie, S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Beun, RJ; Brinkman, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study is one of the first randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) delivered by a fully automated mobile phone app. Such an app can potentially increase the accessibility of insomnia treatment for the 10% of people who have

  5. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  7. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  10. Parental Involvement in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long...

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Young People in Outpatient Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Jorgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to…

  12. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Where Counseling and Neuroscience Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…

  14. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  15. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerneklar, Silke; Hougaard, Esben; Nielsen, Amalie D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-documented effective method for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. While internet based CBT (ICBT) programs for adults have been widely investigated, research on ICBT programs for anxiety disorders in youth...

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…

  17. Designing Context-Aware Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads; Tuxen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    This position paper presents our preliminary design of context-aware cognitive behavioral therapy for unipolar and bipolar disorders. We report on the background for this study and the methods applied in the ongoing design process. The paper ends by presenting and discussing different design...

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  19. Beyond Borderline Personality Disorder: Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a College Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Amberly R.; Uschold, Carissa C.; Olandese, Michelle; Linn, Braden K.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program with a general college counseling center population, not limited to students diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. A review of records of 64 students found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia,…

  20. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…